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Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

意大利文化遗产的科 技及多媒体创新之旅

Organizers 承办单位

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Co-organizers 协办单位

19/09/11 17:42


Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

意大利文化遗产的科 技及多媒体创新之旅

2011 Beijing International Exchange Event for Science, Technology & Economy 5th Beijing – Italy Week for Science, Technology, Economy and Culture – SIEE 2011 2011年北京国际科技经贸展览洽谈活动 年第五届北京-意大利科技经贸周


Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Fondazione IDIS – Città della Scienza

Dipartimento Patrimonio Culturale Director Maria Mautone

President Vittorio Silvestrini Grand Tour in Italy. Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage Beijing International Exchange Event For Science, Technology & Economy 5th Beijing - Italy Week for Science, Technology, Economy and Culture, SIEE 2011 22nd-24th September 2011

Scientific Committee Heleni Porfyriou, ICVBC (coordinator) Luciano Cessari, ITABC Uberto Siola, Fondazione Internazionale Studi di Architettura Alessandra Drioli, Fondazione IDIS Anna Lucia D’Agata, ICEVO Giuseppe Garbati, ISCIMA Nicola Masini, IBAM Maria Mautone, DPC Augusto Palombini, ITABC Vincenzo Bellelli, ISCIMA Texts Vincenzo Bellelli, Luciano Cessari, Anna Lucia D’Agata, Francesco Gabellone, Giuseppe Garbati, Elena Gigliarelli, Nicola Masini, Augusto Palombini, Eva Pietroni, Heleni Porfyriou, Roberto Scopigno Multimedia applications developed by Matteo Dellepiane, Francesco Gabellone, Elena Gigliarelli, Eva Pietroni, Roberto Scopigno Graphics and design Antonella Chieffo, CUEN Annalisa Granatino

Organizers 承办单位

Co-organizers 协办单位


Table of contents Italy from tradition to innovation: a land of great history and rich cultural heritage but able to produce innovation Vittorio Silvestrini 5 The mission of the Cultural Heritage Department, CNR Maria Mautone 7 Sustainable cities between history and technology Umberto Siola 9 Introduction 11 List of CNR-DPC Institutes

Discovering the Past. Methodologies and techniques for the study and enhancement of archaeological sites

The Mediterranean – One region, one hundred regions Bringing the past back to life. History and archaeology in the CNR Institutes The landscape as a source of historical information. The archaeological survey From earth to history. The archaeological excavation From excavations to museums. Artefacts and their life stories The past belongs to everybody. Historical reconstruction, dissemination and IT techniques

A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage. Research and innovative technologies for a sustainable renaissance of built heritage

Italy – One country, one thousand cities of art The Italian approach to restoration and the new strategies Material historical evidence is a non-renewable resource: Damage assessment Monitoring: The first step towards sustainable conservation Innovative technologies and approaches for sustainable conservation Enhancement and sustainable fruition

Museums in perspective. Techniques for the conservation and communication of memory

Museums and multimediality Virtual Museums Digital technologies for the enhancement and communication of the cultural heritage From Real to Virtual: Restoring or reconstructing

The Grand Tour

The Castle of Zena, a “smart monument” between past and future The virtual exploration of the Scrovegni Chapel A precious casket: The Scrovegni Chapel in Padua CENOBIUM – A project for the multimedia representation of Romanesque cloister capitals in the Mediterranean Region Museo Galileo. Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence Museo Galileo. An innovative video-guide “The Confirmation of the Rule”: Virtual experience in Giotto’s space “Life and power in ancient Rome” The virtual museum of the ancient Via Flaminia: The Villa of Livia “Matera: tales of a city”

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Italy from tradition to innovation: a land of great history and rich cultural heritage but able to produce innovation This is the heart of the Exhibition project on Cultural heritage, that has been arranged by the CNR-DPC and Foundation IDIS. The exposition path involves a virtual voyage into Italian cultural heritage, thanks to the installations of the Cultural Heritage Department of CNR, those of the Museum of History of Science in Florence, the Virtual Museum of Archaeology in Herculaneum and many others. the “International Foundation for Architectural Studies” designed an exhibition format easily exportable and adaptable to other contexts. It shows the most modern and innovative techniques of virtual and multimedia representations allow the visitor to “be dipped” into the exposition, but without forgetting – through the simulation and insights – Italian skills and expertise on the restoration, protection, preservation and detecting. These skills want to be proposed and developed abroad, from a big country like China, which is increasingly paying attention to the enhancement and the recovery of assets and cultural heritage. This exhibition project, presented in this catalogue, is a dynamic project, gradually increasable and adaptable and is now available to Chinese and Italian institutions. It will have concrete and practical implementation in 2012, also thanks to the agreement with the Beijing Association for Science and Technology and the Beijing Science and Technology Consulting Center. It aims at promoting the knowledge and skills of Italy and enhancing the cultural excellence. VITTORIO SILVESTRINI President of Foundation IDIS – Città della Scienza

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The mission of the Cultural Heritage Department of the National Research Council of Italy The National Research Council (CNR) is Italy’s most important public research agency. Its mission is to carry out and promote research activities in the main sectors of knowledge and their application in a scientific, technological, economic, humanistic and social context. The mission of CNR’s Cultural Heritage Department (DPC) is to develop research and sustainable strategy plans for the knowledge, diagnosis, conservation, enhancement, fruition and management of the cultural heritage in a national and international context, with a special emphasis on the Mediterranean basin. In order to achieve this mission the DPC has focused on a multidisciplinary approach to humanistic, scientific and technological knowledge as its priority strategy. The synergic action of very different professional skills is validated by the Department’s organization into 5 core institutes and 24 collaborating institutes. Owing to its extensive network of Institutes throughout Italy and constant role in international projects DPC, in line with the policies of the European Union, contributes to developing a policy of social and economic integration of the cultural heritage and to Italy’s prestigious role in this field. MARIA MAUTONE Director of Cultural Heritage Department of National Research Council of Italy

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Sustainable cities between history and technology

The city is today once again a central issue in modern thought, against a tendency that in recent years, through a misunderstood concern about nature and sustainability, has led people to regard natural and built environment as distinct and even conflicting realities. The conflict between natura naturans and natura naturata has blown up in full view causing permanent damages, if we are led to think that it had a part in discouraging any form of political concern about and for the city. There are – or there were – positions that appear to be on the defensive from the points of view of cultural heritage and the environment. This attitude should change radically, however. There can be no defensive attitude when thinking in terms of design culture: architecture, cultural heritage and the environment must work together and transform the city otherwise no significant results can be obtained. A city which does not respect the environment or where monuments do not play a crucial role is meaningless, as there is no future for a conservation of monuments that does not take into account the shape of the city. And the environment itself is meaningless, if it is reduced to its natural dimension alone and is viewed as being in contrast with the city as the place where people live. Nevertheless today we are again discussing about the city both because of how much it implies in terms of quality of everyday life, and because of the rehabilitation of one of the great issues of modern thought, that is the city in general terms. People want the city and this is the case not only in those countries as China that are imposing their presence on the world scene in a strong-willed way and are experiencing urbanization processes at a rate which is unknown to us. The issue of the city and its culture is probably even more crucial and strategic to Europe and Italy: it is a culture that is likely to survive only if it proudly preserves its real culture, that is the culture of the city. The civilization we belong to views the city as the expression of the culture of a people, and that must be our starting point. We are fascinated by cities because each is different, and this is because they are collective creations; they are collective works of art, because people have built them with patience. Cities are “specific” because every people has left its imprint, its history, its roots on them. Opposed to this cultural reality is the more general “modern fake”, whereby cities are the same in very different countries of the world. This loss of specificity is evidence of our incapability of interpreting history and transforming our history into works and cities that are modern but unique at the same time. The exhibition Gran Tour in Italy wants to narrate these unique cities that Italy has built and wants to narrate the right way to use modern technologies mediating between the solutions of the past and the needs of the contemporary urban organism in adapting to the various needs of the present time. Technology can and should be used for the preservation of our cultural heritage and the environment, to make ‘sustainable’ the contemporary life but the city must continue, from an aesthetic point of view, to express the values that have been conveyed by our history. To tackle a standardization which does not only involve our urban centres but risks to affect our cultural patterns as well, these are the cities we have to design. UBERTO SIOLA President of International Foundation of Advanced Studies in Architecture

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Introduction

The exhibition Grand Tour in Italy. Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage was organized by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-DPC), Rome, in order to present methods and results of its own research to the Chinese public. As it is well known, Italy is one of the European countries with the richest cultural heritage, an obvious statement since the days of the Grand Tour in the 18th century. The exhibition and its catalogue were aimed to give evidence of the specific approach to cultural heritage adopted by DPC, and of its synergic action as expressed through numerous projects carried out all over Italy and the Mediterranean area. The DPC approach is mainly multidisciplinary. Furthermore, it combines an integrated humanistic-and-scientific vision with sustainability and new digital technologies. The Grand Tour in Italy itinerary is intended as a broad window on cultural heritage research in Italy.

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The Cultural Heritage Department (DPC) of National Research Council of Italy includes Institutes with different professional skills and knowledges. DPC Core Institutes IBAM – Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali ICEVO – Istituto di Studi sulle Civiltà dell’Egeo e del Vicino Oriente ICVBC – Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali ISCIMA – Istituto di Studi sulle Civiltà Italiche e del Mediterraneo Antico ITABC – Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali Institutes partecipating to DPC CERIS – Istituto di Ricerca sull’Impresa e lo Sviluppo IAC – Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo ICIS – Istituto di Chimica Inorganica e delle Superfici IDPA – Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali IFAC – Istituto di Fisica Applicata “Nello Carrara” IVALSA – Istituto per la Valorizzazione del Legno e delle Specie Arboree IGAG – Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria IIA – Istituto sull’Inquinamento Atmosferico ILC – Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale IMAA – Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale IMATI – Istituto di Matematica Applicata e Tecnologie Informatiche IMC – Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche INOA – Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata IRAT – Istituto di Ricerche sulle Attività Terziarie ISAC – Istituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima ISEM – Istituto di Storia dell’Europa Mediterranea ISMAR – Istituto di Scienze Marine ISM – Istituto di Struttura della Materia ISOF – Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività ISSM – Istituto di Studi sulle Società del Mediterraneo ISTC – Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione ISTEC – Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici ISTI – Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell’Informazione “Alessandro Faedo” ITC – Istituto per le Tecnologie delle Costruzioni www.dpc.cnr.it


Discovering the Past. Methodologies and techniques for the study and enhancement of archaeological sites 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

The Mediterranean – One region, one hundred regions

地中海——一片地域, 一百多个城邦

Within the Mediterranean, a closed sea 3,500 km long, the history of Italy has developed over thousands of years. The ancient Greeks thought of the Mediterranean as an organic whole, with a life of its own. Fernand Braudel, one of the greatest modern historians, considered it as a unit made up of innumerable small regions, each one different from the other. The Mediterranean area is a highly distinctive region in which coastlines, plains lined with rivers and mountains succeed each other over small distances, giving rise to adjoining micro-regions that differ greatly as to geomorphology, climate and resources. Its main features are therefore the extreme fragmentation, in environmental terms, of the regions overlooking the Mediterranean and, on the other hand, easy communication by sea, which has had a unifying effect on this fragmentation. Regular trading throughout the Mediterranean greatly affected the nature of the societies that developed around it. The basic structural unit of the Mediterranean historical landscape is the city, which dates back at least as far as the second millennium BC. Mediterranean cities are characterised by extraordinarily continuous settlement, deeply-rooted historical memory and a great capacity for change, which gives them a special cultural identity. This is the distinctive area where most of the CNR projects centred on cultural heritage are carried out.

在地中海这片长约3500千米的封闭海洋中, 意大利的历史已经延续了近万年。古希腊人认为 地中海是一个有机的整体,并拥有自己的生命。 费尔南德·布劳德是最伟大的现代历史学家之 一,他认为地中海是由无数个小城邦组成的一个 整体,每一个城邦都独具特色。 地中海是一片极为与众不同的地域。在这 里,海岸线与伴有河流山川的内陆平原就在这片 狭小的空间里划分了相互间的领地。也由此导致 彼此接壤的小城邦们,却因为地理、气候和资 源而变得截然不同。因此就自然条件而言,一方 面,它使得这些极度零散的小城邦能够鸟瞰地中 海;另一方面,由于便利的海上交通和联系,它 又使得这些城邦无一例外的受益于此。而这些正 是地中海的特色。持续的贸易遍及地中海各处, 这极大地影响了围绕地中海发展并建立起来的各 种社会形态。 回望地中海区域的历史脉络,城邦是最基本 的社会结构单元,其历史可以追溯至公元前两千 年之久。持续不断的移民与定居、久远深刻的历 史记忆,及其所饱经沧桑的变化,极大地赋予了 地中海城邦以独特的文化气息。CNR大部分有关 文化遗产的项目多在此区域内实施,因为这是欧 洲最具特色的一片土地。

1.1

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past 1.2

1.1 The Mediterranean is a closed sea 3,500 km long, within which

the history of Italy has developed over thousands of years. This is also the distinctive area where most of the CNR projects centred on cultural heritage are carried out.

1.2 Climate, vegetation and the natural distribution of the olive are used to indicate the physical boundaries of the Mediterranean. They are marked in red on this map. 1.3 Rome. The Roman Forum. 1.4 Cerveteri (Rome). Etruscan necropolis of Banditaccia.

1.3

1.4

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

Bringing the past back to life. History and archaeology in the CNR Institutes

让历史复活——CNR研究院的 历史与考古学

The most characteristic element of the research carried out on cultural heritage by CNR is the constant integration between scientific knowledge and humanistic learning. Archaeology and history focus on the study of societies of the past through the traces left by man, either in the environment in which he operated, or through the written texts that have survived some civilisations. While the knowledge required to decode written sources is essentially of a humanistic nature, the two basic tools of research as regards the traces left by man in the environment – such as a settlement or a necropolis or a shrine – are archaeological excavation and archaeological survey. However, many more techniques and skills may be involved before arriving at an overall comprehension of the site or area under investigation. From geomorphology to topography, from typological seriation models to history of art, from bioarchaeology, which studies organic remains, to archaeozoology and paleoanthropology, which study animal and human remains, innumerable disciplines contribute towards providing a scientific basis to archaeological research. They make it possible to quantify and therefore assess the order of magnitude of many aspects of the history of mankind.

若提及CNR文化遗产项目的实施最具特色 之处,当属其将自然科学与人文知识进行持续 的融合。无论是从在人类曾经活动过的环境之 中,还是以文本形式记录并保存下来的文明, 我们的历史学与考古学大多基于人类活动遗留 下的痕迹对各类社会进行研究。虽然这些需要 通过解码书面资料来获得的信息对人文主义的 本质来说是极为重要的,但对在环境中人类活 动遗留下的痕迹,例如定居点、墓地和圣坛, 进行考古挖掘与考古调查也是两种基本的研究 手段。 然而,在实现全面了解一个遗迹或区域 之前,这可能会涉及更多的技术和手段。 从地 貌学到地形学,从典型模型的系统化设置到对 艺术史的借鉴,从涉及残留有机物研究的考古 生态学到探讨古代人类或动物特征的人类考古 学和动物考古学,这些不可计数的课程开始向 着为考古研究提供科学基础而努力。这使得对 人类历史的诸多方面进行量化和数量级评估成 为可能。

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past 2.2

2.3

2.5

2.4

2.1 The knowledge required to decode written sources of lost civilizations is essentially of a humanistic nature. This is the copy of a clay tablet that was found in ancient Mari, in Syria, and dates from about 1800 BC. It is written in cuneiform characters and deals with a gift exchange between the king of Mari and the king of Hazor in Palestine (ICEVO). 2.2 The study of the forgotten record of pioneering excavations may also be of help in the reconstruction of the lost civilizations of the Mediterranean. This photograph is a copy of the letter sent in 1907 by the German archaeologist Otto Puchstein to Alexander Conze - then director of the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin – announcing the extraordinary results of the first campaign in the site of Boghazköy in Turkey. Those excavations made it possible to identify the site as Hattusha, the capital city of the Hittite empire (ICEVO). 2.3 Sex, age and chronology of the skeletal remains found in a shaft grave at S. Antonio, Cerveteri (Rome) were determined by scientific analysis: they belonged to a 40 year-old woman who suffered from ambulatory problems and date back to ca. 955 BC (ISCIMA). 2.4 The scientific analysis of skeletal remains indicated that the dog depicted here, found buried in one of the many ceremonial pits of the Early Greek site of Sybrita in Crete, probably died in the 12th century BC following an accidental fall (ICEVO). 2.5 In the Mediterranean of the first millennium BC different alphabets were in use corresponding to the numerous languages spoken on its shores. Detail of a Phoenician inscription on a votive stone stele from Motya in western Sicily (550-500 BC) (ISCIMA). The text mentions the god Baal Hammon, one of the main Phoenician deities, to whom a dedication is addressed.

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

The landscape as a source of historical information. The archaeological survey

从地形景观追溯历史的脚 印——考古勘测

Archaeological survey is a fundamental instrument in the reconstruction of the ancient landscape. Its goal is to gather as much information as possible on the presence, characterisation and distribution of areas, monuments and artefacts of historical importance in the region under examination. It is a method that draws on very different sources of information, from ancient literature to modern toponymy, which can be used to identify the areas worthy of systematic investigation. The numerous projects promoted by CNR employ methods that integrate humanistic disciplines and hard sciences. In addition to surface survey, which involves the direct observation of sections of land and the consequent selection of archaeological material, other complex methodologies are employed, such as remote sensing and geophysical exploration. The former aims to provide aerial and satellite photographs, in order to highlight and interpret anomalies in the landscape due to ancient settlement, while the latter detects the presence in the subsoil of traces left by human activity. The exact spatial and geographical location of finds is assured by GPS (Global Positioning System) and can be inserted into a GIS (Geographic Informative System) which integrates different kinds of information (mapping, environmental, historical, etc.), linking the archaeological data to the landscape in which they are detected.

在古代景观重建方面,考古勘察是最基本的 研究手段之一。它的目的就在于要通过对该地 区的考察,尽可能的去搜集对历史研究有重要 意义的信息,特别是涉及区域范围、建筑遗迹 和手工制品在现状、特性和分布方面的信息。 这种方法可以依据不同来源的信息对遗迹进行 描绘。从古代文献到现代地名研究,这些信息 也常被用于鉴定该区域是否值得进行系统调查 研究。许多由CNR筹建的项目,都运用了这种将 人文科学的“软”知识与自然科学的“硬”技 术相融合的方法。 对土地截面进行直接观察以及随后对考古材 料进行的挑选,除了这些表面勘察,其他一些 更为复杂的研究方法如远程遥感技术与地球物 理勘探技术也常常被采用。前者的作用主要是 提供航空或卫星拍摄的图片,以便凸显和诠释 由古代遗迹引起的地面景观的异常状况。而后 者主要是用来对含有人类活动痕迹的底层土壤 现状进行探测。对于发现物的准确空间和地理 位置则要通过GPS来确定,并要将其输入到GIS 中。这样GIS就可以融合不同种类的信息(地 图、环境、历史等等),以便使考古数据可以 和探测出的陆地景观相联。

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3.2

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past 3.1 GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) (left) and geomagnetic (right) maps produced for the Templo del Escalonado, in the ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi in Nazca, Peru. The main results of this geophysical exploration include the location of a Nazca altar (IBAM).

3.3

3.2 A geologist at work on the summit of Kephala to detect the limits of the Early Greek settlement of Sybrita in Crete (ICEVO). 3.3 In order to enhance the knowledge of the territory of the Etruscan town of Tarquinia (Viterbo, Central Italy), a scientific collaboration between the University of Milan (Department of Science of Antiquity), the Soprintendenza Archeologica per l’Etruria Meridionale and ITABC, was developed in 2000-2004. The project, based on high-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) investigation, succeeded in locating the remains of a huge Roman building. 3.4 A geophysical survey was conducted by

ITABC in the Etruscan town of Cerveteri-Vigna Parrocchiale, to the north and to the east of a monumental area including a Tuscanic temple and a public building (500-400 BC). The tests ascertained the existence of remains of ancient walls in an area occupied by a vineyard (ISCIMA).

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

From earth to history. The archaeological excavation

从地面到历史, 考古挖掘

Archaeological excavation avails itself of specific methodological knowledge, though it has affinities with other earth sciences, above all geology. If necessary it is carried out with the help of earth moving machines and specialised operators who dig by hand using trowels, shovels and pickaxes to remove the layers of earth in an inversion of the process by which they have accumulated over the ages. The archaeologist’s interpretation of the excavation draws on his observation of the physical relations between the layers of soil and other layers and/or buildings, which he then transfers into stratigraphic diagrams. A huge amount of written, graphic and photographic documentation is produced through a widespread recording process. The excavation results are added to those derived from the study of mobile finds, and the integration of different data enable us to produce a historical reconstruction of the excavation’s life cycle.

从地理学的角度而言,尽管考古挖掘在很多 方面都与地球科学有着相近之处,但其自身也有 其特定的方法论知识。 在考古挖掘的过程中,如果有必要的话,挖 掘过程常常要借助一些挖掘机器和一些专业人士 的帮助。这些人会用小铲子、铁铲和铁镐这些工 具进行挖掘,并依据年代顺序将挖出的泥土按照 倒序的方式进行层层累积。 考古工作者通过观察泥土的各个土层之间、 以及泥土与建筑物之间的物理联系,来诠释挖掘 出的提取物,之后再将这些泥土转放在地层图表 中。通过对操作程序各方面的记录产生了大量的 文字、图表以及图像文件。

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past Established in the Sixties and Seventies, the CNR archaeological institutes study lost civilisations of the Mediterranean, ranging from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD, to which Italian universities did not at the time devote much attention. They are the civilisations of the Aegean basin and of Cyprus, the civilisations of the Near East as well as the EtruscanItalic and Phoenician-Punic civilisations.

自60至70年代成立以来,CNR各考古研究 院就一直在研究失落的地中海文明,其研究的时 间跨度从公元前3世纪到公元1世纪,以及意大利 各大学并未给予足够重视的那些年代。其涉及的 文明有爱琴海文明、塞浦路斯文明和近东文明, 还有伊特鲁利亚-意大利文明,以及腓尼基-迦太 基文明。

4.1 The Etruscans were a population of Central Italy that achieved a remarkably high level of civilization. They lived in cities, had a literature written in their own language, and were ultimately assimilated by the Romans. In this photograph: Remains of a public building in the Etruscan sanctuary at Cerveteri-Vigna Parrocchiale, Rome, during excavations. Located near a temple dedicated to three divinities of fertility, the structure had a horse-shaped plan, and dates from around 500 BC. It was used for collective meetings and performances. The external wall was reinforced in Roman times (ISCIMA). 4.2 The Sabines were a population of Central Italy that played a role in the early history of Rome. The name Sabina is still in use to indicate a region to the north-east of Rome. In this photograph: the main chamber of Tomb 36 in the cemetery of Colle del Forno, Rome, during excavations. Dug in the bedrock and furnished with rich gifts, this is the most important tomb in the sepulchral area belonging to the Sabine settlement of Eretum and dating from 550-500 BC (ISCIMA). 4.3 The Phoenicians were famous maritime traders of the Mediterranean of the first millennium BC, who originated from the region corresponding, broadly speaking, to modern Lebanon. They founded trading posts and colonies all around the Mediterranean shores, among them Carthage on the northern coast of Africa, the future centre of Punic civilization. On the fortified hill of Pani Loriga, in Sardinia, a group of Phoenician colonists founded a settlement around 700-600 BC. In this aerial photograph: the remains of the Punic settlement in the south sector, and a detail of the excavation of Room 1, 500-400 BC (ISCIMA).

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Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

From excavations to Museums. Artefacts and their life stories

从考古挖掘到博物馆——手工 艺品及其背后的故事

Every artefact of historical and archaeological interest, be it a simple clay vase or a work of art, has a life cycle that can be reconstructed to explain various aspects of the societies that have produced, used, and even re-used it: from raw materials to production technology, from everyday use to trade routes, from discard up to a possible “new life” in terms of fruition as a cultural asset. The study of materials is therefore aimed at reconstructing the life story of an artefact, considered both a historical and material document of the society that produced it, and a cultural asset with its rightful place in present dynamics. The programming of the artefact’s preservation is closely correlated and considered an equally important chapter in its life story. A characteristic element of CNR’s historical and archaeological research is the constant adherence to an archaeometric perspective, so that technologies derived from earth sciences, natural sciences, physics and chemistry are employed to reconstruct aspects regarding raw materials, production technologies, chronology and detection of organic remains.

对历史学和考古学而言,无论是简陋的陶土 罐还是艺术作品,每一件古代手工艺品都是无 价之宝。它们都有各自的制造流程,都要经历生 产、使用、甚至是再利用:从原材料到生产工 艺,从日常使用到流通循环,从受遗弃到获取“ 新生命” 成为文化遗产的果实。一旦修复好就 可以用来揭示当时社会的各个方面。 因此,各类研究材料主要用于重建与古代手 工艺品相关的生活细节。这些材料既包括由当时 社会所衍生出的历史资料和实物文献,也包括在 现代社会中不断变化的、占有一席之地的文化财 产。在生活细节研究中具有同等重要的地位的是 有关古代手工艺品的保护纲要的章节,其内容与 其紧密相连并受到认真对待。CNR进行历史和考 古研究的特色之一就是持续的遵循考古测量学的 视角去做事,因此其技术大多来自地球科学、自 然科学、物理和化学,并被应用于重建的各个方 面,诸如有关实物遗迹的原材料、生产技术、产 生年代和探测手段。

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Discovering the Past 5.1 Pottery is the most common artefact discovered in the

5.3

archaeological excavations of the Mediterranean. The hundreds of clay sherds from the Early Greek settlement of Sybrita on Crete shown in this photograph are ready to be recorded, analyzed and restored (Sybrita Archaeological Project, ICEVO).

5.2 The Aegean civilizations of the second and first millennium BC were among the most dynamic forces of the ancient Mediterranean. The Aegean basin was the first region of modern Europe in which the earliest form of state and urban settlements developed. A conservator at work in the Museum of Rethymnon, Crete, on a large clay container (pithos) from Sybrita (10th century BC) (ICEVO). 5.3 Statistical and quantitative methods of analysis are instrumental in order to achieve a full understanding of ancient pottery use and its distribution within a specific territory. In the Early Greek settlement of Sybrita the relationship between different ceramic categories (table ware, cooking pots, storage containers) has been investigated (ICEVO). 5.4 Votive deposits consist of objects offered in sacred areas to

establish a connection with supernatural powers. For this reason they are strategically important for the reconstruction of religious beliefs and possible segments of the social structure of an ancient civilization. On the basis of an agreement with the Direction Générale des Antiquités, ISCIMA is in charge of the study of the many terracottas belonging to the Persian and Hellenistic ages found in the sanctuary of Kharayeb in the hinterland of Tyre (Lebanon). They are now stored in the National Museum of Beirut, Lebanon (ISCIMA).

5.4

5.5 A non-destructive protocol of analysis, based on the combined use of the portable PIXE-alpha, XRF spectrometers and of DPAA (deep protons activation analysis) method, was developed to study the metal quality of the coins of the hoard of Misurata in Libya, consisting of about 108,000 silvered bronze nummi of the Roman Imperial period (ca. 294-333 AD). A joint project of INFN-LNS, ITABC and IBAM, this investigation aimed to determine the silver content of the coins and to analyse the techniques used for their manufacturing.

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Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Discovering the Past

The past belongs to everybody. Historical reconstruction, dissemination and IT techniques

人类的过去属于每个人 历史重建、宣传和IT技术

The examination of archaeological research results provides us with a great quantity of information that can be used to reconstruct the historical events that have succeeded each other in a given area or in certain periods. For example, the presence of similar artefacts in a vast geographical area can reveal the extent of a civilisation’s political influence or trade network, while their sudden disappearance may be due to a war or to colonisation. Therefore even civilisations that have not produced written documents can be historically reconstructed with the help of archaeology. The next step is to make the results of archaeological research known to as wide a public as possible in simple yet exciting terms, combining respect for the complexity of history with the needs of the archaeological tourism business. Technological resources of all kinds are available nowadays to attain this purpose, especially IT techniques such as 3D reconstructions, virtual reality, interactive systems and multimedia communication tools. CNR was the first research agency in Italy to use IT strategy for the spread of historical knowledge derived from archaeological research, in accordance with the knowledge sharing and Open Source approach.

对考古研究结果进行分析可以提供给我们大 量的信息,这可用于重建在已知场所或某个阶段 发生的、彼此承接的那些历史事件。例如,在一 片广袤的地理区域出土的简单的手工艺品呈现出 的信息,就能解释一个文明的政治影响力或商业 网络的范围,尽管他们可能是由于战争或移民的 原因而突然消失。 因此,即使是那些没有产生书面文件的文 明,也可以在考古学的帮助下进行历史重建。下 一步就是用那些浅显易懂的措辞使考古研究的结 果尽可能的为公众所知,再配合公众对历史复 杂性的崇敬,以满足与考古有关的旅游行业的需 求。 现今,对各种类技术资源的使用目的就在于 此。尤其是与IT技术相关的诸如3D重建技术、虚 拟现实技术、互动系统和多媒体交流工具等。 在意大利,为与知识共享和资源开放政策保 持一致,CNR是首个使用IT策略对历史知识进行 传播的研究机构。

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Discovering the Past 6.1 3D virtual technology is a fundamental tool for the knowledge and the scientific comprehension of archaeological sites. This picture shows the virtual reconstruction of the fortified village of Rocca Montis Dragonis (12th-16th century AD), one of the most important medieval castles of Northern Campania (IBAM).

6.2

6.2 In 2011 the exhibition The Phoenicians in Algeria. The trade routes between the Mediterranean and Black Africa opened in Algiers, organized by ISCIMA and the National Museum of Antiquities, Algiers. In order to arouse the interest of young people, the exhibition posters feature Arish, an Algerian boy from the Punic age, who acts as a guide illustrating the history of the Phoenician civilization. 6.3 Since 1990 Archeologia e Calcolatori (ISCIMA), has been an international observatory of computing and information technology applied to archaeology. The journal is characterised by specific aspects, such as: multilingualism, the dialectical relationship between theory and experimentation, continuous updating, and the evaluation of techniques and methods through archaeological results.

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A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage. Research and innovative technologies for a sustainable renaissance of built heritage


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto

Italy – One country, one thousand cities of art

意大利 一个国家,千座艺术之城

Italy is one of the European countries with the richest cultural heritage, located throughout its territory – an obvious statement since the days of the Grand Tour in the 18th century. The mobile part of this heritage is preserved in hundreds of museums disseminated throughout Italy and in the great art collections of the Vatican, Capitoline Museums, Uffizi and so on. In addition, there is a vast built heritage – monumental, archaeological, historical and urban - which includes Etruscan and Greco-Roman archaeological sites, art cities such as Venice and Florence, historical cities like Rome, Naples and Palermo, hundreds of small and medium-sized towns like Siena, Vicenza, Parma, Matera and a dense network of medieval villages in the whole of Italy. In fact, 41 of the Unesco World Heritage Sites are located in Italy. No wonder Italy is also known as the “Beautiful Country”! Due to this abundance of the cultural heritage, conservation issues have received a great attention already since early 20th century and the Italian approach to restoration has become an actual school, of international fame. The European Union’s recent decision to entrust Italy with coordinating cultural heritage issues within the Eighth Framework Programme regarding funding for European research (2014-2020) confirms Italy’s prestigious standing in this field.

在意大利狭长的条状领土上,遍布着闻名遐迩 丰富璀璨的文化艺术遗产。正是这一独特的人文 优势,让意大利早在18世纪的“大旅行时代”就 享有“文化瑰宝遍地有”的美誉。 这些美轮美奂的艺术品,部分被收藏于散布在 意大利全境成千上百的博物馆里,部分则摆放在 梵蒂冈、朱庇特以及乌菲兹博物馆之中。 除过这些藏品,在意大利,纪念碑、考古遗 址、历史古迹等室外文化遗产随处可见,例如著 名的伊特鲁利亚人遗址与希腊罗马考古遗址,每 天都吸引着来自世界各地的游客。 说到意大利的文化遗产,不得不提及意大利独 具特色的城市文化。如果想欣赏艺术,就一定要 去威尼斯和佛罗伦萨;如果如果想感受历史,罗 马、那不勒斯、巴勒莫等城市都是极好的选择; 另外,西耶那、帕尔玛、维琴察等千百个中小城 市与早在中世纪就形成的密集的乡村网络也是参 观游览的绝佳目的地。要知道,在这片面积不大 的土地上,竟然有多达41项世界文化遗产,挂不 得意大利被人们称作“美丽的国度”。 正是由于拥有这些令人艳羡的文化遗产,文 物保护工作对于意大利而言,自20世纪早期就已 经获得了极高的重视;在今天的意大利,文物修 复已经成为一门成熟的专业,并在国际上位列前 茅。近期欧盟授予意大利在文化遗产问题上协调 有关资助第八款框架计划的决定足以证明意大利 在该领域的实力。

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1.1 Castel del Monte, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Southern

Italy.

1.2 A view of the Grand Canal of Venice, Italy. 1.3 Aerial view of historic Italian cities. 1.4 Cloister of the cathedral of Monreale, Palermo, Sicily. 1.5 A view of San Gimigniano, UNESCO World Heritage Site,

Tuscany, Italy.

1.6 A view of the Sassi di Matera, Southern Italy.

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The Italian approach to restoration and the new strategies

擅长文物修复的意大利学派及 其新战略

In this context the CNR’s Cultural Heritage Department (DPC), with its dense network of Institutes located throughout Italy and constant participation in interdisciplinary, European and international research, is a leading centre of excellence in Italy. The DPC’s three principal strong points are: an integrated humanistic-scientific approach, an interdisciplinary analysis method based on a network of laboratories equipped with cutting-edge technology and the use of new digital technology. This has led to the development of innovative, non-destructive diagnostic methods, new tools for damage assessment and monitoring, new materials and treatments for protection, reliable virtual reconstruction and interactive applications for the enhancement and sustainable fruition of monuments, sites or entire historic cities. Energy sustainability issues (energy saving, renewable energy, green materials, climate change, etc.) have been the object of special attention in this context. Last but not least, in the DPC’s laboratories of chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and digital technology the training of new generations of restorers and curators proceeds hand in hand with theoretical and experimental research.

在意大利,CNR文化遗产部(DPC)连 同其下属遍布意大利各地的考古研究所,以其 高水准的专业技能与扎实全面的知识建构,结合 长期参与诸多欧洲及国际级别项目积累的宝贵经 验,已经成为意大利文化遗产学科首屈一指的代 表。 提及DPC,就不能不提及其引以为傲的三 项重要专业技能:一体化人文与自然科学方法综 合应用技能、建立于前沿实验室网络之上的跨学 科分析方法,以及新一代数字技术的运用。在这 些技能的支撑下,一系列更加细化的子技术也浮 出水面,它们不仅包括创新的无损诊断方法、文 物破损评估与模拟工具,也包括研发用以文物保 护的新材料、先进的虚拟重现技术,以及旨在保 护纪念碑等室外文物的交互应用技术。 近些年,随着可持续发展问题热度的上升,能 源可持续(包括节能环保、新能源、绿色材料、 气候变化等)已经成为考古工作的一项新的关注 点。对于DPC的化学、物理、生物、电子、数 字实验室而言,对新一批文物保护与修复的专业 人士进行跨学科知识的培训已经携手展开;在培 训方式上,理论与现实相结合是最佳之选。

2.1 Monitoring the state of conservation of the sculpture The Rape of the Sabines (coordinated by ICVBC). 2.2 Spectroscopic non-invasive analysis utilizing the FORS technique for the characterization of the pictorial materials used by Agnolo Gaddi in 1380-90 to paint the Legend of the True Cross in the church of Santa Croce, Florence (IFAC). 2.3 Organization of technical equipment for the 3D survey with photo-scanning methodologies of the capitals in the cloister of the Collegiate Church of Saint Orso in Aosta. The 3D point cloud models of the capitals are available on the Cenobium project website (ITABC). 2.4 Conservation investigations in the Palace Tomb in Petra, Jordan

(ITABC).

2.5 The dome of the mausoleum of Gūr-e Amīr in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. European project for the enhancement of the Timurid dynasty monuments (ITABC). 2.6 Ceremonial court of Tschudi Palace. Conservation interventions in the archaeological site of the pre-Columbian city of Chan Chan, Peru (ITABC). 2.7 Georadar investigations in the ceremonial centre of Cahuachi in Nazca, Peru (IBAM).

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Material historical evidence is a non-renewable resource: Damage assessment

作为非可再生资源的物质文化 遗产:文化遗产的损坏评估

Material evidence of bygone civilizations, from artistic monuments to cities, is a non-renewable resource on which one of the strategic assets for the sustainable development of an area is based. The natural and anthropic risks to which this resource is subject, in varying sequences of events over the ages and different modalities of manifestation, require the perfecting of effective and compatible tools and strategies for their conservation. Within the CNR and its network of Institutes and laboratories represents a scientific and internationally renowned point of reference for the analysis and diagnosis of the pathologies of material deterioration and structural instability, for the development of new technologies for diagnostics and security and for its interdisciplinary, multi-sensor, multi-scale and noninvasive approach. More specifically, the CNR covers disciplinary areas such as chemistry and physics (XRD, SEM, FTIR) for the characterization and qualification of the deterioration of materials, including stone, ceramic, metal and paint pigment, geophysics (georadar and seismic methods) and remote sensing (thermography, imaging) for the study and diagnosis of structures and architectural surfaces, laser survey and digital modeling for the analysis of deformation and crack patterns.

无论是高耸的艺术纪念碑,还是民情淳朴的 小城镇,人们常常透过这些实体的物质文化遗 产,对那些遥远年代的文明进行探索与发现。因 此,从长远角度而言,一个现代区域的可持续发 展,也应该将这些非再生资源的利用与保护考虑 到整体的战略框架内。 这些资源因其保存年限与用途的不同,往往 面对着来自自然与人类生活不同程度的损耗风 险,因此对于这些物质遗产的保护技术与工具, 也需要不断改进与升级。 意大利CNR及其下属研究院所代表着当今 世界文物修复的发展方向,并为一系列新技术, 诸如材料损坏程度与结构稳定性的分析与诊断, 新型诊断技术与安全性能的发展,以及其他的跨 学科、多头感应与多层次非侵入式路径的探索技 术,提供了重要的借鉴。 更确切地说,CNR擅长借鉴多学科的研究方法, 例如,在涉及受损材质的特征与性质分析时,常 常借助物理与化学方法,分析对象包括石材、陶 瓷、金属、油漆颜料等。同时,应用地球物理学( 地质雷达和地震方法)与遥感(热、成像)技术,为 建筑表面结构进行研究与诊断;借鉴激光测量和 数字模拟来探测物体变形程度和裂缝的形态。

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3.1 Installation on the painted façade of the Mellini-Fossi Palace in Florence of several instruments measuring atmospheric pollution (gaseous and solid). The aim of the project was to monitor the state of conservation of a painted façade after restoration (ICVBC). 3.2 The Boxer in the National Roman Museum: study of the alloys

used for chromatic effects with the portable XRF spectrometer developed by ITABC.

3.3 Hyper-spectral imaging acquisition on a painting by using a high spatial and spectral resolution scanner developed by IFAC. 3.4 Investigations aiming to control the internal and external temperature of Giambologna’s sculpture The Rape of the Sabines in Piazza Signoria, Florence (ICVBC). 3.5 a-b Elevation of Palace Tomb in Petra, Jordan. 3D survey with laser scanner and thermographic analysis of the state of conservation (ITABC).

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Monitoring: The first step towards sustainable conservation

文物监控:实现可持续文物保 护的第一步

In order to assess the cultural heritage’s vulnerability to factors of deterioration it is necessary to monitor the various physical, chemical and mechanical phenomena causing degenerative processes in materials and structures. The study of degenerative processes must therefore be based on the measurement and elaboration of the numerous parameters required to construe the phenomenological world through prediction models capable of estimating the state of progress of the degeneration and of deciding on effective and timely preservation and restoration initiatives. This type of approach, both holistic and systemic at the same time, inspires CNR’s research and technological development activities in the field of the environmental monitoring of works of art, monuments, archaeological sites and historic cities. The principal lines of development of CNR’s research in this sector are: the monitoring of the microclimate in confined spaces (museums, libraries and historical archives), studies regarding the interaction between climate change and risks for the cultural heritage, the analysis of the durability of restoration work, especially with reference to the conservation treatment of stone materials and the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring.

为了更加准确地评估受损文物对外界腐蚀物 质的耐受性,CNR认为,对于那些能够引起材料 与结构功能退化的生活现象,无论是物理的,化 学的,哪怕仅仅是微小的外力冲击,都必须要进 行严格的监控。 因此,对于退化过程的研究必须同时考虑到 两方面的因素,即:对自然现象的认知及对退化 过程中的预测来对各种可能影响因素进行精准测 算以及对其进行的有效保护与修缮。 这种方法既可以兼顾整体性与系统性,也帮 助CNR在监测艺术品,纪念碑,古文物等领域的 技术研究与创新。 CNR的研究内容主要涉及:受限空间的小气候 监测,气候变化对文物的影响,修缮工作的持久 性分析,针对石质材料及环境监测新技术发展的 研究等。

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A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto 4.1a-b Aerial view of the historic centre of Castelvecchio Calvisio, near L’Aquila. Damage scenario 9th degree of the MCS seismic scale (ITC).

4.4

4.2 High precision psycrometer installed at the Lascaux

caves, France. The technology was developed for accurate measurements of relative humidity in environments frequently or constantly subjected to very high relative humidity, such as caves, catacombs, crypts, and is particularly suitable for the environmental protection of hypogeous sites (ISAC).

4.3 Instruments for measuring temperature and relative humidity produced ad hoc for the microclimatic control of the Portico of Glory in the cathedral of Santiago de Campostela, Spain (ISAC). 4.4 Locations of the various diagnostic non-destructive analyses carried out on the famous statue of David by Michelangelo, aiming to elaborate a preventive conservation strategy (ICVBC). 4.5 Surface recession (μm/year) on marble and limestone caused by yearly mean amount of precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The European project Noah’s Ark developed a Vulnerability Atlas and guidelines for cultural heritage management in the context of climate change (ISAC). 4.6 ARKIS Information System is a scientific and humanistic data integration system aiming to provide a monitoring support for the state of conservation of artefacts. It is a GIS based system allowing for the interrelation of descriptive data (historic information, previous restorations, materials, deterioration) and graphic data (geometric restitution and morphology) (ITABC).

4.5

4.6

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

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A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto

Innovative technologies and approaches for sustainable conservation

保护的可持续性创新技术及方 法

The issue of sustainable conservation is a complex challenge based on the aim of preserving the cultural heritage’s past while at the same time actively contributing towards its lasting development. CNR therefore provides active support for research programmes aimed at the development and validation of compatible conservation products, techniques and procedures for the monitoring of these products. A question of special interest is the functional adaptation of monuments and technological systems that increase living comfort and energy saving without altering the historical and artistic features of the building. The goal is to improve the quality of conservation processes and increase cost sustainability in the long term, with innovative applications also as regards low environmental impact. These processes also concern static and seismic restoration technologies, increasingly oriented towards reversibility and aimed at improvement through the preservation of the building’s original structural behavior, as opposed to the philosophy of seismic adaptation widely followed in the Eighties and Nineties but subsequently proved to be ineffective and disregarding of conservation needs.

保护的可持续性研究是建立在保护文物原有 特性的基础上使之对其今后的发展产生积极影 响的一项复杂的技术挑战。 CNR在对产品的监测的技术及程序的发展及 实用性研究方面投入了大量的精力,也对研究 的发展发挥了积极的作用。 一个新问题引起了人们的注意:在不改变建 筑物的历史性与艺术性特征的情况下,是否能 提高遗址的功能性及技术性用以改善生活舒适 度及节能。 总之,一切为提高质量,节约费用,创新应 用及降低影响做出长远的努力。 包括静态及动态的修复技术,技术的可逆性 等在内的提高主要是为了保护建筑物的原始结 构,在80,90年代中呗广泛应用的震动适应能力 技术近些年来被陆续证明对建筑物的保护没有 实质性的作用。

5.1

5.2

5.1 The Bedestan monument in the core of Nicosia, Cyprus. The state of damage before the consolidation intervention proposed by a project promoted by the United Nations (ITABC).

natural configuration, using a metal core and internal tensioning cable to stabilize the geometric configuration (ITABC).

5.2 The innovative design of two light wooden sails for the compatible

5.5 Medieval cathedral of Troia, Southern Italy: details of restoration work on the rose window (IBAM).

5.3 Innovative and antiseismic restoration of the stage of the ancient

5.6 Architectural details of the east wing of Zena castle with structural solutions and proposals for technological and energy renovation (ITABC).

re-utilization of the Bedestan, Nicosia-Cyprus (ITABC).

theatre of Hierapolis in Phrygia, Turkey in order to be reutilized (IBAM).

5.7 The 3D model of the dome-arch system of the Bedestan, NicosiaCyprus, with the static balancing device obtained by hanging the pendulum-ballast. The “pendulum” is an innovative patented antiseismic device (ITABC).

5.4 Bedestan, Nicosia-Cyprus. The complex consolidation system of the

southern aisle, with the reassembling of the columns according to their

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

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A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto 5.3

5.4

5.5

5.7

5.6

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto

Enhancement and sustainable fruition

促进及可持续性发展的主要成 果

The enhancement of the cultural heritage is a subject of major importance and has direct consequences on the conservation of artefacts. One of the possible consequences of valorisation is the increase of fruition, which implies a greater risk of decay due to the increased number of visitors and their interaction with the artefacts and the environment in which they are located. The human impact or so called “human risk” is one of the less studied aspects with respect to the sustainable fruition of the cultural heritage. In this context the CNR has devised methodologies for monitoring tourist impact and evaluating risks for the cultural heritage and has developed mitigation techniques for a sustainable fruition, regarding both archaeological and monumental sites, museums and cities. The negative impact of mass tourism on the conservation of the cultural heritage in historic cities and the impoverishment of traditional civic values in city centres has been analysed both on a comparative and an interdisciplinary basis. Urban, conservation and tourist policies have been proposed as best practices and guidelines for sustainable enhancement in the face of environmental stress, intensity of use, socio-cultural changes and economic performance.

促进效果对文化遗产的保护有着直接的影 响。例如,由物价降低 引起的同城游客数量增 多会导致文物的加速腐坏及环境的恶化。 在文化遗产的可持续性影响因素研究中,对 人类风险的研究还远远不够。在这背景下CNR设 计了文化遗产的旅游影响监测,评估风险,在 开发可持续减弱影响技术方面取得了成果,主 要涉及考古,极为庞大的现场,博物馆以及古 城。 大众旅游对保护历史文化名城的文化遗产和 城市中心贫困,传统的公民的价值观的负面影 响, ,虽然隶属不同领域,但也在此基础上进 行了比较分析。城市化建设、保护措施和旅游 政策的整合及完善被认为是在日益增长的环境 压力下,改变生活、文化和经济最行之有效的办 法。

6.1

6.2

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

A future for historic cities and the cultural heritage - 地 finto 6.3

6.1 Tourists and gladiators in front of the monumental building of the Pantheon in Rome.

6.4

6.2 A methodology for monitoring tourist impact and evaluating risks for the cultural heritage. Analysis of the change of uses and occupation of public space due to the high tourist flow in the area around the monumental Pantheon square (ICVBC). 6.3 A methodology to determine the identity of places and consequently to project interventions for mitigating tourist impact. The product consists of complex, dynamic, multimedia and interactive maps, realised with the help of the software PlaceMaker (IRAT and ICVBC). 6.4 A Chinese UNESCO world heritage site under siege. The tourist

impact on world heritage sites is a central issue for many public administrations all over the world.

6.5 The epigraphical museum of Chiusi. Analysis of the state

6.5

of conservation of the exposed artefacts (Etruscan sarcophagi and epigraphs) by monitoring the forms of decay related to the microclimatic variations of the exhibition spaces with regard both to external microclimatic variations and tourist flows (ICVBC and ISCIMA). 6.6 The Roman theatre of Nora in Sardinia. The MEDITEATRI project promoted best practices for the sustainable enhancement and fruition of a network of ancient theatres in the Mediterranean region (IRAT).

6.6

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Museums in perspective. Techniques for the conservation and communication of memory


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

Museums and multimediality

博物馆和多媒体化

A museum is not only one of the most important and powerful tools for the preservation of a country’s historical and artistic heritage, it also plays an active role in producing culture and communicating it to the public. Modern museums are no longer simply containers displaying collections originating with the start of historical collecting. They are also places in which the various “sediments” of human activity are preserved, analyzed, researched and divulged and, above all, they are a powerful means of collective cultural elaboration and dissemination. New tools are required to present and provide information on the contents of such a complex structure, capable of reconstructing the experiences of the past so that they can be studied, communicated and fully enjoyed. The introduction of ICT into museums has resulted in a new approach to culture and to works of art: interactive visits with dedicated areas for multimedia fruition and immersive “virtual or increased” reality solutions stimulate the public’s interest, curiosity, imagination, emotions and desire to know more, presenting visitors with the opportunity to “perceive” the work in its original context and “re-experience” its past, thus overcoming the great obstacle posed by knowledge and imagination, which separates them from the works of art on display. Multimedia museums and multimedia halls represent the gateway to the exploration of cultural sites and places and exploit all the resources of digital, immersive and multisensory communication to transform a visit to a museum into an emotional and culturally enriching experience.

博物馆不仅在对国家的历史和艺术遗产进行 保护方面更是一个 极为重要的而且功能强大的 工具,在文化创作和向公众传播方面也起着举足 轻重的作用。 现代博物馆不再是简单的陈列和展出一些收 藏品,一般来说它还是收藏集文化、阐述文化和 宣传文化的最有力手段。这种方式源自于对历史 文物的收藏,也包括对人类活动过的那些场所中 所遗留的各种各样的“沉积物”进行保存、分 析、研究和揭秘。 将信息通信技术引入博物馆的结果是为人们 接近文化和艺术作品提供了一种新的途径: 利用多媒体成果以及“虚拟现实”或加强对 现实模拟的解决方案,让公众对感兴趣的领域 进行交互式的访问,可以刺激公众的兴趣、好奇 心、想象力、情绪和求知欲望。并有机会向公众 提供一种可以“体验”作品的展示方式,这包括 体验作品的背景环境和“再次经历”其存在的年 代。由此,这种方式克服了由知识和想象力形成 的强大阻碍,因为这些内容往往分散在所展出的 艺术作品中。 多媒体博物馆和多媒体大厅的使用开辟了一 条新路,可以对文化场所进行探索,对全部资源 进行数字化开发。这种利用模拟和多种感觉并用 的交流方式,将使得对博物馆的参观转化成为一 种富有情感和文化气息的难忘经历。

1.1

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective 1.2.a

1.3.a

1.2.b

1.3.b

1.1 The “E” temple at the archaeological site of Selinunte, Sicily. 1.2 a-b ARCHEOMEDIA, a virtual archaeological museum at Pignatelli Palace, in Castelvetrano. The museum will constitute the access to the nearby Selinunte archaeological site within an integrated and immersive knowledge system (ITABC). 1.3 a-b “Multimedia Towers” is a network of local museums for the enhancement of the Medieval coastal towers system in Sardinia (ISEM). 1.4 Multimedia hall with virtual reality multiuser application

dedicated to monuments and sites of the ancient Via Flaminia, located in the Roman National Museum (ITABC).

1.4

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

Virtual Museums

虚拟博物馆

The application of digital technologies to cultural heritage is not a simple technology transfer dedicated to reproducing actual reality. Virtual museums should not reply the same structure and paradigms of real museum, because their effective power consists in the possibility to re-organize cultural contents in order to enhance the comprehension of the artefacts, their relations and connections with the context, their narrative value. The virtual museum is a communicative projection of the real museum: it reintegrates what is illegible, contextualizes what is fragmented and isolated, puts back together cultural ties essential to the cultural object. Virtual storytelling, threedimensionality, immersion, real time interaction embodiment, emotionality are fundamental to the cognitive processes. The research of the CNR in the field of virtual museums has been materialized through many projects of international relevance. One of the most recent is a European network of excellence composed by 18 partners and called V-Must (Virtual Museum Transnational Network). The project is finalized to the study of the state of the art and to the definition of guide lines for the creation of virtual museums in the next future.

数字技术的应用对文化遗产并不是一个简单 的技术转载,而应该着重致力于重构现实。虚拟 博物馆不应该固定相同的结构和模式,因为他们 真正实现了博物馆的有效重组的可能性,为了提 高对文化内容的理解,应更加注重内容的关系, 连接构件以及利用价值。虚拟博物馆与现实博物 馆相辅相成:内容的互补,背景的互衬、,并重新 将孤立存在的文化感融合在一起。虚拟的故事、 立体的效果,实时的互动,情感的波动这些都是 人们认知过程中的重要因素。 CNR在虚拟博物馆研究领域已经通过多个国际 项目的成功成为了佼佼者。最新的是“欧洲卓越 网络”项目,结合18个合作伙伴称为V-Must(跨 国网络虚拟博物馆)。该项目的完成被认为是今 后国家艺术研究和确立指导方针的重要里程碑。

2.1

2.1 Virtual Museum Transnational Network (V-Must.Net) is a European network of excellence composed by 18 partners and launched on March 2011. The project is finalized to the study of the latest developments and to the definition of guidelines for the creation of virtual museums in the near future (ITABC). 2.2 Homepage of The Virtual Museum of Iraq with the representation

of the “Lady of Warka”, a well known Sumerian alabaster artefact (coordinated by CNR).

2.3 Detail of the palace of the Assyrian king Sargon II in Khorsabad. 3D reconstruction produced for The Virtual Museum of Iraq (IBAM). 2.4 Detail of the central court of the palace of king Sargon II in

Khorsabad. 3D reconstruction produced for The Virtual Museum of Iraq (IBAM).

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

2.2

2.3

2.4

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

Digital technologies for the enhancement and communication of the cultural heritage

有益于进行文化遗产加强和交 流的数字技术

One of the main aims of the CNR laboratories involved in communication and enhancement digital technologies applied to the cultural heritage is the development of integrated methods for the creation of three-dimensional models using laser scanning techniques, photogrammetry and 3D photomodelling. The aim is to employ 3D digital reconstructions to offer the public a more stimulating and often more flexible fruition of monuments, sites or artefacts, which can be visited either via the web or via stand-alone products offering very realistic RealTime 3D visiting systems. Descriptions of an academic and critical nature (historical overviews, relations with other ancient contexts, exegetical analysis, etc.) are combined with technical and scientific methods of analysis and diagnosis (e.g. analysis of constituent materials, state of conservation, study of architectural characteristics, etc.). Virtual visits are often enriched with computer graphics reconstructions that offer to the user a diachronic reading of the monument, thus providing a greater understanding of the transformations it has undergone.

CNR各个实验室十分关注加强数字技术应用于 文化遗产一事,并就此事进行积极的交流。其主 要目的就是要通过整合现有方法开发出一套新的 技术,一种可以利用激光扫描技术、摄影和三维 相片模型等技术去建立三维模型。 其目的为:利用三维数字重建以提供民众一个 更刺激、且往往更灵活的古迹、遗址或文物的实 现成果,且可以通过网络或其他能提供很强真实 感的实时三维访问系统的独立产品来访问接触。 对学术和关键性质的说明(如:历史概述、 与其他古代环境的关系、评释分析等)是与技 术的、科学的分析和诊断方法(如对组成材料的 分析、保存状况、对建筑特色的研究等)相关联 的。 计算机制图(对建筑的)重建往往能使用户 的虚拟访问更丰富充实,如提供给用户一座纪念 碑的历时说明,使用户能更好地了解它经历的变 革。

3.1

3.2

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective 3.3

3.1 Interior of the 3D reconstruction of the abbey of Santa Maria

di Cerrate (Lecce). A screenshot of the DVR platform with its navigation interface. The church is part of the ByHeriNet project concerning the most representative Byzantine sites in the province of Lecce and the region of Basilicata (IBAM).

3.4

3.2 Axonometric view of the abbey of Santa Maria di Cerrate. 3D

reconstruction with photomodelling techniques (IBAM).

3.3 The Approval of the Franciscan Rule: a virtual experience

among Giotto’s characters. The real time interaction in the virtual environment is based on natural interfaces (body movements), (CNR et alii).

3.4 The archaeological site of Sant’Anna in Teramo: the virtual architect Vitruvius is building up the ancient structures of the cathedral through his body movements (ITABC). 3.5 Virtual reconstruction of the 2nd century BC Stoa-Basilica of Hierapolis in Phrygia, Turkey (IBAM).

3.5

3.6 3D reconstruction of the ancient landscape and of three tombs

of the Etruscan necropolis of Sovana, Tuscany. Iphone application interface (ICVBC).

3.1 意大利南部Lecce省的Santa Maria di Cerrate修道

院的室内三维重建。 DVR平台导航界面的截图。这个教堂 是Lecce省、乃至Basilicata区的最有代表性的拜占庭风 格的教堂。(IBAM实验室) 3.2 Santa Maria di Cerrate教堂的轴测视图。利用相片

模型技术对其进行三维重建。(IBAM实验室) 3.3 圣方济规则批准:乔托字符的虚拟经验。在虚拟环境 中的实时交互是基于自然界面(如肢体动作)。(CNR et alii)

3.6

3.4 意大利泰拉莫省Sant'Anna考古遗址:虚拟建筑师

Virtuvius正通过自身的肢体动作建立教堂的旧时建筑 结构(VR的应用程序,部分项目 泰拉莫:一座几乎穿着 完备的城市,ITABC)。 3.5 虚拟现实多用户应用程序,献给古代的Via Flaminia(

地名)(罗马国家博物馆《戴克里先浴场》,ITABC 2008 )。 3.6

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

From Real to Virtual: Restoring or reconstructing the Past

从真实到虚拟: 恢复或重建过去

Nature modifies, transforms and sometimes destroys what men create in their attempt to imitate it or to tackle its challenges. This applies equally to a landscape or an artwork. Laser survey and 3D modeling technologies permit the virtual reconstruction of the cultural values of human work and artifacts damaged by time and entropy. Cutting-edge aerial laser surveys (LiDAR) permit a diachronic reconstruction of the forma urbis of settlements that no longer exist, using virtual representation techniques to provide them with a 3D form in the context of a historical landscape. Digital technology also affects the restoration of cultural heritage assets, as well as their reconstruction. Digital restoration can be used as a plausible guide for restoration work and a way to monitor many critical issues, acquiring scientific value since it allows us to visualize the artifact as it appeared in a given moment of time. CNR projects, in this context, aim to recover the material and/ or immaterial dimension of cultural artifacts, as in the case of studies using laser surveys and analysis of environmental dynamics to reconstruct the landscape of a medieval town abandoned because of environmental changes, or in the case of the study which used virtual 3D modeling to assist with a high precision geometrical process, the material restoration of a damaged statue from its fragments.

自然的修改,改变,有时会破坏,这都是人类 在试图创建模仿它,或解决其面临的挑战。这同 样适用于风景或艺术品。激光调查和三维建模技 术允许虚拟人的工作时间和熵损坏文物的文化价 值的重建. 尖端的空中激光调查(LIDAR)允许一个不再 存在的定居点的备考雅邦规划设计重建,使用虚 拟代表性的技术,在一个历史景背景下提供3D的 形式。 数字化技术也影响到文化遗产资产的恢复,以 及重建家园。可给予数码修复合理科学的引导, 提供恢复工作和监控许多重要的问题的方式。因 为它出现在给定时间,所以使我们能够更加直 观,更加形象化。 在此背景下,中国北车项目,目的是收回材料 和无关紧要文物尺寸,作为利用激光调查和环境 动态分析的研究,用来重建放弃的中世纪小镇, 因为环境的变化的情况下,或在使用虚拟的三维 建模,以协助几何精度高的过程,就是从它的碎 片损坏雕像的材料恢复的研究。

4.1

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

Museums in perspective

4.2

4.1 Airborne laser scanner survey of the medieval

4.3

village of Irsi in Basilicata, founded in the 11th century and abandoned at the end of the 15th century. The digital terrain model showed three different historical phases of development, the presence of a castle, and a landslide which was one of the causes for abandoning Irsi (IMAA and IBAM).

4.2 Virtual reconstruction of the medieval village of Irsi: on the left the first historical phase, on the right the second phase (IMAA and IBAM). 4.3 The Madonna of Pietranico, a 16th century clay sculpture, was severely damaged during the earthquake in Abruzzo on 6th April 2009. The statue was broken into 24 pieces, plus several smaller fragments (ISTI). 4.4 A restoration project, funded by the Italian American Museum, gave the statue new life through a series of restoration projects, including the reassembling of the fragments and the reconstruction of missing parts (ISTI).

4.4

4.5

4.5 The Visual Computing Lab, ISTI, worked in

collaboration with restorers and art historians, under the supervision of the Superintendence of Abruzzo in order to support the reconstruction process using laser triangulation 3D scanning of all the major fragments and creating 24 coloured 3D models.

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The Grand Tour


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

The Castle of Zena, a “smart monument” between past and future The castle of Zena was built in the 12th century in the Po valley as the hub of a network of fortresses erected to defend the cities of Piacenza and Milan. Originally built to a quadrangle plan, the southern side of the castle was destroyed as a consequence of various wars during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In the 18th century it was restored, adorned with precious frescoes and turned into an aristocratic country residence, as we know it today. The Italian research project SOCRATES and the European project SECHURBA have studied the castle of Zena as an emblematic case and prototype of a monumental building for the experimentation of innovative methodologies of sustainable conservation. of sustainable conservation. The project, promoted and financed by the Italian company Viveca, with the support of European funds, has been realized by ITABC in collaboration with research centres and University groups. The team have worked on an integrated analysis of the building’s features, to find the best possible construction and installation solutions to adapt it for modern purposes, consistent with its historical and artistic value. The resulting project proposes the use of natural materials along with innovative restoration techniques, energy efficiency and the use of renewable sources to generate energy (www.sechurba.eu, www.castellodizena.it).

泽娜城堡于十二世纪建于波河流域,它的建 立是作为保卫皮亚琴察市和米兰的网络的枢纽。 原最原始的建造计划是四合院的形式,但是,城 堡南面被摧毁,这是中世纪和文艺复兴时期的各 种战争所带来的后果。在十八世纪,城堡被重 建,用珍贵的壁画作为装饰,变成了一个贵族的 乡村式住宅,正如我们今天所知道的 意大利的关于苏格拉底研究项目和欧洲 的SECHURBA项目已经被作为研究泽娜城堡的象征 性的研究,一个纪念性建筑的可持续保护的创新 方法的实验对泽娜城堡进行还原。研究中心和大 学团体携手合作对建筑的特点进行综合分析,找 到最好的施工和安装的解决方案,以适应现代化 的目的,符合其历史和艺术价值。由此产生的项 目建议使用天然材料以及与创新的修复技术,能 源效率和可再生能源的利用产生能量。

1.1

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.1 The Castle of Zena, in the province of Piacenza. 1.2 The main façade of the castle. 1.3 The frescoes in the main salon, painted in the Baroque period, attributed to the school of Bibiena. 1.4 A detail of the fresco in the second lounge at ground floor. In these frescoes the plasticity of the shapes is of special interest and is emphasized by the richness of the clothes painted in the Ottoman style. 1.5 Masonry stratigraphy, an archaeological methodology to highlight the construction phases of the castle. 1.6 Refunctionalization of the east wing of the castle.

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

The virtual exploration of the Scrovegni Chapel

斯克洛文尼教堂的虚拟探索 (虚拟现实装置)

The Scrovegni Chapel, painted by Giotto in the period 13031305, is one of the great masterpiece of the European art. Due to of serious preservation problems, the paintings have been restored in 2001-2003 but access to the monument is now limited with regard to number of visitors and duration. In an attempt to solve these problems of fruition the City of Padua has planned the creation of an hypermedia room (10x20 m) hosting multimedia and museum installations concerning the contextualization of the Giotto’s world and of the Scrovegni Chapel. The most important installation is a virtual reality system whose aim is the spatial 3D reconstruction and re-composition of all information regarding Giotto’s paintings and the monument’s internal architecture (33.000 polygons in real time, 500 links, more than 100 menus). Visitors to the Chapel can thus prepare virtually for their real visit to the monument (first alphabetization) and then come back to the virtual installation in order to integrate all the information they need (second re-alphabetization). The application has been realized in 2003 by ITABC in collaboration with the City of Padua, Italian private companies, Archè/Aracnet and No Real, and with the support of the American Wiegand Fondation.

乔托在1303-1305年之间绘制的斯克洛文尼礼 拜堂是欧洲艺术最重要的杰作之一。由于在文物 维护方面出现了严重问题,尽管在2001-2003年 间已经对该处的艺术作品进行了修复,但还是对 来此遗迹进行参观的人数和时间进行了限制。为 了成功的解决这些问题,帕多瓦自治区已经计划 创建一个超媒体室(10x20 m)以便集中安置各 种多媒体和博物馆设备,用于情景化乔托的世界 和斯克洛文尼礼拜堂。 最重要的装置就是虚拟现实系统,这可将涉 及乔托绘画作品和遗址内部建筑物的全部信息( 包括:33.000个即时多边形,500条链接,100多 个选项),进行空间上的3D重建和再融合。 通过这种方法,礼拜堂的参观者可以对遗迹 先进行一次虚拟现实的参观(第一次,按字母顺 序排列);然后,为了将所有他们所需要的信息 整合,他们可再次来到虚拟装置处(第二次,重 新按字母顺序排列)。 该应用程序在2003年制作完成,它是由CNR 的ITABC同帕多瓦自治区政府、意大利的一些 私人公司、Archè/Aracnet公司和No Real公司 一同合作完成的,还获得了来自美国Wiegand Fondation公司的援助。

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

A precious casket: The Scrovegni Chapel in Padua

珍贵的艺术宝库——帕多瓦的 斯克洛文尼教堂 (电影)

In this movie Enrico Scrovegni tells the story of his chapel in Padua, in the Northern Italy, decorated in 1303-1305 by the famous Italian artist Giotto di Bondone – one of the greatest masterpieces of the medieval Italian art. Enrico Scrovegni, who belonged to one of Padua’s richest families at the beginning of the 14th century, built this chapel to celebrate himself and his family. He speaks with passionate emphasis of the frescoes painted in his chapel, his meeting with Giotto, culture in Padua, his personal history and the memories that men have preserved of him. The movie lasts 14 minutes and it is entirely realized in computer graphic. It can be seen in Padua, in the Multimedia Room in the Eremitani Museum, along with other six multimedia and VR installations dedicated to the Scrovegni Chapel and its cultural context. It was realized in 2003 by Italian private companies, Archè/Aracnet, NoReal, in collaboration with ITABC, the City of Padua and with the support of the American Wiegand Fondation.

影像中,恩里科以一种热情而愉快的强调带领 大家观赏教堂内的画作,同时,他还将给游客介 绍这座城市的文化特色,人文艺术,甚至还将展 示给人们他与乔托私人会面的内容。 整部电影长达14分钟,全部都以电脑动画的形 式呈现。 目前,在帕多瓦的艾雷米特尼博物馆的多媒体 室可以欣赏到这部别具一格的电影,同时另有六 个虚拟现实的项目可以选择。 早在2003年,在诸多私人意大利公司、当地 市政府、美国Wiegand 基金会与其他组织的支持 下,该电影已经面世。 在这部电影中,恩里克·斯克洛文尼讲述了有 关他那著名的礼拜堂的故事。这个礼拜堂位于意 大利北部的帕多瓦,在1303-1305年间意大利著名 艺术家乔托·迪·邦多纳对其进行了装饰。它是 中世纪意大利最伟大的艺术杰作之一。 恩里克·斯克洛文尼来自十四世纪初帕多瓦地 区一个富有的家庭。为了赞美自身和家人,他建 造了这座礼拜堂。他用充满热情的口吻讲述了绘 制在他所珍爱的礼拜堂中的壁画、他与乔托的会 面、他所在城市的文化、有关的人文事件和他那 些保留人们记忆中的故事。 长约14分钟的影片完全由计算机制图实现。您 可以在位于帕瓦多Eremitani博物馆的多媒体室中 可以观赏到这段影片,以及致力于展示斯克洛文 尼礼拜堂及其文化情景的其他六部多媒体与虚拟 现实设施。 该应用程序在2003年制作完成,它是由CNR的 ITABC同帕多瓦自治区政府、意大利的一些私人公 司、Archè/Aracnet公司和No Real公司一同合作 完成的,还获得了来自美国Wiegand Fondation公 司的援助。

2.7

2.1 The virtual model of the Scrovegni Chapel, painted by Giotto between 1303 and 1305 (ITABC et alii).

2.1 斯克洛文尼教堂的虚拟模型, 1305年之间绘制。(CNR ITABC等)

2.2 The Chapel seen from the crypt (the floor is transparent).

2.2 从地下室看教堂(地面是透明的)

2.3 The Cybermap, a conceptual representation of the contents and the informative system linked to the 3D model (VR application).

2.3 数码映像,对相关内容和信息系统进行概念化展示, 并与3D模型(虚拟现实程序)进行了链接。

该画由乔托在1303-

2.4 开启了“反射光”层面的教堂3D模型。

2.4 3D model of the Chapel with the “reflected light” layer activated.

2.5 在系统主界面上伴有可视化(右手边)和标题化(左手

2.5 The main interface of the system with visual (on the right) and

边)的工具。

thematic tools (on the left).

2.6 在实时探索期间,随时可以进入故事界面并叠加在图像

2.6 During the real time exploration it is possible to access narratives and superimposed images.

上。 2.7

斯克洛文尼教堂的虚拟模型, 1305年之间绘制。(CNR ITABC等)

2.7 The virtual model of the Scrovegni Chapel, painted by Giotto

between 1303 and 1305 (ITABC et alii).

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该画由乔托在1303-


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

CENOBIUM – A project for the multimedia representation of Romanesque cloister capitals in the Mediterranean region

CENOBIUM - 地中海地区罗马 式修道院柱头的多媒体展示项 目

CENOBIUM (Cultural Electronic Network Online: Binding up Interoperably Usable Multimedia) is a multimedia presentation of Romanesque cloister capitals from the Mediterranean region. High-resolution digital photographs, 3D models, and panoramas will virtually link the capitals to their original surroundings, thus representing them within their original architectural and conceptual contexts. The central aim of this project is to illustrate cultural exchange in the 12th and 13th centuries through the example of decorated capitals, which are found in southern France, Spain and Italy. At the same time the main goal is to allow scolars to study those artworks by means of high-quality digital representations. CENOBIUM combines classical and innovative methods of art history with the latest in data technology in order to open up new horizons that up to now have not been accessible, even by on-site analysis of the capitals. The aim of the project is the creation of a collaborative environment, where expert can access to high quality 3D and 2D representations of all the examples of Romanesque cloisters around Europe. Currently, an interactive website presents the results of the 3D scanning and photographic campaigns performed in Monreale, Aosta and Cefalù cloisters. The user can access both high resolution 3D models and images of the capitals, with the possibility to visualize and compare them though a user-friendly software tool. The project was elaborated by Visual Computing Lab, ISTI, Pisa and the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-PlanckInstitut, in collaboration with: Soprintendenza per i Beni e le Attività Culturali of Regione autonoma della Valle d’Aosta and of Provincia di Palermo; Soprintendenza ai Beni Architettonici e per il Paesaggio, per il Patrimonio Storico, Artistico e Etnoantropologico per le Province di Pisa e Livorno; Diocesi di Aosta - Ufficio Beni Culturali Ecclesiastici; Chiostro Canonicale della Basilica Cattedrale, Cefalù.

说明 CENOBIUM(文化电子网络在线:结合可互操作 的多媒体)是地中海地区的罗马式修道院柱头的 多媒体展示方式。高清数码照片、3D模型、全景 能将这些柱头以虚拟方式连接到原来的环境,从 而能使其在原有的建筑和概念背景中展示出来。 这个项目的中心目的是通过对法国南部、西班 牙和意大利历史上的柱头的研究,阐述12、13世 纪的文化交流。 应用 为了能够开拓一个新局面,CENOBIUM整合了艺 术史中传统与创新的方法,并结合了最新的数据 技术,以便解决迄今为止一直无法企及的领域, 甚至是在现场也无法对柱头进行分析的领域。 本项目的目标是创建一个协作平台,使专家们 能够获取欧洲各地的罗马式修道院的高品质3D和 2D图像。 在蒙雷阿莱、奥斯塔和切法卢修道院进行的三 维扫描和摄影活动的成果,目前在一个互动网站 进行了展示。用户可以通过该网站观赏这些柱头 的高清三维模型和图片,还能在易于使用的软件 的帮助下“看见”和比较这些城市。 通过一个拥有友好的用户界面的软件工具,就 能将景观视觉化并对其进行比较。这样用户就可 以同时观赏到有关柱头的高分辨率的3D模型和2D 图片。 合作伙伴 • ISTI-CNR位于意大利比萨市的视觉计算实 验室, http://vcg.isti.cnr.it • 位 于 意 大 利 佛 罗 伦 萨 的 Kunsthistorisches 研究院,和位于德国 的Max-Planck-Institut研究院http:// www.khi.fi.it • 意大利Valle d'Aosta自治区文化遗产监管 局 • 意大利Aosta教区教会文物局 • 意 大 利 文 化 遗 产 科 技 研 究 所 ( I T A B C CNR),位于意大利的蒙特罗顿多/罗马 • 意大利Palermo省文化遗产监管局 • 意 大 利 比 萨 和 利 伏 诺 市 的 建 筑 遗 产 、 景 观、历史、艺术和人类学监管局 • Chiostro Canonicale della Basilica Cattedrale di Cefalù • 梵蒂冈切法卢大教堂 ,庙宇中的典范 56


意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.3

3.1 The Cloister of Monreale in Sicily.

3.5

3.2 A description of the Cloister of Monreale. 3.3 Data capitals management. From this page the user can navigate

through the cloister, access to the high-resolution images or visualize the high-detailed 3D models of the capital.

3.4 The 3D model of the capital W8Sh82 during the visualization

into the Virtual Inspector application.

3.5 A detail of high-resolution image of the W8Sh82 capital. 3.1 意大利西西里岛的皇室山修道院 3.2 皇室山修道院简介 3.3 数据化资产管理。从这页开始,用户可以通过高清晰度 的图片或者高分辨率的3维模型穿梭于整个修道院。 3.4 W8Sh82资产模型在“虚拟监察员”应用程序的帮助下,

通过3维技术成像。 3.5 一张W8Sh82资产高清晰度,高分辨率的图片。

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

Museo Galileo. Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence

伽利略博物馆 Florence佛罗伦萨

The Museo Galileo’s exhibition layout presents the historical and cultural setting in which the Medici and Lorraine collections were assembled, the places where they were once displayed, the collectors’ goals, and the activities of the scientists who played the leading role in this enterprise. The focus of the entire exhibit plan is Galileo. The collections of the first Medici Grand Dukes bear eloquent witness to the scientific culture in which Galileo emerged. The instruments and experimental apparatuses acquired by the Lorraines in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries reflect the powerful stimulus provided by Galileo’s discoveries to the development of physical and mathematical sciences in the modern age. The Medici and Lorraine collections of scientific instruments are also accessible through the Museo Galileo’s website which includes three main sections: visiting, providing information on the Museum as a physical entity; exploring, used for overall or individual consultation of databases, exhibitions, on-line educational projects and Galilean resources; participating, inviting users to make their own contributions, through interactive applications, or to participate in special events and cultural initiatives. Transverse to these three sections is the search option, used to consult the results of a query in differentiated manner.

伽利略博物馆的展览布局充分展现了历史和 文化氛围,梅迪奇和洛林的收藏品、曾陈列过的 各类场馆、收藏家们的各种期望、以及在该企业 中扮演着重要角色的科学家们所举办的活动,尽 皆汇集于此。 全部展览计划都会集中在伽利略身上。首位 梅迪奇大公的收藏品用无可辩驳的事实证明了伽 利略在科学文化领域的才华横溢。由洛林收藏的 那些十八世纪和十九世纪的设备与实验器材,充 分展现了伽利略所从事的各种探索发现为现代物 理学和数学科学的发展所提供的强大促进因素。 同样你也可以通过伽利略博物馆的网站参观 梅迪奇和洛林的科学器材收藏品。它由三个主要 部分构成:1.参观,以实物形式,提供与博物 馆相关的信息;2.探索,用于总体浏览或个别 咨询,涉及各类数据库、展览、在线教育项目和 有关伽利略的资料等几个方面;3.参与 ,通过 人机交互式程序,或通过参加特殊活动和文化倡 议活动的方式,邀请客户参与并贡献他们自己的 一份力量。而“搜索选项”横向贯穿了这三个部 分,通过分类检索的方式去获取有关问题的查询 结果。

4.1

4.3

4.2

4.1 The Globe’s Room with the great armillary sphere.

4.4

4.2 The Galileo Room. 4.3 Museo Galileo’s Home Page. 4.4 Didactic application on Galileo’s Compass. 4.1 天体球形室有一个巨大的浑天仪 4.2 伽利略的房间 4.3 伽利略博物馆主页 4.4 有关伽利略罗盘的教学应用

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

Museo Galileo. An innovative video-guide

新型视频向导

The Museo Galileo offers its visitors the chance to rent an innovative video-guide called TrackMan. It is a portable device, the size of a small satellite navigator, equipped with a touch screen with freely accessible applications as opposed to pre-set ones. The absolute novelty is that, once you have chosen an application, the device will automatically provide information about the specific exhibit as it can recognise it at short distance through the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology. This is a great revolution in the field of multimedia guides already provided in museums, archaeological sites and artistic sites in general. ‘Track Man’ can provide, for each work, text, images, audio comments as well as high definition videos with further information and interactive teaching applications. It can also cater for different disabilities (deafness, blindness, inability to use hands or arms) and for those who cannot read and write or who cannot use technological devices. Visitors will be able to choose among three different options: a complete tour of the museum with text and video information about the 1,000 objects on display; a selection of 80 works chosen among the most representative of the collection; a simplified tour specially aimed at children and young people.

伽利略博物馆可以为每位来此的游客提供并 租借一种名为“TrackMan”(自由人)的新型 视频导游设备。与那些预先设置好程序的设备不 同,这种便携式设备配备了小型卫星导航装置 、 触摸屏和简单易用的应用程序。而它真正的创新 在于,一旦你选定了一个程序,该装置就会自动 为你提供有关具体展品的信息,因为它能通过其 射频识别技术(RFID)在短距离内识别出展品。 对多媒体导游领域而言,这是一项伟大的革 新,并已经普遍的应用于各博物馆、考古遗迹以 及艺术场所等等。“TrackMan”能为每件展品 提供文字、图片、音评、以及高解析度的影像和 交互式教学程序,以便获取更进一步的信息。同 时,它还能满足不同残障人士(如失聪、失明、 上肢缺失等)的需求、以及满足那些无法读、写 和使用科技设备的人士的需求。 参观者将可以在三个不同的选项中进行选 择:1)完整的博物馆参观流程,包括与一千件 展品相关的文字和影像信息;2)精心挑选出的 最具代表性的八十件展品;3)特别适用于儿童 与年轻人的简化参观流程。

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

“The Confirmation of the Rule”: Virtual experience in Giotto’s space

确认条例:感受乔托的虚拟世 界

This installation is dedicated to the virtual exploration of the scene The Confirmation of the Rule, part of the Franciscan stories painted by Giotto at the end of the 13thcentury in the Upper Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. The installation was presented in Assisi in 2010, on the occasion of the exhibition Giotto’s colours. Starting from an accurate study of Giotto’s space and proportions, the scene was translated in 3D and “mapped” on the basis of the artist’s original painting. It has been brought to life: the Franciscans enter in the room, Francis asks the Pope to confirm their religious rule and the Pope gives his oral approval – a crucial episode in the history of Christianity, in 1209. The 3D reconstruction offers a unique occasion to take an in-depth look at the painting’s history and to appreciate one of its fundamental steps: the transition from the medieval approach in representation to the modern approach, born during the Renaissance. The user can interact in the 3D scene, changing his point of view, he can compare the 3D rendering with the 2D image by Giotto, focusing on how, where and why Giotto’s construction differs from the correct perspective and still follows an empirical approach. The scientific and technical direction are by ITABC and ISTC, some Italian private companies and free lance individuals have collaborated for the realization (www.icoloridigiotto.it).

该装置致力于对“确认条例”(The Rule Confirmation)的情景进行虚拟开发。在13世纪 末位于阿西西城圣方济教堂的上层教堂中,乔托 (Giotto)绘制了这幅壁画,是有关圣方济会的 故事的一部分。2010年在阿西西城举办的“乔托 的色彩”展览中,该装置曾进行了展出。 首先要 对乔托作品的空间和比例进行精确的研究,再基于 作家的原画,通过3D和“映射”技术对情景进行诠 释。 该情景就会活灵活现的展现在你眼前:圣方济 修士们进入房间,圣方济向教皇询问并确认他们的 教规,然后教皇发出他的口谕(发生在1209年的该 情景,在基督教的历史中这是极为重要的一幕)。 3D重现技术提供了一个独一无二的机会使人们 可以深入了解绘画的历史,并欣赏其每个重要的 阶段:从中世纪代表作品的创作手法到现代创作手 法的过渡,再到文艺复兴时期诞生的创作手法,使 用户可以在3D场景中进行互动,改变自身的视角, 并将用3D诠释的作品和由乔托绘制的2D图像进行比 较。乔托的构图与正确的透视绘画方法不同,并坚 持追随经验主义的方法,用户将有机会了解乔托在 什么地方、使用了何种手法、以及为什么这样做。 该项目的科技指导开发是在CNR(意大利国家 研究委员会)的ITABC和ISTC两家机构以及意大利 的一些私人公司和自由职业者共同合作下实现的。

6.1

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The Grand Tour

6.2

6.1 The Confirmation of

the Rule reconstructed in 3D. 6.2 The Confirmation of

the Rule reconstructed in 3D, multiplication of the view points. 6.3 Giotto’s characters

in 3D, mapped with the artist’s original texture. 6.4 Main interface of

the desktop virtual reality application: direct comparison between 2D and 3D representation for interpretative analyses of the space. 6 . 5 Si m u l a t i o n o f

perspective projection on a plane, from one central vanishing point.

6.1 3D重建后的“教规

确认” 6.2 3D重建后的“教

规确认”,对视点的 放大。

6.3

6.3 3D化乔托的人物作

品,对艺术家原作品 的材质进行“映射” 6.4 桌面式虚拟现实程

序主界面:通过对空 间进行解释性分析, 直接比较2D和3D展示 效果。 6.5 从一个逐渐消失

的中心点开始,在平 板上对透视投影进行 模拟。

6.4

6.5

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The Grand Tour

“Life and power in ancient Rome”

生命与力量

The film tells the story of the Roman Empire as a sequence of official moments in public life, dominated by outward appearances, symbols and grandeur, and also the private life of the imperial family, represented by otium, meditation, private sentiments and daily habits. These are the subjects portrayed in the reliefs of the Ara Pacis, a major symbol of Roman power and Roman politics in the Augustan period, in imperial portraiture and in the architectural features of Villa Livia. The film aims to highlight the potential and the scientific and technological skills of Italian research in the Virtual Heritage field. The video was implemented by three CNR institutes – IBAM, ISTI, ITABC – relating to the Cultural Heritage Department and presented as part of the Italy in Japan 2009 initiatives in the exhibition The Legacy of the Roman Empire in the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo. The following technologies were used in the film: technologies for the reconstruction of three-dimensional digital models from photographs (production of the 3D digital model of the Ara Pacis); high-resolution three-dimensional laser scanning technology (reconstruction of the 3D digital model of the Ara Pacis); state of the art computer animation (radiosity, HDRI lighting); multi-user virtual reality techniques for museum communication. The project has been promoted by CNR-DPC and realized by IBAM, ISTI and ITABC (http://www.itlab.ibam.cnr.it/ Digitalvideo.html).

遗址的一般展示 通过一连串的官方情景,该影片向我们讲述 了一段有关罗马皇帝在公共生活中的故事, 内容 主要包含:外貌、标志和宏伟的情景;还有皇室 人员的私人生活,代表作品为“天火”;以及沉 思、个人情绪和日常习惯等。这些主题均在和平 祭坛的浮雕中有所描绘,同时也是罗马权利和政 治的重要标志,并表现在奥古斯都年代、皇帝肖 像画中和里维亚别墅的建筑风格中。该影片的目 的在于彰显意大利在虚拟文化遗产领域的研究成 果,包括潜在的和科学的、技术性的一些技巧。 有关应用程序的特色和目的的展示 影像是由CNR的三家机构(IBAM, ISTI, ITABC)有关文化遗产的部门具体实施的。作 为“2009年意大利在日本”活动的一个重要组 成部分,该影片在“罗马帝国的传奇”展览中首 次进行了放映。(位于东京的西方艺术国家博物 馆,自2009年九月至今已成功在日本三个城市巡 展) 影片中运用了以下技术了: - 来源于摄影的三维数字模型进行重建的相关 技术。(和平祭坛的3D数字模型作品) -高分辨率三维激光扫描技术(利用3D数字模 型对和平祭坛进行重建) -艺术级别的电脑动画(渲染算法,HDRI的亮 度) -适用于博物馆交互的多用户虚拟现实技术 网址http://www.itlab.ibam.cnr.it/ Digitalvideo.html

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7.1

7.2

7.1 Ara Pacis Augustae, the main entrance. 3D reconstruction using

image-based technologies.

7.2 Ara Pacis Augustae, the North side. 3D reconstruction using image-

based technologies.

7.1 奥古斯都和平祭坛:基于影像技术的3维立体重建。

主入口 7.2 奥古斯都和平祭坛:基于影像技术的3维立体重建。

北面 7.3.a-b 电影“生命与力量”的影像序列

7.3 a-b Image sequence of Life and power in ancient Rome.

7.3a

7.3b

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The Grand Tour

The virtual museum of ancient Via Flaminia: The Villa of Livia

弗拉米尼亚大道的虚拟博物 馆:里维亚别墅

The VR installation dedicated to the Villa of Livia is part of a more exstensive project: the Virtual Museum of the ancient Via Flaminia. A major Roman consular road, it was built in 220 BC by Gaius Flaminius to connect Rome with Ariminum, today’s Rimini, on the Adriatic sea.The archaeological landscape and sites have been reconstructed in 3D and implemented in a multi-user VR application exhibited in the Roman National Museum; the present is a short version dedicated to the villa in Prima Porta near Rome, belonged to Livia, the wife of the emperor August (1st century BC – 1st century AD). The project follows a complex methodological approach, from the acquisition of topographical data on the field to the reconstruction of the landscape and architectures in their diachronical dimension. Three levels of visualization have been created: the present archaeological landscape, the interpreted-hybrid landscape – the transparent overlay of 3D reconstructed structures on the contemporary landscape –, and the reconstructed historical landscape, each with a specific content and story. You can explore the space through your avatar and activate the icons in order to open 3D objects and multimedia; in the historical reconstruction you can talk with ancient characters who explain their personal history and culture. The project has been realized by ITABC with the support of ARCUS s.p.a.

为“里维亚别墅”配备虚拟现实装置,是“弗 拉米尼亚远古之路虚拟博物馆” 项目的一部分。 由Gaius Flaminius在公元前220年建造的重要 的古罗马官路是用于连接罗马与位于亚得里亚海的 Ariminum,即今日的Rimini。考古遗迹与陆地景观 通过3D技术进行重建,并通过多用户虚拟现实应用 软件在罗马国家博物馆进行展出。我们在此展示一 部分内容,并将此谨献给里维亚别墅,该别墅毗邻 罗马位于Prima Porta,属于奥古斯都大帝的夫人 里维亚(I BC – I AD)。 该项目沿用了一套复杂的方法论,通过对地理 信息数据的获取,在相关领域按年代顺序对陆地景 观和建筑群进行虚拟重构。 虚拟技术分为三个级别,即:可见的考古陆地景 观;已诠释的混合型陆地景观(在当代的地面上,有 透明覆盖物的经过3D重建的结构)以及过去曾重建过 的陆地景观。每个级别都有各自独特的信息内容和 故事。你可以用你的虚拟人物去探索空间,如果想 打开3D物件和多媒体激活图标就可以了。在过去的 复原物情境中,你何以同古代人物对话,他将会向 你介绍他们的私人故事和文化。 每一个层面的对象都有其自身的特色且令人身临 其境。个人可以通过虚拟的身份操作并激活个人账 户进行畅快的3D多媒体考古之旅。在“过去重建的 景观”这一层面中,用户可以和古人进行有趣的对 话,倾听当时人们的趣闻轶事与社会风俗。 该项目已经由CNR ITABC实现,并得到了ARCUS s.p.a.的支持。

8.1

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8.2

8.3

8.1 The multimedia room in the Roman

8.4a

National Museum with the Virtual Museum of the ancient Via Flaminia, a multiuser virtual reality application (ITABC). 8.2 3D model elaboration of the Villa

of Livia from laser scanner acquisition (13 millions polygons decimated to 1 million). 8.3 3D reconstruction of the today-

archaeological landscape and overlapping of the ancient structures (interpreted landscape). 8.4 a-b Comparison between the actual

8.4b

real site and its virtual reconstruction.

8.5 The underground triclinium with the

famous original painting today preserved in the Roman National Museum. The character of the painter describes the techniques and the meaning of the figures. 8.1 位于罗马国家博物馆中的多媒

体室,弗拉米尼亚大道拟博物馆, 多用户虚拟现实应用程序(CNR ITABC) 8.2 苦心制作的里维亚别墅3D模型

8.5

是利用激光扫描技术获取的信息。 (1千3百万个多边形削减至1百万 个) 8.3 将当代考古景观并与古代结构

相搭接并进行3D重建。(诠释后的 陆地景观) 8.4 a-b 在现实遗迹和它的虚拟重建

之间比较 8.5 在地面下“有躺椅的餐桌”衬

有著名的油画原作,今天依然保存 在罗马国家博物馆,画家的用自己 的技巧风格诠释所描绘人物的内涵

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意大利文化遗产的科技及多媒体创新之旅

Grand Tour in Italy Sciences, Technologies and Multimedia Applications for Cultural Heritage

The Grand Tour

“Matera: Tales of a city”

马泰拉:一个城市的传奇

Matera is an extraordinary place in Southern Italy (Basilicata Region), where the human history can be perceived in its uninterrupted continuity: the stable human presence in this territory began 12000 years ago, favoured by the morphology of the environment characterized by thousands of natural caves. The city is famous for its ancient urban centre, the Sassi neighbourhood, houses dug into the calcareous rock. Matera was the first site in South Italy to be declared “Unesco World Heritage” in 1993. Matera: tales of a city is not a descriptive traditional guide: it does not inspect monuments mentioning who made them and when. On the contrary it tells the incredible stories that took place in those ancient sites, real fragments of life, myths, memories. Several 3D reconstructions show the evolution of Matera and its landscape through the time, in eight different ages: from 2 millions years ago to the 20th century. A lot of people took part to this project: they have narrated their territory on the basis of their own memories, visions and life experiences. Also many well-known artists gave their contribution, bringing their art to Matera. Some data about this application: 56 movies, 30 slide-show, 8 chronological phases reconstructed in 3D, a VR environment. Please, interact through the iPad. The project, coordinated by ITABC, has been supported by the Regional Promotion Agency (APT) and the Basilicata Regional Government’s Department of Manufacturing/Production Activities. Matera: Tales of a city is available for free in App Store, category Education (www.materacittanarrata.it.).

马泰拉坐落于意大利的南部,隶属巴斯西利 卡塔大区,是一个与众不同的地方。这里的人类 历史从未中断过并一直保持着其连续性:当地人 们自12000年前就始终生活在这片土地上。这个 地方的特点是拥有成千上万的自然洞穴,也因此 受环境形态学所青睐。这座城市与Sassi窑洞毗 邻以其古代城区的中心而著称,它的房屋群是通 过挖掘石灰岩而形成的。9000年前当地人的祖先 就在这些房屋中生活,而直至今天仍有许多人在 此处生活。在1993年,马泰拉是意大利南部第一 个被联合国教科文组织宣布为世界遗产的地点。 “马泰拉:一个城市的传说”不是一个描述性 的传统导游手册:它没有用检查的方式去介绍遗 迹,并提及建造者和建造时间。相反,它诉说了 许多发生在那些远古遗迹上的令人难以置信的故 事、真实的生活片段、神话和回忆。多个3D重建 展示了马泰拉的演化过程和它的陆地景观,并按 照时间将其划分为八个不同的时代:从2百万年 前到20世纪。许多人都参加了这个项目:凭借自 身的记忆、想象和生活经历,他们讲述了发生在 这片土地上的故事。当然,许多著名的艺术家也 贡献了自己的力量,将他们的艺术献给了马泰拉。 除了来自CNR的ITABC的鼎力合作,该项目一直 受到了行政区宣传局(APT)、巴西利卡塔行政区 政府的工业/制造业活动部的积极配合。

9.1

9.2

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The Grand Tour 9.1 The interactive map with “views through the time” indicated with orange and blue icons.

9.3

9.2 Panorama of Matera in eight different ages. It is possible to change the transparency between the 3D reconstruction of the past ages and the today image. 9.3 Ancient maps of the end of the 15th and the 18th century give precious information about the city walls and the main areas of the city, useful for the 3D modelling. 9.4 3D reconstruction of Matera during the Renaissance. 9.5 Main menu in the iPad application. 9.6 Ipad application: “Fly on the territory” section, real time exploration. 9.1 互动地图上有“穿越 了时空的图像”,并用橙 色和蓝色图标表示

9.4

9.2 马泰拉城在八个不同 年代的全景图。随时都可 以在3D重建后的过去景象 与现代景象之间改变幻灯 片。 9.3 在十五和十八世纪末 的一些古代地图提供了一 些有关城墙和城市主要区 域的珍贵信息,这对于制 作3D模型十分有用。 9.4 文艺复兴时期的马泰 拉城的3D重建映像 9.5 Ipad程序上的主菜单 9.6 Ipad 程序:“在领土 上飞翔”部分,进行实时 探索。

9.5

9.6

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Catalogo Gran Tour in Italy  

Catalogo Gran Tour in Italy