IFATCA The Controller - January/February 1967

Page 1

IFATCA JOURNAL


,,..,-:. -.~;;r-

Technique of to-morrow? Yes! Available to-day from SRT! Automatic up-dating of flig ht plans on electronic Tabular Disp lays D Automatic Tracking D Symbol- and Alpha-numeric lndentification of all aircra ft under control D Daylight D isplay on ordinary PPl's D Exact Electronic Maps stored on tape or in data memories D Conflict Search and Prediction 0 Flight plan Data

ITT

Handl in g D Visible Transfer of con trol between adjacent centres D Narrow-Band rada r picture t~ansmiss ion D . System . Concept taking any kind of ATC s1tuat1on into consideration Technique of tomorrow, avai lab le to-day from Standard Rad io & Telefon AB, Barkarby Sweden. '

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5fandard l?adlo & lelefon AE


Marconi S264 Mk II 50cm terminal and approach control radar High perfor111ance, low potNer, lotN cost

~

A target echo area of 3 sq. metres is seen from 80 miles out to touchdown

I

' I

Crystal controlled transmitter with 50-60 kW power output

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Built-in parametric receiver of high sensitivity Adjustable pulse recurrence frequency (500-800 p.p.s.) Optional p.r.f. stagger Capable of unattended operation for long periods- remote control facilities are provided \

Fully coherent and easily maintained MTI system of permanent-echo suppression

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' ' .... .... .....

Conventional or 'broad daylight' display systems

Marconi air traffic control systems The Marconi Company Lim ited. Radar Division, Chelmsford, Essex, England

LTD/554


The Marconi Myriad Computer is the most powerful tool available to Air Traffic Control today.

Software Service - Comp lete prog rammes prepared - programme advice servi ce - customers路 prog ram mers train ed - programme library.

V ersatile - Myriad's sophi sticated interru pt fac1l 1ty and exceptional high speed make it idea l for Flight Pl an Process ing o r Rad ar D ata Processing o r both simultaneously. Econ o m ic - Myriad rental scheme saves high capital outl ay and enables economic updating of equ ipment. Sma ll size saves space.

The new London Air Traffic Control Centre is to have a triplicated Marconi Myriad computer Flight Plan Processing system with instant access touch displays, which will mal<e it the most advanced centre in the world.

Secar + Myriad Secondary Radar System Comp letely automatic presentation of 1dent1ty. height. position and cour"e of all ai rcraf t to ranges of up to 2 miles. giving max imum effectiveness to secondary radar system.

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Myriad Controlled AFTN Systems- Au tomatic message switching speeds transfer of vit al informati on for air traffic con trol.

Marconi air traffic control systems The Marconi Company Limited. Radar D ivision, Chelmsford, Essex, England A N "ENG LI SH ELECTR IC' COM PANY

LTD/S57


IFATCA JOURNAL OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

THE CONTROLLER Volume 6 · No. 1

Frankfurt am Main, January/February 1967

Publisher: International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations, 40 Park House Gardens, East Twickenham, Middlesex, England. Officers of IFATCA: L. N. Tekstra, President; G. W. Monk, Executive Secretary; Maurice Cerf, First Vice President; Roger Sade!, Second Vice-President; Herbert Brandstetter, Hon. Secretary; Bernhard Riithy, Treasurer; Walter Endlich, Editor. Editor: Walter H. Endlich, 3, rue Roosendael, Bruxelles-Forest, Belgique Telephone: 456248 Production and Advertising Sales Office: W.Kramer&Co., 6 Frankfurt am Main NO 14, Bornheimer Landwehr 570, Phone 434325, 492169, Postscheck Frankfurt (M) 11727. Rate Card Nr. 2. Printed by: W.Kramer&Co., 6 Frankfurt am Main NO 14, Bornheimer Landwehr 570. Subscription Rate: DM 8,- per annum (in Germany).

CONTENTS

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Medical Factors involving Air Traffic Control Information Displays ................................... · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

8

Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Displays by V. D. Hopkin

Contributors are expressing their personal paints of view and opinions, which must not necessarily coincide with those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA). IFATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made. a_n~ opinions expressed, it does only accept respons1b1lity for publishing these contributions. Contributions are welcome as are comments and criticism. No payment can be made for manuscripts submitted for publication in ·rhe Controller•. The Editor reserves the_ right ta m_ake any editorial changes in manuscripts, which he believes will improve the material without altering the intended meaning.

Wrilten permission by the Editor is necessary for reprinting any part of this Journal.

by Dr. G. Castle

Route Experience Flight to Stockholm Arlanda .. · ...... · · .

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Five Years of THE CONTROLLER, Survey of Contents

15

by J. Gortz

New Phase of Search for Collision Avoidance Systems

19

Sixth European ATC Conference Meets

19

by A. M. Waldin

Miami Report .......................... . ....... .

20

by Tirey K. Vickers

Annual Meeting of the German Air Traffic Controllers Association

24

Regional Meeting of the Yugoslavian and Austrian Air Traffic Controllers at Zagreb and Belgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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by H. Brandstetter Advertisers in this Issue: The Decca Navigator Company Ltd. (Back Cover); Marconi Company Ltd. (l, 2); Selenia S.p.A. (14); Standard Radio and Telefon AB (Inside Cover).

~icture Credit: Cossor Electronics Ltd. (29); Federal Avia. lion Agency (10, 21); Miami Herald (20); Standard Radio and Telefon AB (17, 18, 19); Telefunken AG (29).

Movie Review "Adult Western"

28

ATC Displays

29

Book Review .. . ...... . ... .

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IFATCA Addresses and Officers

31

3


Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Displays

by V. D. Hopkin RAF Institute of Aviotion Medicine, Fornborough, Honts

Poper to the Annual Convention of the Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers, Bornemouth, 4th -6th October, 1966.

From the title of my paper you will realise that I think that the discipline which I have called Human Factors is relevant to air traffic control displays. In this paper, I propose to try and show this under three headings . The first describes what Human Factors is and what it includes. The second indicates how its techniques are being applied to air traffic control problems at the moment, particularly to display problems. The third discusses some of the probable future trends in the development of displays which ore likely to beco:ne more apparent in the future.

Human Factors The discipline of Human Factors is concerned with human beings, mainly but not exclusively in their working environment. It includes the interrelations between people, interactions between people and the things they work with, mel路hods for fostering the effectiveness of their work, and lhe creation of congenial working environments. It is not easily distinguished from several allied disciplines with which it overlaps. For example, ergonomics is concerned with the study of the relationships between man and his working environment, and some would argue that it is nearly synonymous with Human Factors. Applied experimental psychology takes the findings of psychological experiments and applies them in some practical contexts. Industrial psychology seeks efficiency and job satisfaction in working conditions. Time and motion study examines the effort expended in task performance and aims to minimise effort and hence increase productivity. Often the techniques and the find ings from these other disciplines can be subsumed under the heading of Human Fac~ors, which is a broader concept, both in its content and in its techniques and disciplines. From general and rather woolly statements-of this kind it is possible to deduce some of the more specific situations which Human Factors must deal with. For example, it touches on systems analysis and job analysis. Starting by defining the purpose of the system and the functions which it must fulfil!, it suggests how the purpose can be achieved, and what tasks and responsibilities are entailed. Then, more detailed job descript ions can be written, specifying the information required for each task, !路he displays needed the methods of communication which should be adopted, and so on . This procedure can be validated by using experimental methods to check that the whole system and each job within it are practical. Almost every task requires some information displays. Th ese may be either general displays, intended to be viewed simultaneously by several people, or displays de-

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signed for a single operator conveying information specific to one task. The following Human Factors principles influence the design of displays: firstly, determining what information is necessary for the task; secondly, the optimum layout for the various sources of information; thirdly, the best format for each source; and fourthly, the ease of assimilation and lack of ambiguity of each item of information in each format . Displays should always be designed to remain clearly visible to the poorest operator under his most adverse working conditions. Human Factors is also concerned with the design of contro ls, both by selecting the most suitable type of control and by optimising the one selected in terms of ease of use, sensitivity, and so on. The original design of the system should envisage what sort of communications network is necessary, in terms both of verbal communications between operators and of the communication of information by various methods of transmission and display. Information which is redundant should be excluded. The transmission process should never distort the information itself. To the Human Factors specialist all men are not equal. They differ physically in factors which are related to their !asks, such as their eyesight, their ability to work irregular hours, and their propen~ity to illness. They change as they become older and as they gain experience. An operator doing a ~artic.ular job may n~t be typical of other people around him, either because his task demands special abilities and aptitudes, or because he has been through 0 particular selection or training procedure. His mental characteristics differ from those of other people, in obvious ways such as intelligence and personality, and in rather less obvious ways such as stability. Normally a man does not work. in isol~tion, and factors such as his ability to work amicably with others can affect greatly his own and others ' efficiency and job satisfaction. It follows from all this th~t it is unwise to equate all tasks within a system. Some 1obs need. special training . Certain jobs of equal status may require completely different abilities . The recognition of this may conflict with considerations of role and status and promotion. Human Factors is concerned with the environment in whic~ the man works . This includes the amenities provided, the size and layout of the room, the effects of noise and distractions, the influence of ventilation and humidity, and all the problems associated with the l ighting of the task and of its immediate surroundings.


Application of Techniques After the above brief indication of what Human Factors encompasses, I want now to suggest how it works in practice. I have already mentioned that experiments can be used to ensure that a job is feasible and can be performed efficiently. The same considerations apply to the evaluation of any new display or piece of equipment, but it is important that the experimental situation validly simulates the operational one, for otherwise the experiments may produce misleading answers. One of the practical problems encountered in Human Factors work therefore is to decide how far an operational situation must be simulated before experimental findings can be accepted with confidence.

Touch Display To illustrate how Human Factors techniques can be applied to air traffic control in current experimental work, I propose to use as an example recent work on the Johnson Touch Display. This device presents information on a cathode ray tube which incorporates a number of touch wires. Associated with each touch wire is an electronically generated label, and the touch wires function as a keyboard. The labelling of each wire, and hence its function, changes for each input. This device is used to input information heard over RT into a computer. In order to use this input device efficiently the operator must learn the sequence in which different sets of labels, or keyboards, occur. This is a new device which may be used in future systems. Althought it is interesting to ask how good the device is, the most important question is how it compares with other alternative devices in performing the same function in future systems. Hence the experimental evaluation of a device of this kind is at frrst by comparison with other similar devices. This avoids the pitfall of assuming that just because something is new it must be better. The evaluation of this display is not simply a matter of presenting it to a few control officers and finding out how well they can use it. It is important to note how easy it is to learn to use the device, how long the learning process takes, and what accuracy can be achieved. It should not be assumed that because one device can be used more efficiently than another after half an hour's practice it will still keep its advantage after 5 years' experience. Hence in the evaluation it is advisable to separate questions about learning to use the device from questions about the ultimate level of proficiency attainable with it by a fully practised operator. If a new device is better in one respect it does not follow that it must be better in other respects.

Training In learning to use this device the operator becomes familiar with the sequence in which various sets of touch wire label ling will be presented. The greater the number of_ possible alternative procedures, the more complex, detailed and enduring will be this learning process. A task of this type depends on what the psychologist calls short t~;路m memory. If the operator cannot key in the information as fast as it comes over the RT, he must remember it lo:- a brief period, perhaps while further information is bei.:g given. One can draw on basic principles for gui-

dance in predicting the consequences of this situation. It is known that man's short term memory deteriorates with age. Therefore, one would expect younger people to learn more easily than older people a new task which depends heavily on short term memory. Many of you will think that I am forgetting about the factor of experience; but I am not. I know that in a fully practised operator the factor of experience may outweigh any disadvantage that the older operator may have. What I am suggesting is that on first acquaintance with a new device of this kind the older operator is likely to be at a disadvantage, which may not necessarily be reflected in his ultimate level of performance. This can be taken a step further by suggesting that it is perhaps a mistake to assume that a single method of training to use a new device may necessarily be most suitable for all operators. A training method which relies very heavily on short term memory may be suitable for younger operators, but older operators may learn the task more easily and quickly by adopting a method of training which relies less on short term memory and more on other attributes which do not deteriorate with age to the same extent. A further point is worth mentioning with regard to learning to use the Touch Display. A device of this lends itself to the use of programmed instruction in the form of what are commonly called teaching machines. These present a learning programme which in itself corrects any errors which the operator may make while he is learning the task and shows him the reasons for any error he makes so that he will not repeat the same mistake. This is not to suggest that teaching machines should usurp the functions of instructors, but that in certain tasks of this type the sheer grind involved in detailed explanations and instructions can be avoided by some automation, rn that the instructor is freed to devote his time to concentrating on teaching when a basic amount of knowledge has already been acquired.

Environment The Touch Display is a display and a keyboard, with both on the same plane surface. It thus incorporates two features whose optimum positionings are incompatible. Normally a keyboard is horizontal or nearly so, and a display is positioned so that its plane is at right angles to the line of sight, or nearly so. A compromise is necessary, and the best compromise seems to be to position the Touch Display surface at an angle about 30 from the horizontal. When this has been done many environmental problems have still to be solved. In most working environments in an air traffic control context the problem of ambient illumination is a serious one, largely because the lighting is often considered as an afterthought and not discussed in detail when the system itself is frrst designed. Very often there are questions about the colour a radar display should be or the colour a working surface should have, or the colour codings which should be used in a display, without a full realization that the optimum colour depends on the colours and the lighting of associated equipment and on the general lighting provided in the working area. Controversies arise in relation to ambient illumination, on the merits of broad blue band or white minus amber lighting, whereas their merits depend considerably on their compatibilty with the other lighting and

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colour coding in the room. Some of the most fundamental problems of room lighting have often not been faced until a very late stage in the final specification of the working environment. Glass and perspex fronted general displays is usually cause lighting problems, since however the lighting is placed it will cause glare and reflections from somewhere. To return to the Touch Display and its relevance to the lighting problem; as soon as it becomes clear that it is not possible to use this device efficiently without tilting it further back than displays normally are, the problem arises that the operator looking at the display will sGe reflected in it either part of the ceiling or part of the wall behind him. As soon as this situation exists there must inevitably be ambient lighting problems. A bright wall or ceiling will cause unacceptable glare reflected in the disp~oy as well as degrading the displays itself. A cowling round the display may alleviate the problem somewhat, but a cowling which is large enough to solve the problem completely will be unacceptably big and cumbersome and probably interfere with viewing other displays. One solution is to darken the ceiling and the walls by giving them a dark matt finish . This in turn may reduce the levels of ambient lighting to a quite unacceptable level. Attempts may be made to alleviate this situation by making the floor instead of the ceiling light and reflecting. This in turn may lead to the tube being viewed against an unacceptable b.right back?r?und (t~e floor). The cure for this may be 1n terms 01 introducing local lighting; but at this stage I hope my point hos been ~a?e. Ii路 is possible to embark on an endless series of P?ll1ot1.ve m 8 asures to solve a problem which would not arise with adequate foresight . It is often safe to assume that a ~ew device, such as the Touch Display, will require rather diffe rent ambient illumination from the device it is intended to replace. If this is not acknowledged at the. outset, but the Touch Display is substituted for a conventional k.eybo.ard without regard to its interactions with the o~b1ent illumination of the room, then many of its potential. odvanoges may remain unfulfilled because the illumination was never considered as a whole as it should have been. The moral is not that new pieces of equipment should not ?e 路1'1 t ro d uce d . It is that pieces of equipment interact with . their environment, and that the advantages of a n.ew piece of equipment may be realized only if the associated ~n颅 vironmental changes are made. This is the sort ~f point ihat the Human factors approach tries to emphasize.

Future Trends I would like to turn now to the third top ic and consider where some of the existing trends in the design and use of displays may lead. In air traffic control systems~ as with all other complex man/machine systems, there is a tendency to rely more on computers to make calculations, to store relevant data, and to select information for the operator's attention. Some displays are therefore concerned with monitoring inputs to the computer, and outputs from the computer. A computer usually brings with it a change of emphasis in displays . A common fault of rnony disploys in the past has been to present what the operator wants rather than what he needs. A vast ar:iount of display space may be occupied permanently to display relatively unimportant information which is seldom used. A cleorly discernible tendency is towards displaying perrnonently far less information and having far more avai-

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!able on calldown, generally at the discretion of the controller. This simplifies greatly some of the display problems, although it may bring its own problems in terms of stating completely unambiguously the exact nature of certain called down information and providing adequate call down facilities. There is a tendency towards designing displays with a greater emphasis on their exact functions . For example, the controller on the one hand and personnel concerned with rectifying faults in the system on the other may both require certain elements of information in common, but the technicians need to know less about the details of the operational situation and the controller needs to know less about the technical details of any given fault. This change of emphasis is being reflected in displays designed for particular functions which take cognisance of the needs of specialist operators. A tradition with radar displays is that they require surrounding gloom for optimum use. This has generalised iowords almost all displays requiring a cathode ray tube. Twenty years ago this point of view could be justified. Nowadays the trend is to have progressively higher levels of ambient illumination in rooms where the operators use CRT displays. This is partly because of technical advance!; in the displays but partly for another reason. The assumption has always been made that if an operator has both a radar display and, for example, a digital wall display, although the ambient illumination should be adjusted so that he can use both, the main concern is with the radar display and efforts should be concentrated on optimizing the conditions for its use. It is for only a limited number of functions that this is necessary. If an operator is using a raw radar disp!ay to perform a search task, then if the ambient illumination is not optimum his efficiency at the task will suffer, but in most situations the data he uses on the radar display are far above his viewing threshold and remain completely unambiguous when the ambient illumination is higher than the optimum. There is therefore a trend to introduce levels of illumination more compatible with general comfort and more pleasant to work in, provided that there is no penalty to be paid by introducing inefficiency in a particular task. From time to time the idea is put forward of introducing some form of 3-dimen:;ional display to provide information for air traffic control tasks in a pictorial form, comparable with the actual traffic situations. There ore technical difficulties in this - the equipment tends to be bulky for example - but there are also other problems. Any 3-dimensional display must be viewed from several positions if its main advantage is to be gained. This limits the types of coding which can be used to indicate the position of any aircraft. In principle, different colours can be used but that is expensive. In principle, shapes can be used, but there are not many shapes which remain recognisable when viewed from many angles. Often it is desirable to present information in digital form, but it is difficult to do this in any way with a 3-dimensional display. If digits are incorporated in a 3-dimensional display, this restricts the viewing positions of the display and the outcome may be little better than digital information on a 2-dimensional display. There are thus serious practical difficulties in implementing what at first sight seems a sound idea. There is a tendency, discernible not only in the context of air traffic control displays but also in displays for


the pilot in flight and in displays for various industrial uses, to attempt to improve the presentation of visual information by integrating various sources of information into a single presentation. The intention is to reduce the need for the controller to collate information from different sources. Many efforts to design integrated information displays are well-intentioned but often they achieve less spectacular improvements than had been anticipated. Usually the reason is that the display sources have not been fully integrated but have merely been combined so that a single display incorporates in close proximity several items of information which still require some collation by the controller. Many of these attempts at integration have involved the use of digital displays, which can provide information about a given factor and con also include other information, for example, positional information by their relative spacings. This trend towards integrated information may be expected to continue, but its successful implementation often implies a complete recasting of the whole format in which the information should be displayed, and this hos not always been recognised. One of the problems when a system becomes more automatic is that the decisions about which features of the sylem should be automated are usually token on the grounds of technical feasibility and cost. The question of whether a task is best performed by a machine or by a man often does not arise. Commonly a task which is difficult for a man to perform is also difficult and costly to automate. Therefore, in a partly automated system the man may be left with the tasks which are difficult for him to perform, and which, because of limitations in his innate abilities, he cannot perform very efficiently. This situation is often aggravated by a failure to change the content and format of displayed information to make it more compatible with other changes in the system . It is a simple solution to display essentially the same information in the same format when a task becomes automatic, but it may not be the best solution and the question may not even be posed that a change in the display of information is desirable. When a new method of displaying information is devised, much of its assessment refers to its acceptability in isolation. This means that the new display features may work well by themselves, yet remain incompatible with other features of the system to which they are added. This problem arises from i-he common tendency to modify systems piecemeal instead of evaluating new systems as an entily, designed to function as such. A future trend will be to question the traditional divisions of tasks within a system which may become irrelevant when partial automation is introduced . This in its turn leads to problems of a different kind relating to demarcations, responsibilities, status and so on. The era of vast general purpose wall displays would seem to be nearly over. They fulfilled their function with systems designed to deal with what by modern standards were small numbers of aircraft. Future systems deal with so many aircraft and include so muc.:h information about each and about the interactions be:ween them that it is neither possible nor desirable to provide all the information in a large general display. Apart from being unacceptably cumbersome such a solution leads to problems in finding relevan; information. Where general displ~ys are retained - and they may remain useful in certain contexts such as fault finding procedures or even

to impress visitors - then the display is likely to be much more representative of the actual system than displays of this type have been in the past. It is possible to use these displays to show the interactions between system components and hence indicate the probable operational consequence of a particular fault. Much information of this type can be provided by such simple means as the relative positioning of items and colour and shape codings.

Summary This paper has suggested what Human Factors includes and how its techniques are applied with reference to certain displays. It has also discussed some of the trends in the development of air traffic control displays. Some of these trends are typical of displays in general; some reflect the particular needs of air traffic control problems. In summary I think some of the main points are the following: Future visual displays are likely to demand less collation of data and interpretation by the controller, and this may lead to more pictorial information, possibly in a 3-dimensional form . More adequate cross referencing of data will be necessary to maintain the controller's efficiency and to reduce the need to interpret the data. As tasks become automated their traditional divisions may become less well defined . The relationship between a controller's local display and other displays for general use will be more carefully considered so that the information from several display sources provides a coherent and unambiguous assessment of the total operational situation. The need to have visual displays which are flexible enough to cater for great extremes in traffic density will become more fully recognised. Displays will be designed with more specific reference to their exact functions, and information on a single display will not serve several purposes regardless of its suitability or relevance. Data which are not used regularly will be available on call down rather than permanently presented. Equipment modifications will not be introduced so readily without a thorough rethinking about their interactions with the remainder of the system. New display facilities will be evaluated more on a comparative basis and less by showing that they function satisfactorily in isolation. Many of the current problems in the integration of various types of light sources will be recognised and solved at the planning and design stages of a system, rather than being treated in an ad hoe fashion when the system is nearly operational and the lighting has been found to b<'! unsatisfactory. There will be greater appreciation that the general room lighting, the local lighting, the layout of consoles, the design of general and local displays, and the colour and reflecting properties of all the surfaces in the room are interacting factors, and that a good working environment can be achieved only by treating them as such . There may be innovations and completely new methods of displaying information and of relating it to a computer, as exemplified in the Touch Display, but these innovations will be related more c!osely to the functioning of the rest of the system and the main reason for their acceptance will be that they compare favourably with alternatives. It seems certain that air traffic control will continue to pose many display problems in the fore seeable future, and that the solution of these problems will remain a challenging but rewarding task .

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Medical Factors involving Air Traffic Control information Displays

by Dr. G. Castle U. K. Boord of Trade Civil Aviation Deportment

Paper to the Annual Convention of the Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers, Bournemouth, 4th-6th October, 1966.

Introduction

Some Medical Factors to be considered

The efficient operation of an Air Traffic Control service is dependent upon the well organised distribution and display of information which can be readily assimilated by the personnel concerned. It is then mentally processed, to use a manufacturing term, and the end product is the safe and rapid direction of aircraft.

The efficient assimilation and use of information by Air Traffic Control Officers is profoundly affected by a number of factors in which there is a medical aspect. I do not propose to bore you with a complete list of all the factors which might be discussed but to mention some of those which are more relevant to A.T.C. displays and in some instances I will go into greater detail. We can divide these factors into four groups, l personnel 2 equipment 3 environmental 4 social Here I would emphasize that to obtain optimum efficiency in A.T.C. all these groups should be considered together, as you cannot isolate one from the other because they inter-dependently can determine how well the job is ultimately done. Under the heading Personnel I include the selection and training of staff, and their medical supervision and welfare. Air Traffic Control Officers are selected at present in the United Kingdom on the basis of their academic qualifications and past experience. The performance of the tasks in A.T.C. is however determined by intelligence, personality and aptitude and I think it is now being generally accepted that although academic qualifications and past experience provide useful parameters, more significant guidance can be given by medical and applied psychologists. As you know it is essential to carefully assess the physical fitness of applicants for ATC work. It is not only a matter of attaining a series of standards, but the assessment of the individual's physical capacity for training, and proficient work in a career which necessitates the completion of shift duties and the endurance of stress. We also aim to maintain the fitness of the individual by medical supervision throughout his career. This can be achieved by regular medical examination and by encouraging consultation with physicians whose jobs it is to care for the medical needs of A.T.C. personnel. The facilities of a welfare organisation also make an important contribution and often the resolution of a difficult problem which affects a man's working capacity, is only achieved by their intervention. The design of an efficient shift system is a matter in which Medicine has an important bearing. It is essential to take into account man's physiological needs and to cater for his circadian rhythms. Man must eat, sleep and excrets, and during the daylight hours his body can work harder than is possible during night-time. We cannot ignore the fact that our bodies make demands and will only suffer stress or abuse up to a limit. The system and the equipment put into operation in Air Traffic Control must be so designed as to be with in the range of man's known capabilities and capacity. If we do not think in terms of vision, hearing and manual dexterity when planning, we are unlikely to achieve improved performance. Unless the information displayed on a screen, or whatever medium is used, is not clear and precise we hinder progress. If we are thinking about letters or symbols they must be the right size in relation

Since prehistoric times man has endeavoured to improve the way in which he can record and transmit information. There is therefore nothing new about information displays but in historically more recent times we have by the use of letters and symbols been able to achieve not only brevity but greater clarity. We have also progressed from making records of what has already taken p!ace to the recording of what is currently happening. The methods whereby information is recorded and displayed have changed but it is of paramount importance to realise that the most vital component involved in a procedure which uses information has not changed very much in comparison. I refer here to man himself. He has the same eyes and ears as his forefathers and what he has lost in acuity he has probably gained by his vision and hearing being better trained and more experienced. What his hands have lost in strength they have gained in skill. His brain, to be more specific his intelligence and personality, have probably changed for the better. Mon today, it is postulated, is fractionally more clever than he was in the past, but only fractionally. We are better trained and organised and so seem to have increased more in intelligence than is probably the case. The personality of man is I think more complex, resilient ~nd is tougher, as we hove developed a greater capacity t? contend with the stresses and strains of life. Be all this as it may, we have not developed or improved to such an enormous extent as has the machine. Technical development has made such vast strides that man now becom~s the weak component in many procedures. Although this is realised we continue to overlook this point and to produce systems and equipment which surpass the capacity of man to adequately utilise. As for instance, in the design and lay-out of flight decks, where we continue to install instruments which man finds he is unable to use and controls which he finds difficult to manipulate. Consequently man often fails to cope with the situation which is presented to him and only by God's grace is he kept out of mischief. In Air Traffic Control the same kind of situation today confronts us. We are in danger of not paying sufficient attention to the weaker component and more time must be devoted to human factors if true advance is to be made. Otherwise, systems and equipment may ~e designed which add nothing to the efficient completion ~f the controller路s work and might even adversely affect his competence. Is it not possible that examples ~'. complicated equipment may be cited which under critical analysis might be exposed to have no greater efficacy than lhe humble pencil and paper?

8


to lhe reading distance, they must be clear cut, with good colour or light and dark contrast. Uniform illumination of the display and of each letter is needed and if the display is projected on a screen the print should be stationary and not vibrate. The display should be such that it is not necessary for the eye to be continually re-focussing so that the amount of visual accommodation is reduced to a minimum. The lighting, both focal and ambient should not only be adequate but such that distracting glare or brilliance is not produced. This leads on to the question of the placing of the equipment and the ergonomic considerations which require detailed study. It must be emphasized that when planning a system and it's equipment, it is the long-term use by the average operator, possibly under adverse conditions, which must be borne in mind constantly, and not sporadic use under the best circumstances by the most brilliant. The importance of the environmental conditions have long been recognised in Air Traffic Control but it has also been realised that they are difficult to regulate. Many of the problems have arisen because of the rapid growth and change in Air Traffic Control and the introduction of new systems and equipment. There is however a wealth of technical knowledge which is available for the control of lighting, heating, ventilation and noise. If engineers are given a specification they are able to provide satisfactory working conditions. Thus we can ward off the early onset of fatigue for instance, which significantly affects working efficiency. If you single out the temperature and humidity of a room, these two factors alone can utterly make or mar the competent operation of a procedure. The space allotted to Air Traffic Control work is also a matter for careful thought but we run into difficulties here because we are often faced with the operation of a system and it's equipment which dictate the size of area required, and the design of the visual cont~~I room in an airport tower is a good example. The amen1t1es provided for Air Traffic Control staff should not only be comprehensive but better than those provided for office workers whose mode and pressure of work do not make the same demands. The provision of lavatories, canteens, accommodation for rest periods and so on all need careful attention Under th~ heading of social factors can be included matters which in this context relate to family, finance, transport and so on. A number of points may sometimes appear to be irrelevant or hardly the concern of an employer, but further reflection or investigation will often reveal the exrtaordinary impact which any one of these factors can have on the working capacity and competence of a controller. The man who arrives on duty having left a serious domestic crisis at home, having been obliged to park his car in a rainstorm, due to a flat tyre, a mile from the control tower, is hardly well prepared for a period of arduous duty. Depending on the individual's mental stamina, he might react in such a way as to be transiently unfit for duty. Such is the potency of many .of the factors in this social group, that ill health can be induced at a very early stage.

Practical Illustrations

The personnel concerned found that they suffered from early fatigue and eye-strain and it was to some extent fortuitous that these complaints arose. I would like to emphasize that this was only an exp8riment using an item of new equipment and that the people concerned had volunteered for the job. Accommodation being at a premium it was necessary to set up the equipment in a room which was already in use for another purpose and there was no air conditioning. As a result the placing of the equipment was not ideal, heat was emitted, there was distraction, the lighting both ambient and local was very difficult to arrange and unsatisfactory. It so happened that the majority of the personnel in the experiment wore spectacles for the correction of hypermetropic astigmatism and they were thus visually vulnerable. The spectacle wearers were the frrst to complain of eyestrain to be followed by the others after a longer period of exposure. This was caused by the continual need for the re-focusing of the eye on a disp!ay which was not only lacking in clarity but which was incorrectly illuminated. Also because additional equipment had to be used at the some time it was not possible to place the display in the ideal situation. The room become very hot and dry and it was not surprising that headaches and early fatigue were experienced. We were taught a very useful lesson in this case and it afforded an eloquent demonstration of the necessity of paying due attention to human factors. How much more serious would be the reaction of Controllers to such equipment, were it to be used in operational practice without adequate trial. The second example which I would like to discuss briefly is the task of the "D" controller. A large proportion of controllers in the National Air Traffic Control Service are thus employed, working in Control Centres, completely isolated from the aircraft which they direct. The "D" controller sits at his desk being continually supplied with information, some of which he must constantly mentally retain in order to create a kind of vision - on everchanging picture which he must maintain intact for the making of rapid and accurate decisions. These decisions must be right as only perfection is acceptable in Air Traffic Control. The ability of the "D" controller to hold this vision and at the same time to assimilate new information, in order to modify the vision and react accordingly will vary. His aptitude, capacity for concentration, medical fitness (physical health and mental stability), all play their part. Information must be presented to him in such a way as to signify its importance i. e. an adequate degree of arousal by an effective mode of presentation. Working in this way, the controller must have ideal conditions so that he is not diverted or distracted, otherwise his vision might be shattered. Even when this particular aspect of A.T.C. changes in the future and the "D" controller becomes what we might eventually describe as a "Radar Supervisor", there will still be an element remaining of the vision which I have described. If we aim however, in the design of new systems and the installation of new equipment, to reduce collation of information, the resultant ease and rapidity with which the work is completed will be a measure of our success.

. I wish now to mention two examples which I think well illustrate some of the points discussed. We were called in to advise on the conduct of an experiment in which difficulties were being encountered.

This brings me to the stage where I would like to indicate an approach which I think should be adopted in order to odvance.

9


The Future I hope that I have left no doubt in your minds as to the futility of planning and designing without adequate regard for the needs of the human being. Because man is the weaker but essential component in A.T.C. procedures he is the governing factor in the determination of true advance when modification or innovation is proposed. If we submit new systems and new equipment to pilot studies in conditions closely simulating normal operational practice we will be able to, not only assess their efficacy but to expose the shortcomings of what might prove to be a faulty man-machine relationship. There should be no attempt to put any idea into widespread practice unless we have completed such simulated trials for otherwise we cannot be sure of making any real progress. Even after we have done everything possible to demonstrate the value of a new idea we should still be prepared to modi-

fy when criticism comes from wider practical experience. The responsibility for the success of new concepts should therefore be shared by all sectors of Air Traffic Control and not left entirely on the shoulders of the planners and designers, who welcome constructive criticism based on experience in the operational field. The wider co-operation which is engendered by meeting and discussing projects at a convention such as this, is invaluable. As for the working conditions in Air Traffic Control these are currently the subject of thorough investigation by a working party which aims at the promotion of the ideal environment. The specifications are being defined and the next phase will be implementation. With enthusiastic determination we can look to the future with optimism.

DENALT Performance Computers In recent years in the USA, about 100 aircraft accidents a year are caused by failure of the pilot to consider properly the effects of air temperature and pressure altitude on the takeoff and climb performance of his aircraft. A large number of these accidents are fatal; nearly all are preventable. Alarmed by this record, the Operations Division of the Flight Standards Service, FAA, recently initiated a twopronged program, to acquaint as many pilots as possible w ith the hazard, and to assist invidual pilots in making proper allowance for existing temperature and altitude conditions. To carry out the pilot-education objective, the FAA produced a new safety movie, "Density Altitude". To carry out the pilot-assistance objective, the FAA designed a lo":' cost computer which any pilot can easily learn to use i_ n calculating the combined effects of temperature and altitude on his takeoff distance and rate of climb. The DENALT (density alt itude) computer is produced in two models. One is for aircraft with fixed-pitch propellers; the other is for aircraft with variable-pitch propellers . The computer is circular, with a diameter of 4 inches -t

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(about 10 centimeters) . There is a place on the back to record the standard sea-level performance of the aircraft, in terms of takeoff distance and initial rate of climb. The DENALT computer is actually a simple table lookup device. On the computer face, the pilot sets in the outside air temperature (which incidentally is in Fahrenheit) and opposite the pressure altitude on one scale he finds the takeoff factor. Multiplying the standard sea-level takeoff distance by the takeoff factor gives the expected takeoff distance. Opposite the pressure altitude on the other scale, the pilot finds the percentage rate of climb (ROC) . Multiplying the standard sea-level rate of climb by the percentage ROC gives the expected rate of climb. The DENALT computers are sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402 U.S.A. When ordering, be sure to specify whether the fixed-pitch or variable-pitch model is wanted. At 50 cents each, the gadget would make a useful little gift for a _pilot friend . Someday, it might even keep him from running out of runway on takeoff, or running out of absolute altitude on climbout. Either way it shouid be worth 50 cents. -TKV

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Route Experience Flight to Stockholm Arlanda

In late October 1966, the Germon Air Troffic Controllers' Association hod organised o route experience flight par exce llence. Following on invitation from Standard El ektrik Lorenz AG (SEL) and Standard Radio and Telefon AB (SRT), some 30 co ntro ll ers from Munchen, Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Rhein Control, and Hannover visited the new Air Traffic Control Centre at Stockho lm Arlondo and the laborato ri es and production p lants of SRT at Borkorby ne ar Stockho lm. The Germon cont ro llers shored the fl ight in o F 27 company aircraft with SEL engineers, so there was ample opp ortun ity to talk shop for those who d id not prefer to fo llow the fl igh t progress in the cockpit or to benefit from the exce ll en t v is ibil ity to do some visual navigation. The topics: radar and automation. Th e SRT plants ore located not very for from Arlondo, and after a short bus ride the party arrived from the ai rport at Borko rby. Messrs. lngvor Persso n, He ino l ong, and Goren Uden o f Standard Radio and Telefo n AB welcomed the v isitors and showed them around in th e factory. Du e to the short t ime avai lable, th e schedule was tight and precise as the countdown for the launching of o satellite. There were so many things to see. Production line and final testing of th e SRT equipment were some o f the sta tions on this excursion, but the most interesting port was undoubted ly o demonstra tion of th e capabiliti es of the SRT au tomatic ATC System a t o simula ted working

(Censor Computer) for the following functions: - General Administration of the system - Automati c tracking - Updating of flight pion data - Conflict search - Storage of curr ent information. Position and identification data ore displayed on PPls, flight pion data is shown on electronic data di5plays and may, if requi red, a l so be printed on flight progress strip5. The PPI presentation includes the following possibilities: -

Non-processed primary radar (raw radar) Clutter-free primary radar (processed rada r) Simultaneous displays of processed radar information from sever a l radar statio ns (composite display) Synthetic presentation of computer-derived information nn aircraft movements outside radar coverage SSR information Video map D/ F lin es for position fixing which ar e automatically displayed when on ai rcra ft is transmitting Vector lines, which con be controlled by the rolling boll, to facilitate the determ ination of distance and bearing Symbols for identification, automatic tracking, and interconsole marking.

posit ion. The SRT philosophy is mainly orientated towards the development of automatic systems for sma ller and medium sized centr es, wh ich does, however, not preven t their extension to large systems or systems groups. Th e bui lding b lo ck principle is applied to enable on evolutionary ond economic implementation of automatic data processing in air traffic control. The SRT system accepts any kind of basic ATC data: primary and secondary radar information, loca l and remote direction finder information, loca l and r emote track and control transfer data from adjacent ACCs, a irc ra ft position reports, aircraft performance variations, teleprinter inpu t, meteorological information, operational status of naviga tion aids, etc. If necessary, th e inpu t da ta ore converted from analogue to digital form. Primary radar signa ls ore converted into digital form and onalyzed by a video correla tor contained in the data extra ctor. Secondary radar information is digitalized and preprocessed by defruiting, d egorbling, and decodi ng . Rodar bearing and distance data ore converted into digital form in an azimuth a l digiti ze r a lso contained in th e data extractor. Information can be prese nted on digital PPls and lo bu lar displays, or fed in to a high speed da ta processor

Rolling boll unit and key board , the operators means of communico l ion wilh !he com puter ond ha ndling symbols for oulomohc !rocking and vi sible l ronsfcr of con trol

11


Day I ight presenta tion of processed and composite pict ures, as well as other information, can be achieved by displaying the data at a high repeti tion rote from an additio nal digital storage system . Th o application of digital techniques permits intersector co-ordination ta be achieved by automatically t ransferring flight date between control positions a nd by displaying such data on Electronic Data Displays. Keyboa rds and rolling balls are the controllers ' devices for communication with the computer. For a positive transfer of control, for instance, an inte rconsole marking symbol would appear on th e PPI of the receiving controller, designating t he aircraft to be

Daylight PPI d i splay of radar information, photographed under norma l ambient lighting. The rada r information is digitalized, filtered according to present criteria and stored in a memory. This memory is then sca nned at a rate of 16 times per second and the information is presented on the PP I screen. Th e alphanumeric i nformation a n the screen represents identification and height information achi eved from SSR or ASR (he ight on ly fr om SSR or pil ot repo r ts).

transferr.ed, and the corresponding flight p lan data would auto'.11~ttcally be sh.own on the Electronic D ata Display. Sim ilarly, coo rdina tion w ith adjacen t centres can be e~ecte~, by exchangi ng in d igi ta l form flight in formation via ord i nary telephone lin es. For long dis ta nce transmission of radar pictures, th e N A TR AP (NAr~ow Band Transmiss ion of RAdar Pictures) system is app l ied, and data links are used for the transmi ss ion of tracki~g data and D/F information, as we ll as for the automatic exchange of flight plan and transfer messages . .A. Electronic tabular disploy. Flig h t information stored in the central computer is continously updated and on th e operator' s choice presented o n hi s elect ronic tabular display. Completed wi th automatic trackin g in an advanced stage of automated ATC , these tabu lar displ a ys would elimi n ate the procedure wit h handwritten fl ight progress strip s. Su ch a system would i mply r ecording of all the rada r informati on (syn thetic in fo rmation) as we ll as verbal information ond a grea t flex i b ility should be invo lved as for as modes of operation, choice of information e tc. ore concerned .

The domesti c problem s for oround-th e-clockservice at the Stockholm International Airport A rlondo , Sweden , are well taken co re of. Comfortable sleeping roo ms, a "sitti n g" room wit h TV a nd wirele ss contribute to create a sort o f home-feeling i n this highly technical centre. The p icture shows the common k itchen, wh er e everybody hos his own private box and access to mo d ern ki tchen equipment

12

...


The processed radar picture informat io n, synch ronized with the recording of current voice commun ication, con be stored on conve ntio nal aud io tape. Thi s facilitates post fli ght investigation o f incidents and ana lysis of traffic patterns. Most of the a bove feat ures ore alrea dy introduced at the Arlonda ACC, which was the next intermediate stop on the fl igh t pion. Upon returning from the S RT factories at BARKARBY, the controllers were met at Arlonda airport by Director I. G. Karlsson, the Chief of the Royal Swedish Boord of Civil Aviation. Director Karlsson exte nd ed a friendly welcoming address to the group, and then he gave a brief introduction to the Swedish Air T ro ffic Control System. There ore three Area Control Centres in Sweden: Malmo, Goteborg, and Stockholm. A furthe r ACC is planned lo be established at Sundsvall for the cont rol of IFR traffic in Northern Sweden, which is presen tly being provided by Sundsvoll Approach. By 1973, the Goteborg and Molmo FIRs wi ll probab ly have been joined togethe r, with the new Malmo Area Control Centre having token over the functio ns of Goteborg ACC. Automat ic data processing will not re main restricted to Arlanda centre; the next ste p will be the automatic exchange of standa rd ised fl ightplons throughout the country. Important aspects in p lanning the new system ore environme ntal factors and working condi tions of ATC staff, Director Karl sson said. Molmo and Goteborg ACCs were not ye t such showpieces a s Arlondo, but the new Molmo ACC wi ll probably be operational in the early seventies. Th e A rlondo centre we found to be o real gem. The con tro l room lay-out is functiona l, with comfortab le lighting and a very efficient air conditioning system. Arlondo Chief Controller M. von Sivers explained the centre arrangements. The Arlondo ACC comprises a civi l

unit which is responsible for the traffic in the Stockholm FIR, and o civil/ milita ry unit which is responsible for the control o f traffic in the Stockho lm TMA. These units and Arlondo App roa ch Contro l ore located in the some room, with one group of control positions for the civil and one for the mil itary controllers. They are controll ing the entire c ivi l and military traffic within control led airspace, which extends up to FL 300 in one sector and FL 380 in the o ther secto r. The problem of c ivi l/military integration seems to be solved quite satisfactorily at Arlondo. Contro l is p rocedura l, with extensive radar back-up. Each procedura l controller is assisted by one radar controller. The radar controlle rs hove al their disposal row and processed information of a 10 cm Decca radar, located at A rl ondo, and a 23 cm Selen io radar, located at Brommo. The Brommo ra dar information is transmitted lo Arlondo by microwave link. Secondary radar and on eight channel D/ F eq uipement is also a vailable. The display of the radar information con be in various manners, as described above. At the t ime of our vis it, experiments were mod e with au tomatic tracki ng; this facili ty wi ll be insta lled at a later date. Attached to the centre there ore training facilities fo r classroom and simulator training, a nd nicely furnished and comfortable restrooms ore at the d isposal o f the staff. One would wish to stay for severa l days a t Arlondo , lo gain more detai led knowledge of the system and eventually to sit down and hove a go a t the push button and rolli ng boll operation, just to get the fe el of automation in air traffic control. But unfortunately, time passed too qu ickly. After a quick visi t to the Tower, it was high time to ask for our outbou nd cleara nce. A great big thank you to a ll wh o have helped to ma ke this route experience flight such a pleasant and most interesting event. -o r

Over-oil view of the ACC at the Stockholm lnternotionol Airport Arlan do, Sweden . The left row of consoles o re for military operators and the right row for civil controllers . A(( ond APP ore situa ted in the some room . The mul titude of military a irpor ts oround Stockholm TMA hos mode it practical to hove on orgonisolion with military controllers in th e some centre 05 the civil ATC

13


Selenia products are tNarking for safety in the air

ATCR systems and METEOR radars from SELENIA have be.e~ chosen and ar~ in operation for the Air Traffic and Weather Bureaus Authorities of 15 Countries. It is not by chance that these highly specialized pro?ucts, oft~n connect~d into large systems, have been designed by Selenia for so many exacting users and operate m such different e~v1ronmen~al conditions. Selenia has a staff of engineers working on the problems conn~cted with safety m the air: all the experience acquired by years of research and prod uction in the military and professiona l electron ic field is put to good use to reach one basic goa l : Keep the Air Traffi~ safe. . . . . Selenia is prepared to give a~I .kind of assistance m solving the probler:is concerning. Air Traffic: from the study of the best system to the training of. personnel , through research, design, construction and installation of complete networks, including Terminal and Air Route Contr?I .radars, . Weather radars, data hand li ng and display systems, microwave links, remote control and data tra nsm1ss1on equipment, etc.

SELENIA - INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A.

14

P.O. BOX 7083 - ROME CITALY>


Fuve Years of THE CONTROLLER I FAT CA Journal of ATC A Survey of Contents

Compiled and edited by J. Gertz

3 Meteorology

1 Air Traffic Control 1.1 General ATC and Flight Safety Problems 1.2 ATC Procedures and Equipment 1.2.1 Radar Procedures and Equipment 1.2.2 Other Procedures and Equipment 1.3 Automation in ATC 1.4 Man in ATC

4 Air Traffic Services Organisations 4.1 4.2 4.3

5 Miscellaneous

2 Aircraft Operations 2.1 2.2

IFATCA National Air Traffic Controllers' Organisations National and International Bodies

Aircraft Handling Aircraft and Aerodrome Equipment Articles have been listed in chronological order under the appropriate heading. Articles covering more than one subject appear at two or more appropriate places.

1 Air Traffic Control

Problems of Civil/Military Integration in the German Air Traffic Services by K. Stieglitz - Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965). p. 34 f.

1.1

ATS at the IVA -

General ATC and Flight Safety Problems

Fligh: Plans and Flight Programmes by J. E. D. Williams - Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961/62). p. 17 f. Great Problems in Air Traffic Control (Resolution adopted at the 1_96~ Annual Conference of. the Germon Air Traffic Controllers' Assoc1at1on) - Vol. 1, No. l (Winter 1961162). p. 31 Air Traffic Control in the Netherlands -

Vol. l, No . 2 (April 1962),

p. 10 ff.

Vol. 4, No . 4 (October 1965), p . 16 ff.

International Symposium on Air Traffic Controller Training, May 1965 by Maurice Cerf - Vol. 5, No. 1 (Jan./Feb. 1966). p. 9 ff.

Analysis of the Processes involved in the Treatment of Information by the Air Traffic Controller by J. Leplot and A. Bisseret - Vol. 5, No. 1 (Jan./Feb . 1966), p . 13 ff. The Third International R & D Symposium by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No . l (Jan ./Feb. 1966), p. 25 ff .

The Name of the Game - Vol. 1, No . 3 (July 1962). p. 40 f.

The Law and the Controller by John G. Wilson - Vol. 5, No . 1 (Jon ./ Feb . 1966). p. 27 f.

Towards a common understanding of ATC by Anthony Martienssen - Vol. 1, No. 4 (October 1962), p. 11 f.

International Symposium on Civil Aviation Safety by Roger J. Sadet - Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966). p. 26 f.

. . Liability in National and International Law Air Traffic Contro 1. Vol 2 No 1 (January 1963), p . 3 f. by Werner Guld1mann . ' .

The Problem of Air Traffic Control by Roger J. Sadet - Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966). p. 27 ff.

. S ce for General Aviation Problems of Air pa _ Vol 2 , No. l (January 1963). p. 7 ff by Peter G. Masefield 路

Paris,

1.2 ATC Procedures and Equipment

Air Traffic Control into the 197 0's by D. W. Watkins - Vol. 2, No . l (January 1963). p . 12 ff.

Survey: Modern Equipment, Installations and Systems for Air Traffic Control and Air Navigation - Vol . l, No . 1 (Winter 1961 162) , p . 32 ff

. f European Airspace Co-ordination NATO and the Committee or by K. Birksted - Vol. 2, No. 1 (January 1963). p . 23 f.

Survey: Modern Equipment, Installations and Systems for Air Traffic Control and Air Navigation - Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p 23 ff .

FAA Plans for Air Traffic Control by Lyle H. Ditzler - Vol. 2, No. l (January 1963), p. 25 ff.

1.2.l

I ressions of an American Observer Springtime in Europe mp ~ (J 1964 ) p. 15 ff . by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 3, No. " u 1Y ' Pro1"ects in the Field of Aviation Safety -

S urvey o f Resear eh No. 4 (October 1964). P路 56

Vol. 3,

Beacon: 5-Ycar ATC Plan -

Air Navigation and Air Traffic Control by E.W. Anderson - Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965), p. 18 ff. Air Traffic Control, Navigation, and Communications Years by E. A. Johnston -

Radar Procedures and Equipment

First Civil Secondary Radar for Continental Europe (Winter 1961/62). p. 16

the next ten

Vol. 4, No. l (January 1965), p . 21 ff.

Project Beacon p. 15 ff.

No

Vol . 1, No . 1 (Wintc1路 1961 '62) . p . 26 f

Evaluation and Summary -

Long Range Radar by G . N . S. Taylor -

Vol. 1

Vol. l. No . 2 (Ap1 ii 1962:1

Vol. l , No . 4 (Octobc 1 1962), p 5 ff

15


Radar Spacing Techniques for the Final Approach Path by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. l, No. 4 (October 1962), p. 22 ff.

Notes on the Employment of Dual Runways by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1964), p. 21 ff.

Marconi Tracker Ball Controller -

Restriction of VFR-Flights on Dutch Airways p. 26

Transradar FAB 6072 -

Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1963), p. 16

Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p. 29 f. ATIS - A recorded Assist to Controllers by Joseph A. Gascoigne - Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965), p. 16 f.

Secondary Surveillance Radar - the next ten Years by R. Shipley - Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965), p. 25 f.

FAA revised NOTAM Procedures Making Use of Radar by 0. Abarbanell - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1':65), p. 9 f. The Evolution of a practical Secondary Radar System for Air Traffic Control by B. R. Newman and W. E. Webb Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. ll ff. High Resolution and other Improvements in Video Mapping by R. N. Harrison - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 16 ff. Europe -

Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965), p. 27 ff.

Altimetry at High Altitudes with a View to the Vertical Separation of Aircraft by H.J. v. Villiez - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 35 Radio Communication Failure Procedures Reviewed (Apri I 1966), p. 20 ff. Separation Minima Reviewed -

Vol. 5, No. 2

Vol. 5, No. 2 {April 1966), p. 28 ff.

North Atlantic Lateral Separation Secondary Radar Implementation Dates in (Apri I 1965), p. 18 ff. Speed Control by R. Solinger -

Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1964},

Vol. 5, No. 3 (July 1966), p. 61

Vol. 4, No. 2

1.3 Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 24 ff.

Automation in ATC

Factors involved in the Choice of SSR Ground Radar by R. Shipley - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 32 ff.

The Philosophy behind and some Details of the Apollo Computer System at the Prestwick Oceanic Air Traffic Control Centre by H. S. Bray - Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961162), p. 5 ff.

The Operational Use of Primary and Secondary Radar in the United States by George M. Waller - Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1965), p. 60 ff.

On the Automation of the Air Traffic Control Services in the German Federal Republic by Roland Maier - Vol. 1, No. l (Winter 1961162), p. 12 ff.

Bright Radar Displays by G. N. S. Taylor -

Beacon: 5-Year ATC Plan Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 11 ff.

Implementation of Secondary Radar -

Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965),

p. 14 ATC Transponder Performance Pre-Flight Test Set by Tirey K. Vickers and Edward M. Hunter - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 19 ff. Status of Airline Radar Beacon Transponder Capability, based on January, 1966, ATA Survey - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), P· 13 f. Airborne TV tested as ATC Aid by Max K ;rant - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), p. 18 f. SIF/SSR Systems and the Customer by R. Shipley and F. J. Crewe - Vol. 5, No. 3 (July/Aug. 1966), P· 62 ff. The Marconi Distance from Threshold Indicator by Horst Guddat - Vol. 5, No. 3 (July/Aug. 1966), P· 66 f. The S.R.T. Daylight Display System for ATC by S. Skaroeus - Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966), P· 23 ff.

1.2.2

Evaluation and Summary -

Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962),

Controllers and Conversing Computers by James E. Grambart - Vol. 3, No. 1 (January 1964), p. 3 ff. Data Processing applied to Air Traffic Control by F. J. Crewe - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 20 f. Progress with HARCO and the Digital Data Link by W. E. J. Groves - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 22 f. Operation and Applications of the Hazeltine Alpha-Numeric Generator by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 27 ff. Lessons learnt in nine Years of SATCO by J. Smit - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 10 The S.R.T. Philosophy on ATC Automation by J. Edwards - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 22 ff. General Purpose Computers and the CRT Displays in ATC by R. Arnolds - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 27 ff. The Approach to Automating ATC in France by J. Villiers - Vol. 5, No. 1 (Jan./Feb. 1966), p. 29 ff.

Other Procedures and Equipment

ACCESS - Down-to-Earth Air/Ground Communications by Jesse Sperling - Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961/62), p. 19 ff. Separation of Aircraft in the Approach and Departure Phases by W. C. Woodruff - Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), P· 2 ff. Must the VHF Omni-Range make Way for a Hyperbolic System? Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p. 19 f. Doppler VOR in Service in the United States -

Project Beacon p. 15 ff.

Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961/62), p. 26 f.

Vol. 1, No. 2 {April

1962), p. 20 Several Results of Researches on the Problems of Flight-Sequence in

1.4

Man in ATC

Psychological Aptitude Tests for Air Traffic Control Officers by H.J. Zetzmann - Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p. 5 ff. The Importance of the so-called "Human Factor" for the Reliability of Collision Prevention in the Terminal Area by H. v. Diringshofen - Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961/62), p. 28 f. Human Factors Analysis of Voice Communication Practices Traffic Control - Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p. 8 f.

the Terminal Arca of Airports by H.J. v. Villiez - Vol. 1, No. 3 (July 1962), p. 12 ff.

Man as Data-Processing Link in the Air Traffic Control Service by H.J. Zetzrnann - Vol. 1, No. 4 (October 1962), p. 14 ff.

HARCO _

Stress and Performance in Air Traffic Control by K. G. Corkindale - Vol. 2, No. 1 (January 1963), p. 20 ff.

A Hyperbolic Arca Coverage Navigation System for Air

Traffic Control by W. E. J. Groves An IFR Sight Plan by J. E. Grambart -

Vol. l, No. 3 (July 1962), p. 19 ff.

Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p. 5 ff.

The Control Load and Sector Design by Bar Atid Arad - Vol. 3. No. 3 (July 1964), p. 7 ff.

16

in Air

Civil Aeromedical Research Responsibilities Aims and Accompl ishmcnts by Stanley R. Mohler, M. D. - Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1963), p. S ff. University of Birmingham to commence new Graduate Courses October - Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1963), p. 15

in


Conditions of Employment in Air Traffic Control Service by Jacob Schenkman, - Vol. 2, No. 4 (October 1963), p. 5 ff.

Considerable Foreign Participation in 1966 German Air Show No. 2 (April 1966), p . 19

Fatigue and the Controller by John G. Wilson - Vol. 4, No. l (January 1965), p. 14 f.

New Control Tower and new Runway at Orly Airport (April 1966), p. 31

International Symposium on Air Traffic Controller Training, Paris, May 1965 by Maurice Cerf - Vol. 5, No. l (Jan./feb. 1966), p. 9 ff.

3 Meteorology

2 Aircraft Operations

Sensitive Aircraft Altimeter with Linear Subscale calibrated in Values of Altitude Units by E. Roessger and G. Raenicke - Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p . 13 f . Some Remarks Concerning the Possibilities of Calibrating the Subscale of an Altimeter in Terms of Altitude by E. Roessger and G. Raenicke - Vol. 1, No. 3 (July 1962), p. 27 ff.

2.1

Aircraft Handling

The Name of the Game -

Vol. l, No. 3 (July, 1962), p. 40 f.

Cockpit Laxity "Overdramatized" -

Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1963), p. 15 f.

Recent Development in Helicopter IFR Operations by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 3, No. l (January 1964), p. 6 ff. Controller's Gossip (April 1964), p. 31

T-Bird Route Experience Flight -

Living with Vortices by Tirey K. Vickers -

Vol. 3, No . 2

Vol. 4, No. l (January 1965), p. 6 ff.

Making Use of Radar by O . Abarbanell - Vol. 4, No . 2 (April 1965), p. 9 f. The United States Supersonic Transport by Raymond B. Maloy - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 6 ff. We're learning more about Clear Air Turbulence by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), p. 6 ff. Wind Shear Problems in Terminal Operations by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No . 2 (April 1966), p. 24 ff. Wake Turbulence -

Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966), p. 14 ff.

Vol. 5,

Vol. 5, No. 2

Model und slide rule to demonstrate the relative vertical position of the night levels, the QNH altitudes, the QFE heights, the transition altitude, the transition level and the transition layer by G. Raenicke - Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p. 25 ff. High Level Air Turbulence Living with Vortices by Tirey K. Vickers -

Vol. 3, No. 4 (October 1964), p. 52

Vol. 4, No. 1 (January 1965), p . 6 ff.

Long Range Detection of Thunderstorms by G. Heydt and H. Volland - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p. 35 f. Altimetry at High Altitudes with a View to the Vertical Separation of Aircraft by H.J. v. Villiez - Vol. 4, No. 4 (October 1965), p. 35 We're learning more about Chear Air Turbulence by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No . 2 (April 1966), p . 6 ff. Wind Shear Problems in Terminal Operations by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), p. 24 ff. Rapid Dissemination of Information on Marginal Weather Conditions at Airports - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), p . 32 ff. The ARSR Weather Surveillance System by T. J. Simpson - Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct.!Nov. 1966), p. 9 ff.

2.2

Aircraft and Aerodrome Equipment

The Flarescan Instrument Landing System -

Wake Turbulence -

62), p. 26 Sensitive Aircraft Altimeter with Linear Subscale calibrated in Values of Altitude Units by E. Roessger and G. Raenicke -

Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966) , p. 14 ff .

Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1961/

4 Air Traffic Services Organisations 4.1

IFATCA

Vol. 1, No . 2 (April 1962), p. 13 f.

International Aviation takes great Interest in Hannover Air Show 1962 _ Vol. l, No. 2 (April 1962), p . 20 Some Remarks Concerning the Possibilities of Calibrating the Subscale of an Altimeter in Terms of Altitude by E. Roessger and G. Raenicke - Vol. 1 No 3 (July 1962), p. 27 ff .

Editorial by Walter Endlich -

Vol. l, No. l (Winter 1961 /62), p. 4

1962 Annual Conference of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations to be held at Paris-Orly Vol . l , No. l (Winter 1961/62), p . 31 IFATCA Member Associations -

A rapid scanning infra-red system for avoiding collisions in the air by c. M. Cade - Vol. 1, No . 4 (October 1962), p. 27 ff. VASI _

Visual Approach Slope Indicator -

Vol. 2, No . 3 (July 1963),

p. 17 f .

PEEP _ Pilot's Electronic Eyclevel Presentation by Fred Keating - Vol. 2, No . 3 (July 1963), p. 19

Vol. 3, No . 4 (October 1964), p. 51

ATC Transponder Performance Pre-Flight Test Set by Tirey K. Vickers and Edward M. Hunter - Vol. 4, No . 4 (October 1965), p. 19 ff. Some News on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (April 1966), p. 12 f.

Vol., No. 3 (July 1962), p. 4 ff.

International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations Draft Recommendation on Familiarization Flights Vol. l , No . 3 (July 1962), p. 44, and Vol. 2, No . l (January 1963), p. 33 London Report - Highlights of the Second Annual IFATCA Conference by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 2, No . 2 (April 1963), p . 5 ff.

Model and slide rule to demonstrate the relative vertical position.s. of the flight levels, the QNH altitudes, the QFE heights, the trans1t1on altitude, the transition level and the transition layer by G. Raenicke - Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p. 25 ff. Farnborough 1964 -

Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1962), p. 22

IFATCA Annual Conference 1962 -

Vol. 5, No . 2

Conference Report of the 2nd Annual IFATCA Conference No. 2 (April 1963), p. 9 ff.

Vol. 2,

G. W. Monk appointed Executive Secretary of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations _ Vol. 2, No . 4 (October 1963), p . 21 Brussels, future Capital of Europe, invites you! nuary 1964), p. 12 IFATCA Annual Conference 1964 No. 2 (April 1964), p . 8

Vol. 3, No. l (Ja-

Provisional Programme -

Vol. 3,

Status of Airline Radar Beacon Transponder Capability, based on January, 1966, ATA Survey - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), P路 13 f .

Report of the Third Annual IFATCA-Conference tober 1964), p . 6 ff.

Vol. 3, No . 4 (Oc-

Airborne TV tested as ATC aid by Max Karant - Vol. 5, No . 2 (April 1966), p . 18 f.

Welcome to Vienna - 4th Annual IFATCA Conference, April 12th - 15th, 1965 - Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p . 6 f

17


Highlights of Addresses to the Conference (Welcome Addresses to the 4th IFATCA Conference , Vienna 1965) Vol. 4, No. 2 (April 1965), p . 8 Report of the Fourth Annual IFATCA Conference -

Vol. 4, No . 3 (July

1965), p . 8 ff. Report of the Fifth Annual IFATCA Conference, Rome 18th-21st April 1966 - Vol. 5, No. 3 (July/Aug. 1966), p . 6 ff.

Projects and Developments of Eurocontrol by R. M. Soward - Vol. 1, No . 3 (July 1962), p . 37 ff. NATO and the Committee for European Airspace Co-ordination by K. Birksted - Vol. 2, No . l (January 1963), p . 23 f. FAA Plans for Air Traffic Control by Lyle H. Ditzler - Vol. 2, No . l (January 1963), p . 25 ff.

Austrian Controllers visit Budapest by Herbert Brandstetter - Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966), p. 12

Symposium on Electronics Research and Development for Civil Aviation, Part I by G. W. Monk - Vol. 2, No . 4 (October 1963), p. 21 f.

IFATCA Annual Conference 1967 Geneva, 17th-21st April by Herbert Brandstetter - Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966), p. 18 f.

ICAO RAC/OPS Meeting, Montreal, May 1963 by Maurice Cerf - Vol. 3, No . l (January 1964), p. 11 f.

4.2

Symposium on Electronics Research and Development for Civil Aviation, Part II by G. W. Monk - Vol. 3, No. 1 (January 1964), p . 13

National Air Traffic Controllers' Organisations

Great Problems in Air Traffic Control -

Vol. 1, No . l (Winter 1961/62),

p . 31 ATC News from the U.K. -

Flight Safety Symposium, Royal Aeronautical Society 1 London, 31st October 1963, resumee of the papers presented by E. W. Pike - Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p . 10 ff.

Vol. l , No . 2 (April 1962) , p. 21

Fourth Convention of the British Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers to be held in Bournemouth - Vol. l, No . 3 (July 1962), p. 17

Supersonic Transport Symposium by G. W. Monk - Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964) , p. 13 ff. lntrodution of Eurocontrol Services -

Annual Dinner of the British Guild of Air Traffic Officers No. 3 (July 1962), p . 35 f . Fourth Air Traffic Control Convention Bournemouth -

Vol. 3, No . 2 (April 1964), p. 20

Vol. 1, New ICAO Secretary General appointed p . 22

Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964),

Vol. l, No . 4 Eurocontrol ATC Simulator -

October 1962), p. 26

Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p . 23 f.

Seventh National Meeting of the Air Traffic Control Association Vol. 1, No . 4 (October 1962), p . 34

ICAO reports on Air Transportation in 1963 p. 19

Seventh National Meeting, Air Traffic Control Association, Las Vegas by Maurice Cerf - Vol. 2, No. l (January 1963), p. 5 f.

Foundation stone for Eurocontrol Experimental Centre laid _ No . 4 (October 1964), p. 52

Greek and Japanese ATCA's founded, ATCO's in Central Africa found an Assoc iation, too - Vol. 2, No . l {January 1963), p . 31

Important Eurocontrol Decisions -

Report on the Eighth Annual ATCA Convention by Helmut Elsner - Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1964), p . 21 f.

The Air Traffic Control Association's Ninth Annual Meeting Atlantic City - October 1964 by Maur ice Cerf - Vol. 4 , No . l (January 1965), p . 30 ff. Address of IFATCA President L. N. Tekstra at the Ninth Annual Meeting, ATCA - Vol. 4, No. l {January 1965), p . 32 f. 1964 Annual Conference of the Verband Deutscher Flugleiter e. V. Vol. 4, No . l (Janua ry 1965), p . 34 ff. The Air Traffic Controllers' Guild of Ind ia -

Vol. 5, No. l (Jan./Feb .

Vol. 3,

Vol. 3, No . 4 (October 1964), p . 54

ICAO - Twentieth Anniversary of Chicago Convention _ (January 1965), p . 17 f. FAA revised NOTAM Procedures -

Fifth Convention of the British Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers held at Bournemouth - Vol. 3, No. 4 (October 1964), p . 54 f.

Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1964),

Vol. 4, No. l

Vol. 4, No . l (January 1965), p . 27 ff .

Site for Maastricht UAC handed over to Eurocontrol _ (July 1965), p . 63 General William F. McKee, FAA Administrator _ tober 1965), p . 9

Vol. 4, No . 3

Vol 4 No . 4 (Oc路 '

14th Session of Eurocontrol Permanent Commission _ (Jon./Feb. 1966), p . 38

Vol. 5, No . l

Results of the ICAO Air Navigation Conference Montreal 1965 Vol. 5, No . 1 (Jan./Feb . 1966), p . 39 f. ' Outstanding FAA Performance in Power Failure Feb . 1966), p. 40 f.

Vol. 5, No . 1 (Jan .I

1966), p . 41 f. ATCA - an Inspiration by Wil iam F. McKee -

16th Annual Conference of the International Airline Navigators' Council - Vol . 5, No . 2 (April 1966), p . 10

Vol. 5, No . 1 (Jan./Feb . 1966), p . 43 f.

6 th Annual Conference of the Austrian Air Traffic Controllers ' Association - Vol. 5, No. 2 (April 1966), p . 19 ANACNA, the Italian Air Traffic Controllers' Association No . 2 (April 1966), p . 37

Vol. 5,

Sixth Convention of the United Kingdom Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers - Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./Nov. 1966), p . 6

"Green Light" for Eurocontrol International Upper Area Control Centre Maastricht - Vol. 5, No . 3 (July/Aug. 1966), p. 64 Dr. Werner Guldimann Director of the Swiss Federal Office of the Air - Vol. 5, No . 3 (July/Aug . 1966), p . 65 ATC Highlights of the lowan 1.0.N. Meeting by Tirey K. Vickers - Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./Nov . 1966), p. 4 ff.

Austrian Controllers visit Budapest by Herbe rt Brandstette r - Vol. 5, No . 4 (Oct./ Nov . 1966), p . 12

Laying the Foundation Stone of the Eurocontrol Upper Area Control Centre at Beek-Maastricht Airport by R. J . Sode! - Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct./Nov . 1966), p . 20 ff .

4.3

5 Miscellaneous

ITA -

National and International Bodies The lnstitut du Transport Acricn -

Vol. l , No . l (Winter 1961/62),

p . 18 ff .

Aviation Writers meet with Avion ics Industry 1963), p . 33

Vol. 2, No . l (January

ICAO Communications Division completes work ter 1961 /62), p . 24 f

Vol. 1, No . l (Win-

Bo Lundberg received Monsanto Aviation Safety Award _ Vol. 3 , (July 1964), p . 14 No. 3

New International Aviation Organization formed -

Vol. 1, No . 2 (April

Pioneer Award for Dr.-lng. Ernst Kramar p . 20

1962), p . 18

18

Vol. 3, No . 3 (July 196 4),


Airlines begin new Phase of Search for Collision Avoidance System The Air Traffic Control (ATC) Committee of the Air Transport Association (ATA) has formed a Technical Working Group to study details of proposed collision avoidance systems (CAS). Chairman of the new CAS Technical Working Group is Howard J. Mehrling, director, electronics-electrical engineering for Eastern Air Lines. Beside Eastern, five other airlines have already named representatives to the working group: American, Braniff, Pan American, Trans World and United. Composed primarily of electronics experts, the CAS Technical Working Group will examine proposed methods of applying time and frequency techniques to CAS for the purpose of developing suggested technical characteristics of a practical common system CAS. In their work, the CAS Technical Working Group will consult frequently with manufacturers of airborne electronics equipment and those with CAS design concepts. The ATA will continue to keep manufacturers, organizations and government agencies with primary interest in CAS fully informed about progress of the CAS Technical Working Group. Stanley L. Seltzer, director, air navigation and traffic control, ATA, and secretary of the ATC Committee, described the work of the Technical Working Group as providing the catalyst in a national effort to achieve a workable collision avoidance system. "The airline goal", said Seltzer, "is to get a common system CAS - one where airline CAS equipment will work cooperatively with CAS equipment carried by other users, both civil and military. While they recognize that the system design standards produced by airline effort may need modification to meet the needs of other users, the airlines be-

Sixth European ATC Conference Meets Blue skies, sunshine, and interesting ATC topics were the order of the day during the Sixth Annual European ATC Conference held November 14-18 in Athens, Greece. Co-sponsored by the Greek Government and the U. S. Air Force, Europe, the agenda covered a wide variety of topics. Former conferences have emphasized the USAF aviation role in Europe and aimed at easing coordination problems resulting from USAF exercises in the Central European and North Atlantic areas. With many of these problems resolved, the conference elected this year to i~足 clude subjects which would be of general interest to air traffic control organizations throughout Europe. Some 82 conferees, representing 55 organizations and 15 countries, listened to briefings on topics including North Atlantic Traffic Flow and Patterns, Pictorial Display/Course Line Computer Equipment in ATC, ATC Systems in Greece, Automation in the French ATC System, and Old and New IFF/SIF Systems. Military organizations briefed conferees on the K. Emergency Organization, Flight lnforma~ion Publications, Military Training Airspace, SAC Refuelmg/ Training Requirements, Military Airlift Command and th.e C-141, U.S. Army Air Operations in Europe, U. S. Air Force Communications Service, and other timely subjects.

v.

lieve the advent of an operational common system CAS will be speeded by developing a proposed standard as quickly as possible." Beside establishing the CAS Technical Working Group, the recent 27th meeting of the ATC Committee also devoted a full day to a presentation by Collins Radio of a proposed collision avoidance system. It meets the basic operational requirements for an airline collision avoidance system, prepared by the ATC Committee and distributed to potential users or makers of CAS equipment last October. The ATC Committee now has heard two proposed CAS design concepts, one by Collins Radio, the other by McDonnell Aircraft. Both meet basic airline requirements, but in important respects, each company has chosen different ways to apply time and frequency techniques in designing a CAS. These design choices result in systems that are not compatible, i. e., the proposed McDonnell system will not work with the proposed Collins system. Determining which methods are most likely to be suitable for common system use is one of the tasks of the ATA's CAS Technical Working Group. Logically, this determination should be made before prototype hardware can be prepared for test and evaluation. When a common system standards is finally developed and agreed upon, airborne equipment characteristics (for interchangeability and interconnection) will be prepared by the Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC) of Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC). To assure continuity in the various phases of the airline search for a suitable CAS, an ARINC/AEEC representative will be on the ATA CAS Technical Working Group.

by A. M. Waldin An interesting question-and-answer period followed the brief! ings. The Federal Aviation Agency of the U.S., sponsors of the Pictorial Display/Course Line Computer (PD/CLC) briefing, also provided flight demonstrations of the equipment throughout the week aboard an FAA Convair-240. Fiftyfive ATC experts operated the PD/CLC equipment while aloft and saw "area navigation" achieved using the Mt. Hymmetos VOR/DME as the navigational aid input. The FA~ sp?kesman pointed out that the requirement for area nav1gat1on capability is now "coming of age" in certain areas. T~e briefing recognized the various equipments now evadable or on the planning boards which provide area navigation capability from the cockpit while making use of !CAO-approved VOR/DME aids. Among the conferees were several IFATCA members including Horst Guddat of the German ATCA and Nick Gones and G. Aslanides of the ATCA of Greece. Two old friends of IFATCA - George Waller and Al Waldin of the Brussels FAA Air Traffic Staff - were present as members of the FAA briefing team . Next years 's conference, site as yet undetermined, will see a return to the name North Atlantic/European .A.TC Conference, as it was felt this better expresses the primary areas of interest covered in the meetings agenda . 19


Highlights of the 1966 ATCA Convention by Tirey K. Vickers

------------ ---

--

-----------

------=--

.

The Inte rnationa l Party at the ATCA Confe rence. Left to right : Lu is Rodriguez, M oyor Chuck Holl, Mrs. Rodr iguez , Beaut y Queen, Aviati on Editor o f Hero ld, Beauty Queen, Berti I Rydin , Jeo nDaniel M a nin , Antonio Sequero, Aubrey Aronson , Beauty Queen, El ias Petroul i os, Jacob Wachtel , Marco Navorro, N ick G anas, Jose Ara ujo , Bob Henderson , Woller Tonner, Ed Day Her bert Brandstetter, M a naging Editor of Herold .

20


The U.S. Air Traffic Control Association's e leventh onnuol convention was held October 10-12, 1966, at Miami, Florido. A goodly number of IFATCA controllers from Austria, Canada, Greece, Israel, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Venezuela were present; and the th e me of the meeting , "Accepting The Cha llenges Ahead", provided o live ly springboard for constructive discussion of the things to come in ATC. 路

The Aging Controller. Jo mes D. Hill , ATCA's new Ge路 neral Counsel, pointed out the plight of the controller who fails his medical exam ina tion and hos to look for o second career, arm ed only w ith his highl y-specia lized ATC skills wh ich are largely non-transferab le to any other occupation. Mr. Hill repo rted that in the last seven cases of thi s type wh ich have come to his attention , on ly o ne co ntroller was able to transfer into an FAA administra路 live job. Thi s ratio is not expected to improve. Mr. Hill e mpha sized the nee d for a loss-of-license in surance plan for ATCA me mbers. Before such a plan could be establi shed, however, it will be necessary for ATCA to obtain up-to-date statistics on the numbe r of controll ers w ho have been forced to retire for medical reasons . Robert H. Will ey, FAA's Associate Administrator for Personnel and Training, advised that a total of 239 FAA e mployees were reti red dur ing Fiscal Ye ar 1966; however, he did not know how man y were air traffic contro ll e rs, nor how many control lers were ret ired for med ical re asons. Mr. W illey re ported that 990/o of the emp loyees w ho have taken the FAA's Psychological Scree ning Test hove passed. Although o numbe r of people have criticized this program as an invasion of privacy, Mr. Wi lley said that he didn't cons ider it so; bu t hod eve n take n th e test himself. A lthough he didn't re port how he came out, he said that the test had been hel pful in identifying a number of individuals with extreme anxie ties. In a typical ca se, Mr. Wi lley reported, th e indi vidual was thankful at being ab le to unburden h is load to the ph ysicia n. Mr. Willey assured his au dien ce that the psychological test wi ll not form the basis for any perso nnel action s. Late r, however, he mentioned that fiv e contro llers have been removed from control duties as a result of the test. Tomorrow's Traffic. Air traffic forecasts presented at Miami were descr ibed by J. D. Smith of United Air Lines as "fantastic, sob e ring , and frigh te ning ". Archie W. League, FAA's ATS Directo r, reviewed th e last te n years ' growth figures a nd pred icted that by 1975, twelve US ARTC Centers wil l each be ha ndling 1,000,000 opera tions per year, while seve n others wi ll hit the 600,000 mark. Mr. League reported that th e US is now p rod uc ing 60 new aircraft pe r day; th is rate is expecte d to increase to 100 per day by 1975, a t wh ich time the US should have about 140,000 g e ne ra l aviation aircraft. Jeff Cochra n of FAA reported t ha t the ,, Big Fi ve" Me trop lex Areas (Ch icago, Lo s Ange les, N ew York, San Francisco, and Wa shington) together account for 1/ 4 of al l IF R operations, and 370/o of oil la ndings and tokeoffs ha ndled by FAA tower facilities. Th ey also account for 830/o of a ll lawsui ts due to aircraft accidents. Mr. Cochron said that by 1985 some of th ese a reas would encounter in sta nta ne o us traffic coun ts (ITC) of 1000 a irborne aircra ft w ithin o 50-mi le radius, w hil e the Los Angeles 50-mi le ITC 1s forecas t at 1350 aircraft!

FAA head, G eneral William F. McKee, a l the A d ministrato r" s Banq uet at Mia mi .

Bock fo r ano ther return engagement, Ted Bonner of Decca Navigator

Compa ny Ltd. se rved as M oster of Cer emon ies al the ATCA Award s Ba nq uet.

21


Such swarms of aircraft may require quite different concepts of air traffic control from that presently used, or even envisioned in the future NAS (National Airspace System) operation. Gil Quinby of NARCO said it was time someone was thinking about applying the management principle of control by exception, in ATC. Airports. Reflected at the Miami Meeting was the growing realization that airports hold the key to increased ATC system capacity, and that ATC automation cannot, by itself, significantly increase the present IFR capacity of our busiest terminal areas. What is needed is not just more runways, but more independent runways which can be operated simultaneously with the existing layout.

Archie League complained that the ATC system should not be blamed for aircraft delays which are caused by airport deficiencies. He said that the FAA has received 700 applications for airport aid, totalling 8 275 million but the maximum congressional appropriation for such improvements is not expected to exceed S 70 million. Meanwhile, he urged control personnel to review present terminal area procedures and flight patterns for possible improvements, to squeeze the maximum possible capacity from present facilities.

with computers, within the next three years. Only five centers presently have computers; these machines are now overloaded and will be replaced with newer models. The Cleveland Center is expected to have its new computer in operation by May, 1967. Mr. League added that, if the accelerated computer program goes through, all center computers will be on line, talking to each other, within four years. Gordon Hurst of FAA reviewed the results of the ARTS (Advanced Rodar Traffic System) Field Appraisal at Atlanta. He said that the program had been forced to work under two handicaps. Controllers using the experimental alphanumeric system still had to keep their flight progress strip markings up to date; this virtually doubled the total bookkeeping workload. In addition, the fact that ARTS was not connected with any outside ARTC Center precluded the use of silent hondoff procedures, and also required that all data be entered into the ARTS computer locally and manually. This required on extra data man during peak hours. In spite of these handicaps, Mr. Hurst reported, the ARTS Field. Appraisal proved the feasibility of eliminating the old flight progress boards, in automated terminal

Landing Aids. Dave Sheftel of FAA RDS showed some interesting, th..:>ugh necessarily foggy, movies of actual Category 111 approaches being completed under different profiles of altitude versus visibility. He also showed pictures of the FAA's new low-cost ILS which, at S 80,000, is only l /4 as expensive as the old type. Happily, it also presents less of an obstruction hazard to an aircraft in trouble.

Commander William E. Tucker outlined the US Navy's need for a variable-glide-slope, portable, accurate, and reliable approach and landing system. He also said that the Navy is interested in the development of a supplementary, easy-to-read GCA radar indicator. This presentation, known as the "bullseye" display, would show a cross-sectional view of the approach course, looking down the glide slope toward the runway. The aircraft symbol would appear in relation to the approach course and glide slope center lines, as shown in Fig. 1. A circle, centered on the desired path, and indicating safe vertical and lateral tolerances, would gradually shrink in size as the aircraft proceeded toward the runway. SSR. Mr. League said that 6000 SSR transponders, with 4096-code Mode A capability, ore now installed in general aviation aircraft. In a recent 19-day survey of IFR traffic at Washington National Airport, it was found that 90% of the air carrier, and 500/o of the general aviation, aircraft were using transponders. Mr. League said that the FAA's high-altitude fleet would have Mode C altitudereporting capability by March 1967.

Fig. 1 Proposed "bullseye" GCA indicator showing aircraft target above . glide path and lo the left of the approach course, but within prescribed tolerance for this range.

Gil Quinby of NARCO said that by 1970, 500/o of all transponders would hove Mode C capability. However, he expressed anxiety that very few FAA ground installations would be ready to accept Mode C altitude replies by that time. At present, only two FAA operating facilities, Atlanta Tracon (Terminal Radar Approach Control) and New York Center, are equipped for Mode C; the Jacksonville Center may be equipped by April, 1968, followed by the "Big Five" Metracons (Metropolitan Terminol Radar Approach Control facilities) .

facilities. The program also proved the usefulness of target tags which show continuous identity and altitude data. It was also found that less than a dozen different computer-control messages accounted for 90% of the control actions. These message types are listed below ranked in their order of popularity: Initiate track, termtnate track change tag position, enter assigned altitude, correlat: track and radar target, tab data entry, select desired tracking mode, assign beacon code, transfer data. Mr. Hurst said that the size of the alphanumeric characters create.d a clu~ter pr.oblem, as each computer target tag occupied a 8 X 8-mile area on a 40-mile scope.

Automation. Mr. League announced an accelerated program (not yet approved) to equip all ARTC Centers

The final proof of ARTS usefulness was shown recently when the Atlanta controllers requested that the system be

22


retained in operation, at 1he end of the Field Appraisal program. It is now used operationally 16 hours per day. An expanded and updated version of the system is being readied for checkout in the New York Metracon fOcility, which is scheduled for commissioning in December, 1967. Jeff Cochran said that the forthcoming NAS program will profit greatly from the lessons learned in the ARTS program. He said that the Jacksonville Center's NAS Stage A computer program is now 800/o complete and that this equipment installation will begin actual operations in April, 1968. He stated that terminal area automation is very important, and that he would like to see simultaneous installations of associated center and tracon equipment, to eliminate "automation islands" with their resulting data entry and handoff problems.

of a second; if a controller listens to his own feedback this amount of delay is psychologically rather disturbing'. Weather Radar Contours. Roy Paro of Raytheon reviewed the ARSR Weather Surveillance System, which was described in the last issue of THE CONTROLLER. He suggested that the controls for the adjustable contour threshold levels be remoted to the controller, who would then be able to probe large storm areas to locate individual cells and determine the zones of steepest gradient; these should correspond closely to the zones of greatest turbulence.

VTOL Aircraft. Ed Baur of New York Airways stated that the next generation of commercial helicopters would

European Progress. Mr. G. 0 . Hansson, of Standard Radio and Telephon A. B., showed movies of the Swedish air defense system, and the automated ATC display system which has evolved from it. The Stockholm Center is now equipped with the new ATC system, which uses narrowband radar remoting techniques and computer-processed PPI and tabular displays. Each target symbol is tagged with one alpha, and one numeric character. The controller can interrogate any PPI target, using a probe positioned by a slew ball, to obtain a readout of identity, altitude, and flight plan data on a small rectangular tabular display. The tabular scope can display the data for up to six selected targets simultaneously. Navigation. Ed Baur of New York Airways described his company's use of the Decca Navigator System, which permits the establishment of low-altitude helicopter airways three miles wide, and helicopter holding airspaces 3.9 miles long by 2.6 miles wide, using pictorial navigation procedures. Satellite Communications. The higher the orbit altitude, the longer it takes a satellite to go clear around the Earth. Finally, at an altitude of about 22,400 statute miles, it takes 24 hours to complete the circle. As the Earth itself takes 24 hours to make a complete eastbound rotation, a satellite on an eastbound orbit over the Equator at 22,400 miles altitude would appear to be parked in space, standing still in relation to the Earth. Here it would make a handy platform for a VHF communications relay station, as its altitude would be high enough to put nearly a third of the entire Earth's surface within its line of sight. At Miami, Oliver J. DeZoute of FAA RDS presented a progress report on the FAA 's plans to use such satellites for over-ocean communications in the future . The proposed setup would permit long-range pilot/controller com munications, or !rans-oceanic controller/controller communications, as shown in Fig. 2. Both voice and digital communications are planned. Mr. DeZoute reported that one of the worst difficulties revealed in the system studies so far is the multipath problem , wherein the satellite signal bounces off the ocean and arrives at the ai rcraft out-of-phase with the direct signal from the satellite, thus tending to cancel out the desired message. It is planned to alleviate this problem by installing a directional tracking antenna on the top of the aircraft, to look directly at the satellite at all times . Another problems is the inherent delay in signal transmission due to the great distances involved. A complete round trip to the satell ite and back requires three tenths

F.ig . 2 Controll e r-pilot link (A) ond tron soceanic cont rolle r- cont roller link (BJ via communications sate l lite .

have to be. larger (40-60 seats) in order to provide adequate terminal connections with the jumbo jets. He announced that NYA ·is p Ionning · . t h ree rooftop terminals al Kennedy Airport.

ATC St ahshcs. · · · Executive Director Cliff Burton reported that the ATCA roster has bounced back to a total of 5035 indi:'idual members, and 69 corporate members. In comparison, the FAA has about 12 729 A TC personnel in enroute and terminal area facilities. Final.e. As usual, the Awards Banquet concluded the conv;ntion program. This time, Major William A. Anders , a U AF astronaut, narrated a spectacular new NASA color. ~Im which covered the highlights of all the manned Gemini space fl ights to date . Archie League made the an~ual award presentations, except for the AOPA Award which was presented by Roys Jones. Ted Bonner flew in from the old country, to be Master of Ceremonies and to bring us another progress report on Christine Keeler (" She is married now, if one can use the te r m loosely"). Afterwards, a lot of sleepy people said goodbye to each other for another year . 23


Annual Meeting of the German Air Traffic Controllers Association (VD F) The German Air Traffic Controllers Association held its 1966 Annual Meeting from 25th till 27th October at Hannover airport. This was the first time since the preparatory conference for the foundation of IFATCA that the VDF had combined its Annual Conference with a public meeting. The topic of the meeting was "Air Traffic Control Today and Tomorrow", and several well known German aviation experts enlarged on that subject as Guest Speakers. The whole event was fully covered by press, radio, and television.

Close Cooperation between Controllers' Associations and Air Navigation Authorities encouraged Ministerialrat Gustav Glunz, Director of Air Navigation Services at the German Federal Ministry of Transport, delivered the Opening Address: A considerable amount of work has been done by this Association in the past years. The initiative to form an International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association came mainly from your side. In the meantime, this international federation has gathered momentum by the association of numerous national controllers' guilds and has earned considerable recognition through its activities. It is of personal interest to me and I attach great importance to the fact that close cooperation is maintained between the competent air traffic services authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany and this professional organisation. The fact that you are employees of the air traffic services on the one hand, and on the other side members of a federation whose opinions need not necessarily coincide with those of the Government authorities, should not be a hindrance. It is within your terms of reference as a professional organisation to take a critical position and to make proposals for further development of the air traffic services. May I emphasize that we are grateful for every positive contribution serving the matter; for all concerned with the air traffic services are interested in a continuous improvement of these services, in accordance with the requirements of the future. This task can only be performed by an authority if suggestions are put forward in a distinct and competent manner by all parties concerned. Po I e mics help us little and detain us from o u r re a I ta s k . After all, it is the objective of the air traffic services to serve aviation, i. e. as laid down in Annex 11 to the ICAO Convention: to guarantee a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.

Every Airspace User deserves his Share of the Service It is wrong to believe that the air traffic services impede aviation by regulations. Much educational work and good will are necessary to make this clear to all aviators. Some wish to benefit as much as possible from air traffic control but are very reluctant to accept in return their responsibilities.

24

Aviation in Europe is undergoing a remarkable change. In a few years, air transport will be completely converted to jet aircraft. Traffic density is growing rapidly. To an ever increasing extent the aircraft is used by the tourist trade and is thus becoming a means of transport not only for a limited class of people but for the general public. Business and sports flying, which I should like to include in the term "General Aviation", is still in its flrst development stages but will, in the course of the economic integration of Europe, considerably expand during the next ten years. Already today many large industrial flrms are using their own executive aircraft. In my opinion, all traffic forecasts made today are below the figures we have to expect in the foreseeable future. The task with which the air traffic services authorities will be confronted will be of great dimensions; great efforts and the cooperation of all will be necessary to keep in step.

The Future Tasks T_oday's. air traffic control system with its airways, reporting points and fixed routeings stems from the years before world i.:ar_ II. Although having been improved over and _over again rn the Fifties, it will not be capable of meeting the future challenge. Not without reason the Fed.~ral lns~itute for Air Navigation Services (Bundesanstalt fur Flugs1cherun~ - BFS) departed from this system in its long-term planning. From discussions at international level we know that ~ur policy is not wrong. A considerable amount of detail work and technical development has yet to be done, so that system changes may be introduced in a manner which will ensure the greatest possible effect for ~II concerned: Above all, the staff employed in this ser~1ce mu~t be given the proper tools to carry out their duties, which hold great responsibilities. To name but one ~f the ~a.ny subjects involved: the tools which will be require~ wrll inevitably include extensive automatic data processing, so that the requirements for an expeditious air/ground and ground/ground data exchange can be t The naive belief that one could solve all ATC solely by the use of radar appears to me to be complete! out of place. y

probl:~~

lnspite of the fact that the Eurocontrol Organisation has not qu~te progressed at the rate expected, we want to state quite frankly our opinion that on this Continent with its many small countries there is still a long-term requirement for an air traffic control system which can operate independent of national boundaries. I appreciate very much that the papers to be read at this Conference have as their general topic "Air Traffic Control - Today and Tomorrow". These papers will mainly deal with the requirements of airspace users in respect of _air traffic control. We shall also hear from representatives of the _BFS ~bout th.eir ideas and intentions. I hope that many fruitful ideas wrll be originated by the lectures now to follow, ideas that are useful for our work as well as for the work of your association.


Air Traffic Services at Landing Sites to be improved The first speaker, Ltd. Ministerialrat Dr. Diehl, re~re足 sented the Ministry of Transport of the Land NorthrhmeWestfalia. He was not so much concerned with the large scale, international problems but "those which are dear to the heart of a man who is responsible for the safety of General Aviation and aerodromes in a highly industrialised Land". Dr. Diehl reported about the problems encountered in his endeavours to provide better ATS facilities for General Aviation. Northrhine-Westfalia was one of the first Lander which had attempted to install ground radio and direction finding equipment at landing sites. Initially the BFS had refused to permit the operation of that equipment by aviation personnel of the Lander, on the grounds that their staff did not have the proper ATC qualifications and that, in any case, there was no legal basis for the Lender to provide air traffic services 1 ). On the other hand, the BFS did not have the budgetary means to provide air traffic services at small aerodromes and landing sites. Meanwhile, 40 aviation staff of Northrhine-Westfalia have attended a three weeks basic course at the ATC school at Munich, but even now the services they ore allowed to provide ore only limited: on the R/T they con give some kind of information service, and the D/F equipment is to be used for QDMs only, no triangulation fixing. A Working Group, chaired by the BFS and representing all interested parties, has established the criteria for the provision of Air Traffic and Meteorological Services at landing sites and smaller aerodromes. The Working Group recommended, inter alia, that nine domestic aerodromes be classified in the highest priority group and that the above services should successively be introduced at these locations. These recommendations were made more than two years ago, but the nine aerodromes were still without ATS and MET Services. Dr Diehl then quoted the expenditure budgeted for in the. 10 years plan of the BFS and contrasted thi~ with the figures of 1,3 Million DM earmarked for the ms~al足 lation of ATS equipment at small aerodromes and landing sites. This modest percentage (0.4% of 319 Million DM), he said, should well be justified for the safety of General Aviation.

More Operational Freedom for General Aviation Dr. Diehl also demanded that the lower limit of c~n足 trolled airspace be raised to 4.000 feet, in order to give more operational freedom to Genera.I Aviation a'.rcraft2). In the same context the speaker mentioned potent1~I d~n足 gers to General Aviation resulting from low Aymg 1et aircraft. As a measure to increase safety and expedience of General Aviation which would neither require staff nor any investment, Dr. Diehl suggested to publish suitable approach procedures for those airfields whicl~ or~ locate? in the vicinnity of terminal or enroute nav1gat1on fa: 1lities . Many smaller aircraft, he said, are already equip')

')

According to the Germon aviation legislation , only the. BFS is entitled to orovide air traffic services, and the coses rn which such powers con. be delegated ore strictly reglemented . Meanwhile the BFS hos announced that a gene ral raise of the _lower limit of the Control Areas to 2500 feet is intended to be implemented on l st Apri I 1967

ped with the proper instruments and could thus make a safe landing when suddenly encountering marginal weather conditions. Any details about airfields and landing sites should be published in o third volume of the AIP.

ATC Career Prospects to be made more attractive An interesting statement was mode by the speaker in respect of the training and carreer of air traffic control officers (Dr. Diehl is also a member of the Administrative Council of the BFS). This is a translated summary of his remarks: ... Without any doubt, the air traffic control service is one of the most attractive and most responsible activities in the civil service. An open mind and quick wit, exceptional devotion to service, the ability to take split second decisions and a well developed sense of responsibility for air transport and for the general public ore but some of the basic requirements demanded from an air traffic controller. These facts are generally agreed and they are manifested in the importance that is internationally placed on theoretical and practical training of ATC staff. The additional requirement for a controller to continuously update the knowledge and experience gained in the classroom and in the field is hardly encountered in any other professional branch. This extensive training produces, of course, a corps of highly qualified experts. As far as I know, there is no equivalent for such a permanent drill of advanced training and examination in any other branch of the civil service. Whilst a general civil servant has to take an examination only once and is then promoted in accordance with his career scheme, the air traffic controller has to prove his profiency and knowledge continuously by tests and examinations until he has reached the highest ATC qualifications. And yet, the civil servant career that has been established for air traffic control staff in the Federal Republic of Germany has unfortunately be limited to category "B" grades (Gehobener Dienst). It has been neglected to make provisions for the most qualified air traffic control officers to advance to category "A" management posts (Hoherer Dienst) . A certain complicity in this situation can probably be attributed to the older and more senior German controllers . Ranking in the "A" scheme as former employees they accepted, for their personal temporary benefit, a lower grade plus a compensation allowance (which is not granted to the newly employed control staff anymore), when they had the choice to become civil servants a few years ago. I am of the opinion that such a particular profession as air traffic control should have a special career scheme and should not be pressed into the administrative civil service system. One could well consider that in every ATC unit at least ihe Chief Controller should hold a category "A" post. This would be an incentive for the most qualified staff, and valuable expertise would become available for management positions . Isn't it striking that the BFS has to be represented by category "B" staff at national and international meetings, when highly complex !asks are involved . These circumstance do, of course, create a feeling of dissatisfaction among the staff, which may have negative influence on the quality of the service. In view of today's tremendous tasks and, even more so, the ones that have to be mastered in the future , the greatest efforts should be made to rectify the situation .

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ATC University required Furthermore, I think that the steady increase of air traffic and its future demands on the ground organisation will require top level management staff with University or similar qualifications on the subject of air navigation . To my knowledge, no academic education does presently meet the requirements for this vocation, at least not as far as air traffic control is concerned. It is about time, therefore, to open suitable possibilities for instruction, be it at a university, a technical institute, or initially with the BFS, to overcome this deficiency. The young talents for management positions could be chosen from particularly qualified air traffic control staff. I am convinced that among the ATC personnel a sufficient number of people could be found who posses the entry qualifications for a University, if they should be required. The BFS should make every effort in this matter, because otherwise the time may come when older management staff retire and cannot be replaced by qualified personnel who have been properly prepared for the task. The Verband Deutscher Flugleiter, too, should consider these questions and work out suitable proposals for a solution of this problem. In view of your international activities, your association should well be in a position to work out useful proposals. Dr. D iehl then stressed the importance of flying training for air traffic control staff; route experience flights, although a necessary part of controller train!ng, . co~ld never be a substitute for personal experience in piloting an aircraft. The speaker concluded by pointing out that all parties concerned with air navigation should work together harmoniously, and that air traffic controllers should always bear i n mind that it was their task to provide an important service to air transport.

Pictorial Displays and Course Line Computers Dr. Karl E. Karwarth, Chief Navigator and Head of Operations at Deutsche Lufthansa AG, spoke about pictorial displays for the pilot. He indicated that it was not his intention to outline the requirements of Lufthansa or IATA but to discuss the poss ibilit ies for a better utilisation of ar ea navigation systems based on the aids which are presently available . Lufthansa aircraft carry topographical charts for emergency purposes only . Good flight preparation should make the use of charts on the flight deck superfluous. DLH have introduced a well designed flight plan copy in which all navigational reference data are entered in tabular form . The most interesting information to the pilot are head ing and distance to a station ; data that is. provi~ed by VOR/DMET. Course Line Computers make 1t poss1bl~ ~o introduce ghost or phantom beacons anywhere within the coverage of the navigation aid used . An.y tr~cks coul.d thus be flown ; parallel routes for opposite direction traffte could be established without any difficulties . Such a system would require less navigation facilities and would help to reduce congestion on the navaid frequency band. It could also be applied for operations off the n.orm~l route nelwork for instance flights lo and from landing sites. Dr . Ka r warth thought that if a piece of equipment would have to be chosen , the Decca OMNITRACK computer 路Nould probably be suitable . The question, however, was 1

26

whether the investment for such expensive equipment would be justified. In the Terminal Area, the ATC system was quite flexible, and there was also the problem that unless all aircraft were equipped with course line computers, only restricted use could be made of them. The arrangement of the pictorial display in the cockpit is another problem. Both pilots must have parallax-free view of the display, which is not easy to achieve, as the space is limited. On long distance flights, the scale of the charts might become restrictively small, this would reduce the legibility of the information displayed. Furthermore, there was the question of updating the charts. ATC information is subject to frequent changes, which means that a considerable number of charts might have to be exchanged quite frequently. Summarizing, Dr. Karwarth thought that there were many pros and cons, and that he was not yet certain whether the benefits that could be derived from PD/CLC or OMNITRACK and associated pictorial displays would justify the relatively high cost for such equipment.

A TS Planning and Systems Development RR Breidenbach reported about the ideas and inten tions of the BFS in respect of ATS planning and systems development. A broad outline was first given of the present ATS system in Germany, and this was then related to longterm planning . The speaker emphasized the necessity for constant updating of their 10 years plan, and in this context he stated that the predicted rote of increase of air traffic, (6%) that had been taken into account sofar would be too low. ' Airspace organisation would be an important factor in ATS planning, RR Breidenbach said, and compromises would be inevitable, as the BFS had to serve all airspace users; no party can claim the whole airspace for itself. Aiming at an increase of the system capacity, the BFS plans to introduce improved radar displays, synthetic traffic displays, and more suitable presentation of control data at some working positions, for instance by means of closed circuit television. A further objetive is the establishment of gap-free radar coverage to enable a development towards what the speaker called "pure radar control" . This can only be achieved by a sufficiently reliable system (dual channel installations, etc.). As to the actual ATC operation in the field, new working positions will be implemented, for instance that of the radar coordinator. His sole task will be to deal with radar handoffs and the identification of radar targets . The radar controller proper will be freed from all functions which are not directly related to radar control. The radio failure procedure will lose significance in the future, as nearly all aircraft are equipped with stand-by R/T equipment and a complete radio failure seldom occurs. The final aim is a quiet control system, where interventions by the controller will be reduced to the absolute minimum. Position reports and identification procedures will become unnecessary with the advent of secondary su rveillance rada r. Flight progress strips will disappear completely, they will be replaced by synthetic displays and automatic tracking of radar targets . One problem that will have to be overcome is a cerlain scepticism on the part of the controllers as to the reliability of automat ic data processing equipment.


The new system will be implemented by 1972. RR Breidenbach then discoursed upon certain planning concepts: strategic planning, tactical planning, and collective planning, which was stated to be a combination of both. Collective planning, as the speaker said, was to comprise air traffic prediction, determination of workload and the corresponding distribution of tasks among the various working positions. Collective planning will be applied in regional and supraregional control centres. There was considerable interest from the floor on this latter subject, but unfortunately no more than a very general explanation of the proposed concept emerged from the discussion.

General Aviation - a Stepchild? The last speaker, Wilhelm Sachsenberg, member of the board of officers of the German Aero Club and German representative in IAOPA, soon revealed himself a fearless warrior for the private and executive aircraft pilots. He introduced a paper by W. Lill "The Problems of General Aviation", which was later read by K. Siebenwurst, as the author of the paper was unable to present it himself. Despite the great number of small type and executive aircraft in the FRG, the speaker said, General Aviation was still a stepchild in the aviation family. Rules and regulations, it was claimed, do not take full account of the present situation. Many sections of the air traffic law date back to the time before world war II. Although aviation legislation has already been revised several times it was still considered to be too restrictive as far as General Aviation vas converned. What is more, the regulations have become so involved and complicated that a foreign pilot in Germany has a pretty hard time finding his way through that jungle of paragraphs. Particular examples mentioned were the obligation to file a flight plan for certain categories of VFR flights, the ADIZ regulations, and the criteria for licensing R/T and navigation equipment for small type aircraft. Instead of all these restrictions, better air traffic and MET services should be provided at landing sites, accord-

ing to Mr. Sachsenberg, who, after an enthusiastic battle for General Aviation, had words of praise for the activities of the German ATC. Lectures and courses on air traffic control, held by members of the German Association at flying clubs, were highly appreciated.

Summary Summarizing the event, it can safely be stated that it was a very interesting meeting and a full success for the organizers. Among the participants were representatives of all national aviation interests, and such international organisations as Eurocontrol were also represented. Headed by General Gralka, who is in charge of communications, electronics, and control services at the Office of the Airforce, also many military controllers attended the Conference, and it was very pleasant to find among that group a great number of former colleagues of the civil c~ntrol足 lers, who had been working with them on the same watches for years at terminal and en-route facilities. As to the administrative part of the Conference, it was resolved that the Working Group "Man in Air Traffic Control" should continue its work, with particular emphasis on the environmental factors affecting the air traffic controller and the career and training of ATC staff. In addition, a new Working Group "Operations and Equipment" should be established. The new Board of Officers was elected as follows President Vice President (ATC) Vice President (AIS) Vice President (MIL) Secretary Editor and PRO Treasure Auditor

W. Kassebohm H. Guddat H. W. Kremer E. v. Bismarck

D. Rosse L. Goebbels K. Piotrowski D. Osterroth

The next Annual Conference of the Verband Deutscher Flugleiter will be held at Cologne. -or

*** Regional Meeting of the Yugoslavian and Austrian Controllers at Zagreb and Belgrad An air traffic control working meeting was arranged between the Austrian and the Yugoslavian ATCAs and held at Zagreb and Belgrade from 11 th to 14th September 1966. The meeting was organised by Aleksandar Stefanovic, the Secretary of the Yugoslavian Air Traffic Controllers' Association, and was attended not only by Austrian and Yugoslav controllers but also from representatives of Jugoslovenski Aero Transport and Austrian Airlines. The purpose of this conference was to discuss possibilities of improving the handling of en-route traffic by the use of primary radar, the development of SSR, and the introduction of parallel airways. These subjects may probably be old hat to some of our colleagues who are working in computer-equipped centres, on horizontal bright-displays, and who have at

by H. Brandstetter

their disposal automatic strip printers and other fancy gadgets. It should not be overlooked, however, that a ir traffic control, inspite of the same basic rules all over the world, has many different faces. Local or regional problems may not look so significant at first sight, and yet ihey are often quite a menace to both pilots and controllers . At the boundary between Austria and their Eastern neighbours, for instance, controllers have to deal with two clifferent units of altitude and flight level measurement, one based on feet the other on meters. As a result misunderstandings and coordination difficulties have been reported to occur. In essence, our problems in Eastern Europe can be summed up with two words : coordination and separation. 1

27


Of course, all concerned are trying hard to guide the traffic safely through the area, and the improvements so far achieved, for instance by the application of radar, are not insignificant. Like many countries, however, we are now faced with a continous increase of traffic, and another difficulty stems from the fact that most flights are climbing or descending when they are crossing the Vienna/Zagreb FIR boundary. The meeting therefore recommended to continue the present efforts and to introduce an uninterrupted radar service for all aicraft. Three resolutions were passed by the meeting for submission to IFATCA: -

that the difficulties arising from the meter/feet conversion at the FIR bounderies be investigated;

-

that the efforts be increased to introduce on a world-

wide basis a compatible high professional standard among ATC staff; - that provisions be made available for more controllers to participate in IFATCA conferences and other ATC working meetings. The participants of this regional meeting were honoured by the invitation of the Director General of the Yugoslav Civil Aviation Board, Dir. Batric lvanovic, who took great interest in the problems discussed. The Yugoslav ATCA had arranged visits to the Zagreb and Belgrade air traffic control facilities; and an excellent hospitality was extended to all participants of the conference. Thus the meeting not only proved to be very sucessful from the professional point of view, it was also a very pleasant and enjoyable social event.

Austrian Air Traffic Control Displays Awarded to Selenia The Austrian Bundesamt fUr Zivilluftfahrt (CAA) has awarded Selenia S.p.A. of Rome a S 283,000 contract for digital radar displays consoles and associated equipment for Air Traffic Control. Last year the same agency bought almost S 1 million worth of Selenia Air Traffic Control Radars model ATCR-2 and microwave link equipment.

Radar raw video from the ATCR-2's and an approach control radar will be displayed to the controllers on the consoles in PPI form, together with symbols, ADF conventional and synthetic video maps. These consoles will be located at the Vienna Air Traffic Control Center.

-a

Movie Review

Adult Western If you have seen very many old aviation movies on television, you are undoubtedly conditioned to the familiar situation where the pilot roars off into the wild blue yonder, leaving his teddy bear or other good luck charm behind. As the camera zooms in on it, you know that the owner is in for deep trouble. The FAA has a new safety film, "Density Altitude", which opens with the pilot leaving his Denalt Computer behind on the car seat, as he heads his new Bonanza out of New Orleans on his first trip into the mountains and deserts of the wild and wooly west. Actually he has never used this computer anyway, as he knows very little about the density altitude problem. Instead, he naively expects his new aircraft to deliver standard sea-level takeoff and climb performance regardless of air temperature or airport elevation. "This baby will take us anywhere we want to go", he says at each airport, as he piles in the baggage, up to the maximum allowable gross load. The suspense builds up as we follow him into the highly elevated and photogenic terrain of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming. We watch as he lands and takes off his fully-loaded aircraft at various high-altitude landing fields, including Leadville, Colorado, the highest in the USA (elevation 9927 feet). Although he realizes that the aircraft isn't performing as well as it did back home in the Louisiana bayou country, he isn"t fully acquainted with the density altitude problem. Time after time he gets by because the temperature and the elevation aren't both high simultaneously. Finally on a hot day he overshoots a high-altitude lancl:ng strip. As he pours on the power for his climbout, he 1:01 .ces that the rate of climb is only 350 feet per

28

minute, while the terrain seems to be going up at the same rate. There are some painfully twitchy moments before the Bonanza finally staggers clear of the treetops. Visibly shaken, our hero lands at the first available airport, a sort of Ponderosa with runways. Here he meets a kindly old ranch pilot who explains to him, over a Denalt Computer and a bottle of Coca-Cola, the mysteries of mountain flying and density altitude. Next day, we find our hero passing along his new knowledge to another neophyte pilot who has just run into the same problem. We co~ldn't decide whether he was trying to be helpful, or was 1ust exercising his ego. However, this episode gives the movie audience a change to hear the safety message again before the final fadeout. "Density Altitude" is probably, from the professional standpoint, the best safety movie that the FAA has ever produced. All in color, the photography is superb, and the scenery is the most spectacular the USA has to offer. Incidentally, the movie is worth seeing as a travelogue whether or not one is interested in the safety message. However the technical explanations are made in a few simple, well-chosen words, so the message comes through as visibly as the gorgeous background. We recommend the film highly for flying clubs, aviation schools, and flight safety forums. It could be a lifesaver for a new pilot about to make his first flight into the high country. "Density Altitude" (16-millimeter color with sound running time 29 minutes) may be borrowed through th~ FAA Administrative Service Division, Film Library AC 43.1, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, or through the Office of International Affairs, Federal Aviation Agency, Washington, D. C. -TKV


ATC Displays Digital Information Display System DIDS/ 400 The DIDS/ 400 comprises a series of low cost units which con be interconn ected in various ways to form o Digital Information Display System. DI DS/402 is a free standing CRT unit, fo r desktop operation, presenting 520 characters on 13 lines. The Digita l Information is stored within the uni t, and the screen is refreshed 70 times per second, with interlace. Keyboard entry and editing is provided, and the unit interfaces directly to a GPO Dote ) Modem 1 o for Line Tronsmission. The DIDS/ 400 system is idea lly suited to hand ling flight schedu les and airline ticketing information and wi ll vastly simplify the entire passenger check-in operation by permitting immediate call-up of seating p lan s, passe nger lists, specia l service require ments, baggage charges, an d other associated information . Individual display units spread over a wide geographic area and interconnected by standa rd te lecom munication li nks can be integrated, into o system tai lor-mode to meet the particular needs of ea ch customer. A modest initial insta llation con be phased into on existing system with minimum inconven ience, and can be expanded at any time to meet increased volume or to include new data such as load p lans, cargo dist ribution, fuel handling, weight and balance analysis, crew schedules, or inventory records. Every insta ll ation is engineered to match any computer employed. CR

Cossor DIDS 402 Viewing Un it.

Screen Display Console for Digital Computers Telefunken AG, Germany, hove recently delivered th e first Screen Display Console "SAP 200-4". This new input/ output device will considerably expand the range of peripheral equipment for th e Telefunken general purpose computer TR 4. Its application rang es from th e use of one computer centre by seve ral remote units to the hand ling of special scientific/technicols tasks, particularly in connection with complex real -time systems such a s, for in stance, air traffic control. As a matter of fact, the present version of the SAP 200-4 hos beeen specifically designed for air traffic con trol purposes. Hence it comprises a numb e r of particular features which, after having been tested in operational trials, m ig ht la ter also be made availabl e for more genera l application s. One of th e future applicat ion s wi ll be in conjunction with the new Telefunken co mputer TR 440, wh ere SAP 200-4 equipment will be used to prov ide multiple access to the ce ntra l computer complex. The cathode roy tube used with the SAP 200-4 hos o working d ia me ter of 50cms; 63 different alphanumeric groups and symbols con be di splayed on the screen, as well as such graphica l prese ntations which consist of straight e lement s. The information displayed on the screen is renewed 50 times per second . The high scann in g rote and the use of low-persistent phosphor coo ling resu lt in o fl icker-free daylight picture ond make it possible to display d yna mic processes wi thout an y "smearing" of symbo l contours . Th e con tro l unit is separa ted fr om the co nsol e proper. It contains, among ot hers, a vi deo repeater store with o capacity of 1024 24 -bit wo rds. The ce ntral comp uter is thus fr eed from th e video repe tion process, hence t he possibil ity to operate the SAP 200-4 remote from the computer.

Scrccndisploy- Conlrol SAP 200-4 for D igital Computer. The equipment shown hos been designed specifically for automatic air-traffic c ontrol. photo- telcfun ken

In air traffi c con trol, the SAP 200-4 will ma inl y be used fo r the presentation of a synthetic traffic disp lay and fo r th e input o f fl ig ht pion and control information. Rolling boll contro l and keyboard ore ovoilobl e fo r data input. An interes ting featur e is the possibi lity to di sp lay scon co nverted row radar, which ca n be superimposed by computer-derived data during the flyback . -n

29


Book Review Flugmechanik and Flugregelung by Prof. Bernard ETKIN [German tran~lation by Prof . Dr.-lng . Ernst MEWES], 591 pages, with 273 figures. Clothbinding; DM 88,- ; published by Berliner Union GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. Professor ETKIN ' s book on Dynamics of Flights, firs! published in

1958, is a classic in its field . The systematic and scientific way in which the problem of aircraft stability and control is approached makes it also valuable as a textbook for i nstruction purposes. The German translation departs only slightly from the English version. The major alteration is in the chapter devoted to electronic computer applications and simulators which needed updating and was reworked by Prof. R. Ludwig . The information it provides is of technical nature and, by lack of space, too scanty to be of real use on its own . A chapter dealing with the pilosophy of computer applications in this domain would have been more useful. As the author himself recognizes, the chapter devoted to oeroelastic deformations is barely an introduction which does riot justice to the importance of their effects on stability and control. Indeed this additional complicat i on to the behaviour of modern aircraft, which ore either fast or big or both, has completely altered the picture . To our knowledge the stability and control problem of the complete elast ic airframe and the various special aeroelastic pheno· mena like divergence, control reversal, flutter and reaction to gusts have never been satisfactorily married within a comprehensive analyt ical study . It is to be hoped that some day a man of Professor ETKIN's scientific standing finds the time and energy to produce a correspondingly satisfactory synthesis . B. FRAEIJS de VEUBEKE .

Jahrbuch der Luft- und Raumfahrt 1967 by Dr. K. F. Reuss . 470 pages with pictures , tables , and organigrammes ; plastic cover; DM 24,80 . Published by Sudwestdeutsche Verlagsanslalt, Mannheim. In the Federal Republic of Germany the • Jahrbuch fUr Luft- und Raumfahrt" is often referred to as I h e German aviation yearbook, and it seems to gain a similar reputation beyond the German bounda ries, for the "Jahrbuch" is becoming increasingly popular with inter· national aviation authorities and also with foreign aviation industry and management staff. This can probably be related lo the fact that the FRG constitutes a good market for aircraft and for any kind of airborne and ground equipment . Furthermore, the information published is not restricted to the Federal Reµublic, but it extends far into the international sphere, for instance in the chapters on aviation legislation, space research, and International Organisations. A different type of print has been used in the 1967 issue, which facilitates read i ng and better accentuates headings and subtitles . Otherwise the proved lay-out has been maintained , and as in the previous issues, the information is presented under the following headings: -

Aviation legislation Civi l and military aviation administration in the FRG Aviot1an and space research Scientific institutes and their activities in 1967 Space flight Air transport Aviation and space industry Club der Luftfahrt (Aviation Club) General Aviation Aviation press International aviation Aviation statistics Who 's who in Germon aviation .

Timely reporting on oil ma1or aviation activities is a m~tler. of concern to the editor ; in this respect the chapters on aviation legislation, scientific i nstitut e s, and aviation research and development ore parti cularly noteworthy . A thumb reaister detailed index sections, cross references and indication s of the- original sources (for instance reports on ICAO meeiings , e tc.) odd to the ease and efficiency with which this reference book con be handled and certainly contribute to its popularity . Summary : 0 w c olth of topical and timely information , cleverly arranged and well EH presented

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Fachworterbuch der Luftfahrt (Aviation Dictionary) In six languages: English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and German. Compiled and edited by A. F. Dorian and J. Osenton. 842 pages, clothbinding; 5919 basic words in the main reference section . Published 1964 jointly by R. Oldenbourg Verlog, Munchen-Wien; American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc. New York; Elsevier Publishing Company, Ltd. Barking, Essex; Dunod Editeur, Paris; and Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam; DM 80,-. The progress of aviation after the war has been quite remarkable, and its influence on related sciences such as meteorology, electronics, and material research is probably unequalled by any other economical and scientific activity. Not the least contributive factor lo this specta cular development hos been on ever increasing international collaboration in the field of air navigation and this, in turn, hos emphasized the importance of communication. Advanced technology and novel procedures hove led to the creation of completely new words, and there is a continous process of integrating "aerospace· terminology into the modern languages . Even for an aviation expert it is not easy lo keep abreast with this rapid pace, particularly if he is working in a multilingual environment. So far, there hos been little reference material . The older aviation dictionaries ore seldom published in more than two or three languages, mostly English, French, and German and, what is more, they do not contain the new terms . The Elsivier/Oldenbourg Companies have therefore decided to publish a multilingual aviation dictionary, comprising not only words which ore directly pertaining lo aviation, for instance aerodynamics, jet and piston engines, hull, air navigation etc . but also terms used in related sciences like meteorology, electronics, mathematics. The first port of the book contains a basic table of 5919 English/ American words. Each word is followed by a proper definition; thus where the same word may hove two or more meanings in another language, the possibility of misinterpretation or ambiguity is greatly reduced. The English words are listed in alphabetical order, and they are heading word groups which contain the equivalent French Italian Spanish, Portuguese, and German terms . Where several wor'd comb i ~ nations ore possible, these are all indicated in the appropriate languages. The word groups ore prefixed by reference numbers. The second part of the dictionary is subdivided into French, Italian, Span i sh, Portuguese, and German sections, each containing an alphabetical index . The individual words are followed by the appropriate reference number from part one . In order to keep the volume of the dictionary within reasonable limits, the publishers hove deliberately excluded such terms which are solely used in military aviation, air defence, etc . This might be considered as a disadvantage as far as the universal use of the book is concerned . On the other hand, there would probably be only a small group of users interested in military terminology, the inclusion of which would have made the dictionary much more expensive . With the exception of this minor point, the Elsevier/Oldenbourg "Fachworterbuch der Luftfahrt" will prove to be a useful and reliable working aid ta all staff in a multilingual aviation environment. EH

Die Schlecht um England German translation of "The Battle of Great Britain ", by Edward Bishop. 190 pages with many photos; clothbinding ; DM 22,-. Published by J . F. Lehmanns Verlog, Munchen . Twelve most decisive weeks of Second World War are described in this German translation of Edward Bishop ' s book "The Bottle of Great Britain " , which is based on historical war documents, log entries , reports of British and German witnesses, and interviews of the author with authorities of the Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe . Aside of military aspects, the author takes account of the political situation in England and Germany, as it existed more than 25 years ago . By weaving together a multitude of individual events, Bishop provides a detailed report on the developments from July till October 1940 and paints an illustrative picture of the first air battle in world history .

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lhe h'llteirnational Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations Addresses and Officers AUSTRIA Verband Osterreichischer Flugverkehrsleiter A 1300, Wien Flughafen, Austria President First Vice-President Second Vice-President Secretary Deputy Secretary Treasurer

H. Brandstetter A. Nagy H. Kihr R. Obermayr W.Seidl W. Chrystoph

BELGIUM Belgian Guild of Air Traffic Controllers Airport Brussels National Zaventem 1, Belgium President Vice-President Vice-President Secretary Secretary General Treasurer Editor

A. Maziers R. Sadet M. van der Straate C. Scheers A. Davister H. Campsteyn J. Meulenbergs

CANADA Canadian Air Traffic Control Association

56, Sparks Street Room 305 Ottawa 4, Canada President Vice-President Managing Director Secretary-Treasurer IFATCA Liaison Officer

J. D. Lyon J.C. Conway L. R. Mattern E. Bryksa J. R. Campbell

DENMARK

Secretary Treasurer IFATCA Representative Deputy

Heikki Nevaste Aimo Happonen Andre Remy Viljo Suhonen

FRANCE French Air Traffic Control Association Association Professionnelle de la Circulation Aerienne Northern Area Control Centre Paris Orly Airport France President First Vice-President Second Vice-President General Secretary Treasurer Deputy Secretary Deputy Treasurer

Francis Zammith J.M . Lefranc M. Pinon J. Lesueur J. Bocard R. Philipeau M. Imbert

GERMANY German Air Traffic Controllers Association Verband Deutscher Flugleiter e. V. 3 Hannover-Flughafen, Germany Postlagernd Chairman Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Editor

W. Kassebohm H. Guddat E. von Bismarck H. W. Kremer D. Rosse K. Piotrowski L. Goebbels

GREECE

Danish Air Traffic Controllers Association Copenhagen Airport - Kastrup Denmark E. Larsen Chairman A. Frentz Vice-Chairman F. Fagerlund Secretary P. Breddam Treasurer

Air Traffic Controllers Association of Greece Mersisis St. 8 Athen, N. Filadelfla, Greece President Vice-President General Secretary Treasurer

N . Gonos E. Petroulias E. Karagianides C. Theodoropoulus

FINLAND Association of Finnish Air Traffic Control Officers Suomen Lennonjohtajien Yhdistys r.y . Air Traffic Control Helsinki Lento Finland Chairman Vice-Chairman

Fred. Lehto Voino Pitkonen

ICELAND Air Traffic Control Association of Iceland Reykjavik Airport, Iceland Chairman Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer

Valdimar Olafson K. Simonarson Einar Einarsson Guolaugur Kristinsson

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IRELAND Irish Air Traffic Control Officers Association Air Traffic Control Cork Airport Cork, Ireland President Vice-President IFATCA Secretary Treasurer

D. J. Eglington

P. J. O'Herbihy J. Grey P. P. Linahan

Secretary Treasurer

P. W. Pedersen

A. Torres

SWEDEN Swedish Air Traffic Controllers Association Luftvartsverket Brom ma 10, Sweden Chairman Secretary Treasurer

E. Dahlstedt B. Hinnerson C. A. Starkman

IS RAEL SWITZERLAND Air Traffic Controllers Association of Israel

P. 0. B. 33 Lod Airport, Israel Chairman Vice Chairman Treasurer

Jacob Wachtel W. Katz E. Medina

ITALY Associazione Nazionale Assistenti e Controllori della Civil Navigazione Aerea Italia Via Cola di Rienzo 28 Rome, Italy President Chairman Secretary

Senator P. Caleffi C. Tuzzi L. Belluci

Swiss Air Traffic Controllers Association V. P. R.S. Air Traffic Control Zurich-Kloten Airport Switzerland Chairman Secretary

UNITED KINGDOM Guild of Air Traffic Control Officers 14, South Street Park Lane London W l, England Master Executive Secretary Treasurer

LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg Guild of Air Traffic Controllers Luxembourg Airport President Secretary Treasurer

Alfred Feltes Andre Klein J.P. Kimmes

Asociac;i6n de Controladores Aeropuerto Nacional de Carrasco Tor re de Control Montevideo, Uruguay Chairman Secretary Treasurer

Netherland Guild of Air Traffic Controllers Postbox 7531 Schiphol Airport, Netherlands

VENEZUELA

J. van Londen J. L. Evenhuis J. Thuring G. J. Bakker F. J. Stalpers L. D. Groenewegen van Wijk

NEW ZEALAND Air Traffic Control Association Dept. of Civil Aviation, 8th Floor, Dept. Bldgs. Stout Street Wellington, New Zealand President Hon. Secretary

R. G. Roberts

Asociacion Nacional de Tecnicos en Transito Aereo Venezuela Avenida Andres Bello, Local 7 8129 Caracas, Venezuela President Vice-President Seer. Public Rei. Seer. Organisation Seer. Documentation Seer. Finance Vocal Vocal Vocal

Manuel A. Rivera P. Luis E. Lamela del Noga! Rafael Reyes Barreto Luis Bronchi Gonzales Alejandro Pena Luis R. Dominguez G. Jose Ramon Garrido Antonio Sequera Antonio J. Ducarte

YUGOSLAVIA Jugoslovensko Udruzenje Kontrolora Letenja Direkeija Za Civilnu Vazdusnu Plovidbu Novi Beograd Lenjinov Bulevar 2 Yugoslavia

Lufttrafrkkledelsens Forening Box 135 Lysaker, Norway

32

U. Pallares J. Beder M. Puchkoff

E. Meachen

NORWAY

Chairman Vice Chairman

L. S. Vass W. Rimmer E. Bradshaw

URUGUAY

NETHERLANDS

President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer Member Member

J. D. Monin Walter Tanner

F. O;e K. Christiansen

President Secretary

I. Sirola A. Stefanovic


Corporation Members of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations The Air Traffic Control Association, Washington D. C., U.S.A. Cessor Radar and Electronics Limited, Harlow, England The Decca Navigator Company Limited, London ELLIOTT Brothers (London) Limited Borehamwood, Herts., England IBM World Trade Europe Corporation, Paris, France ITT Europe Corporation, Brussels, Belgium Jeppesen & Co. GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany The Marconi Company Limited Radar Division Chelmsford, Essex, England N.V. Hollandse Signaalapparaten Hengelo, Netherlands N.V. Philips Telecommunicatie lndustrie Hilversum, Holland The Plessey Company Limited Chessington, Surrey, England Selenia - lndustrie Elettroniche Associate S.p.A. Rome, Italy The Solartron Electronic Group, Ltd. Farnborough, Honts., England Telefunken AG, Ulm/Donau, Germany Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas 22, Texas, USA Whittaker Corporation, North Hollywood, California, USA

The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations would like to invite all corporations, organizations, and institutions interested in and concerned with the maintenance and promotion of safety in air traffic to join their organization as Corporation Members. Corporation Members support the aims of the Federation by supplying the Federation with technical information and by means of an annual subscription. The Federation's international journal "The Controller" is offered as a platform for the discussion of technical and procedural developments in the field of air traffic control.

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T he answer to in creasi ng air traffic confu sion is an accu rate, comprehensive, automati c and reliable Nav 1A TC system. Decca-Harco is the only system t hat can meet th e navigation and A TC demand s of both suband s upersonic air traffic. And only Decca-Harco can provide the fl exi bility and accu racy that perm its close lateral separation of aircraft t hro ughout the route structure.

ON THE FLIGHT- DECK Decca O mnitrac- the world's most advanced lightweight digital comp uter- provides the pilot with undi storted pictorial presentation and automat ic chart chang ing. The 'ghost beacon' faci lity gives him bearing and distan ce to any point. Omnit rac al so ro vides auto-p ilot coupl i ng and automat ic altitud e control whi ch maintain specti vely any requ ired flight path and flight profil e. Th e ET A meter in dicates either time to destinat ion or ET A .

AT THE CONTROL CENTRE The Decca Data Link provid es the controller with acc urate di splays of the identity, altitude and precise position of all co-o perating aircraft, usin g th e common reference of a high acc uracy area c overage system. Th e use of speech is reduced and routine reports are eliminated by mean s of unambiguous, highs peed two-way si gnal s. It is only th rou gh an in tegrated system, operating from a common reference, such as Decca-Harco, th at a great many aircraft of different t ypes fl yi ng at variou s speeds and altitud es can be effi ciently co-o rd inated into a single disciplined traffi c pattern .

DECCA-HARCO The comprehensive Nav/ ATC system

Th e Decca Navigator Company Limited 路 London