The Indiana Daily Student Magazine | Issue 2 | Fall 2016
Religion, fashion and prejudice converge to create her
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VOLUME 11, ISSUE 2 | TABLE OF CONTENTS | FALL 2016
Inside this INSIDE
EDITOR’S NOTE Many things go into defining one’s identity. It can be nationality, religion, race, cultural background or political views. We are constantly evolving and this causes a change in defining who we are. One’s identity is not always as clear-cut as it may seem. I am an example of that. I get a small panic attack when I am asked, “Where are you from?”. I was born in Texas, raised in Nigeria and Malaysia, then moved to Qatar for three years. Now you understand why, “Where are you from?” is not an easy question for me. Having FEATURES more than one nationality and growing up in cultures different A fraternity from mine made my identity without a house unique. N O PLACE TO still keeps their In the issue, you will find CALL HO ME brotherhood alive. individuals like myself that have COVER STORY multiple nationalities. See how Four young women four young women find strength understand the in their hijabs. Understand that STREN GTH I N importance of fashion goes beyond style and THEI R HI J ABS wearing a hijab. creates an identity. Step into the lives of the brothers that make OVER PHOTO BY YULIN YU up Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, OnC the cover is graduate student Inc.. How would you define Cigdem Meral. your identity?
16 FEYI ALUFOHAI — EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MULTI PLE N ATI O N ALI TI ES, O N E I DEN TI TY
B R E A K ING D OW N B IA SE S Women in STEM Page 20
2 W H O T W EET ED IT ?
4 FIN D YO U R P O LIT ICA L ID EN T IT Y
24 FIN A L ID EN T IT Y
Test your knowledge on the Twitterverse.
How two individuals found their stance in politics.
3 D R ES S IN G T H E PA R T
6 D EV ELO P IN G A N ID EN T IT Y IN C H R IS T
Three students share the key aspects that makes up their style.
A young woman finds her identity in Christ.
How will they remember you when you are gone?
The simple question, “Where are you from?” is more complicated than you think.
December 6, 2016 Vol. 11, Issue 2 inside.idsnews.com Inside magazine, the newest enterprise of the Office of Student Media, Indiana University at Bloomington, is published twice an academic semester: October and November, and February and April. Inside magazine operates as a self-supporting enterprise within the broader scope of the Indiana Daily Student. Inside magazine operates as a designated public forum, and reader comments and contribution are welcome. Normally, the Inside magazine editor will be responsible for final content decisions, with the IDS editor-inchief involved in rare instances. All editorial and advertising content is subject to our policies, rates, and procedures. Readers are entitled to a single copy of this magazine. The taking of multiple copies of this publication may constitute as theft of property and is subject to prosecution.
Feyi Alufohai Lauren McNeeley WEB EDITOR Arriel Vinson PHOTO EDITOR Yulin Yu COPY EDITOR Kennedy Coopwood EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Brooke McAfee DESIGN ASSISTANT Chloe Ding EDITOR-IN-CHIEF ART DIRECTOR
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INSIDE.IDSNEWS.COM • INSIDE MAGAZINE 1
Who tweeted it? By Lauren McNeeley
In the twenty-first century people use their social media accounts to express their identity to their followers. A Twitter feed can show you someone’s likes, dislikes, their favorite teams and even the people they are mad at. Celebrities are no exception. Take a look at these tweets from 2016 and see if you can identify which public figure tweeted it.
1. “michael phelps taught me how to stack my medals” 2. “I can’t believe it’s Game 7 of the #WorldSeries. I haven’t been this nervous since Game 3 of the Presidential Debates.”
3. “Delete your account.” 4. “Ima take these down cause it’s all about positive energy blessings blessings positive energy blessings” 5. “let’s all welcome @ChloeGMortez to twitter, since no one knows who she is. your nylon cover is cute boo”
6. “#ClimateChange action starts w/ electing leaders who’ll make brave & vital changes needed to save our planet.”
7. “My hair is going back to its normal color tomorrow” @ARizzo44
8. “Yes it happened! #WeAreChamps” 9. “The moment when Kanye West secretly records your phone call, then Kim posts it on the Internet.”
1. @Simone_Biles 2. @TheEllenShow 3. @HillaryClinton 4. @kanyewest 5. @KimKardashian 6. @LeoDiCaprio 7. @RyanLochte 8. @ARizzo44 9. @taylorswift13 10. @realDonaldTrump
10. “How long did it take your staff of 823 people to think that up--and where are your 33,000 emails that you deleted?”
FEYI ALUFOHAI AND YULIN YU
DRESSING THE PART By Lauren Saxe
Designer Rachel Zoe once said that style is a way to say who you are without having to speak. The legendary New York Times photographer Bill Cunningham said that fashion is the armor to survive the reality of everyday life. Creative Ambassador-At-Large for Barneys New York Simon Doonan argues that the only real fashion crime is conformity. IU students shared what their personal style means to them, and what they walk out the door in each day to feel like themselves.
Hometown Bloomington, IN
Hometown Cincinnati, OH
Hometown Cincinnati, OH
Major Theatre & Drama
Major Jazz Studies, Guitar
Major Journalism, Spanish
This vintage lover scavenged her grandmother’s closet to find her go-to blouse.
The guitarist has collected 11 tattoos over the last three years, and has plans for a few more.
“I enjoy finding things that not everybody has, that not everybody wears,” she says of her fashion sense.
“It’s a Hebrew word, ‘Hineini,’” he says of his first tattoo, which he had inked the summer before his freshman year at IU.
With fiery red hair and a cat-centric collection of accessories to match her signature cat eyes, this journalist defends the power of style.
“The closet I was looking in had clothes that my grandparents would still wear, but I found this shirt, put it on, and then I just never took it off. I was like, okay, this is mine now! I love it because I think it’s a really great way of showing how cyclical fashion is and that everything comes back around. That’s what I like to convey when I wear it. I love wearing old clothes and mixing them with new stuff.”
“It means, ‘I’m here. I’m present.’ To me personally it means, I’m in your presence, and I’m listening to you. You’re never alone when I’m around. I’ll always be there for whoever. It’s on my ribs, so it’s a personal message for myself. I don’t have to show anyone else.”
“I think that fashion and style can be such a huge confidence booster,” she says. “It’s almost like a shield. My dark lipstick is kind of like my shield. I put it on and I feel comfortable. I feel like I can tackle anything. Fashion can be super empowering. If you want to try something new out, you should. You never know how that’s going to evolve and how that might affect your mental confidence.”
INSIDE.IDSNEWS.COM • INSIDE MAGAZINE 3
POLITICAL IDENTITY REP
AT R C O
I L L U S T R A T I O N B Y K A T E LY N R O W E
By Hannah Boufford
Often described as many as the blue dot in the middle of a red sea, Bloomington, IN provides students and community members with a very liberal political setting. This, in part, is greatly due to the number of college students who inhabit the town. For students that identify as Democrats, this political backdrop can be very reassuring and beneficial. Terry Tossman, a junior studying political science at Indiana University, is the President of College Democrats, a club at IU that helps students get involved with politics through rally involvement, hosting political candidates to come and speak, as well as other events of the sort. “It kind of just makes me express [my political identity] more openly and get me more involved on campus, by just working with other organizations, whether it’s those with climate change, Black Lives Matter protests... just getting out the idea that voting for Democrats in a good thing for college students and for people of all ages,” Tossman said. Tossman joined the College Democrats organization in the fall semester of his sophomore year at IU. He was the Director of Voter Registration last spring, and when his fellow Democrat Kegan Ferguson asked him to step up to take his position as President this year, he did so in July. Tossman said that he already considering running, but Ferguson had his hands full being the president of the statewide College Democrats, so he was happy to step up. 4
Tossman says that he started identifying as a Democrat during his junior year of high school during the 2012 presidential election, and his opinions were more solidified after coming to college. He highlighted social issues as being the main reasons that he identified as a Democrat. “[My parents] let me engage in my own views, and form my own opinions, and the opinions that stuck with me were always like social justice, equality for all, and getting rid of this flat tax idea,” Tossman explained. “Mainly just the social ideas were the big ones: LGBT rights, college affordability has been a big one for me lately, and Black Lives Matter is another big one.” Similar to Tossman, senior Chair of College Republicans at IU and Chair of the Indiana Federation of College Republicans Brian Gamache says that he identifies as Republican because he wants to give everyone the same opportunities of work that his grandfather and his mother had. According to him, his grandfather grew up as the son of Irish immigrants and was a road laborer who eventually became the Vice President and General Manager of the same roadwork company and really fought for his right to fulfill the American dream. In a similar case to his grandfather, his mother paid her own way through medical school and symbolized, to Gamache, the values of a Republican. “That story of the American dream and equality of opportunity -- and if you work
hard and dream big, good things will happen -- that’s not a fake story for me. That’s a real story, that’s my family,” Gamache said. “At that core of hard-work, responsibility, opportunity, that’s what it’s all about right there.” Gamache says that he was always involved in politics, stating that it always seemed interesting and important. Currently majoring in history and economics with a minor in business, he is working for Todd Young, and has been almost continuously since 2014, a re-election year for Young in Congress. After graduation, Gamache wants to work in government and politics. Though Gamache says that he has had a lot of luck finding and working for a political candidate whose values align closely to his early on in his college career, being a Republican on a liberal college campus can be hard. Gamache says that he has been yelled out at parties and bars and shut down immediately in conversations. However, he does note that even on a liberal campus, the Republican voices can still make a large difference because Republicans seek each other out. “There are definitely more Democrats than Republicans on campus, but sometimes you’ll see the College Republicans being more active than the College Democrats,” he said. “Even if 1% of the students at IU are dedicated to Republican politics, that’s still 400 kids.” Though Gamache will admit that the College Republicans and the College Democrats have not always gotten along, they have always tried to work together anyway.
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Developing an identity in Christ Losing Yourself in the Process By Kennedy Coopwood
Senior Kennedy Coopwood raises her hands in praise during worship at City Church 6 INSIDE MAGAZINE in Bloomington.
atthew 16:24 — Jesus said to His disciples, “Whomever wants to be my disciple must first deny themselves and take up their cross and follow Me.” When coming to college you have this idea that you are going to be so independent but the reality is you have to be very much dependent on God. It’s too easy. It’s incredibly easy to go with the flow, dance to whatever beat is playing and never think about any aspect of tomorrow while in a moment of comfort and excitement. It’s so easy to participate in the norm and be immersed with the crowd around you because after all, let’s face it, standing out requires more work. And who wants to do work socially when you already have work to do academically? No one. That’s why being a Christian is hard for most of us in school. Not only is doing work socially a challenge but doing work spiritually is a lot harder, requires the most work and produces the most challenges you could ever face. But nothing ever comes easy right? The bigger the destiny, the greater the enemies. The most rewarding things in history have come with sacrifices, trials and discomfort. In order to get to a level of complete comfortability, you must first be comfortable with the uncomfortable. When you give your life to something bigger than yourself, naturally it yields experiences and situations you aren’t accustomed to. Luckily, there is a God who not only brings you to it but gets you through it. The sad thing is, we don’t find it worth it. We are impatient, we are selfish and we don’t want to listen to anyone but ourselves. I began my college career on the search for who God was for myself. Not for my parents, not because I felt obligated to, but because I wanted to know God personally. I was always in church when I was under my parents’ roof but even that wasn’t enough for me because I felt myself just going through the motions. I claimed to know God but didn’t know God. I was lying. I also found myself trying to dictate what God was doing in my life. I wanted my life to be touched in specific ways, at specific times. I soon learned that that’s not how God operates and I had to learn to be humble. James 4:10 says, “Humble yourself before the Lord and He will lift you up.” As my pastor, Pastor David Norris at City Church in Bloomington, says, pride makes excuses, humility makes adjustments. This was the first step I had to take in developing my identity in Christ. Finding that Identity was a challenge. I didn’t know it until after I developed an Identity in Christ that was what I was in desperate need of. I had to let God abide in me and govern what it was He wanted to do. They say the main reason why people don’t follow Jesus is because they don’t want to give up the power they have on their own life (or the power they think they have). Letting go of the wheel and allowing God to take over lifted burdens, eased my worry and furthermore, allowed me to trust Him completely. I had to understand that God wants what’s best for us. Every trial or issue I face is
PHOTOS BY FEYI ALUFOHAI
Seniors Kennedy Coopwood and Brittany Davis pray together during their young adults fellowship at City Church in Bloomington.
getting me a step closer to God’s ultimate plan for my life. Aside from giving God my heart and being humble in his presence, I had to allow him to provide me with the connections here on Earth that would encourage me, hold me accountable and comfort me when I need it. A friend of mine from church, Greg Lamonte, says that “Your friends are like elevators. Either they bring you up or pull you down.” I encourage all to get acquainted with others whom they can
Through my identity in Christ, I am able to thrive in college and not just survive — a lot of people just try to survive. confide in and be cheered on, especially in times of doubt and struggle. Brittany Davis was this person for me. Her journey was a bit similar to mine: “If it wasn’t for my Identity in Christ, I think I would very much be going with the status quo. Finding my identity has been taking on more of a Kingdom lifestyle and less of a lifestyle of the world. Through my identity in Christ, I am able to thrive in college and not just survive — a lot of people just try to survive. People try to find identity in this world or in other people. Even in the Church we try to find identities in each other, but I think God is very personal and knowing that he gives us all our own identity is huge.
At first, my identity was my mom’s faith. In my church, I felt a lot of pressure to be a certain way. I found my identity really in just going through things and experiencing life, and in that I found that my mom’s faith was not enough. I had to develop my own relationship with God so I could go to Him for myself. I encourage everyone: Recognize that trying to do life on your own is only going to get you so far.You will find yourself in a circle like a gerbil on a wheel that just keeps going. However, you have to decide if you want to be free and break patterns of bad choices. If you realize that doing it on your own isn’t going to get you where you want to be, then that’s the perfect opportunity to try God. He’s always the better option and His plans for us are always greater than what we can come up with.” See, most of us like the idea of God changing circumstances than God actually changing them. A lot of people come to church for comfort but not for change. Romans 8:12-13 says ”Therefore, brothers and sisters, we have an obligation—but it is not to the flesh, to live according to it. If you live according to the flesh, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the misdeeds of the body, you will live.” A lot of us have shrunk our lives down to our own personal interests and have formed a wedge between us and Christ’s rewards — which are far beyond what our carnal minds can imagine. The problem is that our default setting is fear. Fear is the enemy of vulnerability and of intimacy and that’s what it’s going to take to experience a close relationship with God. God will never give you a purpose that He won’t prepare you for. Take a leap of Faith. If you would like to talk to Kennedy, you can contact her by email at email@example.com INSIDE.IDSNEWS.COM • INSIDE MAGAZINE 7
Senior David Golder replies text messages while “Blonde” by Frank Ocean 8 I N Sin I Dthe E Mbackground. AGAZINE plays
No place to call home Being a black greek on campus
By Arriel Vinson
Before joining Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., I knew we’d be living apart. I knew we wouldn’t have a mansion with a wooden swinging bench on a well-kept lawn. I knew that if we wanted to meet, it wouldn’t be as simple as going downstairs to the tidy living room. I knew the stress we’d have to encounter by being forced to pick a place and time everyone was available to meet. But I never knew why I didn’t have these luxuries. Indiana University’s campus has two areas that cater to most of the sororities and fraternities in the Interfraternity Council (IFC) and the Panhellenic Association (PHA): 3rd and Jordan, and Jordan and 17th Street. These houses are home to rushing, huge parties and large numbers of members. But for the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC)— the historically black Greek fraternities and sororities—as well as the Multicultural Greek Council, those luxuries are not as accessible. Unlike other councils on IU’s campus, NPHC fraternities and sororities induct a small number of members, some as small as two a membership class. Maggie Reisdorf, president of IU’s PHA, said PHA has a minimum quota of 55 per membership class. “It comes down to recruitment,” Nikia Jefferson, IU’s NPHC advisor, said. “Recruitment isn’t usually a word that Black Greek Letter Organizations are comfortable using, and thus practicing. If not recruitment, I think it’s then, ‘How do we market ourselves? How do we get more people to see who we are and what we do here?’” For Black Greek Organizations at IU, being identified or noticed as a Greek by non-black counterparts on campus is something that has to be worked for. * * * Since NPHC fraternities and sororities do not have houses, the members of each organization try their best to live together, but may not be able to because of preference or financial reasons. When they do, they usually name the apartment or house based on their fraternity/sorority mascots or Greek letters.
PHOTOS BY YULIN YU
From left, senior Jimmy Hershberger, historian of the fraternity, and junior Damani Roberson, play an intense game of NBA 2K17, while senior Devon Brown, keeper of records, and junior Grant Prather, President of the Alpha chapter, talk about the history of their fraternity.
The Alpha Chapter members of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc.— founded at Indiana University in 1911—had a house near campus in 1914 at 721 E. Hunter Avenue. This was the fraternity’s first house, according to Grant Prather, Polemarch (president) of the Alpha Chapter, and the Gamma Chapter’s website. In 1961, their house at 1469 E. 17th Street was dedicated to one of their founders, deemed as the Elder Watson Diggs Memorial. The house was sold in 2005 to the Indiana University Foundation, according to the Indiana Historical Bureau. Now, the 10 members of the Alpha Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. don’t all live together, but have a few houses where members reside: The Korner, The Blokk and The Krib. * * * It was almost midnight on a Thursday and some of Alpha chapter’s members just got back to The Krib from a powderpuff game hosted by Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Jimmy Hershberger, Devon Brown and Grant Prather each sat on a different couch or chair in their spacious living room, all facing their 54-inch TV. The wooden coffee table separated them, covered with a lint roller, a bottle of Minute Maid orange juice, an empty Gatorade bottle, a bag of Harvest Cheddar Sun Chips and a black umbrella. Three paintings adorned the white walls and sneakers lined the wall nearest to the front door. Hershberger finished his chicken wings as senior David Golder walked in the side door with a to-go box. Sophomores Dakota Moore and Saba Chernet walked in behind him. Golder sat on the loveseat next to Hershberger, opening his box of chicken wings, as Moore and Chernet leaned against the tan couch. Hershberger resumed NBA 2K17, playing against his friend Damani Roberson. The guys yelled over the game, about scoring and getting more
“Especially being Alpha chapter, it’s kind of a slap in the face. Also, it’s a constant reminder of how much extra work we have to put in to just make a name for ourselves and have a presence with such little resources.” Junior Grant Prather, Polemarch of Alpha Chapter
food for the night. “Wassup with this Z & C?” Hershberger asked everyone else, referring to Z & C Teriyaki and Sushi. “I don’t even want Z & C anymore,” Golder said. “Yes you do, bro,” Prather said. “I’ll just get some McDonalds,” Roberson said. “Z & C sounds heat, though,” Brown added. “It really don’t, though. Honestly, Z & C ain’t sounded heat in a long time,” Hershberger said. “It’s heat as hell with the Saracha. Y’all sleep,” Brown said. “Feeling Rally’s?” Chernet asked. “Damn near am,” Hershberger answered. “Who’s grabbing Rally’s?” Hershberger continued the game, asking who would be next to play. “Saba, are you trying to grab me a brew?” Prather asked Chernet, who was standing. “From the fridge?” she asked, heading into the kitchen. “You tryna have Saba take the car to go get us Z & C?” Brown suggested.
“Yeah,” Prather said, laughing. Everyone joined in laughter. Chernet agreed to drive, urging one of the guys to go with her. Roberson agreed, saying he needed to pick up something else. “Ooh, two for one, two for one,” Prather sung. Chernet told everyone to text her what they wanted, and grabbed Brown’s card. “Spicy mayo,” Prather said. “We’re not going there!” Moore yelled. “Yeah you are,” the Kappas responded in unison. They continued to list their orders as Chernet, Moore and Roberson walked out of the front door. * * * While the Kappas at IU enjoy their shared space and hang out at least once a week, they said they’re frustrated that they don’t have a house recognized by the campus. “Especially being Alpha chapter, it’s kind of a slap in the face,” Prather, junior, said. “Also it’s a constant reminder of how much extra work we have to put in to just make a name for ourselves and have a presence with such little resources.” Now, a sorority is housed in 721 E. Hunter Ave. Hershberger said that when they tried to rent the house, the landlord wanted around one million dollars because of the house’s significance. Brown said that even if the Kappas were able to have a house like DePauw University’s—which gives Greeks the opportunity to have a chapter house—they would be satisfied. Though a Greek house is important to NPHC members—Kappa Alpha Psi members especially—the bond and understanding of brotherhood/sisterhood they’ve created overpowers their feelings of frustration. “Having such a strong bond without having a house makes it easier for us to live without each other,” Brown, senior, said. “We are close enough to know that we don’t need to live together to have a strong bond.”
Sophomores Saba Chernet (left) and Dakota Moore (right) talk to Senior Devon Brown
Jefferson agrees and said a house is not necessary to have a full Greek experience. “We are validated through the time and effort we put into making our organization that much better than when we entered,” Jefferson said. “We belong because we lived our ritual and our promise every single day. This is so much bigger than having a house.”
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1 2 I N S I D ESarah M A GKawamleh AZINE Freshman
Strength in their
hijabs By Feyi Alufohai
INSIDE.IDSNEWS.COM â€¢ INSIDE MAGAZINE 13
PHOTOS BY YULIN YU AND FEYI ALUFOHAI
(Left to right) Graduate student Cigdem Meral, freshman Sarah Kawamleh sophomores Yassmin Fashir and Sabren Abdulwahab.
Beauty and courage in modesty “When I wear the hijab it empowers me as a woman and I know that’s contrary to what a lot of people think about the hijab. They think that it oppresses you but I think that it is empowering because I don’t feel the need to show my body in order to be heard,” Sarah Kawamleh said. Sarah started wearing the hijab at the age of 12. Sarah is Syrian American and a freshmen studying Law and Public Policy. She was born in New Orleans. Growing up in a Muslim household, her faith has been a key part of her identity. As a young girl, Sarah knew the importance of wearing the hijab and now as a young woman she finds it empowering. “It helps me gain my confidence in any situation,” she said. “There is so much going on right now with the media, Islamophobia and everything. It is overwhelming. I am not going to hide the fact but I think now more than ever we need to show who true Muslims are. It is almost an obligation on my part that I didn’t necessarily think was going to be the case,” she said. With the raise of Islamophobia Sarah understands the fear her fellow Muslims have and some may want to shy away from wearing the hijab for their safety. Like many Muslims millennials, Sarah is going through experiences that past generations did not have to deal with in this magnitude. There is a pressure to always put their best self forward and always stay positive. * * * This is the same pressure sophomore Yassmin Fashir faces although she sees this pressure as a responsibility. When a young woman decides to wear a hijab it is a visual representation of her religion. Her religious identity is shown in a physical form. Whereas for many their religious identity is not shown unless they make it known. “It’s no longer an invisible identity. It becomes visible. That comes with a whole new set of discrimination and prejudice that you have to evade and 14
“For me, it is a symbol of modesty. It is very feminist because you are not going to judge me based on how I look . . . I am more than that.” Yassmin Fashir
“If I do not feel comfortable in a piece of clothing I will not wear that.” Cigdem Meral live life through,” she said. “Sometimes it makes you stronger and other times it gets very tiring.” Yassmin actively speaks out against discrimination and her life experiences taught her why it is importance to speak out.Yassmin was born in Darfur, Sudan but has lived in Indiana for most of her life. Her family is originally from Sudan and moved to the United States in 1998 because of the political conflict. They gained refugee status and relocated to Indiana. Living life as a young black Muslim woman,Yassmin has experienced discrimination and understands the importance of speaking out. She believes the best way to fight discrimination is staying true to one’s morals and virtue. She does this by wearing her hijab. “It’s very different for every Muslim woman and it is also very different culturally,” she said. “For me, it is a symbol of modesty. It is very feminist because you are not going to judge me based on how I look...I am more than that.” Yassmin explains Muslims are very diverse and not everyone that practices Islam is from the Middle East. There are Muslims all over the world with different cultures. This difference in cultures can be seen in how Muslim women style their hijab. * * * When it comes to styling her hijab, Cigdem Meral considers her culture and personal taste. Cigdem is a graduate student from Istanbul, Turkey. She starting wearing the hijab when she was 19. She made the decision to start wearing the hijab with her best friend and she believes that made the experience more enjoyable. Outside of her studies Cigdem is a designer. Back in Turkey, she designed and created a lot of her own clothes. She loves finding ways to incorporate her hijab into her daily style. “If I do not feel comfortable in a piece of clothing I will not wear that,” she said. “Sometimes I am using different kinds of hijab styles and I may get criticism for it.” Cigdem mostly wears her hijab in a turban style. Some people in the Muslim community prefer the traditional styles of wearing the hijab, which drapes down. There are many opinions in how Muslim women should wear their hijabs. Some believe as long as a Muslim woman is covering her hair and staying true to her faith, that is what is important. The mixture of culture and religion causes a lot of differences in opinions.
“A lot of the time in our society a woman’s worth is equated with what she shows or what her beauty is and I feel like when I wear my hijab I am getting rid of those factors.” Sabren Abdulwahab hijab is extremely problematic. My dad always said, ‘If you wear hijab you need to know why.You need to know for yourself because people are going to ask you and want to know your opinion.’” Sabren is a sophomore. She is Ethiopian American and was born in SeaTac, Washington. She moved to Indiana at the age of seven. She started wearing the hijab a few years after. Sabren wanted to wear the hijab when she started her new school. She grew up admiring her mother and older sister. When it was time for her to also wear a hijab, it was nothing new to her and she looked forward to it. “For me wearing the hijab is me taking control of my own body. I think I am privatizing what I have and who can see that and it makes me know who I am on the inside. I don’t feel the pressure to have to conform,” Sabren said. “A lot of the time in our society a woman’s worth is equated with what she shows or what her beauty is and I feel like when I wear my hijab I am getting rid of those factors.”
* * * * * * “I think at that age, it was more of a culture thing.Yeah, I knew I’m Muslim. I knew it was a Muslim practice but it was also because I’m in an environment where it’s expected of me,” Sabren Abdulwahab said. “As I got older, like I have never taken off the hijab since but I have kinda just learned what it meant. To wear the hijab and not know the meaning of the
Sarah,Yassmin, Cigdem and Sabren wear their hijabs as a symbol of the pride and comfort they have in their religion. They have fun with their hijabs and incorporate into their personal style. It is a part of their overall identity. A part of their identity they wear everyday. INSIDE.IDSNEWS.COM • INSIDE MAGAZINE 15
AFGHANISTAN • ALBANIA • ALGERIA • ANDORRA • ANGOLA • ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA • ARGEN BANGLADESH • BARBADOS • BELARUS • BELGIUM • BELIZE • BENIN • BHUTAN • BOLIVIA • BO BURMA • BURUNDI • CAMBODIA • CAMEROON • CANADA • CABO VERDE • CENTRAL AFRICAN R LIC OF THE CONGO • REPUBLIC OF THE COSTA RICA • COTE D'IVOIRE • CROATIA • CUBA • CURA EAST TIMOR • ECUADOR • EGYPT • EL SALVADOR • EQUATORIAL GUINEA • ERITREA • ESTONIA • GREECE • GRENADA • GUATEMALA • GUINEA • GUINEA-BISSAU • GUYANA • HAITI • HOLY SEE IRELAND • ISRAEL • ITALY • JAMAICA • JAPAN • JORDAN • KAZAKHSTAN • KENYA • KIRIBATI • NON • LESOTHO • LIBERIA • LIBYA • LIECHTENSTEIN • LITHUANIA • LUXEMBOURG • MACAU • M ISLANDS • MAURITANIA • MAURITIUS • MEXICO • MICRONESIA • MOLDOVA • MONACO • MONG LANDS • NEW ZEALAND • NICARAGUA • NIGER • NIGERIA • NORTH KOREA • NORWAY • OMAN GUAY • PERU • PHILIPPINES • POLAND • PORTUGAL • QATAR • ROMANIA • RUSSIA • RWANDA SAN MARINO • SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE • SAUDI ARABIA • SENEGAL • SERBIA • SEYCHELLES • SOMALIA • SOUTH AFRICA • SOUTH KOREA • SOUTH SUDAN • SPAIN • SRI LANKA • SUDAN • ZANIA • THAILAND • TIMOR-LESTE • TOGO • TONGA • TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO • TUNISIA • TURKE KINGDOM • URUGUAY • UZBEKISTAN • VANUATU • VENEZUELA • VIETNAM • YEMEN • ZAMBIA • BARBUDA • ARGENTINA • ARMENIA • ARUBA • AUSTRALIA • AUSTRIA • AZERBAIJAN • BAHAMA TAN • BOLIVIA • BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA • BOTSWANA • BRAZIL •BRUNEI • BULGARIA • BU CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC • CHAD • CHILE • CHINA • COLOMBIA • COMOROS • CONGO • DE TIA • CUBA • CURACAO • CYPRUS • CZECHIA • DENMARK • DJIBOUTI • DOMINICA • DOMINICA ITREA • ESTONIA • ETHIOPIA • FIJI • FINLAND • FRANCE • GABON • GAMBIA • GEORGIA • GER HAITI • HOLY SEE • HONDURAS • HONG KONG • HUNGARY • ICELAND • INDIA • INDONESIA • IR NYA • KIRIBATI • NORTH KOREA • SOUTH KOREA • KOSOVO • KUWAIT • KYRGYZSTAN • LAOS • BOURG • MACAU • MACEDONIA • MADAGASCAR • MALAWI • MALAYSIA • MALDIVES • MALI • VA • MONACO • MONGOLIA • MONTENEGRO • MOROCCO • MOZAMBIQUE • NAMIBIA • NAURU • NORWAY • OMAN • PAKISTAN • PALAU • PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES • PANAMA • PAPUA NEW RUSSIA • RWANDA • SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS • SAINT LUCIA • SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENAD BIA • SEYCHELLES • SIERRA LEONE • SINGAPORE • SINT MAARTEN • SLOVAKIA • SLOVENIA • S SRI LANKA • SUDAN • SURINAME • SWAZILAND • SWEDEN • SWITZERLAND • SYRIA • TAIWAN GO • TUNISIA • TURKEY • TURKMENISTAN • TUVALU • UGANDA • UKRAINE • UNITED ARAB EMIR YEMEN • ZAMBIA • ZIMBABWE • AFGHANISTAN • ALBANIA • ALGERIA • ANDORRA • ANGOLA • BAIJAN • BAHAMAS • BAHRAIN • BANGLADESH • BARBADOS • BELARUS • BELGIUM • BELIZE BULGARIA • BURKINA FASO • BURMA • BURUNDI • CAMBODIA • CAMEROON • CANADA • CAB CONGO • DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO • REPUBLIC OF THE COSTA RICA • COTE D’IVOI • DOMINICAN REPUBLIC • EAST TIMOR • ECUADOR • EGYPT • EL SALVADOR • EQUATORIAL GUIN GIA • GERMANY • GHANA • GREECE • GRENADA • GUATEMALA • GUINEA • GUINEA-BISSAU • G INDONESIA • IRAN • IRAQ • IRELAND • ISRAEL • ITALY • JAMAICA • JAPAN • JORDAN • KAZAKH STAN • LAOS • LATVIA • LEBANON • LESOTHO • LIBERIA • LIBYA • LIECHTENSTEIN • LITHUANIA • MALI • MALTA • MARSHALL ISLANDS • MAURITANIA • MAURITIUS • MEXICO • MICRONESIA • NAURU • NEPAL • NETHERLANDS • NEW ZEALAND • NICARAGUA • NIGER • NIGERIA • NORTH K PAPUA NEW GUINEA • PARAGUAY • PERU • PHILIPPINES • POLAND • PORTUGAL • QATAR • RO THE GRENADINES • SAMOA • SAN MARINO • SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE • SAUDI ARABIA • SENE SLOVENIA • SOLOMON ISLANDS • SOMALIA • SOUTH AFRICA • SOUTH KOREA • SOUTH SUDAN • TAIWAN • TAJIKISTAN • TANZANIA • THAILAND • TIMOR-LESTE • TOGO • TONGA • TRINIDAD AN ARAB EMIRATES • UNITED KINGDOM • URUGUAY • UZBEKISTAN • VANUATU • VENEZUELA • VIET ANGOLA • ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA • ARGENTINA • ARMENIA • ARUBA • AUSTRALIA • AUSTRIA BELIZE • BENIN • BHUTAN • BOLIVIA • BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA • BOTSWANA • BRAZIL •BRU DA • CABO VERDE • CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC • CHAD • CHILE • CHINA • COLOMBIA • COM COTE D’IVOIRE • CROATIA • CUBA • CURACAO • CYPRUS • CZECHIA • DENMARK • DJIBOUTI • D TORIAL GUINEA • ERITREA • ESTONIA • ETHIOPIA • FIJI • FINLAND • FRANCE • GABON • GAMB EA-BISSAU • GUYANA • HAITI • HOLY SEE • HONDURAS • HONG KONG • HUNGARY • ICELAND • • KAZAKHSTAN • KENYA • KIRIBATI • NORTH KOREA • SOUTH KOREA • KOSOVO • KUWAIT • KY LITHUANIA • LUXEMBOURG • MACAU • MACEDONIA • MADAGASCAR • MALAWI • MALAYSIA • M MICRONESIA • MOLDOVA • MONACO • MONGOLIA • MONTENEGRO • MOROCCO • MOZAMBIQUE NIGERIA • NORTH KOREA • NORWAY • OMAN • PAKISTAN • PALAU • PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES GAL • QATAR • ROMANIA • RUSSIA • RWANDA • SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS • SAINT LUCIA • SAINT ARABIA • SENEGAL • SERBIA • SEYCHELLES • SIERRA LEONE • SINGAPORE • SINT MAARTEN • SOUTH SUDAN • SPAIN • SRI LANKA • SUDAN • SURINAME • SWAZILAND • SWEDEN • SWITZER
NTINA • ARMENIA • ARUBA • AUSTRALIA • AUSTRIA • AZERBAIJAN • BAHAMAS • BAHRAIN • OSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA • BOTSWANA • BRAZIL •BRUNEI • BULGARIA • BURKINA FASO • REPUBLIC • CHAD • CHILE • CHINA • COLOMBIA • COMOROS • CONGO • DEMOCRATIC REPUBACAO • CYPRUS • CZECHIA • DENMARK • DJIBOUTI • DOMINICA • DOMINICAN REPUBLIC • • ETHIOPIA • FIJI • FINLAND • FRANCE • GABON • GAMBIA • GEORGIA • GERMANY • GHANA E • HONDURAS • HONG KONG • HUNGARY • ICELAND • INDIA • INDONESIA • IRAN • IRAQ • NORTH KOREA • SOUTH KOREA • KOSOVO • KUWAIT • KYRGYZSTAN • LAOS • LATVIA • LEBAMACEDONIA • MADAGASCAR • MALAWI • MALAYSIA • MALDIVES • MALI • MALTA • MARSHALL GOLIA • MONTENEGRO • MOROCCO • MOZAMBIQUE • NAMIBIA • NAURU • NEPAL • NETHERN • PAKISTAN • PALAU • PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES • PANAMA • PAPUA NEW GUINEA • PARAA • SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS • SAINT LUCIA • SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES • SAMOA • • SIERRA LEONE • SINGAPORE • SINT MAARTEN • SLOVAKIA • SLOVENIA • SOLOMON ISLANDS SURINAME • SWAZILAND • SWEDEN • SWITZERLAND • SYRIA • TAIWAN • TAJIKISTAN • TANEY • TURKMENISTAN • TUVALU • UGANDA • UKRAINE • UNITED ARAB EMIRATES • UNITED ZIMBABWE • AFGHANISTAN • ALBANIA • ALGERIA • ANDORRA • ANGOLA • ANTIGUA AND AS • BAHRAIN • BANGLADESH • BARBADOS • BELARUS • BELGIUM • BELIZE • BENIN • BHUURKINA FASO • BURMA • BURUNDI • CAMBODIA • CAMEROON • CANADA • CABO VERDE • EMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO • REPUBLIC OF THE COSTA RICA • COTE D’IVOIRE • CROAAN REPUBLIC • EAST TIMOR • ECUADOR • EGYPT • EL SALVADOR • EQUATORIAL GUINEA • ERRMANY • GHANA • GREECE • GRENADA • GUATEMALA • GUINEA • GUINEA-BISSAU • GUYANA • RAN • IRAQ • IRELAND • ISRAEL • ITALY • JAMAICA • JAPAN • JORDAN • KAZAKHSTAN • KELATVIA • LEBANON • LESOTHO • LIBERIA • LIBYA • LIECHTENSTEIN • LITHUANIA • LUXEMMALTA • MARSHALL ISLANDS • MAURITANIA • MAURITIUS • MEXICO • MICRONESIA • MOLDO• NEPAL • NETHERLANDS • NEW ZEALAND • NICARAGUA • NIGER • NIGERIA • NORTH KOREA W GUINEA • PARAGUAY • PERU • PHILIPPINES • POLAND • PORTUGAL • QATAR • ROMANIA • DINES • SAMOA • SAN MARINO • SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE • SAUDI ARABIA • SENEGAL • SERSOLOMON ISLANDS • SOMALIA • SOUTH AFRICA • SOUTH KOREA • SOUTH SUDAN • SPAIN • • TAJIKISTAN • TANZANIA • THAILAND • TIMOR-LESTE • TOGO • TONGA • TRINIDAD AND TOBARATES • UNITED KINGDOM • URUGUAY • UZBEKISTAN • VANUATU • VENEZUELA • VIETNAM • ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA • ARGENTINA • ARMENIA • ARUBA • AUSTRALIA • AUSTRIA • AZER• BENIN • BHUTAN • BOLIVIA • BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA • BOTSWANA • BRAZIL •BRUNEI • O VERDE • CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC • CHAD • CHILE • CHINA • COLOMBIA • COMOROS • IRE • CROATIA • CUBA • CURACAO • CYPRUS • CZECHIA • DENMARK • DJIBOUTI • DOMINICA NEA • ERITREA • ESTONIA • ETHIOPIA • FIJI • FINLAND • FRANCE • GABON • GAMBIA • GEORBy Adele Poudrier It was the little things throughout her he age•old ice breaker, ‘say your childhood that made differences along GUYANA • HAITI • HOLY SEE HONDURAS • HONG KONG • HUNGARY • ICELAND • INDIA • name and an interesting fact the way. Anna emphasizes that her father HSTAN • KENYA • KIRIBATI • NORTH KOREA • SOUTH KOREA • KOSOVO • KUWAIT • KYRGYZabout yourself ’ can be a struggle worked hard to ensure that although A • LUXEMBOURG • MACAU MACEDONIA • MADAGASCAR • miles MALAWI for some, but•for Anna Atkinson, she’s she lived nearly 4,000 away from• MALAYSIA • MALDIVES always known her special something. England, • theMOROCCO culture of his homeland MOLDOVA • MONACO • MONGOLIA • MONTENEGRO • MOZAMBIQUE • NAMIBIA • Growing up, whenever it was Anna’s lived on. KOREA • NORWAY •turn OMAN • distinguishing PAKISTANtrait, • she PALAU •While PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES • PANAMA • to tell her she enjoyed the perks of British would always say, name’sKITTS Anna, AND culture like teatime and a feast of lamb• SAINT VINCENT AND OMANIA • RUSSIA • RWANDA • “My SAINT NEVIS • SAINT LUCIA my dad’s from England and I have dual and potatoes for Easter, there were also EGAL • SERBIA • SEYCHELLES • SIERRA LEONE • SINGAPORE • SINT MAARTEN • SLOVAKIA • citizenship!” more serious aspects of her father’s • SPAIN • SRI LANKA •As SUDAN • SURINAME • SWAZILAND • SWEDEN a now IU junior, being a citizen in heritage that remained present through• SWITZERLAND • SYRIA England and the United States is more Anna’s upbringing. ND TOBAGO • TUNISIAthan• just TURKEY • TURKMENISTAN“Defi • TUVALU • UGANDA • UKRAINE • UNITED a fun fact about Anna, it’s nitely the religious aspect of his TNAM • YEMEN • ZAMBIA • ZIMBABWE • AFGHANISTAN • ALBANIA become an integral part of who she is. upbringing, he has brought with • himALGERIA • ANDORRA • • AZERBAIJAN • BAHAMAS • BAHRAIN • BANGLADESH • BARBADOS • BELARUS • BELGIUM • UNEI • BULGARIA • BURKINA FASO • BURMA • BURUNDI • CAMBODIA • CAMEROON • CANAMOROS O OS • CO CONGO GO • DEMOCRATIC OC C REPUBLIC CO OF THE CO CONGO GO • REPUBLIC CO OF THE COS COSTA RICA C • DOMINICA • DOMINICAN REPUBLIC • EAST TIMOR • ECUADOR • EGYPT • EL SALVADOR • EQUABIA • GEORGIA • GERMANY • GHANA • GREECE • GRENADA • GUATEMALA • GUINEA • GUIN• INDIA • INDONESIA • IRAN • IRAQ • IRELAND • ISRAEL • ITALY • JAMAICA • JAPAN • JORDAN YRGYZSTAN • LAOS • LATVIA • LEBANON • LESOTHO • LIBERIA • LIBYA • LIECHTENSTEIN • MALDIVES • MALI • MALTA • MARSHALL ISLANDS • MAURITANIA • MAURITIUS • MEXICO • E • NAMIBIA • NAURU • NEPAL • NETHERLANDS • NEW ZEALAND • NICARAGUA • NIGER • S • PANAMA • PAPUA NEW GUINEA • PARAGUAY • PERU • PHILIPPINES • POLAND • PORTUT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES • SAMOA • SAN MARINO • SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE • SAUDI SLOVAKIA • SLOVENIA • SOLOMON ISLANDS • SOMALIA • SOUTH AFRICA • SOUTH KOREA • RLAND • SYRIA • TAIWAN • TAJIKISTAN • TANZANIA • THAILAND • TIMOR-LESTE • TOGO • TON
one identity T
and shared it with my brother, my mom and me,” said Anna. “We’re Episcopalian, which is the Church of England. My mom was Catholic, and she kind of left that part of her life and joined the Episcopal Church to be with my dad.” Anna describes the Episcopal Church as a liberal Catholicism. They differ in their stances on topics such as abortion, gay marriage and women priests. While Anna is proud of her heritage, it’s on occasional family trips to England when she truly feels like she is embracing her identity as a dual citizen. “It’s like a part of me I kind of suppress when I’m here, and then I get to go there and really embrace the culture and feel like I’m a part of it,” said Anna. “I’m not fully British, but it feels like I’m living this part of my life that I never really got to live.” While Anna grew up with the influence of one other place, Jake Williger experienced the aspects of three very different cultures. Jake has citizenship in Israel from his father, citizenship in the U.S. from his mother, who was born in Puerto Rico. Jake was born in Chicago and grew up in Chesterton, Indiana. His diverse background filled his childhood with unique experiences. “I think it has exposed me to a lot of things that most people that are from my area haven’t really experienced, because I came from an area [Chesterton] where not only was my family the only Jewish family in the entire city, but I was one of only five Hispanic families in that entire city too,” said Jake. “So that just gave me a different perspective and a different cultural upbringing.” It hasn’t always been easy for him to feel completely comfortable when he is in Israel or Puerto Rico either. “When you come from two completely different cultures, it’s hard not to feel like an outsider when you’re in one particular culture, because when I’m in Puerto Rico, they see me as a Jew and when I’m in Israel or around other Jews, they see me as Puerto Rican. That’s kind of rough, but at the same time there are a lot of people who instead kind of see it as a more 18
Above Jake Williger in front of the Western Wall in 2016. Below John, Martin and Suzanne Carroll smile for the camera in 2011.
diverse experience.” Although at times he struggles with feeling completely welcomed in either place, it doesn’t stop him from embracing a strong attachment and identification in both places. “It [dual citizenship] has given me a focal point I can attach to in terms of the militant conflict in Israel and the poverty levels in Puerto Rico,” says Jake. “There are things that as an American citizen, I’m not really experiencing, but as an Israeli citizen I can relate to because they’re my people, and they’re my brothers.” Dual citizenship, however,
isnâ€™t always made possible by bloodlines. Martin Carroll was born in Guatemala but is also a citizen in the United States from his adoption at nine months old. While as an IU sophomore studying vocal performance, Martin looks forward to visiting Guatemala within the next couple of years to learn more about his heritage. Itâ€™s his identity as a U.S. citizen that has heavily influenced his outlook on life. â€œIt [being a dual citizen] reminds me that I should always try to use as many opportunities as I can, because if I was never adopted I wouldnâ€™t be here,â€? he said. â€œItâ€™s pretty much a fact. There is no way I would have probably discovered that I love to sing and had those opportunities. Iâ€™d probably be already working, so it just reminds me that I need to live with a purpose. It makes me really appreciate what I have.â€? Being a dual citizen goes beyond having influences from two or three places. Olimpia Rosenthal, IU Assistant Professor in the Department of Spanish & Portugese, states that
being a dual citizen can simply lead to a more open mind. â€œI think that having that exposure to different cultures, to different languages allows you to be much more tolerant or at least know the importance of having both,â€? said Olimpia. â€œI think that having more of a broader background about what cultures are and how different they can be gives you more insight when traveling.â€? While there are countless benefi ts of having dual citizenship, Anna, Jake and Martin still face the struggle of fi nding a satisfying sense of equality in their devotion to both countries in which theyâ€™re citizens. However, the answer wonâ€™t be the same for every person, and aspects of different cultures do not have to live separately. Olimpia says that as dual citizens mature and begin to understand the infl uences of these places in their lives, differing cultural impacts can do more than coexist. â€œI think you do start blending parts of both cultures and that forms your own identity.â€? Olimpia says.
Anna Atkinson and Joan Duwve in 2015 in Oxford
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Women make up half of the total U.S. college-educated workforce, but only 29% of the science and engineering workforce. S O U R C E N AT I O N A L G I R L S C O L L A B O R AT I V E P RO J E C T
BREAKING DOWN BIASES Story by Brooke McAfee Graphics by Lauren McNeeley
combination of stereotypes and biases influence the experiences of women in fields like science, technology, engineering and math (STEM), where they are generally underrepresented. Maureen Biggers, the director of the Center of Excellence for Women in Technology at IU, said unconscious bias often plays a role in technology, where women make up a small percentage of the computing workforce. For example, she has talked to women in technology whose ideas have been ignored in meetings, but when a man gave a similar idea later in the conversation, he was praised. Women are also interrupted more frequently than men, she said. “Sometimes these things are so subtle that when you have it happen, even if you are not aware of it at a conscious level, it can impact how you feel whether you belong,” Biggers said. Cate Taylor, assistant professor in sociology and gender studies, has conducted research on gender inequality and how it affects women’s experience in their occupations. Her research looks into why both men and women are minorities in particular fields. For example, why are there so few female physicists? Why are male nurses so uncommon? In general, implicit bias plays a major role in shaping societal expectations and gender stereotypes, she said. Common biases include the idea that women should do certain kinds of work and men should do other kinds of work, and the idea that women are better at certain occupations, while men are better at others. “They often overlap, but both of them are biases and stereotypes that are pushing people into certain occupations, and keeping people out of certain occupations too,” Taylor said. While women represent about half of the college-educated workforce in the U.S., they only make up 29 percent of the science and engineering workforce, according to the National Girls Collaborative Project. Kayla Miller, a sixth-year PhD student in the Department of Biology and the founder of Indiana University Women in Science, said she does not feel like women are underrepresented in her graduate program, but the gender gap
Women in STEM Careers Female scientists and engineers are underrepresented throughout their workforce. Women hold a majority in social sciences (62%) and are about equal in biological, agricultural, and environmental sciences (48%), but there is still a major gap between engineering and mathematical sciences. These charts show the percentages of women in certain fields of work.
of mathematical and computer scientists are women
of engineers are women
of chemists are women
of environmental engineers
of chemical engineers
of civil, sanitary, and architectural engineers
of industrial engineers
of physicists and astronomers
of electrical or computer hardware engineers
of mechanical engineers
S O U R C E N AT I O N A L G I R L S C O L L A B O R AT I V E P RO J E C T
is usually reflected in higher positions such as faculty. Although Miller does not face overt sexism, she said she has often encountered implicit bias. “A lot of things are quiet, like ‘did they say that because I’m a woman,’ or ‘did they not give me that responsibility because I’m a woman,’ or ‘did they not let me do this opportunity because I’m a woman?’” Miller said. “It’s really hard to prove whether that’s really harassment or discrimination, but it sure as hell feels like it.” Some of the stereotypes she has encountered include the idea that women cannot do everything that men can, or that women cannot handle the tough atmosphere. It is difficult to get rid of implicit biases, she said, but one way to improve the situation is by creating opportunities for more female mentors and role models, especially in higher
level jobs. Women often hold themselves to higher standards, Biggers said, and if they fail to meet these standards, they might not feel like they belong. It is limiting to have the mindset that “you either have it or you don’t,” she said. Taylor said her research contradicts several inaccurate ideas about why there is a gender gap in the workforce. For example, there is the belief that women simply prefer different kinds of jobs than men because maledominated occupations are more stressful. Research in psychology and sociology has shown that women in male-dominated occupations face more stress than men in the same occupation. Her studies have involved placing women and men in the same stressful conditions, and she has observed that there is no difference when the situations are equal. However, the combinations of the usual
of women in college studying STEM left their programs before junior year
workplace stressors with other factors like implicit bias, sexual harassment or childcare responsibilities at home result in higher stress levels for women. Male dominated jobs are often better jobs in terms of pay and benefits, Taylor said, and she encourages women to pursue these occupations. In addition to implicit bias, another issue influencing gender inequality in occupations is how women are expected to put greater effort into childcare and housework than men, Taylor said. “It doesn’t have to be that way—like it’s just the way our culture is right now—but it’s empirically true,” she said. Women who do not prioritize family over work are often seen as bad mothers, she said, but there is a different set of expectations for men. Men are often praised as great fathers for even minimal involvement in childcare,
Male students are three times more likely to be interested in STEM fields
Survey respondents gave these suggestions to encourage women to participate in STEM fields during their college careers:
Bring in more female role models to speak
1 in 5
current STEM majors doubt they will follow it through to graduation
Connect university women with influential females in STEM Create internship opportunities for women pursuing STEM SURVEY CONDUCTED BY CDW•G
she said. Paid work also makes it difficult for gender inequality in the workplace, because it generally is not structured to accommodate for childcare or housework, so many couples often have to choose who is going to prioritize work, she said. This often ends up being the men, since they tend to have the higher paying jobs. “Those choices have to be understood within the constraint of a culture that pays men a lot and gives men better work,” she said. “It’s sort of, quote on quote, rational for families to make that choice, but it’s only because we’ve set up our culture in a way that privileges men’s paid work.” Tanya Cheeke, a post-doctoral fellow in microbiology, said she hasn’t had many female role models in her field whom have also been married with children. Many men do not seem to be making
of survey respondents said
being a woman made their experience is STEM harder
the choice between their careers and having a family because of their support systems at home, she said, but women seem more likely to make these choices. However, Cheeke said she has a support network that has allowed her to have both a family and a career in science. She is a mother of a two-year-old daughter, and her partner is a stay-at-home dad. It has been helpful to have someone who can take care of childcare and housework while she is working, she said. She originally thought it would be difficult to balance family and her career, but she has discovered that it is not as difficult as she expected. “It’s really not so bad, and I wish I had known that earlier,” Cheeke said. “I thought it was going to be this major life change. I’m very lucky to have this stay-at-home person who helps with the day to day.”
Improvements need to be made both on an organizational and individual level, Taylor said. To close the gender gap, it is important for organizations to both pay men and women equally and give them equal benefits. Having clear, specific criteria for hiring and pay is also important, she said. “Implicit biases are much more prevalent in contexts where there’s a lot of uncertainty,” Taylor said. Individuals can improve the situation simply by becoming more educated on implicit biases, she said. One small thing people can do is give credit to women when they offer a suggestion or idea. There are many advantages to diversity in academics and the workforce, Biggers said. “Research shows that the best performing teams that produce the best products are diverse and have women and people of color on them,” she said.
they struggled with confidence in STEM
considered switching fields in college
of survey respondents said
of women in STEM
SURVEY CONDUCTED BY CDW•G
2017 ARBUTUS YEARBOOK
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Final Identity PHOTO BY CHLOE DING
The sun sets on a fall day at Covenanter Cemetery.
By Chloe Ding
The scent of fall smells the same all around the world. Leaves becomes crisp and float in the air with the blending of sunshine and wind. It is with this atmosphere on a beautiful afternoon that I went to Covenanter Cemetery. Before this afternoon, I have never been to a cemetery in the fall—my hometown of Maanshan, China a tradition is to go tombsweeping in Spring and at end of winter. This is known has Qingming or Ching Ming Festival. During this festival, we visit graves or burial grounds to pray and pay respects to our ancestors. It can be seen as a Memorial Day or Ancestors’ Day. I’ve seen gravestones in spring, often accompanied with a little drizzle. I visited while it rained. The rain drops, breathing the smell of fresh soil, thinking of the ones that have passed away. I’ve seen gravestones in the depth of winter, feeling nothing but cold. Seeing them in the fall was foreign to me. I was really afraid to go to cemetery when I was a little girl. Imaging all of the dead people lying there made cemeteries seem like a horror
story. Every time my mom asked me to visit my grandmother’s grave, I always came up with excuses not to go but would eventually give in because those excuses were not good enough. As I got older and traveled to different places in China and overseas, my attitude of gravestones shifted. I insisted on visiting my grandmother’s grave every time I returned home. My grandmother died when my mom was 16 years old, so I never got to meet her. I was told my grandmother was a smart, hardworking and strong woman instead of a average gentle old lady. Now, she only lives in my mother’s memory. Visiting her grave site was calming to me. When I think of my grandmother the memory the red letters carved on her gravestone comes to mind. In China, the names of the dead are carved in red on their gravestone. Although I never saw her or spoke to her, I strongly believe she is always blessing our family. I have read lots of celebrities’ epitaphs and they are all very interesting. A short line can summarize fifty, sixty years’ of experience.
Some of them were educated; some of them were humorous; some of them were peaceful. I assumed that everyone that has passed away will have epitaphs on their gravestone besides their name, date of birth and date of death. However, I was wrong. Most people are identified by only their name, date of birth and date of death. In this fall dusk, I walked through the cemetery with my friends silently, looking at every gravestone carefully, trying to find that short line. Unsurprisingly, like all gravestones I have ever gazed upon, they are simple, clean and quiet. Some small gravestones have only one or two names listed and some bigger ones have many names with the same last name. These might be gravestones for different generations of a family. The sun began to set, each tombstone I walked by was a reminder of someone’s death. Whatever they did when they were alive will live in the memory of their loved ones. In this cemetery, a name carved into a gravestone is their final identifier.
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