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MARCH 2021

Bring It N


Digital Transformation in the ‘New

Normal’ P.26


Take the Salary Survey! P.21


STANDARDS and Hydraulic Flanges

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History of Pressure Gauges P.12

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MARCH 2021


Features 12

Under Pressure: Gauging the History of an Indispensable Instrument Blowing in the wind of industry’s changing demands.


Case Study: Drop-in Solution Forces Out Extrusion Press Downtime Aluminum production increased so much that the company’s oven could not keep up.

21 Be Counted! Take the 2021 Salary Survey Time again for our industry-wide snapshot of pay levels and who’s doing the work.



22 Test Your Skills The Difference Between Isothermal and Diabatic Conditions 26 Cover Story Bring It On: Digital Transformation in the ‘New Normal’ IIoT unleashes more reliable, efficient, and sustainable manufacturing for companies facing a growing onslaught of concerns.

26 Publisher’s Note: The information provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. While all efforts have been taken to ensure the technical accuracy of the material enclosed, Fluid Power Journal is not responsible for the availability, accuracy, currency, or reliability of any information, statement, opinion, or advice contained in a third party’s material. Fluid Power Journal will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by reliance on information obtained in this publication.


28 Ch-ch-ch Changes: How Evolving ISO Standards Affect Hydraulic Flanges What designers and users need to know about ISO 6164 and its revisions.

Departments 4 6 14 18 20 24 25 30 31

Notable Words IFPS Update Component Showcase All About Vacuum Product Review Product Spotllight Figure It Out Literature Review Classifieds

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Innovations in Autonomous Vehicles Drive Productivity Gains By Peter Bleday, Head of Autonomous Vehicles, Danfoss Power Solutions


IT TAKES MANY people to harvest crops such as strawberries, apples, and asparagus. The agriculture industry is contending with a shrinking workforce to gather the food our world needs. In 2019, billions of dollars' worth of crops went unplanted or unharvested. A key reason for this reduced productivity is an aging workforce, with young people choosing different career paths and opportunities, resulting in a growing need for advanced vehicles and machines that improve precision and productivity. These improvements will help end users overcome the challenges of global megatrends such as urbanization and food shortages. Danfoss Power Solutions is already seeing a demand for technologies that can increase productivity and precision. This has led us to invest in new technologies like autonomy, connectivity, electrification, and digitalization. Our autonomy team focuses on helping OEMs build machines with the intelligence needed to take on daunting tasks. The off-highway industry is evolving quickly, with more OEMs beginning to add intelligence to their vehicles. While there are multiple levels of autonomy, operator assistance is the most significant market trend. Increased operator assistance can reduce jobsite rework, improve a driver's situational awareness, and optimize a machine to be as productive as possible for the task at hand. Our goal is to provide technology and solutions that, in the right conditions, allow the vehicle to manage most aspects of the job, including monitoring the environment. However, the driver must be available to take over at any time. As this trend is widely adopted, the industry needs to be comfortable with the technology and deploy it. Solutions built in a scalable manner will have to meet the needs of OEMs. Delivering a commercial and scalable solution enables an OEM to quickly and efficiently


MARCH 2021

meet their customers’ needs. Having commercially ready technology will drive broader adoption. Technology needs to improve to the point that it makes economic sense for the use cases we see across the industry. There is already a lot of impressive technology on the market targeting the industries we serve. However, it's essential that our customers can use any LIDAR, GNSS, cameras, and radar, technology comIncreased operator mercially through a as well as the processing power to assistance can reduce platform with which maximize their use. jobsite rework, improve they are familiar and We work directly with cuscomfortable using. tomers on autonomy projects, a driver's situational learning about the needs of indusThey also need easy awareness, and optimize tries such as agriculture, material access to be able to a machine to be as handling, and construction and effortlessly apply productive as possible how to better meet OEMs’ needs advanced solutions in these areas. We take this learnin their vehicles. for the task at hand. Danfoss Power Soluing back into our development tions works closely process to ensure our offering is with customers and distribution partners to as applicable and valuable as possible. This understand the most critical functions and mutually beneficial relationship – helping our future needs. As a supplier of both software and customers and distribution partners learn hardware, we operate with a customer-based and vice-versa – benefits the broader adopmindset, not only understanding the problems tion of autonomy across industries driven that face our customers but understanding by fluid power. the short- and long-term market challenges. As our autonomy team evolves, we know we We developed our PLUS+1 platform need to stay as up-to-speed with new techfor software to help our customers bring nology as possible. Our autonomy group is their applications to market quickly. In the based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is PLUS+1 platform, we’re developing our involved with Boston-area universities that autonomous-control libraries, which are have world-leading robotics, business, and modular software blocks that allow OEMs to engineering programs. Our Cambridge locaapply improved navigation, perception, and tion and the networks it builds are critical to positioning to their vehicles. These develop- ensuring we allow for the rapid adoption of ments mean that OEMs shorten their time new and applicable technology. It also helps to market because they don't need to spend us interact with the students; we help them years developing software themselves. We’re learn by giving them real-world problems and also building hardware to support the increased impactful projects to work on, while they assist need for on-vehicle processing power. Our new us by offering a new, fresh perspective from controller line will support new sensors such as their learnings. 


Inserta PUBLISHER Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc. 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118 Tel: 800-730-5904 or 610-923-0380 Fax: 610-923-0390 • Email: Art@FluidPowerJournal.com www.FluidPowerJournal.com Founders: Paul and Lisa Prass Associate Publisher: Bob McKinney Editor: Michael Degan Technical Editor: Dan Helgerson, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPSD, CFPMT, CFPCC - CFPSOS LLC Art Director: Quynh Fisher Eastern Region Acct Executive: Norma Abrunzo Director of Creative Services: Erica Montes Accounting: Donna Bachman, Sarah Varano Circulation Manager: Andrea Karges

Stainless Steel Flange Type 2-Port Ball Valves NOW Available

INTERNATIONAL FLUID POWER SOCIETY 1930 East Marlton Pike, Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2141 Tel: 856-489-8983 • Fax: 856-424-9248 Email: AskUs@ifps.org • Web: www.ifps.org 2021 BOARD OF DIRECTORS President: Rocky Phoenix, CFPMMH - Open Loop Energy, Inc. Immediate Past President: Jeff Kenney, CFPMHM, CFPIHM, CFPMHT - Dover Hydraulics South First Vice President: Denis Poirier, Jr., CFPAI/AJPP, CFPHS, CFPIHM, CFPCC - Eaton Corporation Treasurer: Jeff Hodges, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMHM - Altec Industries, Inc. Vice President Certification: James O’Halek, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMIP, CMPMM - The Boeing Company Vice President Marketing: Scott Sardina, PE, CFPAI, CFPHS Waterclock Engineering Vice President Education: Randy Bobbitt, CFPAI, CFPHS Danfoss Power Solutions Vice President Membership: John Bibaeff, PE, CFPAI, CFPE, CFPS DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE Chauntelle Baughman, CFPHS - OneHydraulics, Inc. Stephen Blazer, CFPE, CFPS, CFPMHM, CFPIHT, CFPMHT Altec Industries, Inc. Randy Bobbitt, CFPAI, CFPHS - Danfoss Power Solutions Steve Bogush, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPHS, CFPIHM - Poclain Hydraulics Cary Boozer, PE, CFPE - Motion Industries, Inc. Lisa DeBenedetto, CFPS - GS Global Resources Daniel Fernandes, CFPECS, CFPS - Sun Hydraulics Brandon Gustafson, PE, CFPE, CFPS, CFPIHT, CFPMHM - Graco, Inc. Garrett Hoisington, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPMHM Open Loop Energy Brian Kenoyer, CFPHS - Five Landis Corp. Jon Rhodes, CFPAI, CFPS, CFPECS - CFC Industrial Training Mohaned Shahin, CFPS - Parker Hannifin Randy Smith, CFPHS - Northrop Grumman Corp. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (EX-OFFICIO) Donna Pollander, ACA HONORARY DIRECTORS (EX-OFFICIO) Paul Prass, Fluid Power Journal Liz Rehfus, CFPE, CFPS Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFC Industrial Training

IFPS STAFF Executive Director: Donna Pollander, ACA Communications Director: Adele Kayser Technical Director: Thomas Blansett, CFPS, CFPAI Assistant Director: Stephanie Coleman Certification Coordinator: Kyle Pollander Bookkeeper: Diane McMahon Administrative Assistant: Beth Borodziuk

Fluid Power Journal (ISSN# 1073-7898) is the official publication of the International Fluid Power Society published monthly with four supplemental issues, including a Systems Integrator Directory, Off-Highway Suppliers Directory, Tech Directory, and Manufacturers Directory, by Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc., 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part of any material in this publication is acceptable with credit. Publishers assume no liability for any information published. We reserve the right to accept or reject all advertising material and will not guarantee the return or safety of unsolicited art, photographs, or manuscripts.


INSERTA® PRODUCTS Blue Bell, PA • www.inserta.com © 2021 Inserta® Products, Inc.

rnal.com u o j r e w o p id Now on flu


a new column by Dan Helgerson, FPJ technical editor. A fluid power professional for more than forty years, Dan holds several certifications from the International Fluid Power Society. In Raising the bar, Dan addresses the fluid power community with an eye toward stirring conversation about the industry’s challenges in the 21st century.

Addressing assumptions … Encouraging innovation … Advocating efficiency …

Raising the bar MARCH 2021



THE CERTIFICATION JOURNEY Are you interested in certification but unclear on how to get started? Here are the steps to becoming a certified fluid power professional. Select your certification. Submit your application for specialist, technician, mechanic, connector and conductor, engineer, or system designer. Prepare – Study, study, study. IFPS offers many tools to help you prepare: • Study manuals – IFPS study manuals are available in print, PDF, flash drives, and interactive online. • Online interactive study manuals for hydraulic and pneumatic specialist certifications. Once purchased, you’ll have access to the learning management system for one year. • IFPS highly recommends that you take the online pretests as well as pretests in the back of the study manual before you take your certification test. • Certification review classroom training – IFPS offers 4-day, in-person training sessions with a certified instructor, generally for groups of five or more. • Animated circuits – The schematics in IFPS study manuals are available in animation for a better understanding of how hydraulic and pneumatic circuits operate. The color-coded circuits are available as mpf and wmv files. • Webinars and study groups – Accredited instructors present webinars and study groups that are free to members. Members also have access to a library of previously recorded webinars. Consider an IFPS membership. Take the test at your scheduled location. Recertify in five years.

1 2


4 5

For more information, visit ifps.org/how-to-get-started. 6

MARCH 2021

Upcoming Web Seminars

Register at ifps.org/web-seminars Testing Mobile Hydraulic Equipment: A Basic Overview Presented by Bradley Wagner, CFPAI, Manitowoc Cranes, Product Verification Center Testing mobile hydraulic equipment for performance tuning, application approvals, or troubleshooting can be a daunting task. This presentation looks at the basics of testing mobile hydraulic equipment, specifically including safety considerations, possible test equipment, and things to consider when testing with real-world examples. FEB.


Cylinder Synchronization … Keeping It Together Presented by Dan Turner, CFPAI, Turner Hydraulics A discussion on cylinder synchronization including methods, determining the best methods, and unexpected outcomes. MAR.


Hydraulic Manifold Design Presented by Walter Sverko, CFPHS Manifolds simplify hydraulic system design by reducing the need for extensive line connections and associated couplings. They reduce design space and are easy to maintain and service. The basics of translating a hydraulic schematic into a functional manifold block layout will be explored. APR.


By achieving the IFPS Hydraulic Specialist certification, my company can show our clients we have hydraulic expertise wwith an industryrecognized certification. Geoffrey Forest, PE, CFPHS, Senior Mechanical Engineer, Modjeski and Masters, Inc.

Newly Certified Professionals NOVEMBER 2020 CONNECTOR & CONDUCTOR Bradley McBeain, The Boeing Company Byron Taylor, The Boeing Company Daniel Walker, The Boeing Company Dylan Longaker, The Boeing Company Greg Hazard, The Boeing Company John Nason, The Boeing Company Joshua Grisolia, The Boeing Company Kelvin Crews, The Boeing Company Kevin Sass, The Boeing Company Nicholas Colpron, The Boeing Company Steve Holthenrichs, The Boeing Company ELECTRONIC CONTROLS SPECIALIST Tim Dimmick, National Oilwell Varco HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST Alejandro Hernandez, SunSource Joseph Logue, Milwaukee Cylinder Stephen Chapin, Kraft Fluid Systems Inc Tarron Ballard, Hydrquip Inc PNEMATIC SPECIALIST Scott Stilson, Bimba Manufacturing MOBILE HYDRAULIC MECHANIC Andrew Linn, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Thomas Russell, Altec Industries, Inc. Brandon Melvin Christian Vargas, AEP Daniel LaRiccia, Cleveland Electric Illuminating David Kreier, Altec Industries, Inc. Dave Djukic, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Dusty Rhodes, AEP Eric Curry, Cleveland Electric Illuminating

Jose Rivera Larroig, Altec Jonathan Osheim, Altec Industries, Inc. Jordan Scott, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Levi Norman, AEP Michael Gunther, Altec Industries, Inc. DECEMBER 2020 ACCREDITED INSTRUCTOR AUTHORIZED JOB PERFORMANCE PROCTOR Bruce Bowe, Altec Industries, Inc. Don Mitch, Altec Industries, Inc. Jeremey Goodman, Altec Industries, Inc. Jerry McClain, Altec Industries, Inc. Samuel McClellan, Altec Industries, Inc. Travis Sybesma, Altec Industries, Inc. SPECIALIST Chase Zacharias HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST Adrien Fouillard, Applied Industrial Technologies, Inc. Cody Wilson, SMC Dustin Truitt, Controlled Fluids, Inc. David Elliott, Heil Environmental Evan Duff, Controlled Fluids, Inc. Isaac Frieden, Sun Hydraulics Geoffrey Forest, Modjeski and Masters, Inc. Josh Sullivan, Hyf lodraulic Ltd. Leandro Faria, iTech Automation Leate Rogers, GEFCO Reilly Baker, HydroAir MOBILE HYDRAULIC MECHANIC Christopher Bruns, AEP Walter Fouche, AEP




IFPS 2021 Spring Meeting


IFPS WILL HOST a condensed virtual spring meeting March 8-11, with plans to hold an in-person meeting May 4-7 in San Antonio, Texas, at the Embassy Suites, San Antonio Riverwalk Downtown. Members TM may register for the condensed spring meeting by visiting www.ifps.org.



Monday, March 8 Part description

02:00 PM - 03:00 PM

Applicable machines

Number of parts

Weight (kg)

Strategic Planning Committee Meeting

SWINGFLGLCK2062 Swing hose FlangeLock kit EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 16 x 2062U - red FlangeLock IFPS IS ACCEPTING nominations for its 2021 Fluid Power Hall of Fame awards. The Hall of Fame acknowledges individuals whoSWINGCAP2062 Tuesday, March Swing circuit cap kit 9 EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 16 x 2062 - cap have made significant contributions to fluid power technology and 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM Education Committee Meeting EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 16 x 2462U - purple FlangeLock TRAVELFLGLCK2462 Travel hose FlangeLock kit dedicated their careers to the industry. 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Membership Committee Meeting Anyone can nominate one living and one deceased individual. TheTRAVELCAP2462 Travel circuit cap kit EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 16 x 2462 - cap nominee must have 25 or more years of service in the fluid power Wednesday, March 10 14 x 3262U - black FlangeLock Front attachment EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 FRONTATTFLGLCK326162 4 x 3261U - black & silver FlangeLock FlangeLock kit industry. Living nominees will be asked to complete an application. 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM Certification Committee Meeting 14 x 3262 - cap FRONTATTCAP326162 Front attachment cap kit EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 A panel of judges will select the inductees, who will be announced 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Marketing Committee 4 x 3261 Meeting - cap Boom arch hose on Fluid Power Professionals' Day, June 19. EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 20 x 3262U - black FlangeLock BOOMARCHFLGLCK3262 TM




6.7 4.5 7.7 6.4





FlangeLockTM kit

Thursday, March 11


Nominations are being accepted until April 15 and can be made at www.fluidpowerhalloffame.org.

Boom arch hose cap kit

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000


20 x 3262 - cap

Finance Committee Meeting Board of Directors Meeting

8.9 9.5 9.9 11.3

Routine and scheduled maintenance of hydraulic systems are vital to getting the most out of your Hitachi Mining Excavator. While maintenance plays the largest role in the prevention of unnecessary machine downtime, it can also expose the hydraulic system to high levels of contamination rapidly decreasing component longevity. The importance of contamination control is sometimes overlooked when performing maintenance due to incorrect practices being used.


Stop the Mess


The FlangeLock™ tool and caps are the ultimate contamination control tools for protecting your hydraulic system. The FlangeLock™ allows for the simple sealing of open hydraulic flanges without tools while the caps can be bolted in place of a flange connection. Easy on, easy off, they offer a leak-proof solution to hydraulic systems and environmental cleanliness. FlangeLock™ tools and caps stop the mess.

The FlangeLock™ Tool is the ultimate contamination control tool for protecting HITACHI MAKING systems. CONTAMINATION CONTROL EASY sealing of open SAE code 61, 62 your hydraulic It allows for the simple Hitachi have packaged FlangeLock™ tool and caps specifically for Hitachi mining excavators. The Hitachi customised & make CAT-Style hydraulic without Constructed from lightweight aluminum. kits sure no matter whichflanges component routine tools. maintenance is being performed on, you will always have the exact Easyofon, easy off.™*Offers to hydraulic system and environmental number FlangeLocks and capsatoleakproof help reducesolution contamination. cleanliness. FlangeLock™ Tools stop the mess! ™ *Note: FlangeLocks are not to be used under pressure



• No tools required • One hand installation Call you local Hitachi Muswellbrook representative or • No expensive hardware needed • Eliminate hydraulic oil spills & clean up onhoses 02 6541 6300 for installation more information. • No more the rags branch stuffed into • Quick & ease of usage • No more messy plastic caps • Safe for personnel & environment • The ultimate contamination control tool • Industry acclaimed

This product is Patented, other Patents pending.

For more information, call 203-861-9400 or email sales@flangelock.com. www.flangelock.com 8

MARCH 2021



IFPS Members-Only Benefits DISCOUNTS • Robust member perks program with local and national discounts, 1M+ redemption locations, and $4,500+ in per-member savings. • Member forum. • Study-group forums. • Recorded HS and PS outcome presentations. • Certification test fees. • Recertification fee. • Everything in our store – books, patches, publications, safety cards, posters and more! • Corporate commitment packages for groups of 10 or more.

IFPS MEMBERSHIP I've been an IFPS member since 1978, starting in the student chapter at Purdue University. It launched my fluid power career and led to the first publication of the Fluid Power Journal in 1994. In addition to having a voice to promote our industry, I have made great, lifelong friends. Paul Prass, Publisher, Fluid Power Journal

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Library of study group web seminars for many HS and PS outcomes. • Free downloads of certification study manuals. • Free industry-related web seminars by accredited instructors and other industry professionals. • Free access to our archived web seminars. • Free safety and technical posters. • Professional development points – Earn points for every year you are a member. Personal development points are important when it is time to recertify. SUBSCRIPTIONS • Free subscription to Fluid Power Journal. • IFPS monthly E-news. • Members-only access on the IFPS website. NETWORKING • Members can find other members. • Social media – Connect with IFPS on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. • Biannual meetings – A great way to meet other industry professionals.

Membership is $75 a year. That’s only $6.25 a month.


MARCH 2021



Certification Testing Locations Individuals wishing to take any IFPS written certification tests can select from convenient locations across the United States and Canada. IFPS is able to offer these locations through its affiliation with The Consortium of College Testing Centers provided by National College Testing Association. Contact headquarters if you do not see a location near you. Every effort will be made to accommodate your needs. If your test was postponed due to the pandemic, please contact headquarters so that we may reschedule.

TENTATIVE TESTING DATES FOR ALL LOCATIONS: April 2021 Tuesday 4/6 • Thursday 4/22 May 2021 Tuesday 5/4 • Thursday 5/20 June 2021 Tuesday 6/1 • Thursday 6/24 July 2021 Tuesday 7/13 • Thursday 7/29

ALABAMA Auburn, AL Birmingham, AL Calera, AL Decatur, AL Huntsville, AL Jacksonville, AL Mobile, AL Montgomery, AL Normal, AL Tuscaloosa, AL ALASKA Anchorage, AK Fairbanks, AK ARIZONA Flagstaff, AZ Glendale, AZ Mesa, AZ Phoenix, AZ Prescott, AZ Scottsdale, AZ Sierra Vista, AZ Tempe, AZ Thatcher, AZ Tucson, AZ Yuma, AZ ARKANSAS Bentonville, AR Hot Springs, AR Little Rock, AR CALIFORNIA Aptos, CA Arcata, CA Bakersfield, CA Dixon, CA Encinitas, CA Fresno, CA Irvine, CA Marysville, CA Riverside, CA Salinas, CA San Diego, CA San Jose, CA San Luis Obispo, CA Santa Ana, CA Santa Maria, CA Santa Rosa, CA Tustin, CA Yucaipa, CA COLORADO Aurora, CO Boulder, CO Springs, CO Denver, CO Durango, CO Ft. Collins, CO Greeley, CO Lakewood, CO Littleton, CO Pueblo, CO DELAWARE Dover, DE Georgetown, DE Newark, DE FLORIDA Avon Park, FL Boca Raton, FL Cocoa, FL Davie, FL Daytona Beach, FL Fort Pierce, FL Ft. Myers, FL Gainesville, FL Jacksonville, FL Miami Gardens, FL Milton, FL New Port Richey, FL Ocala, FL Orlando, FL Panama City, FL Pembroke Pines, FL Pensacola, FL Plant City, FL Riviera Beach, FL Sanford, FL


MARCH 2021

Tallahassee, FL Tampa, FL West Palm Beach, FL Wildwood, FL Winter Haven, FL GEORGIA Albany, GA Athens, GA Atlanta, GA Carrollton, GA Columbus, GA Dahlonega, GA Dublin, GA Dunwoody, GA Forest Park, GA Lawrenceville, GA Morrow, GA Oakwood, GA Savannah, GA Statesboro, GA Tifton, GA Valdosta, GA HAWAII Laie, HI IDAHO Boise, ID Coeur d ‘Alene, ID Idaho Falls, ID Lewiston, ID Moscow, ID Nampa, ID Rexburg, ID Twin Falls, ID ILLINOIS Carbondale, IL Carterville, IL Champaign, IL Decatur, IL Edwardsville, IL Glen Ellyn, IL Joliet, IL Malta, IL Normal, IL Peoria, IL Schaumburg, IL Springfield, IL University Park, IL INDIANA Bloomington, IN Columbus, IN Evansville, IN Fort Wayne, IN Gary, IN Indianapolis, IN Kokomo, IN Lafayette, IN Lawrenceburg, IN Madison, IN Muncie, IN New Albany, IN Richmond, IN Sellersburg, IN South Bend, IN Terre Haute, IN IOWA Ames, IA Cedar Rapids, IA Iowa City, IA Ottumwa, IA Sioux City, IA Waterloo, IA KANSAS Kansas City, KS Lawrence, KS Manhattan, KS Wichita, KS KENTUCKY Ashland, KY Bowling Green, KY Erlanger, KY Highland Heights, KY Louisville, KY Morehead, KY

LOUISIANA Bossier City, LA Lafayette, LA Monroe, LA Natchitoches, LA New Orleans, LA Shreveport, LA Thibodaux, LA MARYLAND Arnold, MD Bel Air, MD College Park, MD Frederick, MD Hagerstown, MD La Plata, MD Westminster, MD Woodlawn, MD Wye Mills, MD MASSACHUSETTS Boston, MA Bridgewater, MA Danvers, MA Haverhill, MA Holyoke, MA Shrewsbury, MA MICHIGAN Ann Arbor, MI Big Rapids, MI Chesterfield, MI Dearborn, MI Dowagiac, MI East Lansing, MI Flint, MI Grand Rapids, MI Kalamazoo, MI Lansing, MI Livonia, MI Mount Pleasant, MI Sault Ste. Marie, M Troy, MI University Center, MI Warren, MI MINNESOTA Alexandria, MN Brooklyn Park, MN Duluth, MN Eden Prairie, MN Granite Falls, MN Mankato, MN MISSISSIPPI Goodman, MS Jackson, MS Mississippi State, MS Raymond, MS University, MS MISSOURI Berkley, MO Cape Girardeau, MO Columbia, MO Cottleville, MO Joplin, MO Kansas City, MO Kirksville, MO Park Hills, MO Poplar Bluff, MO Rolla, MO Sedalia, MO Springfield, MO St. Joseph, MO St. Louis, MO Warrensburg, MO MONTANA Bozeman, MT Missoula, MT NEBRASKA Lincoln, NE North Platte, NE Omaha, NE NEVADA Henderson, NV Las Vegas, NV North Las Vegas, NV Winnemucca, NV


NEW JERSEY Branchburg, NJ Cherry Hill, NJ Lincroft, NJ Sewell, NJ Toms River, NJ West Windsor, NJ NEW MEXICO Albuquerque, NM Clovis, NM Farmington, NM Portales, NM Santa Fe, NM NEW YORK Alfred, NY Brooklyn, NY Buffalo, NY Garden City, NY New York, NY Rochester, NY Syracuse, NY NORTH CAROLINA Apex, NC Asheville, NC Boone, NC Charlotte, NC China Grove, NC Durham, NC Fayetteville, NC Greenville, NC Jamestown, NC Misenheimer, NC Mount Airy, NC Pembroke, NC Raleigh, NC Wilmington, NC NORTH DAKOTA Bismarck, ND OHIO Akron, OH Cincinnati, OH Cleveland, OH Columbus, OH Fairfield, OH Findlay, OH Kirtland, OH Lima, OH Maumee, OH Newark, OH North Royalton, OH Rio Grande, OH Toledo, OH Warren, OH Youngstown, OH OKLAHOMA Altus, OK Bethany, OK Edmond, OK Norman, OK Oklahoma City, OK Tonkawa, OK Tulsa, OK OREGON Bend, OR Coos Bay, OR Eugene, OR Gresham, OR Klamath Falls, OR Medford, OR Oregon City, OR Portland, OR White City, OR PENNSYLVANIA Bloomsburg, PA Blue Bell, PA Gettysburg, PA Harrisburg, PA Lancaster, PA Newtown, PA Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA Wilkes-Barre, PA York, PA

SOUTH CAROLINA Beaufort, SC Charleston, SC Columbia, SC Conway, SC Graniteville, SC Greenville, SC Greenwood, SC Orangeburg, SC Rock Hill, SC Spartanburg, SC TENNESSEE Blountville, TN Clarksville, TN Collegedale, TN Gallatin, TN Johnson City, TN Knoxville, TN Memphis, TN Morristown, TN Murfreesboro, TN Nashville, TN TEXAS Abilene, TX Arlington, TX Austin, TX Beaumont, TX Brownsville, TX Commerce, TX Corpus Christi, TX Dallas, TX Denison, TX El Paso, TX Houston, TX Huntsville, TX Laredo, TX Lubbock, TX Lufkin, TX Mesquite, TX San Antonio, TX Victoria, TX Waxahachie, TX Weatherford, TX Wichita Falls, TX UTAH Cedar City, UT Kaysville, UT Logan, UT Ogden, UT Orem, UT Salt Lake City, UT VIRGINIA Daleville, VA Fredericksburg, VA Lynchburg, VA Manassas, VA Norfolk, VA Roanoke, VA Salem, VA Staunton, VA Suffolk, VA Virginia Beach, VA Wytheville, VA WASHINGTON Auburn, WA Bellingham, WA Bremerton, WA Ellensburg, WA Ephrata, WA Olympia, WA Pasco, WA Rockingham, WA Seattle, WA Shoreline, WA Spokane, WA WEST VIRGINIA Ona, WV WISCONSIN La Crosse, WI Milwaukee, WI Mukwonago, WI

WYOMING Casper, WY Laramie, WY Torrington, WY CANADA ALBERTA Calgary, AB Edmonton, AB Fort McMurray, AB Lethbridge, AB Lloydminster, AB Olds, AB Red Deer, AB BRITISH COLUMBIA Abbotsford, BC Burnaby, BC Castlegar, BC Delta, BC Kamloops, BC Nanaimo, BC Prince George, BC Richmond, BC Surrey, BC Vancouver, BC Victoria, BC MANITOBA Brandon, MB Winnipeg, MB NEW BRUNSWICK Bathurst, NB Moncton, NB NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR St. John’s, NL NOVA SCOTIA Halifax, NS ONTARIO Brockville, ON Hamilton, ON London, ON Milton, ON Mississauga, ON Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON North Bay, ON North York, ON Ottawa, ON Toronto, ON Welland, ON Windsor, ON QUEBEC Côte Saint-Luc, QB Montreal, QB SASKATCHEWAN Melfort, SK Moose Jaw, SK Nipawin, SK Prince Albert, SK Saskatoon, SK YUKON TERRITORY Whitehorse, YU UNITED KINGDOM Elgin, UK GHAZNI Kingdom of Bahrain, GHA Thomasville, GHA EGYPT Cairo, EG JORDAN Amman, JOR NEW ZEALAND Taradale, NZ



AVAILABLE IFPS CERTIFICATIONS CFPAI Certified Fluid Power Accredited Instructor CFPAJPP Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor CFPAJPPCC Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor Connector & Conductor CFPE Certified Fluid Power Engineer CFPS Certified Fluid Power Specialist (Must Obtain CFPHS & CFPPS) CFPHS Certified Fluid Power Hydraulic Specialist CFPPS Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Specialist CFPECS Certified Fluid Power Electronic Controls Specialist CFPMT Certified Fluid Power Master Technician (Must Obtain CFPIHT, CFPMHT, & CFPPT) CFPIHT Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Technician CFPMHT Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Technician CFPPT Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Technician CFPMM Certified Fluid Power Master Mechanic (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPMHM, & CFPPM) CFPIHM Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic CFPMHM Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic CFPPM Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Mechanic CFPMIH Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPIHT, & CFPCC) CFPMMH Certified Fluid Power Master of Mobile Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPMHM, CFPMHT, & CFPCC) CFPMIP Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Pneumatics (Must Obtain CFPPM, CFPPT, & CFPCC) CFPCC Certified Fluid Power Connector & Conductor CFPSD Fluid Power System Designer CFPMEC (In Development) Mobile Electronic Controls CFPIEC (In Development) Industrial Electronic Controls


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MARCH 2021


Gauging the History of an Indispensable Instrument

By Peter Chronis, Vice President Business Development, Winters Instruments

ince being patented by Eugene Bourdon in 1849, the Bourdon tube pressure gauge has played a crucial role in mechanical pressure systems. Although the basic components – Bourdon tube, socket, movement, and indication – have remained the same, subtle changes in the gauge’s design have allowed it to evolve with industry’s changing requirements. The primary role of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge is to provide local indication of how a process is performing. By checking the measurement of the pressure in the system, operators or maintenance personnel can quickly determine if equipment is operating at optimal efficiency.

allowing technicians, engineers, and operators to decide if there is, in fact, an issue. A preventative-maintenance shutdown can be scheduled and an unplanned one for a costly repair avoided. Early pressure gauges were essential in many applications, but their effectiveness was hindered by the presence of vibration – the shaking of machinery – or pulsation – continuous pressure spikes. Vibration and pulsation in the system cause the pointer to bounce or shake rapidly, making it impossible to get an accurate reading of system pressure and nullifying the gauge’s effectiveness. The gauge’s increased cycling movement causes premature wear, frequently requiring the gauge to be replaced.

and its chemical compatibility with the process media. Some common fill fluids include glycerin, a glycerin-water mix, silicone, and halocarbon. By filling the case with liquid, manufacturers can mitigate the effects of vibration and pulsation. The liquid provides hydrostatic drag, i.e., resistance, against continuous movement. The fluid also acts as a lubricant for the gauge’s internal components, eliminating the threat of premature wear and reducing the probability of damage. Liquid-filled pressure gauges solve issues of vibration and pulsation but introduce other problems. The main issue involves the possibility of liquid leaking from the gauge. While being shipped or after being installed, there is the potential for liquid to leak out. This decreases the gauge’s ability to dampen vibration, negating its effectiveness. Also, depending on how much liquid has leaked from the gauge, the meniscus can be resting at a level that makes the gauge difficult to read. The final and most serious leak-related problem occurs when the gauge is installed. The liquid that ends up on the floor is extremely slippery, resulting in a hazardous working environment. This potential can prevent liquid-filled gauges from being installed in facilities with strict safety guidelines.

Movement Arm Dial Gasket Lens Ring


Bourdon Tube Pointer

Screws Blow Out Plug



A drop in pressure is an indication of leakage in the system, while a pressure spike can indicate a blockage, possibly in a filter or valve. While there are other ways to identify these problems, a pressure gauge usually provides the first hint of an issue. The gauge’s value comes from its ability to show changes in system pressure, 12

MARCH 2021

Liquid-filled pressure gauges Manufacturers began offering liquid-filled versions of pressure gauges for applications with excessive amounts of vibration and pulsation. It is a standard gauge in which the case is filled with a viscous liquid. The liquid selected for the fill depends on process and ambient temperatures

If a liquid-filled gauge needs servicing or recalibration, the process is more involved than with a dry gauge. The gauge must first be emptied and dried. Once it has been serviced or recalibrated, the gauge needs to be refilled before being reinstalled, which increases turnaround time. The fill fluid added to a pressure gauge also affects the temperatures in which it can operate. Glycerin, which is often standard in liquid-filled gauges, has a temperature range of approximately -20°C to 65°C (-4°F to 150°F). For temperatures outside that range, gauges require a specialized fluid that can be more expensive and result in longer delivery times. Discoloration is another external environment issue associated with liquid-filling. Gauges installed in locations with prolonged exposure to sunlight can experience discolored liquid. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG

So can gauges exposed to ambient or process media heat above specifications. Discoloration makes it difficult to read the pressure. Furthermore, a filled gauge, regardless of size, is twice the weight of a dry gauge. The added weight will result in higher transportation costs and fuel consumption.

Evolution of pressure gauges As pressure gauges continued to evolve, Winters engineered one that provides vibration and pulsation dampening without the negative aspects of liquid-filling. The StabiliZR is a dry gauge capable of eliminating pointer flutter caused by vibration and pulsation.

StabiliZR gauges are engineered with a pointer shaft that extends out the back of the movement with two paddles that are added to the shaft. This extended portion of the shaft is encased by a cap filled with dampening compound. The cap is then permanently sealed, preventing the dampening compound from leaking. The gauge will always be easy to read, and there is no risk of slipping caused by leaked fill fluid. Servicing and calibration are completed faster because there is no need to drain, dry, and then refill the gauge. Because the case isn’t filled, StabiliZR gauges can operate over a wider range of temperatures, in some cases -40°C to 120°C (-40°F to 250°F). It can also be installed in direct sunlight without the risk of discolored fill fluid obstructing reading of the gauge. Pressure gauges are often overlooked in a process. Their cost relative to other components can relegate them to an afterthought when designing, operating, and maintaining equipment. But the gauge’s role as an indicator of efficiency or potential failure makes it critical to the overall health of a process. Its journey from dry to liquid-filled to StabiliZR represents the continuous improvement of the pressure gauge as it adapts to industry’s changing demands.  WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM


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MARCH 2021



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MARCH 2021

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MARCH 2021


Case Study +

Drop-in Solution Forces Out Extrusion Press Downtime By Michael Kramer, Press Application Engineer, and Andrew Binversie, Manager, Press Applications, Bosch Rexroth Corp.

The extrusion press is the workhorse of manufacturing. Long valued for its ability to produce high-quality parts, it can operate productively for many decades with proper maintenance and life-cycle management. However, this longevity is now leading to some issues in the industry; many extrusion presses are using outdated, inefficient, and unreliable hydraulic pumps. Superior Extrusion found itself confronted with this situation. In 1996, the company purchased a used 1,650-ton Farrel press. In use since 1971, the 7-inch press has since produced over 200 million pounds of aluminum extrusions for the Michigan-based manufacturer. The press currently runs one 10-hour shift per day, with plans to move to two shifts in the near future.



Planning the upgrade

In an aluminum extrusion press of this size, hydraulic components are under significant and constant wear and tear. Decades of production of light truck accessories, roof racks, commercial building products, and military materials had taken its toll on the variable-displacement legacy pumps driving the press. Maintenance of the hydraulic elements was becoming increasingly expensive. A key, decades-old component on the press is the hydraulic pump. Like many customers using similar model pumps on other presses, repairing and maintaining these older pumps in operating condition usually required rebuilds, and doing so was becoming a challenge for Superior. Parts became obsolete, and qualified technicians became harder to find. Furthermore, rebuilds do not always deliver the same quality and service as the original unit. And, in many cases, the parts being replaced were rebuilds as well. One major consequence of the pump’s aging condition was that hydraulic fluid leaks became increasingly problematic. Oil leaks increased costs for the company, which logged 65 to 70 hours of downtime every year to repair these leaks. From constant welding to fabricating new pipes, the cost and hassle of downtime takes its toll.


MARCH 2021



Designing a drop-in solution

The importance of the press required careful planning that would identify the right solution and minimize downtime during installation. Superior approached Bosch Rexroth to help develop the solution since they had worked together on other hydraulic projects in the past, both for new systems and equipment upgrades. The nature of the original pumps required an engineered solution that would match the way older components operated. The original pump sat on top of the tank, drawing oil up from the reservoir and supplying it to the system through two supply ports. Most modern pumps operate with just one supply port, so installing a new pump would require careful planning and reconfiguration of the hydraulic system. At the same time, Superior and Bosch Rexroth both wanted to design an approach that would provide a relatively simple and straightforward upgrade solution. Prior to working with Superior, the Bosch Rexroth team recognized that this pump style was becoming obsolete. In response, engineers in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, collaborated with associates in Germany

to develop a unique system to directly replace the old, expensive, and inefficient pumps. The initiative involved the design and engineering of a pump/manifold/controls solution and prototype construction. The prototype underwent 150 hours of testing at the Bethlehem facility and over 2,000 testing hours in production on a customer’s 2,400-ton extrusion press. The team instrumented the test unit with many types of pressure transducers and flow meters to record data. They completed a 100-hour test at full pressure, followed by a complete teardown of the internals to document the wear and tear. The results confirmed the drop-in solution met the company’s performance and reliability standards. Superior Extrusion’s project was the first opportunity to apply the tested drop-in concept. At the solution’s heart was a Rexroth A4VSO 500 axial piston pump. Adding a check valve at the bottom of the suction pipe and injecting a partial filling volume into the pipe ensured that the pipe inlet was full on startup or under minimal flow conditions. The Bosch Rexroth team also incorporated a custom manifold circuit designed to replicate WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG

A Rexroth A4VSO 500 axial piston pump was the heart of the drop-in solution.

An HACD digital electronic control was configured to take the existing analog signal outputs to control both the A4VSO piston pump and the LC and LFA valves.

Oil is directed to the correct port with type LC and LFA two-way cartridge valves.

the two-way function with two pressure ports in the same location as the legacy pump. Two-way cartridge valves type LC and LFA then directed the oil to the correct port. The solution conserved as much of the existing configuration as possible so that it bolted directly to the existing piping. The new Bosch Rexroth pump manifold deckplate preserved all of the existing press piping. To control flow through the pressure ports, an HACD digital electronic control was configured to take the existing analog signals that previously controlled the legacy pumps and use those outputs to control both the A4VSO pump and the LC and LFA valves. This significantly simplified the controls challenge of swapping out the legacy pump and valves with the current generation of hydraulics. The result was a drop-in solution that would modernize the press without the significant downtime or cost associated with a complete upgrade or replacement. In fact, the installation took place over a long weekend, with tear out happening Friday and full production by Tuesday.


Measurable results


The hydraulic pump retrofit produced measurable results almost immediately. The most significant improvement early on was the increase in press speed. Without any fine-tuning of the controls platform or the PLC code, the change was dramatic. “Prior to the upgrade, the press ran around 2,000 pounds per hour,” said Bradley Couture, Superior Extrusion president and CEO. “Now it runs around 2,400 pounds per hour, about a 14% increase. The metal was just flying down the table. If the press ran 24 hours a day, five days a week, that would produce 1.8 million more pounds per year.” The speed of the press increased so much that when one particular die ran at 2,800 pounds per hour, Superior’s oven could not keep up with the production run.

Superior found the new retrofit operated more efficiently. The Bosch Rexroth pump used less energy to the extent that a few months after the retrofit, they swapped out 200-horsepower motors for new, more energy-efficient, 150-horsepower motors with no loss of performance. The oil temperature also decreased. “Before the upgrade, it would run normally at around 110°F to 120°F (43°C to 49°C),” Couture said. “With the Bosch Rexroth pump, it operates between 105°F and 110°F (40°C and 43°C). So the press runs more efficiently and at a cooler temperature.” Finally, it appears that oil-leak-related downtime is being significantly reduced, from 65 to 70 hours per year previously to just three hours last year. Those savings added up, especially considering that press-repair time could run up to $800 per hour. 

Each year, the International Fluid Power Society and the Fluid Power Journal hold a photo contest in honor of Fluid Power Professionals' Day. This year’s contest runs from January 1 through March 31, 2021.

THE 2021 PHOTO CATEGORIES ARE: 1. New Perspective: Photos that show fluid power used in novel ways and from views not everyone gets to see. 2. Teamwork: Photos of people working together using fluid power to get the job done. 3. Fun with Fluid Power: Photos that capture the joy of using, learning, or teaching about hydraulics and pneumatics. 4. The Muscle of Fluid Power: Photos that capture the might of fluid power in action. A panel of judges will announce three winners for each category on June 19, 2021 in celebration of Fluid Power Professional’s Day. A People’s Choice recognition will be awarded based on votes during a one-week voting period.

Submit your fluid power photo by visiting www.fluidpowerjournal.com to take your shot at recognition in the Fluid Power Journal.







MARCH 2021



Sheet Metal Vacuum Gripping By Dane Spivak, Engineering Manager, Davasol Inc.


A FLAT SMOOTH surface with plenty of area is an ideal product for vacuum gripping or pick and place. Products such as sheet metal provide easy cup sealing and plenty of area for suction cup placement. Putting together a system that works is easy enough, but designing an efficient system that is properly engineered can provide significant savings in cost, energy consumption, maintenance, and reliability. There are specific vacuum cups designed for the steel-stamping industry that are referred to as heavy-duty metal-stamping cups, or a variation of those words. Stamping cups tend to be flat or single bellows, have an integral metal fitting for rigidity, and have internal ribs for oil channels and increased frictional gripping force. These suction cups are usually made in nitrile or polyurethane materials. Polyurethane is an ever-popular choice as it typically provides longer cup life and is nonmarking. Nitrile is adequate in these categories as well, so some users will stick with this material that they have been using for some time and that can be sourced at a lower cost. Other manufacturer-specific materials are also available. Figure 1 shows an example of conventional stamping cups and their features.

integral fitting

oil channels grip cusps Figure 1: Examples and features of typical stamping vacuum cups.

Stamping cups are usually round or oval. Round is the go-to shape; oval is used for narrow points or any target areas where a round cup would not fit or seal. Because of the nature of metal sheets, which warp and bend across their surface and have manufactured curves formed from press operations, single short-bellows cups are used to provide height and angular compensation as well as allow the cup lips to conform and seal against uneven locations. Flat cups are useful when sheets are relatively level, allowing for a sturdier grip. If need be, spring-loaded level compensators can always be used as a vertical buffer, as they often are with both flat and bellowed cups. The gripping forces in many steel-stamping applications, such as sheet pick and place, are overkill. The reason is that an array of cups spread out across the surface is required for a balanced and stable grip. When gripping large surface areas, particularly thin sheet products, it is 18

MARCH 2021

Figure 2: Stamping cups close coupled to venturis.

Figure 3: Self-closing valve components and installation. Scan the barcode with the camera on your smart phone to watch the video.

important to have many smaller cups at multiple points instead of fewer cups with bigger diameters. The goal is to spread the gripping force, but when doing so, the cup diameters should be sized appropriately so they provide a reasonable and safe gripping force without exceeding needs. Using the right cup size can save considerable cost on parts and energy use when considering the vacuum generators required. The traditional vacuum system for pick and place in metal stamping is one air-powered venturi generator close coupled to a single suction cup, as shown in figure 2. This allows for each cup to be fully independent and simplifies installation for the user or machine builder. It is an easy, effective way to get the job done, though the approach has its challenges, including excessive air use, lack of filtration, and managing each as an individual system. The alternative and solution to the single-cup-per-venturi conundrum is a centralized system in which a larger venturi powers and controls a set of cups, or a vacuum-pump and vacuum-valve system to do the same. Larger venturis allow for using multistaged units that use air more efficiently, allowing a reduction in their consumption. In a centralized system, the external plumbing creates room for installation of a proper vacuum filter to protect the vacuum generator. Having a single vacuum source is easier to manage and maintain with controls, sensors, and other system components. Motor-driven vacuum pumps are not the most popular in stamping since pumps cannot be mounted to the robot arm, and they require vacuum valves to control the cups. In this case there are extra pieces, adding to the work, and higher costs that are generally not worth it for many facilities with an abundance of compressed air available. Centralized vacuum systems have their benefits, but they typically require a larger variety of parts for plumbing and rely on all cups sealing properly. For cups potentially leaking in centralized systems, there are techniques to isolate them if they do not seal properly. Products such as velocity fuses, shuttle valves, or self-closing valves shut off vacuum from cups that do not seal against the product. The valves close based on the in-rush of flow from the leaking cups. Figure 3 illustrates a self-closing valve’s components and functionality. With one of these on each cup, the system becomes universal in a sense because any number of cups can WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG

grip the product or shut independently while still achieving maximum vacuum-level pressure. These types of system designs require the cups to contact the product first before vacuum is turned on to ensure they do not close prematurely. Additionally, if the sensors are connected into the vacuum system, it can be difficult to measure lifting force and understand which cups are gripping the product. A vacuum sensor would be required on each cup between the self-closing valve and cup to get a true measurement. Revisiting compressed-air consumption, venturis use compressed air to generate vacuum, and the total consumption is correlated to how much time the venturi runs. Vacuum gripping flat smooth surfaces creates an excellent opportunity to save air because the venturis can run to charge up the vacuum then shut off once the vacuum level reaches its set point. Then check valves and self-closing valves in the system lock in and maintain the vacuum. Should the vacuum level drop, the venturi will turn on and charge up the system. Figure 4 illustrates an example of a venturi coupled with an air energy-saving kit consisting of the switch and pilot valve. This technique allows for the venturi run time to be reduced to a fraction, as it can remain off for all the pick-movement cycle in a pick-and-place application, and much longer in a vacuum hold-down type of process. It also works well with products such as the self-closing valve. Energy-saving parts are inexpensive and easy to use, which makes them very attractive to users. Metal-stamping vacuum gripping applications offer the convenience of a simple and reliable system. However, cup selection and the use of venturis can greatly impact cost, efficiency, and energy use. Talk to a professional to find out which design is best for your application.


venturi exhaust pilot-operated pneumatic valve pneumatic vacuum switch

vacuum inlet

Figure 4: Multistaged venturi with built-in check valves coupled with an energy-saving kit.

This article is the opinion of the author, Dane Spivak of Davasol Inc., an industrial brand management firm with many clients. One of Davasol’s clients, Vacuforce LLC, based in Indianapolis, partners with the author on this article. Contact Dane Spivak at dspivak@davasol.com. 




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MARCH 2021



transfluid Offers T-Cut Tube-Cutting Machine


transfluid’s t-cut tube-cutting machines promise chipless cuts of tubes with a diameter of up to 80 mm. The RTO 628 cuts tube diameters of 6 to 28 mm (0.24 to 1.1 inches). The RTO 2080 handles tube diameters of 20 to 80 mm (0.79 to 3.15 inches). As an all-in-one solution, the t-cut can manufacture medium and large volumes with different cutting options, using a cut-through, pull, or pull-and-break method. Changing

the setup for other tube sizes or lengths takes little time. In addition to the orbital cutting technique, transfluid also offers the familiar blade-cutting method. If needed, the cutting step can be integrated with the process on the bending machine. The bending and cutting process are easily and reliably combined, with little chip generation. For more information, visit www.transfluid.net/ en/homepage.html.

Greene Tweed Offers Wear- and Abrasion-Resistant Pump Components


Greene Tweed, a manufacturer of high-performance elastomers, thermoplastics, composites, and engineered components, offers wear-resistant (WR) and abrasion-resistant (AR) pump components engineered from high-performance thermoplastic composite materials for centrifugal pumps and magnetic drive pumps. Greene Tweed’s WR line offers excellent wear and friction properties, along with superior nongalling and nonseizing performance. The WR material portfolio enables extended mean time between repair and improved reliability. Offering extended dry-run performance and exceptional chemical resistance, Greene Tweed’s WR materials can often reduce running clearances by more than 50%. These reduced clearances minimize recirculation, which maximizes rotor stability, reduces vibration, and improves overall efficiency. Greene Tweed’s AR composites are recommended when pumping in a watery media with the presence of abrasive materials like sand or sludge. Benefits include low hydrolysis/low swell of parts in water, self-lubricating material properties, and overall reduced effects of abrasion. Pump customers can increase intervals between overhauls and improve pump reliability. The composites promise to last up to five times longer than traditional materials. For more information, call (215) 256-9521 or visit www.gtweed.com.


MARCH 2021


Be Counted!

TAKE THE 2021 SALARY SURVEY It comes as no surprise to fluid power executives that the industry is long on job openings but short on workers to fill them. To provide a yardstick that may help employers draw talent in a highly competitive job market, Fluid Power Journal and the International Fluid Power Society developed a biennial online salary survey. Besides furnishing a snapshot on compensation within the industry, the survey also provides demographic data such as where employees live, their age and gender distribution, their levels of education and certification, and other details. We hope this analysis gives employers an edge in attracting and keeping qualified workers. We also expect employees to benefit from the results as they weigh career choices and advancement. The 2021 survey opens April 1 and is live until June 30. We’ll publish the findings in the September issue of Fluid Power Journal.

To take the survey, visit www.fluidpowerjournal.com/2021-survey.

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MARCH 2021





ydraulic accumulators use weights, springs, or gas pressure to generate the precharge force against the fluid that is stored for use in the system. Gas-charged accumulators use pistons, bladders, or diaphragms to separate the hydraulic fluid from the gas charge. Bladder type accumulators are available in sizes ranging from 115 cc (7 in3) to 300 liters (80 gallons), generally in pressure ranges of 21 MPa and 35 MPa (3,000 and 5,000 psi). Gas-charged accumulators operate by placing the compressible gas over the nearly incompressible hydraulic fluid in a constant volume pressure vessel. The hydraulic pressure and volume of fluid available to the system are dependent on the precharge pressure and the expansion characteristics of the gas. Dry nitrogen is typically used to precharge accumulators.

The ideal gas law:

p1 i V1 i t2 = p2 i V2 i t1

p1 = Initial pressure (psia)absolute V1 = Initial volume t1 = Initial temperature Rankine p2 = Final pressure (psia)absolute V2 = Final volume t2 = Final temperature Rankine

p1 = Initial pressure (MPa)absolute V1 = Initial volume t1 = Initial temperature Kelvin p2 = Final pressure (MPa)absolute V2 = Final volume t2 = Final temperature Kelvin

For isothermal conditions, the equation is:

Gas laws with temperature and pressure.

p1 i V1 = p2 i V2 = p3 i V3

p1 = Absolute precharge pressure V1 = Accumulator gas volume at precharge p2 = Absolute minimum pressure V2 = Accumulator gas volume at minimum pressure p3 = Absolute maximum pressure V3 = Accumulator gas volume at maximum pressure

Gas laws with pressure.

Note: Accumulators should be mounted vertically.

SAFETY TIP: Because of the risk of combustion, never use oxygen or air to precharge an accumulator. The terms "isothermal" and "adiabatic" are used to describe the expansion characteristics of the gas. Compressing and decomBladder-type accumulator pressing gas causes it to heat and cool respectively. If the volume of the gas is changed slowly, the changes in temperature are dissipated through the solid materials of the accumulator and so the temperature of the gas is kept constant. This is called isothermal (same temperature) contraction and expansion. When a gas is compressed and expanded quickly, heating and cooling cause pressure changes in addition to those occurring strictly as the result of volume changes. If the gas is insulated so that very little heat can escape, the pressure of the gas will increase and decrease more than inversely to the change in volume. Under compression, heat added to the gas as it is compressed will raise the pressure above the pressure increase caused by reducing the volume. Under expansion, the pressure will decrease more than would be expected just by decreasing the volume. This is called adiabatic (cannot pass) contraction and expansion. To accommodate changes in both pressure and temperature of the precharge gas, the general gas law can be used to compute the volume available from an accumulator. Absolute values are used for temperature and pressure when making computations. Rankine is the absolute scale for Fahrenheit and Kelvin is the absolute scale for Celsius. Formulas for converting from Fahrenheit to Rankine and Celsius to Kelvin are as follows: °F to °R: °R = °F + 459.7 °C to K: K = °C + 273.15


MARCH 2021

Temperature has an effect in the application of accumulators. The ideal gas laws tell us that for a given change in temperature, there will be a corresponding change in the pressure within an accumulator. This makes temperature a necessary consideration when sizing an accumulator. If the ambient temperature changes, the gas temperature in the accumulator will also change and will affect the pressure. For example, an accumulator on a piece of equipment that is outdoors may have a much different ambient condition in the early morning than it will have in the heat of the day. The designer must be sure that the accumulator will be adequately sized to address these conditions. In general, charging the accumulator can be considered an isothermal process and the normal operation of the accumulator considered an adiabatic operation. The following equations are for adiabatic conditions when solving for accumulator sizing or available volume:

VI =

VU ⎛p ⎜ 1 ⎜p ⎝ 2

1 n

p1 ⎞ ⎟ p3 ⎟⎠

1 n

1⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜⎛ p ⎞ n ⎛ p ⎞ n ⎟ VU = VI i ⎜⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎝ p2 ⎠ ⎝ p3 ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝

VI = Initial accumulator volume VU = Available liquid volume P1 = Absolute precharge pressure P2 = Minimum system pressure P3 = Absolute maximum pressure 1 = Polytropic exponent (n=1.4 for nitrogen gas,1/n=0.714) n VI = Initial accumulator volume VU = Available liquid volume P1 = Absolute precharge pressure P2 = Absolute minimum pressure P3 = Absolute maximum pressure 1 = Polytropic exponent n (n=1.4 for nitrogen gas,1/n=0.714)

Sizing an accumulator with adiabatic conditions. Finding the available volume from an accumulator with adiabatic conditions.


SAFETY TIP: A charged accumulator has stored energy. The uncontrolled release of that energy can cause serious injury, either by direct contact with pressurized fluid or the unexpected and uncontrolled movement of a machine. It is absolutely essential that the energy be drained or isolated before any work is performed on or around the accumulator. This means that the pressure of the hydraulic fluid must be isolated or brought to zero gauge or be isolated from possible unexpected release. A gas-charged accumulator must also have the gas pressure brought to zero gauge or isolated from unexpected release.








SAFETY TIP: Releasing the gas charge will displace the air around the accumulator. If this is done in a small area, there is the danger of asphyxiation. Be sure the area is well ventilated or that the gas is vented to the outside.

Accumulator circuit

The closed-center accumulator circuit shown above helps to maintain system pressure. It could also supplement pump flow to operate the cylinder. Maintaining system pressure with the accumulator and closed-center valve makes the circuit more responsive. The accumulator will also supplement pump flow to supply more fluid than the pump alone could during brief periods of high usage. When the cylinder deadheads and the directional valve is actuated, the pump refills the accumulator. Pressure will pilot open the unloading valve, unloading the pump, while the accumulator makes up fluid lost due to system leakage. When the fluid in the accumulator has been depleted and pressure falls below the setting of the unloading valve, the unloading valve will close, directing pump flow into the circuit and also refilling the accumulator. Theoretically, very little flow will ever pass over the relief valve. The line to the accumulator is equipped with a free-flow check valve allowing unrestricted flow into the accumulator and an adjustable orifice in parallel with the check valve to control flow from the accumulator to the circuit. Without the needle valve, the cylinder speed would

be dependent on the discharge rate of the accumulator, which can be much greater than the flow rate required by the application. The fixed displacement pump fills the accumulator while the directional control valve is in the center position or when the cylinder is bottomed out when the valve is still shifted. Once the set point of the unloading valve has been reached, the unloading valve directs unneeded flow from the pump to the reservoir. Shifting the directional control valve releases the fluid in the accumulator and routes it to the cylinder. The pump remains unloaded as long as the accumulator can supply fluid to the cylinder at a pressure above the setting of the unloading valve. As the pressure drops, the unloading valve closes and the pump powers the cylinder, and given time, refills the accumulator. Maximum system pressure is controlled by the setting of the unloading/relief valve. The internal pilot would operate the relief valve should the external pilot become inoperative. As a safety measure, the 2/2 normally open solenoid valve releases pressurized fluid, through a small orifice, when the system is turned off. The check valve prevents downstream fluid from passing to tank when the unloading valve is piloted open. 



A 4-liter capacity accumulator supplies fluid to a hydraulic system between 12 MPa and its precharge pressure of 6.9 MPa. Using the ideal gas law, how many liters of hydraulic fluid are available from the accumulator if the temperature changes from 27 °C to 65 °C as the accumulator fills? Assume adiabatic compression and expansion of the gas. a. 0.4 liters. b. 1.4 liters.

c. 2.1 liters. d. 4 liters.


A 2-gallon accumulator supplies fluid to a hydraulic system between 3,000 psi and 2,000 psi. If the precharge pressure is 1,000 psi, how many cubic inches of hydraulic fluid are available from the accumulator if the process is isothermal as the accumulator fills? a. 77.2 in3 b. 81.4 in3

c. 155.5 in3 d. 180.6 in3

e. 232.7 in3

e. 5.5 liters.


See solution on page 31.

MARCH 2021




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MARCH 2021



Robert Sheaf has more than 45 years troubleshooting, training, and consulting in the fluid power field. Email rjsheaf@cfc-solar.com or visit his website at www. cfcindustrialtraining.com.

New Problem

Pusher Cylinders Stop Midway By Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH, CFPMM, CFC Industrial Training


THE MAINTENANCE department of a large recycling company had us look at a metal shredder that had problems with two “pusher cylinders” stopping midway in their stroke. The shredder had a 6-foot diameter shredding drum approximately 12 feet long driven by a hydrostatic system using an 800-hp electric motor driving two large pumps and four hydraulic motors. Two separate open loop hydraulic systems ran the auxiliary cylinders and motors that fed the raw material and then removed the shredded metal. The two cylinders would push the metal down a chute until it engaged the shredding drum. They were controlled by one directional valve stack on a manifold. There were multiple hydraulic feedback devices sending signals to the unit’s computer. The above control circuit for the push cylinders (only one cylinder is shown) includes a counterbalance valve that was recently added with the thinking that they would keep the cylinders from stopping every few hours in midstroke. They were sure the computer was not the problem. They had to stop the machine, remove, and reinstall the counterbalance valve, and then the system would start up again. They replaced the directional valve and pilot-operated checks, but it did not help. The valve’s coil indicator light was on, and they would manually shift the directional valve, but it made no difference. I then asked what the pressure on the HPU read, and they said it was on the other side of the machine where the HPU was located, and the gauge was broke. The unit was running when I arrived and could not do much. What would you tell them to check the next time it failed?

Solution to January 2021 problem:

Intensifier Drops from Required Pressure after Several Hours The filter press circuit that started at 8,500 psi and dropped to 5,000 psi had two problems. The first was that the pilot-operated check was leaking; the second was that the four-way directional valve spool was scarred and leaking high-pressure fluid back to the tank. The air-over-oil intensifier could have been replaced with a larger output unit to fix the problem, but it was the leaking valves that caused the problem. The directional valve leakage increased as the oil heated up, and the 5,000-psi pressure drop would leak the entire intensifier output back to the tank. Increasing the oil viscosity could have been a possible fix, but the actual problem would still exist. Changing the directional valve and pilot-operated check valve stack solved the problem. We also pushed them to install a return line filter. There was no filter anywhere on the oil circuit. Visit www.fluidpowerjournal.com/figure-it-out to view previous problems. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

MARCH 2021


Bring It ON Digital Transformation in the ‘New Normal’

By Shaun Taylor, President, Global Machine Automation, Fluid Motion and Control, Europe, Middle East and Africa, at Emerson


emote workforces, social distancing, reduced labor efficiency – these are just a few of the buzzwords surrounding the “new normal” manufacturers have faced since the global pandemic. Unfortunately, these are also some of the challenges layered on top of existing production pressures. For many operators, the onslaught of concerns surrounding new technologies, climate change, labor shortages, and operational efficiency is causing an examination of their day-to-day operations. In this intersection of challenges and pressures, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) – and the digital transformation it enables – is poised to unleash an era of manufacturing that is more reliable, efficient, and sustainable than ever before.

Today’s real-world demands Despite the maturity of the technology found in many manufacturing facilities, competitive pressures have increased in some new and very specific ways. Understanding these operational and profitability challenges is the first step to facing them – and in preparing for longterm sustainability. 26

MARCH 2021

Leveraging IIoT • Technology. Choices in hydraulics, pneumatics, and electric motion systems are met with a variety of connectivity and analytic options, all of which must be properly integrated and adopted if a manufacturer is to fully understand their operations. • Sustainability. Helping customers reduce their carbon footprint and achieve their sustainability goals is no longer a luxury. Neither is running systems out of range, which uses excess energy and increases the likelihood of material waste. • Workforce. While faced with an aging workforce and subsequent loss of experience, digital transformation solutions present a significant opportunity to capture the attention of a younger generation more comfortable with data and analytics. • Safety. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the need to reduce unnecessary foot traffic and the exposure of individuals to one another. Manufacturers are adapting to the new normal of social distancing, remote workforces, and other pandemic-response measures that have resulted in reduced labor efficiency. Digital transformation can help manufacturers adjust their manual and time-intensive work processes to be safer and more efficient. • Overall equipment effectiveness. Maximizing productivity down to an individual machine level is necessary for understanding where efficiencies can be gained and costs can be reduced.

When properly leveraged, IIoT helps manufacturers connect islands of automation, unlock trapped machine data, and empower workers to deliver greater value. In a typical manufacturing facility, there may be dozens of machines that are involved in producing a finished product, and an inefficiency in one can create a cascading effect across the entire plant. By connecting individual machine “islands” and the data they individually provide, an operator can determine if one machine is running more efficiently than another and can spot potential issues before they become bigger problems. But connecting these islands of information isn’t just about data collection; it’s about extracting the most valuable insights and then piecing them together in ways that help operators make informed decisions. It’s also about starting with a scope that is both reasonable and understandable. For example, in a manufacturing plant that relies on pneumatic operations, the benefits of IIoT are realized most effectively by monitoring air usage within systems, which WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG

can easily be accomplished on just a few machines. Using sensors like the AVENTICS Series AF2 to measure airflow, the system can identify the machine exhibiting the problem and send alerts directly to maintenance staff. By starting at this more individualized, machine level, operators can obtain actionable insights without the need for heavy data analysis and quickly realize a reduction in costs, improved production quality, increased throughput, and, in the case of pneumatic systems, improved sustainability.

Achieving results today Information obtained through IIoT can disrupt the status quo and enable manufacturers to create future-ready operations with a quantifiable return on investment (ROI) they should start seeing in under 12 months. The key is to partner with the right device manufacturer to support the digital transformation and implement the appropriate solution.

The AVENTICS Series AF2 flow sensor.

• Scalability. By focusing on a specific problem or challenge, the initial project scope can be controlled and the results more easily quantified. At the same time, any solution should have the ability to scale for future needs and expectations; no one wants to add devices on top of existing devices. The ideal partner will be one who has a clear understanding of the long-term vision, not just individual devices, gateways, cloud services, or other singular systems. • Flexibility. Together with scalability, device flexibility is critical. This is most easily realized by choosing devices that rely on open communication systems and architectures. The industry is evolving quickly, and being locked into a proprietary solution can prevent an operator from taking advantage of the latest technologies. In the fluid power and motion control sector, there is not yet a single, industry-wide set of IIoT standards, which is why it’s critical for any solution to be as open and flexible as possible. • Portfolio. Leveraging technologies and solutions that use open IIoT protocols makes it easier to collect and share information. A manufacturer should look for edge devices that, in tandem with open protocols, can handle various technologies to help avoid unnecessary complexity in either operations or system architectures. The Emerson RXi2-LP industrial PC is one such device. Its vendor-agnostic PACEdge software runs nondeterministic applications to reduce latency and meet a variety of application-performance needs.

Emerson’s PACSystems RXi2-BP Edge computing device.

• Integration. Manufacturers should expect their device partners to assist with scoping a solution, including ROI estimates, device implementation, start-up commissioning, and long-term support. • Insights. In the short term, most IIoT applications are focused on streamlining maintenance, increasing efficiency, and monitoring processes. But over time, the discussion shifts to become less about the devices and more about the insights they can deliver. What will be critical is how a device manufacturer can help an operator maximize its IIoT investment and unlock the data the device generates. Adding IIoT-powered intelligence will become accessible to more businesses, and not having actionable insights will become a competitive disadvantage.

As we face the simultaneous demands of a changing world and ongoing competitive pressures by rethinking old paradigms and leveraging the power of IIoT, operations can move forward with greater confidence and a renewed ability to meet both present and long-term needs. 

Monitoring airflow over time can help detect leakage and alert staff of excessive air usage, enabling proactive maintenance and greater operational efficiency.


MARCH 2021


Ch-ch-ch Changes HOW EVOLVING ISO STANDARDS AFFECT HYDRAULIC FLANGES By Robert Mackey, President, MAIN Manufacturing

The world of large hydraulic connectors is dominated by flanges of one sort or another. If you need to raise a city-block-square offshore oil platform 30 meters into the air, or sit in the axle of a dump truck to work its brakes, or work plates of steel, aluminum, and other materials to a usable dimension, you are probably working with flanges. Three ISO standards concern themselves with hydraulic flanges: ISO 6164, ISO 6162-1, and ISO 6162-2. There are also several national standards and several special manufacturers’ designs. This article discusses recent changes to ISO 6164.

The ISO 6164 standard The ISO 6164 hydraulic flange standard was first adopted by the International Standards Organization in 1994 at the same time as ISO 6162 (SAE J518). It describes a hydraulic connector called a flange that can connect to a mounting pad or similar ISO 6164 flange. Although the standard’s title indicates that it is a one-piece fitting, it actually consists of three pieces – a flange head, a flange clamp (collar), and an elastomeric seal. The one piece refers to the fact that the flange collar is not split into two sections like the ISO 6162 flange. It uses an elastomeric seal.

the ISO 6164 mounting pads as a basis for custom, nonstandard components. Flanges based on the ISO 6164 standard found their way into many industries, such as offshore, chemical, and steel mills. For identification purposes, the most consistent feature about flanges based on ISO 6164 is the mounting pattern. A mounting pattern consists of the mounting hole spacing, hole quantity, and through hole or tap size. Many international experts considered that “based on” is different than “according to.” “Based on” to them means that the items listed do not conform to the standard but are similar in function, though not necessarily form and dimension. Flange heads and clamp styles vary significantly and can be merged to a onepiece design, but the mounting pad dimension and screw sizes are the same. MAIN Manufacturing makes flanges to the standard, but our “based on” variation is one piece, combining both flange head and flange clamp, and is a more popular design. The only drawback of using the mounting pad is that it must be measured fairly accurately (± 0.25 mm [±.010 inches]). The reason is the whole numbers of the measurement can be based on the centerline of diagonal holes (bolt circle), or adjacent holes (bolt square). Those base numbers may be in the imperial or metric systems. Between 98 mm bolt circle (2.728 inches bolt square) and 4-inch bolt circle (2.828 inches bolt square) are seven standardized patterns.

MEASURE CAREFULLY - TO 0.010 Patterns between 2.728 & 2.825 on the Bolt Square (BSq)

Flange to flange

Flange to port

Side view

2.728 (98 mm BC) 2.740 (3.875 BC)

1. O-ring 2. Flange clamp 3. Flange head 4. Screw 5. Flange pad


MARCH 2021

ISO 6164-1994 had two maximum pressure ratings: 25 MPa (3,600 psi) and 40 MPa (5,800 psi). The standard covered size ranges from DN10 (about 3/8 inches) to DN80 (about 3 inches). It had a minimum design factor of 2.5. It was based on an earlier DIN standard. The DIN standard had several key design elements in which the dimensions were “to be determined between the manufacturer and the user.” Even with this flexibility the standard was not widely adhered to, but many companies used

2.750 (2.750 BSq) 2.756 (70 mm BSq) 2.785 (100 mm BC) 2.825 (2.825 BSq) 2.828 (4.000 BC)


ISO 6164 flange mounting pad patterns are based on bolt circles. Other flange standards such as CETOP and some company standards, such as some of those by Oilgear, use bolt circles as well. Flanges to Japanese standards, such as B2291, and some company standards, such as the old Vickers flanges, use bolt squares. If measuring an existing item, there are manufacturing tolerances to consider as well. MAIN’s website (https://mainmanufacturing.com/pdf/ measure.pdf) and Fluid Power Journal’s website (https://fluidpowerjournal.com/?p=8506) provide tips for making the measurements. Unfortunately, you cannot rely on manufacturer’s specifications because several manufacturers include items like flanges larger than DN 80 under the banner of ISO 6164 that are not based on any elements of ISO 6164. Flanges said to be to ISO 6164 that have mounting pads not included in the box at the right are of dubious origin. The box shows ISO 6164 mounting patterns per size.

ISO 6164 Mounting Pad and Screw Size

Changes in ISO 6164-2018 Several items have changed in ISO 6164-2018. These changes include the series and sizes offered, flange-head sizes, assembly instruction changes, testing, and materials. Components manufactured to the 1994 edition can be used with the 2018 components if both are manufactured to the appropriate standard, but it might be advisable to not interchange them. The changes taken together allowed the design factor to be increased from a minimum of 2.5 to a minimum of 4. A design factor is the minimum multiplier from design loads that the designer uses to account for installation variability, such as actual material and dimensional values (not theoretical values); material changes such as corrosion, fatigue, and wear over the life of the component; unexpected load increases such as pressure spikes and gauge variability; and a host of other issues. It helps account for lack of knowledge concerning the specifics of the actual situation. If a user decides to encroach into this area, it may work for a period, but Murphy says that it may fail at the worst possible time. The 1994 edition of ISO 6164 specified two maximum-rated working pressures series: 25 MPa and 40 MPa (3,626 psi and 5,802 psi). The 25 MPa series used the same mounting pads as the 40 MPa series but with different clamps and flange heads. The 2018 edition eliminated the 25 MPa series to avoid confusion and to decrease the possibility of interchanging components from other series. The maximum rated working pressure increased 40 MPa to 42 MPa (5,802 psi to 6,092 psi) to correspond to common system pressures that exist in the marketplace. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

Both ISO 6162 and ISO 6164 flanges are generally used in larger connections. The ISO 6164-2018 eliminated the DN 10 through DN 19 sizes due to lack of use. These sizes are covered by other connector types. The new edition also decreased the depths of the flange-head counterbores on several sizes of clamps to increase the strength of the clamp. This change is relatively minor in the 0.6 mm (.023 inches) or less range and can be hard to see. Two flange-head sizes in the new edition have larger outside diameters. The DN 63 and DN 80 sizes change by up to 6 mm (.24 inches) in diameter. The new edition did not change the outside diameter of the counterbore in the flange clamp, and the ISO 6164 clamp counterbores will physically accommodate the new flange heads. Another change is in the material. The 1994 edition called out material equivalent to Fe 510C steel. In the thicknesses involved, the yield strength ranges from 295-345 MPa (43-50 kpsi) and tensile strength ranging from 450-630 MPa (65-91 kpsi). The new edition calls for a minimum yield strength of 330 MPa (48 kpsi). This increase makes several grades of stainless steel, such as AISI 304, 304L, 316, and 316L, nonviable options without extensive cold working, which reduces the corrosion resistance to some extent. It also means that lower carbon-content carbon steels should also be cold worked to achieve the increased yield strength as well. Another big change is in the assembly procedure. The 1994 edition did not really have any assembly instructions other than matching the component series and sizes and using the

system fluid to lubricate the O-ring. The screw torque values were for “lubricated” screws, meaning oil of some sort. The 2018 edition has an annex dealing with assembly and proper screw tightening in X pattern. It also requires the use of molybdenum disulfide paste lubrication under the screw head and the screw threads. The amount that the screws are tightened and torque values changed as well, both increasing and decreasing. This is critical to achieving the higher design factors and not snapping the screw while tightening it.

Creating ISO standards This article discussed the ISO 6164 standard and its revisions in the new edition to give designers and users insight into when to question suppliers and manufacturers. The standard is the basis for many special components, some of which have been proven over long usage and testing. It is a good idea to buy the standard and know what is in it instead of relying on sales people for the information. Interested fluid power professionals can consider joining SAE or NFPA technical committees, where standards are proposed and modified. Within fluid power, the SAE committees tend to be U.S.-based, while NFPA handles the U.S. technical advisory groups to ISO. Members include users, producers, distributers, educators, and other interested parties. For more information, visit www.sae.org or www.nfpa.com. 

MARCH 2021




Practical Design for Fluid Power Motion Control

Valves, Pumps, and Manifolds

Practical Design for Fluid Power Motion Control by Delta Computer Systems President Peter Nachtwey is a free guide to effective hydraulic design. The advice given in this practical guide will help you build machines optimized for precise position and pressure/force control, ensuring that both the hydraulics, electrics, and controls are tuned for performance and precision. Request your FREE copy at deltamotion.com.



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Part number

Part description

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Number of parts


Swing hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

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Weight (kg)


Swing circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

16 x 2062 - cap


Travel hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

16 x 2462U - purple FlangeLockTM



Travel circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

16 x 2462 - cap


Applicable machines FRONTATTFLGLCK326162

Front attachment Number of parts FlangeLockTM kit

8.9 9.5

Part number

Part description

Weight (kg) EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

14 x 3262U - black FlangeLockTM 4 x 3261U - black & silver FlangeLockTM


Swing hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 FRONTATTCAP326162

16 x 2062U - red FlangeLockTM Front attachment cap kit

6.7 EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

14 x 3262 - cap 4 x 3261 - cap


Swing circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 BOOMARCHFLGLCK3262

Boom arch hose 16 x 2062 - cap FlangeLockTM kit

4.5 EX3600, EX5600, EX8000


Travel hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 BOOMARCHCAP3262


Travel circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000


Front attachment FlangeLockTM kit


Front attachment cap kit


Boom arch hose FlangeLockTM kit


Boom arch hose cap kit

16 x 2462U - purple FlangeLockTM 7.7 Boom arch hose cap kit EX3600, EX5600, EX8000 16 x 2462 - cap

20 x 3262U - black FlangeLockTM


20 x 3262 - cap


Stop the Mess

CONTAMINATION CONTROL 14 x 3262U - black FlangeLock


Stops Leaking Hydraulic Lines.

THE ULTIMATE • No Tools Required CONTAMINATION The FlangeLock tool and caps are the ultimate contamination control tools for protecting your hydraulic system. The FlangeLock allows for the simple sealing of open hydraulic flanges without tools while the caps can be bolted in place of a flange connection. • No Expensive CONTROL Easy on, easy off, they offer aTOOL leak-proof solution to hydraulic systems and environmental cleanliness. FlangeLock tools and caps Hardware Needed EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

20 x 3262U - black FlangeLockTM


20 x 3262 - cap



EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

• No more Rags stuffed into hoses • No more messy Plastic Caps number of FlangeLocks * and caps to help reduce contamination. FLANGELOCK TOOL AND CIRCUIT BLANKING CAPS *Note: FlangeLocks are not to be used under pressure • The Ultimate Contamination Control Tool • One hand Installation ACHI MAKING CONTAMINATION CONTROL EASY chi have packaged FlangeLock tool and caps specifically for Hitachi mining excavators. The Hitachi customised • Eliminate Hydraulic Oil Spills & Clean up make sure no matter which component routine maintenance is being performed on, you will always have the exact ber of FlangeLocks * and caps to help reduce contamination. • Quick Installation & Ease of Usage e: FlangeLocks are not to be used under pressure • Industry Acclaimed Call you local Hitachi Muswellbrook representative • Safe fororPersonnel & Environment the branch on 02 6541 6300 for more information. • 50% Reduction of Labor Costs • 100% Made in USA ™

™ ™ protecting your hydraulic system. The FlangeLock FlangeLock™ tool and caps are the ultimate contamination control tools for s for the simple sealing of open hydraulic flanges without tools while the caps can be bolted in place of a flange connection. on, easy off, they offer a leak-proof solution to hydraulic systems and environmental cleanliness. FlangeLock™ tools and caps the mess.

Call you local Hitachi Muswellbrook representative or the branch on 02 6541 6300 for more information.

FlangeLock 203.861.9400 • sales@flangelock.com www.flangelock.com

Hydraulex Repair Services Our Repair Services Brochure covers the types of components (pumps, motors, final drives, valves, control cards, amplifiers and cylinders) we can repair, why we’re an excellent choice for your repair needs, and also how the repair process works. View or download it by visiting our website at www.hydraulex.com.

Hydraulex Toll Free: 800.422.4279 Tel: 586.949.4240 Email: sales@hydraulex.com www.hydraulex.com





320.743.2276 | info@doering.com www.doering.com

FluiDyne Fluid Power A4V Piston Pumps


8.9 EX3600,and EX5600, EX8000 maintenance of hydraulic systems Routine scheduled 4 x 3261U - black & silver FlangeLockTM are vital to getting the most out of your Hitachi Mining Excavator. While maintenance plays the largest role in the prevention of unnecessary machine downtime, it can also expose the hydraulic system TM 14 x 3262 - cap EX5600,ofEX8000 9.5 toEX3600, high levels contamination rapidly decreasing component longevity. The importance of contamination control is sometimes 4 x 3261 - cap overlooked when performing maintenance due to incorrect practices being used.

stop the mess. ne and scheduled maintenance of hydraulic systems are vital to getting the most out of your Hitachi Mining Excavator. While MAKING EASY system tenance plays the largest role in the prevention ofHITACHI unnecessary machineCONTAMINATION downtime, it can also CONTROL expose the hydraulic ™ gh levels of contamination rapidly decreasing component longevity. The importance of contamination control is sometimes Hitachi have packaged FlangeLock tool and caps specifically for Hitachi mining excavators. The Hitachi customised ooked when performing maintenance due to incorrect practices being used. which component routine maintenance is being performed on, you will always have the exact kits make sure no matter ™




© 2015 Doering Company, LLC. All rights reserved.

When you need a hydraulic valve, hydraulic hand pump or a hydraulic manifold have confidence in Doering to deliver high-quality products that meet demanding performance requirements. For over 50 years, our customers have trusted Doering in critical applications which include products on the International Space Station to sub-sea and everywhere in between. contact us now to discuss your hydraulic project.

MARCH 2021

FluiDyne Fluid Power stocks A4V series piston pumps. They carry a complete line of A4V piston pumps that are available in displacement of: 40, 71, 125, 180, 250. Controls include: DR, DRG, FR, FRG, DFR, and LR2. They are available in SAE, thru drive or metric. The versatile A4V units carry the industry leading 18 month warranty. Units are fully tested, documented and guaranteed to perform 100% to the original manufacturer’s specification. FluiDyne Fluid Power 586.296.7200 sales@fluidynefp.com www.fluidynefp.com

Compressed Air Filtration Brochure offers a comprehensive overview of the company’s complete line of compressed air filtration products. Highlighted is the patented family of Extractor/Dryers. These two-stage, point of use filters remove contaminates to a 5-micron rating with flow ranges of 15 to 2,000 scfm. Additional products available include the SuperStar Membrane Dryer, .01 Micron Filter, Refrigerated Extractor/ Dryer, and much more. La-Man Corporation 800.348.2463 www.laman.com



Hydraulic Flanges and Components

Hydraulic Live Swivels Catalog

New 120 page catalog includes popular styles of MAIN Manufacturing’s extensive offering of carbon and stainless Hydraulic Flanges and Components – ready for immediate shipment. Metric ordering information, weld specs, and dimensional information included. The “Quick Reference Guide” helps specify less popular items often stocked or quickly manufactured (generally 3-4 days) at our US plant.

Inline and 90° hydraulic live swivels. Available in sizes from 1/8" to 2-1/2", rated to 10,000 PSI, heat treated, superior quality alloy steel, chrome or stainless steel ball bearings, withstands heavy side loads, burnished (micro smooth) barrel bores, Viton®, Aflas®, or Teflon® encapsulated seals, zinc or nickel plated, available in 304 and 440 stainless steel, full flow - low pressure drop, rebuilding kits available.

MAIN Manufacturing Products, Inc. Grand Blanc, MI 800.521.7918; FAX: 810.953.1385 E-mail: info@mainmfg.com www.mainmfg.com/fpj

HIGH FLOW PROPORTIONAL FLOW CONTROL • 16MM to 50mm • Standard ISO 7368 and DIN 24342 cavity • High performance 5,000 psi • On board amplifier • 0-10 volt command


Super Swivels Phone: 763.784.5531 Fax: 763.784.7423 Website: www.superswivels.com



Pumps · Motors · Valves · Servo/Proportional

Phone: 989.984.0800 Toll Free: 1.877.ALMO. NOW Fax: 989.984.0830

Email, call or fax with a list of your Surplus. We’ll provide you with a price offer! 1-800-422-4279 | 586-949-4240 Fax: 586-949-5302 | surplus@hydraulex.com


Huge Inventory. #10-32,1/8”, 1/4”, 3/8”. Flows from 28 to 1,700 l/min. Available at www.clippard.com.

IN STOCK FROM 25MM TO 80MM MANY COVERS IN STOCK • Pressure, Flow, Directional • Large Flow 90° Valves


• Single DIN blocks • Active Valves • Monitored Poppets

Phone: 989.984.0800 Toll Free: 1.877.ALMO. NOW Fax: 989.984.0830

MAIN Mfg. Products, Inc. 800.521.7918 fax 810.953.1385 www.MAINMFG.com/fpj


The correct answers to Test Your Skills on page 23 is 1.b and 2.a.

ADVERTISER INDEX Company....................................................... Page........................Phone.................................................................. Website Airtec Pneumatics Inc..............................................14............... 630-543-0265.......................................................www.airtec-usa.com Assured Automation..................................................24............... 800-899-0553............... https://assuredautomation.com/anglevalve Bimba Manufacturing Company.............. Inside back............... 800-442-4622............................................................. www.bimba.com CFC-Solar....................................................................25............1-513-874-3225............................................... cfcindustrialtraining.com Clippard Instrument Lab Inc......................Back cover............... 877-245-6247.......................................................... www.clippard.com DELTA Computer Systems Inc..............................9, 30............1-360-254-8688.............................................................deltamotion.com Doering Company................................................21, 30............1-320-743-2276.....................................................................doering.com Flange Lock............................................................8, 30............... 203-861-9400...................................................... www.flangelock.com Fluidyne Fluid Power.......................................7, 14, 30............... 586-296-7200 ......................................................www.fluidynefp.com Hydraulex..........................................................3, 15, 30............1-800-323-8416....................................................... www.hydraulex.com


Company....................................................... Page........................Phone.................................................................. Website Hydraulics, Inc......................................................19, 24............... 817-923-1965................................................. www.hydraulicsinc.com Inserta Products...........................................................5............... 215-643-0192 ........................................................... www.inserta.com La-Man Corp...............................................................30............... 800-348-2463 ............................................................ www.laman.com Lubriplate, Inc............................................. Inside front............... 800-733-4755........................................................ www.lubriplate.com Main Manufacturing Products Inc.....................15, 31............1-800-521-7918.................................................. www.mainmfg.com/fpj MOCAP INC................................................................24............... 800-633-6775 ........................................................... www.mocap.com Peninsular Cylinder Co. Inc.......................................20............1-800-526-7968...................................... www.peninsularcylinders.com Super Swivels.............................................................31............1-763-784-5531..................................................www.superswivels.com Wilkes & McLean Ltd...........................................19, 24............... 877-534-6445..........................................www.wilkesandmclean.com Yates Industries Inc...............................................1, 24............... 586-778-7680..........................................................www.yatesind.com

MARCH 2021


SUBSCRIBE BY MAIL FILL OUT THIS CARD COMPLETELY, DETACH, AND MAIL OR FAX IT TO START YOUR SUBSCRIPTION MAIL TO: PO BOX 2548 • ORLANDO, FL 32802-9830 • FAX: 1-866-207-1450 YOU CAN ALSO SUBSCRIBE ONLINE AT WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM. 01  YES! Please start/continue my complimentary subscription to the Fluid Power Journal Signature (required)

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Please Type or Print Clearly: First Name

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 Check here if you would like to keep your name, address, phone and fax numbers confidential, and not released to third parties The address above is my:  Home Address  Business Address Which edition would you like to receive?  Print  Digital  Both (View a sample of our PAPERLESS digital edition at www.fluidpowerjournal.com) 1. Do you specify, select or influence the purchase of components & systems, on new or existing machinery? If yes, which technologies? (check all that apply) 05  Hydraulic 06  Pneumatic 07  Vacuum 08  Electronic Controls

03  Yes

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09  None of These

2. What is your primary job title? (check only one) 10  Administration: Chairman, President, V.P., Secretary, Treasury, General Manager, Owner, Business Manager, Director, etc. 11  Plant Operations: VP of Manufacturing/ Operation/ Production, Plant Management/ Director/ Manager/ Supervisor/ Superintendent/ Foreman/ Safety Director, etc. 12  Engineering: V.P. Eng., Eng., Design Eng., Director of Eng., Staff Specialist, Chief Eng., Senior Eng., Maintenance/Production Eng., etc. 13  Technical: Chief Tech., Fluid Power Tech., etc. 14  Mechanical: Chief Master Mech., Master Mech., Fluid Power Mech., etc. 15  Purchasing: VP/Director of Purch., Procurement Manager, Buyer, Purch., etc. 16  Other: (please specify)_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Number of employees at this location? A  1-19 B  20-49 C  50-99

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4. What is the primary business activity at this location? In the Fluid Power Industry, Outside the Fluid Power Industry 56  Manufacturer 57  Distributor 58  Education 59  Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) 61  Other: (please specify)__________________________________________ 5. Which of the following best describes your market focus? A  Aerospace A  Marine & Offshore Equipment B  Agricultural Machinery B  Material Handling Equipment C  Automotive C  Mining Machinery D  Civil Engineering D  Packaging Machinery E  Cranes E  Plastic Machinery F  Drills & Drilling Equip. F  Presses & Foundry G  Flame Cutting/Welding Equip. G  Railroad Machinery H  Food Machinery H  Road Construct/Maint. Equip. I  Forestry I  Simulators & Test Equipment J  Furnaces J  Snow Vehicles, Ski Lifts K  Gas & Oilfield Machinery K  Steel Plants & Rolling Mills L  Heavy Construction & Equip. L  Truck & Bus Industry M  Military Vehicles M  Textile Machinery N  Construction & Utility Equip. N  Woodworking Machines O  Machine Tools O  Other (specify)_____________ P  Government Related P  Fluid Power Industry

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PA Series

More NFPA Actuator Options Than Ever Before

TAS Series


PA Series

TA Series

Bore Range

1.50 – 4.00”

1.50 – 12.00”

Rod Diameters

One diameter per bore size

Multiple diameters per bore size

Mounting Options



Flush Mount Option







Auto-Cushion Standard

Adjustable & Fixed Optional


Original Ecology Seal

Bumper Piston Seal Optional

Temperature Rating

+25 – 175°F

-20 – 200°F

Steel Body Option



Market Price



FM Series

TD Series

*with TAS steel body option

Bimba’s PA Series is the perfect complement to our NFPA actuator line. It offers set bore sizes and rod diameters for a simple, straightforward counterpoint to the highly configurable TA Series. Standard designs and features provide the versatility your pneumatic applications need, at a price that can’t be beat. Find out more www.bimba.com

TA Series

Take Control with Cordis E L E C T R O N I C P R E S S U R E R E G U L AT I O N

• Resolution ≤5 mV • Accuracy ±0.25% of full scale • Real-time adjustable PID control • Integrated 0 to 10 VDC, 4-20 mA signal, or 3.3 VDC serial communication

The future of proportional control has arrived— and it’s digital. The Clippard Cordis is a revolutionary microcontroller primed for escape velocity from a proportional control market that has grown stagnant. With unparalleled performance and flexibility not possible with current analog proportional controllers, the Cordis makes everything from calibration, to sensor variety, to future development opportunities more accessible and less complicated.

• 0 to 10 VDC feedback pressure monitor • Virtually silent • No integral bleed required • Multiple pressure ranges from vacuum to 150 psig • 2.7 to 65 l/min flow control

Precise, Linear Digital Pressure Control Contact your distributor today to learn more about how the Cordis can provide precise, real-time control for your application, or visit clippard.com to request more information.


Profile for Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc.

Fluid Power Journal March 2021