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Winter 2019


CONNECTIONS Insights into Managing the Economics of Water Risk Page 19

The Year Ahead: Opportunities, Challenges and Reflections on a Career in Water Page 36

IDA Mentorship Program Pairs Industry Leaders with Young Professionals Page 67

His Excellency Dr. Thani bin Ahmed Al Zeyoudi UAE Minister of Climate Change and Environment

Building a Sustainable UAE via Water-Food-Energy Resilience

TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 | MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY GENERAL 7 | MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 9 | COVER STORY: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE UAE VIA WATERFOOD-ENERGY RESILIENCE 14 | UTILITY LEADERS VIEWPOINT 15 | An Interview with Zamzam Saleh Alrakaf, Chief Engineer of Desalination Projects, Ministry of Electricity & Water, State of Kuwait 18 | EXECUTIVE INSIGHT 19 | Managing the Economics of Water Risk 22 | WATER AND THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY 23 | Business As Usual Is Not An Option to Manage Our Water, Energy and Food Sectors 26 | ANALYST CORNER 27 | Is 40₵ Desalination in Sight? 30 | TECHNICAL CORNER 31 | Energy Efficiency, Primary Energy, and Apples vs. Oranges 35 | THE WOMEN IN OUR INDUSTRY 36 | The Year Ahead. Opportunities, Challenges and Reflections on a Career in Water 44 | NOT-FOR-PROFIT VIEWPOINT 45 | How Associations Can Achieve Future Success 50 | SPOTLIGHT ON WATER REUSE 51 | One Water Los Angeles 2040 Plan: Big and Bold Water Reuse Planning to Make Los Angeles a More Resilient City 54 | AFFILIATE SPOTLIGHT 55 | Regional Affiliate Market Note from the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA)

IDA Global Connections is published quarterly in September, December, March and June. The views expressed in articles contributed to IDA Global Connections Newsletter are not necessarily the views of the International Desalination Association. IDA assumes no responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts and/or artwork.

58 | AFFILIATE CORNER 60 | AEDyR XII International Conference a Resounding Success 62 | More Than 400 Attendees and 170 Companies Gather at ALADYR International Congress & Exhibition 64 | EDS Conference - From Athens to Athens, 1962-2018 66 | IDA YOUNG LEADERS PROGRAM SPOTLIGHT 67 | IDA YLP Mentorship Program Continues to Grow 70 | IDA WORLD CONGRESS 2019 NEWS 71 | Excitement Builds for 2019 World Congress: IDA Extends Call for Papers Deadline, Early Registration Now Open 72 | New: IDA Corporate Golf Day 72 | IDA Welcomes World Congress Exhibitors and Sponsors 73 | Follow Our Updates 74 | IDA NEWS 76 | IDA Co-Organizes 2019 WFES Water Forum: Disrupting the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to Optimize Efficiency, Security and Sustainability 77 | Call for Papers Open for 2019 IDA Action4Good International Conference: Creating Resilient Solutions to Water Needs 78 | IDA Thanks Sponsors for 2019 Action4good Conference 79 | Applications Being Accepted through January 31 for Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship 80 | IDA Seeks Host Agencies for 2018-19 and 2020-21 Fellowship Program 80 | Sponsor an IDA Academy Course 82 | IDA WELCOMES OUR NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS 83 | 14TH MEMBRANE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE TO TAKE PLACE IN SINGAPORE 85 | MEET THE TEAM 86 | CALENDAR OF EVENTS

Editorial Director Shannon McCarthy Editorial Consultant Ann Seamonds Editorial Offices International Desalination Association P.O. Box 387 Topsfield, MA 01983 USA Tel: +1-978-774-0959

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This publication is produced on recycled paper in support of sustainability



MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY GENERAL We’re excited to present this issue of IDA Global Connections. Appropriately themed “The Year Ahead,” this issue focuses on the upcoming WFES Water Summit, IDA Action4Good Conference and the 2019 World Congress for which registration is now open and due to many requests, the Call for Abstracts deadline has been extended to 30 January! Featured articles in this issue address exciting collaborative efforts to further the process of advanced water treatment technologies worldwide, critical industry insights into the economy of water, new strategies to ensure associations meet all their members’ needs, and updates on the next generation of leaders in our industry. We are honored to include His Excellency Dr. Thani bin Ahmed Al Zeyoudi, UAE Minister of Climate Change, on the cover of this issue and as the cover story which delves into the United Arab Emirates’ stunning achievement of increasing sustainable crop production and reducing water consumption in the heart of the desert. Other key articles address the importance of such revolutionary methods, reminding us of the dire need for a holistic approach toward the issue of water sustainability. Devesh Sharma’s “The Economies of Water Risk” is particularly brilliant, examining industry assessments of the economics of water through the lens of water risk—not monetary measures. In so doing, Sharma insists that when it comes to the question of sustainability, more than money is at stake. Deputy-Director Land and Water Division at

FAO Dr. Olcay Ünver agrees, insisting that “we need radical and systematic innovations deliberately designed to jointly improve the water, energy, and food resource efficiencies.” When it comes to the sustainability of our resources, both authors are clear: business cannot proceed as usual; dramatic change must take place. Christopher Gasson’s article, “Is 40 Cent Desalination in Sight?” provides an interesting counterpoint to Sharma and Ünver, calling attention to the decreasing price of desalination due to shifting financial models and groundbreaking innovations. And indeed, in his regional report, Shawn Meyer-Steele (President of the Board of Directors of CaribDA) notes that collaborative efforts are well underway to lower the cost of water in the Caribbean. From the technical corner, MIT professor John H. Lienhard explains that if water is to remain at a reasonable price, production plants “must focus on economics, not thermodynamics alone.” Taken together, these four articles sound a hopeful note for the future of our mission: 2019 could be the year of affordable and sustainable advanced water treatment technologies. Our story “A Career in Water” highlights what separates IDA and our Affiliates from other industry organizations: our passionate pursuit of creating a better, more sustainable world. We know that what we do affects generations to come, and in this issue, we’ve given the spotlight to seven women whose passionate contributions


are key to our industry’s success. One such woman is Cindy Wallis-Lage, CEO of Black & Veatch, who encourages us by saying, “Don’t shy away from change; lean into discomfort. When we lean in, we learn new things, new approaches, and our industry needs that variety of thinking.” Here at IDA, we strive to do just that. In addition to these exciting updates, this issue addresses how associations can better meet the needs of their members in an ever-changing world. G. Wade Miller’s “How Associations Can Achieve Future Success” supplies a wealth of suggestions as to how we can collaborate and make new breakthroughs with our members, shaping a bright future for IDA. We take this question seriously, and in this issue, you can read about the IDA YLP Mentorship Program, our attempt to cultivate the next generation of water leaders. This initiative pairs industry professionals with IDA’s upcoming leaders, creating a space where experts can share their experience and wisdom with young people from around the world. As always, we hope this


program shows our dedication to connecting with our members year after year. Finally, from all of us on the IDA team, we want to thank you for helping our seamless transition to our new website and AMS system. We trust the enhanced features of our new website and this new system will help you connect with us and each other in easier and better ways. And please remember to submit your papers for our 2019 World Congress in Dubai! The theme this year is “Crossroads to Sustainability,” and the deadline has been extended taking into consideration the new review center software. More information can be found here. That’s all for now, so please, enjoy this issue of Global Connections. We know we’re looking forward to the year ahead, and we hope you are too. Happy New Year, Shannon K. McCarthy Secretary General

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT The year 2018 is nearing its end, and it is a good time to think about the future, especially our wishes to successfully address the challenges of our industry and community for the next year and beyond. Here is an excellent starting point: the water reuse and desalination market are growing with very good prospects, having an important number of projects in development in the pipeline. The Middle East, Africa, Latin America, India and East Asia are concentrating the large seawater desalination plants; and water reuse is growing more in the USA, Asia-Pacific, Middle East, North and South Africa and Southern Europe.

P scale, that are able to be implemented in either large or small cities, in remote areas or islands, in municipal or industrial markets, with an affordable water cost and minimizing the carbon footprint. The progress in water reuse is evident with a lot of technical alternatives adapted to water reuse, irrigation or industrial needs; environment or recreational uses; aquifer recharge; or direct or indirect potable use. Our desalination and water reuse industry provides reliable, safe and economical solutions capable of tackling any water reuse challenge. My second wish is that the majority of countries or regions have regulations for their water reuse needs. For some zones, they only need to revise the last draft of their proposal and go for the approval, but many countries of the world with water scarcity have no regulations for different reuse purposes.

Most of the market volume, mainly in desalination, is coming from large plants (XL or XXL size) and with the effect of centralization and economy of scale, we are lowering water costs and making both water reuse and desalination solutions more affordable. This is very good, because one of the three pillars of sustainability is the economic aspect, and by reducing water prices, desalination and reuse will And my third and last wish: Enjoy this new issue of IDA Global Connections. Season’s Greetings and my be more sustainable. best wishes for all of you in 2019. But the challenge we need to face in this industry, and that is my first wish, is to also develop more Miguel Angel Sanz sustainable decentralized solutions, at a smaller President



By His Excellency Dr. Thani bin Ahmed Al Zeyoudi, Minister of Climate Change and Environment for the United Arab Emirates 9

Water, food and energy are the most essential natural resources for all life forms to survive and thrive on our planet. The demand for all three is surging, driven by a rising global population, staggering economic boom, rapid urbanization and modern production and consumption patterns. The reciprocal nexus between water, food and energy is overarching in the UAE. Water and energy are used to produce food, and energy is used to produce water. However, the country’s finite water resources are casting a shadow on this symbiotic relationship, making it highly dependent on energy-intensive desalinated water. The agricultural sector is by far the largest consumer of the country’s limited and precious water resources. Despite this large water footprint, 90 percent of the UAE’s food is being sourced through imports. In a bid to promote more efficient crop growth in a way that doesn’t put further pressure on the UAE’s energy and finite freshwater resources, the country, through the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment, is spearheading the implementation of innovative technologies that support sustainable agriculture, such as hydroponics, vertical agriculture, precision irrigation, netted systems and closed-system greenhouses. In June 2018, the Ministry revolutionized agriculture in the UAE through launching a droneenabled aerial mapping system to generate high-resolution, highly efficient aerial data, including topographic mapping, contouring, vector mapping and textured 3D city models. This data is systematically analyzed to procure accurate statistical information that supports the country’s adoption of precision agriculture. In addition, the UAE, through the work carried out by Masdar, its flagship renewable energy company, is exploring promising alternative desalination technologies – including the use of renewable energy in this field – to achieve sustainable water supply. Masdar is also developing other solutions that aim to increase sustainable crop production in the UAE’s



farms while reducing overall water consumption. This will lower over dependency on seawater desalination, and thereby contribute to greater energy, water and food security in the UAE. Furthermore, the country has introduced multiple regulations to increase resource efficiency – for example, green buildings codes that have cut energy and water consumption by over 33 percent in new buildings, as well as appliance standards and tariff reforms to ensure efficient use of electricity and water, particularly in urban environments that are mega consumers of these resources. The introduction of district cooling is also significant, as it lowers energy consumption by half. Thanks to these efforts, the UAE today is one of the top 10 countries outside of the United States with the greatest number of LEED certified buildings. The UAE is also home to some of the most innovative sustainable cities in the world. Masdar City is a blueprint for a sustainable urban community, with energy and water efficiency measures integrated into passive building design and landscape architecture. In Dubai, The Sustainable City, a primarily residential development is the first operational net-zero energy project of its kind that serves as a model for a future carbon-friendly world. Promoting behavioral change to reduce wastage of water, food and energy by raising public awareness through media campaigns is another approach embraced by the UAE to sustain its vital natural resources. Perhaps fittingly, the inextricable connection that exists between these critical domains requires an all-inclusive approach to ensure water and food security and sustainable energy production. Efforts here in the UAE will feed into the wider global efforts to ultimately achieve the collective goal of a sustainable future for all.


His Excellency Dr Thani bin Ahmed Al Zeyoudi was appointed the Minister of Climate Change and Environment for the United Arab Emirates in February 2016. Previously, His Excellency served as a Permanent Representative of the UAE to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) from 2010 to 2017. He was also the Director of the Department of Energy and Climate Change within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2010 to 2016. Earlier, as Project Engineer at Masdar, His Excellency Dr Al Zeyoudi worked to advance renewable energy technologies and solutions. During this time, he also played an instrumental role in the UAE’s successful 2009 bid to host IRENA, the first international organization dedicated to renewable energy. He started his career as Reservoir Engineer at the Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO). He heads the UAE Council for Climate Change and Environment, the National Committee of Biosecurity, and the Emirates Committee for Sustainable Environment Research. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD), the Board of Trustees of the Khalifa International Award for Date Palm and Agricultural Innovation, the Audit and Selection Committees of the Zayed Sustainability Prize and the Board of Directors of the Global Green Growth Institute. His Excellency Dr Thani bin Ahmed Al Zeyoudi holds a PhD in Project and Program Management from SKEMA Business School in France, an MBA from the New York Institute of Technology in the US, an MSc in Project Management from the British University in Dubai and a bachelor’s degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Tulsa in the US. In 2015, His Excellency Dr Al Zeyoudi received the first Gulf Cooperation Council Excellence Award in recognition of his pioneering efforts in renewable energy.





As Chief Engineer of Desalination Projects, Ministry of Electricity & Water, State of Kuwait, Zamzam Saleh AlRakaf is responsible for executing and supervising all desalination projects in Kuwait.

She was Process Engineer in Doha West Power Station and was the first female engineer to work in the Power Station in Kuwait. Later she became Process Design Engineer in the Design Department for Desalination Projects and in 1992 was named the Director of the Design Department in Distillation Projects. In 2001, she became the Deputy Chief Engineer and Director of the Design Department. In 2016, she became Chief Engineer and continues in this role today. She has been a Director of IDA since 2011 and served as the Second Vice President of the Association for the 2015-2017 term. Q. In your opinion, what have been the greatest Kuwait has been very proactive and systematic in successes of the Kuwait Ministry of Electricity and our planning, and have put in place a plan that takes Water? What is the status of desalination in Kuwait? us from today to 2035. This plan entailed study of all the demand for water in Kuwait – from homes A. Desalination has always played an important role to the industrial sector. Once we determined the in Kuwait. In fact, Kuwait is one of the first countries installed capacity requirements, projections were to establish desalination, going back to the 1950s, as made for each year up to 2035, with an estimated here, there are no natural water resources. Today, increase of 6% per year in installed capacity, and we have installed capacity of 628 million imperial plans have been put in place for locations and gallons per day. projects covering the entire country – including the


specific capacity, type of system, the design and Q. How can the water industry ensure that there quality of water needed. will be enough talented professionals to satisfy the demand in coming years? This kind of systematic planning has been very successful. We have planned our plants to come on A. This must be a priority. Consider that at the Doha line when and where they are needed. As a result, Stage 1 RO plant, 100% of employees are Kuwaiti. More there is no lack of water for the consumer, nor has than 50% are new graduates from university. We must there been an issue during the last 20-30 years. This get new engineers into projects and operations at an is a significant achievement. early stage. Q. What are some of the challenges facing the water Q. Please tell us a bit about your own career. What sector that the Ministry is preparing to address? advice would you offer to young professionals in general, and women in particular, about opportunities A. One of the main challenges that we face is Kuwait’s in the water treatment industry and how to take location on the Arabian Gulf. The Gulf is a (semi) closed advantage of them? What can IDA do in this regard? sea and we are concerned about pollution and also the concentration of the salt from desalination. While A. I have been with the Kuwait Ministry of Electricity most GCC countries, including Kuwait, depend on the and Water since I began my career, starting in a power Gulf for desalination, we must think honestly about station in implementation and operations, and I worked saving the environment, treating the outfall or reject to my way up, dealing with all the systems in a power the seawater – and consider this in terms of the future, plant. I was the first female engineer in Kuwait to work not just today. We have to find solutions. For example, in power plants, and that created several challenges. I know that it is expensive, but perhaps we need to But it opened the path to other female engineers – consider steps like Zero Liquid Discharge. and now, most if not all desalination and power plants are staffed with or run by women. I am proud to have I believe we need to look at different strategies for paved the way for other women in Kuwait. To me, this production of potable water. One idea is to build a big is a great achievement. plant in Oman or the UAE that would supply all the GCC. Of course, we would all have to come together, Today, 70% of graduates from university are ladies. and work together to make this happen as there would They are very committed to their work, and they need have to be standardization and cooperation across all opportunities. The Ministry has been very open to GCC countries for this to work. women and gives opportunities to all; there are no restrictions. I am very proud to say that. The team Q. What are some of the most promising opportunities under me depends equally on men and women to get that you see for desalination, water reuse/recycling the job done. The ladies and men work alongside one and advanced water treatment technologies and use another in a very healthy environment. of renewable energy in desalination? Women are also represented in high positions, though A. Renewable energies must be adopted. (In Kuwait) fewer in elder positions, such as Director or higher. we have a requirement that 15% of all desalination But in the Ministry of Public Works, with which we and power and other companies must be powered by frequently work, the Under Secretary is a woman, so renewable energy. we are seeing much progress. The Ministry of Public Works has responsibility for water reuse, which is being utilized primarily for irrigation. All sectors – energy and water, power, health, etc. – should work together on the reuse issue. Reused water does not have to be drinking water, but utilizing reused water in other ways will cut the overall amount of water use. Many big cities utilize reused water for purposes other than drinking.


Regarding IDA’s role in encouraging a career in desalination and the water treatment industry, there are many ways to do this. One path is offering training courses through the IDA Academy. Another is encouraging participation in conferences, by presenting a paper or attending the many informative sessions. IDA offers many opportunities to tap into expertise from all over the world. We have so many leaders in our membership.

Integrated Solutions for the Water Sector Desalination

Water Treatment

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Water Reuse Industrial Water



MANAGING THE ECONOMICS OF WATER RISK By Devesh Sharma The issue of understanding and managing water risk has become more compelling than ever. It all starts with water scarcity, which, as we know is becoming more critical around the world. Water scarcity drives environmental regulation, it forces the utilization of more difficult and unconventional water sources to meet demand, and ultimately drives more risk…to not only water operations but to the industrial facility as a whole.

oriented view. In fact, this practice is shortsighted as the operating costs, which include manpower, energy consumption, chemicals, and consumables (such as membrane replacements) will dwarf the capital cost over the lifecycle of a water plant.

Nevertheless, we still see a reverse 80/20 assessment, with 80% of the focus being placed on the capital costs. Recognizing this imbalance, many industries have evolved their thinking and are now attempting to The economic impact of water risk has been seen by balance the evaluation of capital and operating cost on industry through the lens of short-term costs associated a net present value basis. with water treatment operations. This long-held but rather flawed perspective is focused on the fear of In reality, what is needed is an entirely different model. spending too much money, leading decision makers Even if industries adopt an ideal analysis that looks at a through a procurement process that is motivated on plant’s total lifecycle cost, they need to go beyond this. I believe the discussion needs to be reframed into one “securing the best deal.” that centers on how companies manage their water risk, This traditional approach has produced varying results, and do so according to a whole new paradigm that is as it is based on customers taking a very CAPEX- integrated into their broader operations.

Water Risk and the Hidden Costs of Water Operations Let’s start by defining and categorizing water risk. This list starts at the conventional areas around the water plant itself but moves beyond simple cost issues to those risks that have a profound impact on operations. The big issue here is to recognize the various hidden costs which are often underestimated and overlooked.

water treatment plant beyond that paradigm of just that utility section, you get to a much bigger problem: downtime. The impact can be assessed by answering one simple question: What is the most expensive water? The answer is… NO WATER! When the plant is down, an end user may have to buy expensive water from an outside source or even worse, shut down their operations for the lack of water. These factors are seldom factored into the evaluation.

• Conventional operational risk – This is where an enduser’s lifecycle cost evaluation is based on flawed assumptions. For example, an evaluation may assume that membranes will have to be replaced at • Environmental risk – This is the impact of not meeting a certain rate per year….say 15%. This has, however, current and future anticipated regulations. Again, it is underestimated what it takes to manage the water costly. At best, one may have to pay fines. In a worse plant. Is the process design robust enough? Do the scenario, one may face a plant shutdown. operators have enough knowledge to handle spikes and upsets in the feed water? Just one serious • Brand risk – This may have the most far-reaching membrane fouling event will throw off the entire and expensive consequences. Brand risk is the analysis. end customer’s perception of your ability to optimize water footprint and ensure adherence • Downtime– When you start looking at the risk of to standards of environmental stewardship. non-operation, or the difficulty of operation with a More and more we are seeing consumers link



their purchase decisions to their perception of a company’s environmental stewardship amongst which include the way they deal with water –

Mitigating Risk

Based on these risks it is important to recognize and understand the complete sphere of impact around a water plant. As the saying goes, “the first step to correcting a problem is identifying that there is a problem.” Once that happens, the next step is to look at your evaluation criteria and avoid the trap of falling into a CAPEX-driven approach.

and penalize those that ignore this commitment. Quantifying this risk is difficult, but it’s real, and it’s safe to say that the impact is profound.

of how to manage water. This includes adoption of an integrated accountability-managed operations approach rather than saying, "Well, this is how we've always done it; we need to operate these plants ourselves."

An accountability-managed approach, including outsourcing critical operations functions to the right It is then important to evolve and have the confidence partners, will provide the assurance and insurance of and the progressiveness to look at a different model experience and expertise, and that will alleviate risk.

Outsourcing: A Partnership, not Transactional Relationship Keep in mind that it takes deep experience and very few entities can truly keep a water treatment plant operating for years on end within the required key performance indicators that were established when the plant was designed. If the decision is made to outsource operational responsibility as part of a water risk mitigation strategy, it is critical to look for a resource that can not only offer a complete solution but one that has also demonstrated a proven longterm partnership view, not just a transactional approach.

the time these sources involve increased salinity and onerous constituents. Treating these waters consistently and reliably comes with increased complexities and risks and requires significant experience. With the challenges of today’s water sources coupled with high performance standards of operation, it's not as easy as it used to be for an end-user to manage their own water facility completely on their own.

Utilizing an accountability based outsourcing approach grounded in the spirit of partnership and a shared commitment to the plant’s success is Increasing water scarcity has created challenges one more powerful way to manage the economics in the form of more difficult water sources. Most of of water risk.

About the Author

Devesh Sharma is the Managing Director of Aquatech – a global leader in water purification technology for industrial and infrastructure markets. Established in 1981, Aquatech helps some of the world’s most recognized companies solve their water scarcity


challenges by providing solutions in desalination, wastewater reuse and zero liquid discharge.

Devesh has been with Aquatech since 1997 and he has worked in virtually every facet of the company over the past 20 years. As Managing Director, Devesh has been focused on overall management of the company’s operations and implementing Aquatech’s vision to be the premier water solutions provider for industries worldwide. Devesh is on the Board of Directors of the IDA, the American Middle East Institute, and the Carnegie Science Center of Pittsburgh.


Organised by


Uniting the world’s leading mining companies with strategic discussion, debate and case studies to achieve a sustainable future for water use in mining Driven by our 2019 Advisory Board Members: Dr. Hubert Fleming Global Head of Water Management

John McCartney VP of Water Management

Sandy Fabritz Whitney Director of Water Strategy

Scott Diggles Group Advisor - Water and Environment

Troy Jones Director of Water

Bruno Ferraz Environmental Management

Blair Douglas Acting VP, Resource Engineering Centre of Excellence

 #waterinmining @waterinmining


to see the agenda, visit:



BUSINESS AS USUAL IS NOT AN OPTION TO MANAGE OUR WATER, ENERGY AND FOOD SECTORS By Olcay Ăœnver We all desire a world in which all people sustainably have access to water, food and energy for their fundamental needs, in a manner satisfactory to them, and where our ecosystems and natural resource base are not threatened as a result. While the drivers of change for water, food and energy are similar (e.g., population growth and mobility, impacts of economic development, changing diets and social and technological change) with climate change acting on all as an additional stressor, decision-making in these sectors has traditionally taken place in fairly isolated processes and through mechanisms with detached and varying accountability structures. This has resulted in silo approaches where competition over natural resources cannot be tackled in a holistic manner, leading to a huge, untapped potential to seek and implement synergies, and to tackle trade-offs. We now know that the continuation of this will hurt the global economic growth, erode the economic and social gains made, and curtail the efforts towards sustainable development. Among the regions and groups that can be hurt most negatively are many of the low- and medium-income economies striving for greater socio economic development, which will face earlier than others more acute water, energy, and food shortages.

practices within existing technologies from a single sector perspective will not work. We need radical and systematic innovations deliberately designed to jointly improve the water, energy and food resource efficiencies, and to boost overall resource productivities. There is plenty of evidence from around the world that nexus approaches do produce better overall results, greater benefits and co-benefits and help manage trade-offs across sectors. Examples from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa also indicate that improving cross-sectoral resource use efficiency and avoiding adverse impacts of single-sector development strategies also result in huge benefits for the poor. Nexus thinking also tells us to examine quick fixes and technological solutions in a broader context, taking into account accompanying, and often complementing, aspects such as management and resource allocation/re-allocation, and indirect as well as direct impacts, such as on the economies and communities.

The implementation of a technology to improve water-use efficiency may not necessarily lead to less water consumption from a broader perspective when it is accompanied by extending Agriculture is the largest use of water resources, irrigated areas and or intensifying crops towards globally claiming 70 percent of all freshwater more productive varieties with higher water withdrawals. The agro-food sector accounts for requirements, for example. one third of total energy consumption in the world. FAO estimates a 50 percent increase in global We need to watch if resource savings in one sector food demand by 2050, over the 2013 figures. can have a non-declining effect on resource use This will translate into greater demands for water in another sector. Technological innovations and energy for food production, processing, emanating from higher energy prices may have transportation, storage, distribution and marketing. adverse impacts on land and water resources and the environment. A climate mitigation effort to Providing for these demands and simultaneously increase energy efficiency, e.g., for biofuel crops, reducing the environmental burdens clearly may lead to intense water use and a reallocation tell us that adapting our systems, policies and of land from food production. However, not all


examples are about trade-offs. Many technology and management practices that reduce GHG emissions also tend to increase water and land use efficiencies and boost agricultural yields. Examples of this can be extended to the use of solar energy in agriculture, including solar powered irrigation, and to the innovations in the thermoelectric power and industrial sectors where increased energy efficiency also led to water savings. Nexus thinking in this context provides a framework to achieve circular economy at large and circular water economy in particular. While the traditional water economies are linear and deplete and pollute water as it travels, circular economies reclaim, re-use and re-cycle (e.g., gray water); invest and enhance basin-wide management; decrease pressures on ecosystems and reduce pollution of sensitive water bodies


About the Author

Olcay Ăœnver is the Deputy-Director of the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) since September 2013 and incoming UN-WATER vice chair. Between 2007 and 2013, he served as Coordinator of the United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. Prior to that, he was a distinguished professor of water resources at



by synergistically combining economics and conservation, focusing on the service (quality) and performance (conservation) rather than sheer amounts of water used. Likewise, a circular economy for food, which reduces food loss and waste; increases efficiencies in production, processing and service delivery; and enhances eco-effectiveness of the food systems is not only possible but is becoming more and more feasible thanks to the technological advances, incentives and regulation, and increased awareness. We need to change business as usual towards innovation that includes technology options that integrate across sectors, particularly water, food, and energy sectors, and policy options for the management of the cross-sectoral interconnections are essential if we want to achieve our development goals sustainably and equitably.

Kent State University, Ohio, USA, and President of the GAP project in Turkey.

Mr Ăœnver holds a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering (water resources planning and management) from the University of Texas, Austin and a Masters (hydraulics) and Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering, from the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

F 25



IS 40₵ DESALINATION IN SIGHT? By Christopher Gasson

GWI Publisher Christopher Gasson looks at what the latest slew of low bids on desalination projects means for the industry. Desal is back in the game. After 15 years during which the price of desalinated water went up and down, but never below the $0.53/m3 record achieved by IDE Technologies at Ashkelon, we are finally seeing progress. Thanks to three big projects in the Middle East, the cost of water is coming down. The first, back in August, was ACWA Power’s $0.53/m3 bid for the 600,000m3/d Rabigh 3 project for Saudi Arabia’s Water and Electricity Company. It was followed in

September by Almar’s low bid of $0.51/m3 for the 450,000m3/d Shuqaiq 3 project, also for WEC in Saudi Arabia. Finally, in a bid opening at the end of October, ACWA Power came back with a $0.49/m3 bid for the massive (200MIGD/909,200m3/d) Taweelah RO project in Abu Dhabi’s Department of Energy.

We have broken the $0.50 barrier at last. None of these bids have been fully confirmed at the time of going to press, but the trend is clear: the price of desal is on the way down again.

The price of desalinated water since 2000. Source: IDA/GWI DesalData.

So why is it all happening now? The first reason is because the market is moving back towards private finance. After the markets crashed in 2008, there was a move away from the build operate transfer/independent water project (BOT/IWP) model as debt markets dried up and politics moved against complex financial engineering. Now it is coming back, particularly in

the GCC region where all the major procurement agencies (with the exception of Dubai’s DEWA) are committed to financing their desalination programs off balance sheet. It means that the industry is once again focused on bringing down the levelized cost of water rather than separately delivering a low bid EPC (engineering procurement and construction) price and low operating costs.


C The irony is that in all these years when desal projects were awarded on the basis of the EPC price only, the cost of building a desal plant never fell below $1,000/m3 of capacity. It is thought that the EPC price for each of these three big IWP projects is in the region of $950/m3. It reflects the greater freedom to innovate, the better alignment of interests and more intelligent risk sharing that occurs in an IWP contract compared to an EPC contract. The second reason is because these projects are very big. Taweelah RO will not only be the biggest reverse osmosis project in the world; it will also be the largest desal plant of any kind built in a single phase. Previously all the biggest plants have been thermal desal plants, which are both more expensive to build and more expensive to run. It means that RO is finally getting to see some of the economies of scale previously enjoyed by MSF and MED plants.

The third reason is that the market has become more competitive. Back in the early 2000s when desal records first started to fall, there were only a handful of EPC contractors with references that would allow them to build plants with a capacity

of 100,000m 3/d or more. Now there are around two dozen contractors with the right references, and until this year, not enough work to keep them all busy. The final reason is technology – but not in the way one might have expected. The desal process and the enabling equipment has changed very little since 2003. Membranes have advanced a bit; scaling and fouling has become better understood. The most important advances have been in data analysis. ACWA Power used seven years of operating data from its Rabigh IWSPP project to optimize the configuration of its bid for the Rabigh 3 project using multiple simulations. We are moving to a world of data-driven desal. So where do we go from here? The next three years are going to be big years for desalination (see chart below). As long as support for the IWP model continues to grow, I think we will see further falls in the cost of desalination. Nobody is going to let ACWA Power with Abengoa as its EPC scoop the pool. It might cost $2 million to put together a credible bid for a large desal project, and who is going to spend that money without being pretty confident that they have an edge.

New seawater and brackish water desalination capacity forecast to 2023. Source: IDA/GWI DesalData.


But we can’t rely on competition alone to drive innovation. We have to make it easier to commercialize new technologies. Thomas Altmann, ACWA Power’s VP for Innovation and Water, has proposed allowing developers to supply their on-

site water needs (which make up around 0.5% of the total water production) from an innovative process. It’s a good idea. How else can we give alternative approaches to desalination the operating record that they need in order to break through?

About the Author Owner of Global Water Intelligence, Christopher Gasson is an authority on water finance and markets. After earning a degree in politics and economics at Oxford University, he worked as a financial journalist and investment banker before acquiring


Global Water Intelligence in 2002. He has written and contributed to a number of specialist reports on the water sector and is also publisher of the Water Desalination Report, the IDA Worldwide Desalting Plant Inventory, DesalData and GWI WaterData.

Call for Papers

Extended submission deadline to January 30, 2019

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY, PRIMARY ENERGY, AND APPLES VS. ORANGES By John H. Lienhard V Energy is a major cost when desalinating seawater, and plant designers strive to reduce that cost. When water and power are coproduced, the energy cost is the additional fuel (primary energy) added to the power plant to drive the desalination plant. But comparing the energy for coproduction to the energy for a standalone plant brings complications.

became intractable when the top temperatures were too high. The innovations that followed incorporated the multi-effect evaporation systems pioneered by Norbert Rillieux in the 1830s and led to the power-water coproduction that accompanied multistage flash systems in the 1960s.

Two forms of energy transfer – heat and work – are used to separate fresh water from salt water. Thermodynamicists use the term “work” whenever a force to moves something – electrons, for example. Electrical work is most often used in desalination, mainly for pumping. High pressure then drives water through selective membranes. Alternatively, we can use heat, usually low temperature steam, to produce pure water vapor from saline feed.

MSF coproduction, in particular, takes advantage of the fact that high temperature heat from combustion has a high exergy. (MSF inventor Robert Silver used the term “high availability.”) The high temperature steam can first turn a turbine to produce electricity. The steam leaves the turbine at lower temperature, having lost both energy and exergy during power production. But if the steam is taken at a temperature above the final coolant temperature, its remaining exergy can drive evaporation in an MSF plant.

In either case, the end result is to provide the chemical exergy needed to separate fresh water from salt water. This exergy is a thermodynamic property of the mixture, called the least work of separation, which depends only on the feed salinity, the product purity, and the fraction of water recovered. The least work to recover 50% of the water from seawater is about 1 kWhe/m3 of fresh water.

No power plant can convert all of its fuel energy to electricity. The rest must be rejected into the environment as heat. A modern combined cycle gas turbine plant (or CCGT) can convert about 60% of steam’s energy to electricity. An ideal power plant, with no irreversibilities at all, could convert only a bit more than 80% — the maximum, or Carnot, efficiency at the corresponding temperatures.

No real system can ever reach this limit. The engineering challenge is to make the heat and/or work inputs to the desalination system as close as to this minimum as economics allow. To see how well we are doing, we compare the input exergy to the least exergy. Work is simply exergy. Heat at a temperature Thot has exergy as well, i.e., the equivalent work it could do when flowing to a lower temperature, Tcold: heat exergy = Q · (1-Tcold/Thot). In other words, you can do more work with high temperature heat than low temperature heat.

Thus, any power plant rejects a great deal of heat. We can extract some portion of that heat at low temperature and send it to a thermal desalination plant. To avoid cutting into the electricity production for the grid, some additional fuel needs to be burned. But we still save a lot. In the 1970s, El Seyed and Silver used a thermodynamic analysis to show that the added fuel in coproduction can be as little as one-third of what’s needed when burning fuel for stand-alone desalination.

So, we arrive at a well-known question: is fuel All early desalination systems were thermally driven, efficiency better when desalinating with thermal and designers quickly found that they needed to energy or electrical energy? The work-based reverse reduce fuel costs. They also learned that scaling osmosis process has a high energy efficiency. The


electrical work input to an entire RO plant may be 3 to 5 kWhe/m3. That’s just 3 to 5 times the minimum possible value. The energy used in RO component of the plant by itself is only about 2.5 times the minimum, depending of course on many details of the design.

and electricity. And this brings us to a second important issue: the energy efficiency of the power plant itself. El Seyed and Silver noted that an inefficient power plant favors using heat rather than electricity for desalination. For a given fuel temperature, an inefficient plant needs more fuel to produce some amount of power. How inefficient must a power plant be on that basis? This depends on the efficiency of the thermal desalination plant and the steam extraction temperature. So, several variables affect the comparison.

Thermal plants, in contrast, need electricity for water circulation and as well as low temperature heat for distillation. A comparison then requires converting this heat to exergy. I won’t get into the weeds with thermo today. However, when we do this conversion, the exergy input to most MSF plants is several times larger than for a comparable RO plant. Advanced MED plants can be within a factor two of In general, power plant efficiency must be below RO. But these differences are significantly reduced today’s CCGT plants (at high fuel temperature) and below today’s nuclear plants (at low fuel temperature) when we think in terms of fuel energy. for established thermal technologies to reach RO’s We care about the cost of energy as opposed to primary energy efficiency. Still, inefficient plants energy efficiency itself. For a purely electricity- remain in use and thermal technologies continue driven desalination system, the price per kWhe tells to improve, so I won’t draw a sweeping conclusion. the whole story about energy cost. If we provide Further, power plant selection will consider many heat and electricity to a plant from different sources, other factors, such as energy security and carbon each cost must be evaluated separately. This emissions. evaluation should be based on a levelized cost that incorporates the capital and operational cost of the A final thought that I’d like to share: comparing the heat supply. Even solar power and “waste heat” are energy efficiency of different desalination plants can be like comparing apples to oranges. Are the never free! feed conditions the same? Is the water recovery The question is different for a coproduction plant. ratio the same? Are there special requirements on Here, we ask how much additional fuel must be product water quality? What about the plant intake burned to supply the desalination plant with heat and outfall requirements? And so on.



An analogy is found in power plant efficiency. A more efficient gas-fueled plant burns less fuel per kWhe than a less efficient gas-fueled plant. But the high energy efficiency of a CCGT plant relative to a nuclear plant tells us nothing about the relative fuel cost or the electricity price. We’d do better to look at the levelized costs of electricity. Similarly, a difference in energy efficiency between two desalination plants may not reveal much when the conditions and constraints differ.


Energy use is just one factor that affects the economics of a desalination plant and the levelized cost of water. We can make any plant more efficient by raising CAPEX: use greater membrane area, more stages, or larger heat exchangers. The result, however, may be a higher price for water. In the end, plant design must focus on economics, not thermodynamics alone.

About the Author

John H. Lienhard V is the Abdul Latif Jameel Professor of Water and Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). During three decades on the MIT faculty, Lienhard’s research and educational efforts have focused on heat and fluid flow, water purification and desalination, and thermodynamics. Lienhard received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in thermal engineering at UCLA from the Chemical, Nuclear, and Thermal Engineering Department. He joined MIT immediately after completing his PhD in the Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science Department at UC San Diego. Lienhard’s research on desalination has included humidificationdehumidification, membrane distillation, forward

and reverse osmosis, solar-driven desalination, nanofiltration, electrodialysis, management of high salinity brines, thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of desalination cycles. Lienhard has directly supervised more than 85 graduate theses and postdoctoral associates and has authored more than 200 peer-reviewed papers. He holds more than forty US Patents and pending applications, many of which have been commercialized in the water industry. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Registered Professional Engineer.



women The

in our

industry This article is the second in an ongoing series highlighting the many dynamic “Women in Our Industry.” IDA wishes to recognize them for the many roles they play in shaping our industry’s present success and its future. Shannon McCarthy, IDA Secretary General


The Year Ahead: Opportunities, Challenges and Reflections on a Career in Water Veatch's global water business; Dr.-Ing. Heike Glade, Head of Desalination and Evaporation Technology Research Group, Division of Engineering Thermodynamics at the University of Bremen; Dr. Jantje Johnson, founder and CTO of OrangeBoat; Ms. Arantxa Mencia, Business Development Director, Almar Water Solutions; Ms. Beverley Stinson, Vice President IDA wishes to thank the Honorable Fatma Awale, of AECOM; and Ms. Hattie Wang, Vice President Minister of Water, Mombasa County, Kenya; (Global Market) of ROPV, for contributing their Ms. Cindy Wallis-Lage, President of Black & perspectives. As we look ahead to 2019, IDA Global Connections asked several industry leaders for their thoughts about the greatest opportunities and challenges that lie ahead, as well as advice they would offer to young professionals considering a career in the desalination, water reuse and advanced water treatment industry.

Looking ahead to 2019, what do you see as the greatest opportunity for the desalination, water reuse and the advanced water treatment industry? The Honorable Fatma Awale: The greatest opportunity for the desalination, water reuse and advanced water treatment industry in my country in 2019 would be the available market that has been brought about by the lack of sufficient water supply in my county. In Mombasa, the deficit between the demand and supply stands at 75%. Therefore, desalination stands as the best option to meet the water demand of our residents. Cindy Wallis-Lage: Communities require resilient water supplies to maintain the desired quality of life and provide economic development. Depending on the geographical region of the world, the needs vary: some locales are affected by changing weather conditions and do not have reliable supply, while others have chronic shortage because of increasing demand. Within the U.S., the opportunities are primarily related to water reuse and advanced water treatment to augment potable water supplies. Key focus areas are within the industrial sector for cooling towers, data centers, power plants and agriculture. Direct connection to the potable water supply is gaining traction, and regulatory reviews are moving closer


to changing policies in some states. Advanced water treatment systems also serve to mitigate seawater intrusion. Desalination from seawater has a slow adoption rate due to environmental challenges related to intakes and brine discharge; however, for some communities, this is going to be a necessary part of their water portfolio. The implementation of small-scale brackish water desalination plants has been steady, although in recent years, brine discharge is of concern, particularly for inland areas. Desalination has been embraced in most other parts of the world. Australia is a good example of changing weather patterns. To address a prolonged drought, all major cities in Australia built desalination plants. However, soon after completion, the plants in eastern Australia were not operated, as drought ended. Interestingly enough, one of the plants was recently brought back online after heavy rains, as the surface water treatment plant could not meet demand because of poor water quality caused by rains. This highlights the value of a diverse water portfolio. Another example of how utilities are planning to address extreme gyrations in weather patterns is a plant in Singapore currently under construction. It is designed to treat reservoir water when available and

has the ability to treat seawater when reservoir water chemicals and environmental impact and to correct is not available. in near real time or to minimize risks. Sensing and control technologies and predictive analytics are key Within the Middle East region, rehabilitation is areas for innovation. required of many of the existing desalination facilities that are operating beyond their projected A lot of progress has been made in the desalination, life. Conversely, new desalination plants are top of water reuse and advanced water treatment industry, mind in South America due to increased industrial but there is much more to do. activity such as mining. Jantje Johnson: The world water challenges are In Asia, there is a broad solution set with the focus on due to lack of water, quality of the water and evera more reliable supply; demand is increasing at much increasing purity requirements to meet future needs. higher rate, and the existing supplies are not able to These technologies enable a sustainable source of keep up. Further, increased economic growth is also fresh water to meet the world water challenges. New increasing demand in countries like India, Indonesia, “sources� of water, in the form of wastewater, surface Taiwan, China, etc. water, and seawater, are enabled with advanced water treatment technologies to meet the everHeike Glade: Looking ahead, I see various increasing quality standards. opportunities for the desalination, water reuse and advanced water treatment industry. Many water- Arantxa Mencia: In 2019, I forecast desalination will intensive industries, such as gas and oil, power, be the market with the greatest opportunities. Not mining, heavy metal processing, pulp and paper only for the huge projects in Middle East areas, but and textiles, are looking for ways to improve their also for other medium-size projects in countries that resource use efficiency and productivity and to have been evaluating desal projects for the last years, meet regulatory demands. Improvements, new that hopefully would finally happen during next year. technologies and innovations in the water sector are Unfortunately, the water reuse and the advanced of utmost importance. water treatment industry is still behind desalination in the projects in BOT, and it will need more time to Ongoing advancements and innovations in catch up. I hope that happens very soon as these desalination technologies create new opportunities two sectors will contribute to provide new sources of for the water sector. Furthermore, stricter regulations, water to areas with high scarcity. rising costs for wastewater disposal and increasing freshwater scarcity are driving zero liquid discharge Beverley Stinson: The greatest opportunities for (ZLD) or minimal liquid discharge (MLD) approaches desalination and water reuse are in providing resilient to become a beneficial or even necessary option and sustainable water supply to water stressed for wastewater management. Moving to a circular communities. With the growing impact of climate economy may preserve water as our most vital change across the globe, our industry is at the forefront resource. of providing not only safe and reliable drinking water but also supporting continued economic growth Another worldwide research and development goal and financial security to communities by supporting is the recovery of valuable substances from brines industrial and agricultural growth. and concentrates to gain critical minerals, to reduce the environmental impact arising from brine disposal We are now seeing an increased awareness by rating and to improve the economy of the entire treatment agencies that vulnerability to drought can impact a process. state’s credit rating, which can have wide reaching, long term impacts. Desalination of both ocean and Globally, the water industry has embarked on a brackish water, coupled with water reuse, offers journey towards digital transformation. Smart water so many benefits to communities beyond just a solutions based on hardware, software and data sustainable water supply. For example, the Hampton analytics may give water and wastewater utilities Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) in Eastern Virginia new capabilities to analyze, predict and to optimize is moving forward with its visionary SWIFT Program water treatment operations in terms of energy, (Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow) that will


treat used water to drinking water standards and replenishing the groundwater aquifer for a sustainable water supply; but beyond that, it also provides tremendous environmental benefits by mitigating ground water subsidence, saltwater intrusion and sea level rise, while also supporting the Chesapeake Bay restoration efforts. Such leadership programs are establishing a new vision for water reuse in the public eye and garner wider stakeholder support, ultimately advancing greater public acceptance.

Hattie Wang: As a FRP vessel company, our products cover projects in desalination, water reuse and advanced water treatment. After experiencing continuous growth since 2010, I believe we will in 2019 have continued growth with large-scale projects in the Middle East market, mainly in Saudi Arabia, UAE and Israel, as well as small and medium projects in South Asia and China, which are the greatest opportunity for growth for all equipment suppliers.

In your opinion, what are the most pressing challenges facing the industry, and what do you see as possible solutions? The Honorable Fatma Awale: One of the most pressing challenge is lack of funds. The desalination technology is an expensive process and not every country is able to pursue it. However, this can be solved by organizations venturing into Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).

think more holistically about their supply needs, what’s best for the community and making the best use of all its water resources. We need everyone to look at the bigger picture and see how the integration of alternative water supply systems to the water resource portfolio expands the sustainability of a community. This is particularly important at this time, given the unpredictability of the climatic conditions that can exert tremendous pressure on existing surface water sources. Integrated planning allows us to build in elasticity in our systems, understand and use all of our assets.

High energy cost is also a challenge in most countries because this leads to higher production cost and eventually high water tariffs, which will affect the consumers. A solution would be to look into other alternative economic sources of energy, for instance wind. The Government can also contribute to lowering the operation costs by adopting innovative Critical to gaining confidence to move public technologies that can bring down the production perceptions and implement broader policy changes costs. is the real-time collection of accurate data which is instantly analyzed and drives action. Our ability to Cindy Wallis-Lage: The quick answer is about use instrumentation, sensors and powerful data cost, environmental and social factors, and I would analytics allows us to drive greater certainty and note that the dominant issue is different based predictability in performance as well as give us on the community and the solution. For seawater valuable information on real-time operations that desalination, the two most significant challenges will yield insights to unlock operational efficiencies, often seen are cost and environmental permitting. drive proactive maintenance and uncover areas These two factors also influence stakeholder for additional research so we keep improving our support. In the developing world, cost is the primary systems. This gives confidence to all community hindrance. In the developed world, it is often the stakeholders on the reliability of reuse. environmental regulations. Heike Glade: Driven by a rising global population, For reuse, the primary issue is social, i.e., public rapid urbanization and economic growth, the perception, which of late is changing; however, in arid demand for water, food and energy is dramatically non-coastal regions, disposal of waste brine streams is increasing. Therefore, one of the most pressing also a major issue. Discharge to surface water bodies challenges is the water-food-energy security is more challenging as the quality of surface water is nexus. The increasing global water scarcity has the already degrading without additional discharges. potential to grind food and energy supply chains to a halt. Among other things, a suitably integrated To address these challenges, we must focus on approach and cooperation between and among all integrated planning such that regions/communities sectors, interdisciplinary solutions, improvements in


resource use efficiency, frameworks that encourage Arantxa Mencia: We have found lately that the research, information and education and greater water market is too competitive and that sometimes policy coherence are required. the risks linked to the water sector are not taking in consideration from the clients or the main players Advancements in seawater desalination and the active in the projects. Most of the time, they are growth of desalination in industrial and inland linking too much the water sector to the power sector, brackish water applications can have beneficial and although there are similarities, the two sectors impact on the global water resources. Furthermore, have huge differences. For me that is a mistake as there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly the water sector has too many challenges in all the and economically viable wastewater management phases of the projects, and the market is not as options. The diversity of discharge streams across mature as the power sector; that could be serious industries and municipalities exhibiting different trouble for some companies in the focus. With volume flows, compositions and complexity as well time, once people realized the challenges and the as the extremely high salinities exceeding saturation problems that could (or did) arise, the water sector limits constitute major challenges. Tailored solutions would need to be rethought. Meanwhile, the water for zero liquid discharge or minimal liquid discharge companies would need to reinvent their approach, processing schemes are necessary. thinking outside the box for new solutions (technical and financial) in new areas that have not yet been Research and innovation are crucial for long- considered. term success. A lot of innovative water treatment concepts, technologies and new materials are Beverley Stinson: I see two main challenges for being developed, but market implementation is our industry – reducing the cost of treatment while often rather difficult and slow. Water industry increasing stakeholder acceptance. There is a lot is a large, growing and global market with wrapped up in each of these missions, and we strong drivers and good entrepreneurs, but the are making progress on both fronts. For example, commercialization phase of new technologies reducing the cost of treatment requires that we not and innovations is often long and arduous. In only advance technologies such as electrochemical the development process, it is beneficial to have desalination but we must also couple the use strong collaborations between industry and renewable, sustainable energy sources such as universities and the involvement of all parties in solar and wind and stored hydraulic energy with the supply chain including the customers to solve renewable sustainable desalination and reuse. the problems and to meet the demands. Most recently the concept of coupling desalination with salinity gradient energy recovery technologies Jantje Johnson: Lack/loss of subject matter expertise. is also emerging. We can also explore innovative I have observed that subject matter expertise has procurement approaches such as PPP to help become less valued by suppliers and manufacturers manage the financial impact to communities. due to the highly competitive environment of selling Collectively these innovations may change the reverse osmosis systems. As a result, many water business case and create a more economically treatment systems will experience performance viable future for our industry. challenges, which can be due to system design, system operation and changes in the feed water Stakeholder acceptance for both water reuse and quality. Operators of water treatment systems have desalination is growing, but concerns about the difficulties in solving the problems due to a lack of safety of reuse water as drinking water source and available expertise. For these reasons, I started my environmental impacts associated with desalination consulting business OrangeBoat to focus solely and brine disposal have been hindering progress on providing expertise to membrane-based water and permitting of many facilities. Continued treatment applications. education and demonstration of successful installations yielding tremendous environmental The need for membrane systems operating at and economic benefits for communities will help to high recoveries combined with low CAPEX and lead the way in securing greater public acceptance, OPEX that results in reducing the water/carbon especially when the benefits are weighed against footprint. the negative impacts of water scarcity. At every


step transparent communication, accurate, sciencebased information and informed advocacy can bridge the gap between water providers and water users. I am very optimistic about our opportunity as an industry to help address the very real need for safe, reliable, sustainable water supplies to support water independence and economic growth for our communities.

and on a consistent basis, address the many political shifts that are occurring throughout the world, and fund the innovation, while expanding production capacity to meet the growth in 2019 and beyond. We manage to balance and meet all of these challenges while at the same time remaining true to our original aspiration and keeping our mission firmly in mind. However, we continue to work hard to find even better Hattie Wang: As a manufacturer, the challenges solutions for addressing all of these pressing are to produce the best quality at minimum cost issues.

What brought you into this industry sector, and what career advice would you offer to young professionals considering building a career in it? The Honorable Fatma Awale: Where I come from, in Mombasa, Kenya, we face a big issue with water supply, and women are mostly affected by it because they are the ones who feel the pain of not having water in their households. So I took it upon myself to acquire the necessary knowledge and joined this water industry with the aim of finding ways to solve this water crisis.

When we lean in, we learn new things, new approaches, and our industry needs that variety of thinking. We all come at things from a different perspective, so be curious, open to change and not afraid of discomfort. Along those same lines, think about experiences you can gain in other sectors as well and how those experiences can be applied to those that are your passion. I would also say speak up when it’s appropriate. No one else can advocate My advice to young professionals considering for you like you can. building a career in the water industry is build knowledge on water and new technologies through Heike Glade: Since the foundation of the Faculty formal education and training. of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen in 1982, the Division of Engineering They should also research on ways that can Thermodynamics has been working in the field address water challenges and be open to adopting of desalination with a broad range of research new ideas, policies and technologies in the water activities. Prof. Klaus Genthner, the former head of sector. the Division and the supervisor of my PhD thesis, brought me into the water sector. From the first Cindy Wallis-Lage: Like many of the professionals moment I was – and I am still – attracted by the in the water sector, my path was driven by a desire prospect of contributing something meaningful. to protect the environment and make a difference. I am fascinated by the diverse topic areas, the Luckily, I was a good math and science student, interdisciplinary work and the internationality in and a professor took the time to introduce me to the water sector. Every day I experience at the the environmental elements of civil engineering. I university that students are very interested in reference this single interaction as the 30 minutes water-related topics because there is no need to that changed my life. I have spent my entire explain that safe and clean water is essential for career in the water industry as the value derived our lives and an essential source in the production by humanity for the work we do is extremely of many types of goods and services including rewarding. food, energy and manufacturing in the industrial sector. As far as advice I would give to young professionals looking to build a career in this industry, I would say The desalination, water reuse and advanced water don’t shy away from change; lean into discomfort. treatment industry is a worldwide growing and


very fascinating industry sector. I can sincerely recommend building a professional career in it. A specialization in water treatment topics at the university is very beneficial, but it is not strictly necessary for a career in the water industry. In my opinion, a profound background, for example, in engineering or natural sciences is a good basis for a technical position in the water industry. However, depending on the region, the job market in the water industry might be still small compared to other industry sectors. Therefore, continuous efforts and persistence may be needed to find a suitable position for a young professional. Furthermore, I would recommend building a network in the water business. IDA, EDS and national desalination and water-related associations such as DME in Germany, conferences, trade fairs or other networking events are good platforms to connect, exchange ideas and to build a network in water science and industry. As it is true for all careers, it is important to be creative, passionate and motivated. If you love what you do, you will do a great job. Jantje Johnson: I started off in the food industry using liquid-solid separation technologies. Many of these unit operations are applicable to water treatment, so it was a natural progression for me. The opportunities are dynamic and diverse due to the improvement in the current technology and innovation that creates new technology. It is important to have an open mind and pursue new developments and technologies. Arantxa Mencia: Since university, I have been focused on water. In the last years of my Chemical Engineering degree, I chose water as the option for all my subjects and my final year project. Since then, I have worked only in water. After some time on the research side and in process design, I discovered that I had more added value in business development and I really enjoyed it. So I jumped from process engineering to business development, and I have being doing it for the last 15 years, in different locations, roles and countries, but always loving it. My only advice to young professionals is to follow your passion, to discover what you really enjoy doing, and focus there. Do not be afraid of taking new challenges, living in different countries or changing companies or roles is part of the professional life, but if you are really passionate about something, please go for it!

Beverley Stinson: I fell in love with the vision of making a difference across the world through engineering and especially water engineering. The importance of having a safe and secure water supply is so far reaching, beyond just public health but economic security and with that a greater chance of political stability in a region. I have enjoyed every day of my career, from working on leading edge technological advances, to developing creative engineering and financial solution, to communicating with the stakeholders and public we seek to support; this multi-faceted career has stimulated and excited so many aspects of my personality. In total, I find this work fulfilling and rewarding and I’m energized everyday by the broad impact we have on our communities and environment. My advice is always to find the thing that excites and energizes you and that positive energy will drive you to success. Hattie Wang: I had a “meant to be” story behind how I started working in Energy Recovery, Inc. for eight years and then ROPV up through the present. It is a long story, but the bottom line is that “I do what I love and always do my best, and I do what is good for the earth so I can sleep peacefully at night.” I have met so many young talented professionals, and I admire their talent and openness on daily basis. Besides giving them career advice when asked, I actually enjoy learning from them as well.

I do what I love and always do my best, and I do what is good for the earth so I can sleep peacefully at night. Hattie Wang, ROPV

If there were one thing I would like to share with young professionals from my years of experience in the industry, it would be: “This is a slow industry. Take your time and find out where you could best utilize your talents. Once you find the perfect fit, strive for perfection in applying your talents to your design and development of product and services.”


Hon. Fatma Awale

Minister of Water, Mombasa County, Kenya

Jantje Johnson

Founder and CTO of OrangeBoat

Hattie Wang

Vice President (Global Market) of ROPV

Beverley Stinson Vice President of AECOM



Cindy Wallis-Lage

President of Black & Veatch's global water business

Arantxa Mencia

Business Development Director, Almar Water Solutions

Heike Glade

Head of Desalination and Evaporation Technology Research Group, Division of Engineering Thermodynamics at the University of Bremen

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HOW ASSOCIATIONS CAN ACHIEVE FUTURE SUCCESS By G. Wade Miller Introduction Non-profit organizations (i.e., associations) have been steadily transforming for the past three decades. Change has been necessitated by the rapidly changing world plus increasing competition from both the public and private sectors. Achieving success in the future, however that is defined, will require non-profits to dramatically revise and update their traditional business models. On average, human knowledge is now doubling approximately every 13 months. Moreover, according to IBM, the build out of the internet of things (IoT) will result in a doubling of human knowledge every 12 hours. This is a daunting prospect as individuals, corporations, governments, and non-profits all have to determine how best to succeed (and even cope) with the advent of a rapidly changing world. Just as the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg in circa 1440 had a dramatic impact on human history, so have the invention of the internet and the rise of social media. Suffice it to say that the days when an association could focus its efforts on an annual conference, periodic newsletters or other publications, and responding to member inquiries via telephone are an anachronism. Today an association must have a frequently updated website, a customer relationship management (CRM) database, provide distance learning (e.g., webinars), be active on various social media platforms, and strive to optimize search engine optimization (SEO).

efforts on all of these fancy, newfangled tools. What associations of the present and future really need to focus on are “things that matter most” as measured by the appropriate metrics. And what matters most are 1) achieving maximum impact and 2) keeping members and donors happy. The world of associations, and especially associations that focus on water, is becoming increasingly more crowded and competitive. In the U.S., at least nine national water associations (plus a multitude of state-based groups) are competing for members, donors, resources, and relevance. On the global front, two well established organizations – IDA and the International Water Association – dominate the space. In both the U.S. and globally, however, many smaller organizations are being formed as the advent and reality of issues such as water scarcity, climate change, sustainability, resilience, and cities of the future gain traction and attention. One needs to look no further than the rankings of global concern by the World Economic Forum to ascertain that water is one of the major issues of the day. Over the past half-dozen years, water has ranked in the top 10 issues of concerns by global leaders who attend this annual forum in Davos.

Given the numerous challenges facing non-profits, what actions and activities should they focus on to ensure future viability and success? This article provides seven actions, which if executed properly, should help any association to achieve its longIt would be easy to become mesmerized and lost if term mission and goals, remain relevant, and be an association’s staff focused most of their collective successful.


Non-Profit Associations and the Reasons for their Existence There are literally thousands of non-profit associations in the U.S. and around the world, ranging from political organizations to homeowners associations, educational and charitable organizations, and trade associations. Although the insights offered in this article can apply to all types, the focus of the article is on a) educational and charitable organizations and b) trade associations. The principal reasons why most associations were formed are shared values, interests and concerns, and shared goals as well as a mission which members and staff are passionate about. The first association that I managed was a state drinking

water association. The eligible members were the 56 U.S. states and territories. Each member had a similar challenge: carrying out their delegated primacy responsibilities under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The association allowed members to share information and band together to communicate with the EPA on a continual basis. The mission of the organization was to help the members succeed in complying with the SDWA and ultimately to have an impact by ensuring safe drinking water supplies in their respective jurisdictions. Most associations, though not all, have similar shared values, interests, concerns, and challenges.

Measuring Success Associations have a need to measure success since every association needs to deliver tangible net benefits. In other words, the benefits resulting from paid membership dues should exceed the costs of the membership. With some associations, such as the American Automobile Association (AAA), the stream of benefits is rather easily quantified (e.g., hotel discounts, auto repair discounts, etc.); however, even some of the benefits from a AAA membership cannot be easily quantified (e.g., peace of mind from knowing that someone will show up to help you change that flat tire). So, what are the metrics of success for a typical association? Historically the following have served as “benchmarks” for many associations: 1) membership retention; 2) increased membership; 3) success of annual conference as measured

by number of attendees and profitability; 4) publications sales; and 5) achieving key results in education, advocacy, or similar initiatives. These metrics will probably be used well into the future, but will by necessity be augmented or supplanted by other measures of success. Israel Schachter, CEO of Charity Bids, characterizes the need to think about metrics differently. He notes that “by changing the metrics which define success, charities can really hone in on the exact activities needed to achieve maximum impact.” Schachter also asserts the following: “Charities today need to communicate openly how they measure impact and what success looks like. This information provides a window into how the charity operates, how its activities are measured and what they ultimately want to accomplish.”

Seven Recommendations for the Leadership of Associations of the Future Engage in Annual or Quarterly Strategic Planning – Professor Peter Drucker said, “Plans are worthless, but planning is invaluable.” I believe both strategic plans and the planning process are valuable. A strategic plan is like a roadmap containing discrete milestones. One could probably drive from Washington, DC to Los


Angeles without a roadmap or interim plans or milestones along the way, but a map and a plan would make the trip much more efficient and less stressful. A strategic plan should, at a minimum, contain a vision, mission, measurable 3-5 year goals, critical

success factors, a strategy for achieving goals, tactics (discrete actions or tasks), and a resource allocation plan. As a long-time management and business consultant, I am constantly amazed at how many smaller organizations do not have a strategic plan or even an annual budget.

most well-run organizations became more cost conscious as did members and donors. In my four association management experiences, I strived and managed to keep overhead at a low level. Donors can check out via tax returns how associations spend their money; most smart donors are not going to write large checks to an Hire and Support a Strong, Entrepreneurial organization which is not a good steward of the CEO – Three pieces of advice are encapsulated in resources entrusted to them. this brief descriptor. First, there is a trend in the association world to give the executive director Hire Staff Who Are Loyal and Passionate about the title of CEO. This is a promotion from an the Mission – An organization’s strategic plan association executive’s traditional role, which will feature its mission and vision prominently. was chief operating officer (COO). I applied Staff, including and especially the CEO, should for the job of executive director of a major be passionate about achieving the association’s association in the mid-1990s and learned that mission. The CEO and senior managers, when the successful candidate would function as the recruiting, should look beyond applicants that “chief administrative officer” of the association. are looking for a convenient place to collect If association boards of directors are going a paycheck and strive to hire people who are to give the executive director the title of CEO, passionate about what the association does and their actions must match their words. A strong the impacts it can have on society. executive is in a much better position than a volunteer board member to make critical day-to- Measure Success through Impact, Not Dollars day decisions for the association. But there is or Members – Success sometimes cannot be always going to be “creative tension” between quantified or measured by financial success. In a CEO and his or her board of directors. Some charitable organizations whose mission may be directors are convinced that they “know better” to serve the community through the provision though the CEO is “central” and all information of food, housing, or rehabilitation, one needs to flows to the center. look at “changed lives” as a surrogate measure of success. All associations, including trade Second, the CEO must be strong. As in the associations, need to strive for positive impacts system of feudalism in England which persisted for their members, donors, and society at large. for almost seven centuries, when the kings were strong, the barons were weak. The converse was Constantly Innovate and Baby Your Members true: when the king was strong, the barons were and Donors – In a world in which knowledge weak. Better to have a strong king. is doubling on average every 13 months, organizations must innovate or they will be left Third, the CEO of the future must be in the dust by competitors who are constantly entrepreneurial. He or she cannot be just a changing and improving. We also live in a world “caretaker;” this business model went away in in which management gurus seem to focus the 1990s. Like their private sector counterparts, inordinately on big data, data driven analytics, the CEO must engage in fundraising, identify AI algorithms, and IoT. In this data analytics new opportunities which will serve the interests and IoT obsessed culture, it is easy to lose of members and donors, and launch programs focus on members (i.e., customers) and donors. that will generate revenues. Associations need to value both members and donors since they are the people we are serving Keep Overhead Low – The “Great Recession” and who are paying for salaries and overhead. of 2008-2009 changed many lives, gored a number of sacred cows, and left many business Don’t Become Either a Bureaucracy or a “Country executives searching for answers in a world Club” – Large and successful companies such as with seemingly fewer verities and resources. Intel didn’t become that way by accident. A new In the new world of post-Great Recession, book, Measure What Matters, provides detailed


insights on how Dr. Andrew Grove, Intel’s CEO, instituted a process known as OKRs (objectives and key results) to facilitate and ensure execution and allow the organization to “remain nimble.” Associations that allow themselves to become overly bureaucratic may survive in the highly competitive atmosphere of the 21st century, but likely will not prosper. Associations should also strive to not become “country clubs” as exhibited by more “networking” opportunities than substantive issues at their annual gatherings. I can remember speaking

Conclusions All organizations, public and private, go through a similar cycle of startup, growth, maturity, and decline. Successful organizations, when they are at their peak, take actions to reinvent themselves and thereby ensure continued growth and



engagements in which I traveled to nice places such as Key West (FL) or St. Thomas (Virgin Islands). The agenda typically featured a few well known speakers in the morning; but by 12:30 p.m., the meeting adjourned and members were on the way to the golf course and spouses off to lunch, shopping, and tourism. While there is nothing wrong with “networking,” when the networking is excessive, it is typically an indication that the association is in decline. When decline is apparent, the CEO and board of directors need to be innovative, entrepreneurial, and seek to re-invigorate the organization.

success. Non-profits in today’s highly competitive and changing atmosphere need to assess their current status and focus on “what matters most,” namely how to achieve maximum impact for their members, donors, and society at large.


About the Author

Wade Miller, Principal of Water Strategies Consulting and former Executive Director, WateReuse, has started two associations and managed four associations and foundations during the period 1985-2014. He is also a serial entrepreneur, having started nine different organizations. During a career that now spans five decades, he has provided consulting services to numerous government agencies, associations, consulting engineering firms,

Low Energy Membrane Desalination for Municipality

water technology equipment manufacturers, water utilities, and investment banking firms. He has specialized in strategic and business planning, mergers and acquisitions, and market assessment and entry strategies. Along the way, he authored seminal reports on urban water infrastructure for two presidential commissions. His education consists of a B.S. in chemistry and graduate training in marketing and finance.

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ONE WATER LOS ANGELES 2040 PLAN: BIG AND BOLD WATER REUSE PLANNING TO MAKE LOS ANGELES A MORE RESILIENT CITY By Inge Wiersema and Jacquelin Reed One Water is an innovative and exciting approach to integrated water management planning with practical and bold ideas coming together in a collaborative way. The City of Los Angeles initiated the One Water LA 2040 Plan (Plan) with the leadership of two City of Los Angeles departments, Los Angeles Sanitation (LASAN) and Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), who partnered in delivering the plan to support Mayor Garcetti's Sustainable City pLAn and its aggressive goals to reduce imported water purchases by 50 percent by 2025 and source at least 50 percent of water locally by 2035, compared to 20 percent in 2015.

LASAN and LADWP took a holistic and integrated approach to planning, considering all aspects of the urban water cycle from imported water, groundwater, conservation, potable water, wastewater, recycled water and stormwater, and treating it as "One Water". The One Water LA 2040 Plan identifies projects, programs, and policies to enhance the city's urban water cycle to increase water recycling and stormwater capture opportunities and minimize losses to the ocean while reducing reliance on purchased imported water.

Figure 1: One Water LA supports the Mayor's Sustainable City pLAn goals Increasing local water supply by 30 percent in a city with 4 million residents requires a multi-pronged approach of water conservation, stormwater capture, and water recycling. A total of 25 major concept ideas were identified, including many water reuse strategies that involved non-potable reuse, indirect potable reuse, and direct potable reuse options. Big and bold ideas like reducing ocean discharge at the city's largest water reclamation plant (Hyperion) by 100 mgd through various indirect and direct potable reuse strategies were evaluated. Due to the scale and urban nature of the city's landscape, there are no easy solutions and all options will require very large infrastructure facilities and billions of dollars of investment. So how do you select the right combination of big and bold ideas?


Figure 2: Los Angeles' Future Smart Urban Water Cycle


Twenty-five concept ideas were developed with the involvement of LASAN and LADWP, as well as a steering committee, advisory group, and large group of 300+ stakeholders. The One Water LA 2040 Plan is viewed as more than a planning document – it's the product of many people throughout the city working together to change the way water is managed. By bringing together all parties in the planning stage, a collaborative process was developed that will continue through the plan's implementation and beyond. The water reuse strategy discussion was one element of the One Water LA 2040 Plan, which focused specifically on the future. To avoid the traditional engineering lens asking "what is feasible", we took a step back and created a number


of scenarios. Scenario planning is collaborative and engaging tool that helps strategists and planners analyze what possible futures are possible/ plausible and then work backwards to plan for potential scenarios accordingly.


The four scenarios or “future worlds” created and • Dry weather low flow diversions analyzed during One Water LA were: • Los Angeles river recharge • Potable reuse raw water augmentation 1. Minimize cost. • Potable reuse treated water augmentation 2. Maximize environmental benefits. • Wastewater diversion to meet geographical 3. Maximize institutional collaboration. recycled water demand 4. Maximize local water supplies. The recommended future water reuse strategies In parallel, the 25 concept ideas were assessed balance elements of each of the future worlds as using a set of comprehensive evaluation criteria well as maximizing water recycling from all of the that included economic, environmental, climate city's four water reclamation plants. Collectively, resiliency and implementation risk categories. The they will make Los Angeles a more sustainable concepts with the highest scoring for each were and supply resilient city. The approach is then assigned to the respective “future worlds”. The designed such that city staff can continuously purpose of the scenario evaluation is to analyze reevaluate all concept idea priorities at trigger trade-offs when implementing concept ideas that points to account for any future changes in are selected based on the identified “future worlds”. circumstances. In other words, it provides a sensitivity analysis of extremes. The “future worlds” are therefore The One Water LA 2040 Plan identifies $13.3 billion not intended to be an alternative that should be of investment in projects, programs and policies to implemented as a group of projects without further enhance the city's urban water cycle to increase water consideration. Instead, the results of the scenario recycling and stormwater capture opportunities evaluation were used to develop a more balanced and minimize losses to the ocean while reducing approach that accomplishes multiple goals by reliance on purchased imported water. Water reuse grouping the most beneficial concept ideas of each strategies constitute 19 percent of the overall plan “future world” in a preferred scenario. recommendations.


The preferred scenario totals $2.5 billion and Reference: LASAN and LADWP. One Water LA 2040 includes concept ideas associated with the following Plan – Final Draft Executive Summary. April 2018. water management strategies:

About the Authors

Inge Wiersema is a Vice President with Carollo Engineers, Inc., and serves as the national Water Resources Practice lead. She has a BS and MS in environmental engineering. Inge served as the project manager for the One Water LA 2040 Plan, where she was responsible for the overall project delivery, including coordination of 30+ subconsultants.

Engineering and MBA. Jacquelin was the assistant project manager for the City of Los Angeles One Water LA 2040 Plan, where she was responsible for scenario planning, project concept assessment, stakeholder engagement, and delegation to sub consultants.

The authors wish to recognize Lenise Marrero, P.E., Assistant Division Manager, Los Angeles Sanitation, and Penny Falcon, P.E., Manager of Water Resources Jacquelin Reed is a senior management consultant Policy, Los Angeles Department of Water & Power, with Carollo Engineers, Inc., Utility Advisory Services for their leadership, support, and contribution of this technical practice group. She has a BS in Civil groundbreaking project.



REGIONAL AFFILIATE MARKET NOTE FROM THE CARIBBEAN DESALINATION ASSOCIATION (CaribDA) By Shawn Meyer-Steele Desalination has undergone dramatic improvements in energy efficiency over the last 20 years yet remains relatively energy intensive. The Caribbean has the dubious distinction of having some of the highest energy costs in the world and a fair amount of water produced through desalination.

This translates into some of the highest water costs, which is exacerbated by high non-revenue water rates (averaging over 50%). It is predicted that ongoing changes in the climate will make that potable water in the region even more scarce with increased water costs.

Climate Change Larger land masses enjoy the luxury of being able to question climate change, but Small Island Developing States (SIDS), to which the Caribbean belongs, are experiencing changes in real time. Disappearing shore lines, bleached corals, increasing frequency and numbers of insect-borne diseases, seawater intrusion, extreme storms, 100-year droughts and regular street flooding all put sharp focus on the ongoing changes, rather than on questioning the causes.

SIDS have their own particular vulnerabilities, which make implementing sustainable development challenging. With the cost of global inaction on climate change to the region predicted to range from 6% to 123% (average 46%) of current GDP for Caribbean SIDS by 2100 (Moss, 2015), inaction is not an option.

Call to Action Some island states utilizing desalination have taken concrete action to increase resilience and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. Jamaica, Curacao, Bonaire and St. Eustatius currently produce 40, 40, 35, and 45 % of their energy (respectively) from wind and solar sources, with mandates to increase that amount up to 50% in the near term. Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana has (and Bonaire is in the process of) converted their old electrical grids to smart grids with greater dependability, better efficiencies and a significant savings through reductions in “spinning reserves” with advanced controls, data analytics and grid installed batteries. French Guiana is installing a hybrid storage system that utilizes batteries for short-term and hydrogen

fuel cells for long-term storage in conjunction with their solar farm. Some hotels and golf courses in the Caribbean have utilized treated wastewater for irrigation, but water reuse in the municipal and industrial sector has not been widely instituted. This is primarily due to the high cost of the infrastructure (piping) of central wastewater treatment plants for low density populations spread over large areas and lack of education on the benefits of water reuse. It is estimated that 85% of the wastewater entering the Caribbean Sea is untreated according to the Global Environment Facility’s Caribbean Regional Fund for Wastewater Management (GEF-CReW,


2016). Treated wastewater and sludge are just beginning to be seen as a potential resource with opportunities to improve management and attract investment from public and private sectors (Sustainability Managers, 2016).

Leaders in the Caribbean recognize that the region cannot afford to wait for the rest of the world to act and have decided to immediately undertake steps to reduce their own effect on climate change and ensure greater resiliency in the face of ongoing changes.

High Level Forum (HLF) of Caribbean Ministers Responsible for Water Regional Plan The 14th HLF was held under the auspices of the Caribbean Water & Wastewater Association (CWWA) in Montego Bay Jamaica on October 9 and 10, 2018. The focus of the HLF’s recent efforts is to create and implement a Regional Strategic Action Plan for Governance and Building Climate Resilience in the Water Sector. The HLF is composed of:

• Regional financing institutions (Inter-American Development Bank and Caribbean Development Bank, etc.)

• Ministers and utility directors responsible for water for each of 16 island states • Regional NGOs with expertise in water treatment and management (CWWA, CaribDA, CAWASA, etc.) • NGOs responsible for health and the environment (Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization and United Nations Development Program, etc.) • NGOs and individuals with expertise on the environment and climate (Caribbean Community Climate Change Center, Caribbean Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, UN Environment and Dr. James Fletcher, etc.).

Priority actions for water supply resilience include:

During the 14th HLF, a regional framework was agreed upon that includes a prescribed implementation plan with a detailed set of concrete actions for each member state.

• Enhanced data management • Integrated efforts by government and private sector • Increased use of renewable energy • Improved energy efficiency in water use and in water management • Reforestation and coastal protection • Redesign of critical infrastructure • Public education • Improved storage • Secondary water sources (particularly water reuse)

Role for Regional Desalination and Water Reuse Companies Water treatment and supply professionals are • Renewable energy to offset some the power critical to the success of many of the identified dedicated to desalination and other water actions. Apart from continuing to supply equipment, treatment plants services and expertise on upcoming desalination • Water reuse, particularly decentralized water and wastewater treatment plants, this sector has reuse for smaller communities considerable opportunity to support the outlined • Non-revenue water reduction expertise sustainability efforts. These include: • Increased and improved water storage • Improvements to the reliability and efficiency of • Supply of more efficient plants with improved the electrical grid data management and control capabilities • Upgrade in efficiency of the many existing water • Preparation and planning for managing trending changes to the water supply treatment facilities • Implementation of systems for the collection and • Education and training on the practical implementation of the above analysis of empirical data in the water sector


Summary Against a backdrop of increasing water scarcity, we expect that the suggested priority actions for water supply resilience and the HLF’s focus on a Regional Strategic Action Plan for Governance and Building Climate Resilience in the Water Sector will heighten the importance of desalination, water reuse and deployment of advanced water treatment technology and services.

About the Author Mr. Shawn Meyer-Steele is founder and Managing Director of H2OPROFESSIONALS, a consulting group to equipment manufacturers, service providers, municipalities and end-users of water treatment equipment and services worldwide.

The CaribDA will continue to support the work within the region of professionals and companies in the desalination and water reuse industry by sharing desalination experiences, latest technological and regional advancements, knowledge, resources and best practices. We will focus the region on all new opportunities available to promote efficient and costeffective solutions for desalination and water reuse and to achieve highest reliability and water quality.


sustainable desalination and water reuse. Previously, he was Sr. Vice President of Marketing & Sales for Energy Recovery Inc., the world’s leading energy recovery device manufacturer, and held several management positions in sales, product management, process design and engineering at Ionics (Incorporated (now part of GE).

Before establishing H2OPROFESSIONALS, he was Senior Vice President – Director of Business He has served on the IDA Board of Directors since Development for Seven Seas Water Corporation, 2011 and the Caribbean Desalination Association a leading service provider in the Americas of since 2009.





AEDyR XII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE A RESOUNDING SUCCESS IDA’s Spanish affiliate AEDyR held its XII International Conference in Toledo, Spain over the last days of October. The event was a big success with more than 250 participants from different countries. The conference was supported by the regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha, as well as by the municipality, and was honored with the presence of the Environment Counselor and the Councilwoman representing the city of Toledo. Besides the high-level technical presentations (both oral and posters), two roundtables were organized with relevant national and international speakers including Miguel Angel Sanz (IDA President), Miriam Balaban (EDS Secretary General), Juan Miguel Pinto (ALADYR President), Fernando Velasquez (Econssa Chile) and Domingo Zarzo (AEDyR President). A national roundtable and presentations featured representatives from different regions (Madrid, Murcia, Comunidad Valenciana, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalucia) the Spanish Ecological Transition Ministry, Acuamed, ICEX, CDTI and AEAS (Spanish Sanitation and Water Supply Association). Emilio Gabbrielli (past IDA President and IDA Comptroller) presented an interesting introduction to the history of desalination. AEDyR also enjoyed the participation of IDA Alejandro Sturniolo, Antonio Casanas and Mike Dixon, as well as Shannon McCarthy (IDA Past Vice President and current Secretary General) and Karen Zilinek (IDA Deputy Secretary General). This year, AEDyR is celebrating its 20th anniversary, and the conference was a great opportunity to present new corporate videos as well as the recent video and materials related to the history of desalination in Spain, which can be seen in at and soon on YouTube. The Gala Dinner was also a celebration itself, held in a beautiful restaurant with views of the lighted city, with the participation of famous Spanish standup comedian Leo Harlem and the performance of the all-star band Ursula and the Salty Dogs.





MORE THAN 400 ATTENDEES AND 170 COMPANIES GATHER AT ALADYR INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS & EXHIBITION Asociación Latinoamericana de Desalación y Reúso del Agua – the Latin American Association of Desalination and Water Reuse (ALADYR) – brought together 430 water industry professionals from 17 countries at its International Congress & Exhibition for the Sustainable Use of Water. Sixty-three technical presentations, three plenary sessions, two training sessions and an exhibition floor filled the agenda, that included prominent public and private sector participation. Held in Chile, the event began with two training sessions designed for 100 professionals, but the program and speakers exceeded expectations, and more than 150 delegates were involved. Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR President, officially welcomed everyone at the event. He referred to the importance of creating more interactions and knowledge exchange opportunities for water leaders in LATAM, and thanked the massive assistance. The second day started with an opening speech held by Mr. Pinto, followed by Lucas Palacios Covarrubias, sub-secretary of Chile Public Work Ministry and Felipe Larraín, CEO of SUEZ. A plenary session “Projects, Policies and Developments in Latin America” followed, with Julio Kosaka from Peru’s Housing, Construction and Sanitation Ministry; Renato Saraiva of Brazil’s Environment Ministry; Mariana Concha from Chile’s Public Work Ministry; Alejandro Marchionna of ABSA; and Alejandro Sturniolo, ALADYR Director.

Topics in the 63 parallel presentations covered success cases, new technologies and experiences worldwide. Industry leaders closed the event. Carlos Cosin, Almar Water CEO; Jose Luis Murillo, Esval President; Mario Pastinante, Fluence Latam CEO; Mário Santos, Vice-President of Conselho de Administração, Águas do Porto; and Emilio Gabbrielli Global Sales in Toray were the panelists at the Plenary: "Desalination and Reuse - A Sustainable Future" led by Alejandro Sturniolo.

The day culminated with presentation of the ALADYR Awards. The winners were SUEZ as the Best Company for Desalination, Reuse & Water Treatment; Chile Ministry of Public Works as the Best Water Government Program; Rafaelle Sardella as Personality of Water; ECONSSAGS Inima Environment as Best Project for Desalination, Reuse & Water Treatment; and Aguas Antofagasta as the For a video overview of ALADYR Chile 2018, please Best Municipal Water Treatment Company. visit our Youtube channel.



International Congress & Exhibition ALADYR Chile 2018 by the NUMBERS:

430 attendees


training sessions (6 hours each)


technical sessions


plenary sessions


countries (Germany, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, United States, France, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Uruguay and Venezuela)






use of plastic water bottles (we not only take care of water but all resources and ecosystems)



EDS CONFERENCE - FROM ATHENS TO ATHENS, 1962-2018 Miriam Balaban reports on the highly successful European Desalination Society conference, Desalination for the Environment: Clean Water and Energy The European Desalination Society’s (EDS) roots go back to Athens where in 1962, Prof. Anthony Delyannis founded the Working Party on Fresh Water from the Sea with the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (which in 1993 became the EDS). It was here that in September, EDS hosted another lively conference and exhibit attended by participants from 43 countries. I recall the fruitful collaborations with IDA over the years beginning with a founding meeting (IDEA) in Ponce, Puerto Rico in 1975, followed by many other collaborative meetings over the years. We were pleased that IDA President Miguel Angel Sanz and AEDyR President Domingo Zarzo joined us to open the conference, followed by keynotes by Kevin Price on the costing of desalination, Abdullah Al-Alshaikh on sustainability, In S. Kim on forward osmosis, and João Crespo on membrane processes.


Special sessions on cross-border collaboration focused on the Gaza desalination plant, with Rebhi Al-Sheikh and Alessandro Podda; Clean Water from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) in the final plenary; and Middle East Regional Cooperation between Israel, Jordan and Palestine, led by Philip Davies. A special theme of the conference followed today’s special concern: Science, Research, Innovation, Industry, Business. To address this, a special plenary was held, led by Lita Nelsen, Head of Technology Transfer at MIT, with the participation of Olga Ferrer, João Crespo, In S. Kim and Maria Kennedy. There were 29 active sessions with over 200 oral and poster presentations. Discussions continued over lunch in the lively exhibit. Our main sponsor was Athens-based TEMAK.


At the closing, it was heartwarming to welcome and honor Dr. Emmy Delyannis with the prestigious Loeb Award. Emmy accompanied Prof. Anthony Delyannis throughout many years in research, organizing conferences and establishing the forerunner of the European Desalination Society. A grand finale was held in a restaurant appropriately facing the Acropolis. The occasion was made most festive with songs beautifully performed by Ursula Annunziata, accompanied by Richard Furstenheim, and music by the Salty Dogs Band with Domingo Zarzo (Sacyr) and Steve Chesters (Genesys) – a memorable event for all.





IDA YLP MENTORSHIP PROGRAM CONTINUES TO GROW By Kamakshi Sharma and Michael Warady The IDA Young Leaders Mentorship Program (YLP) was founded with three key goals in mind: to provide young professionals entering the water industry with a mentor; to encourage these young professionals to join IDA and its mission; and to create long-lasting relationships between both new and established leaders in the IDA community. As the Young Leaders Mentorship Program begins its second year, we are pleased to announce that all three of these goals are well on their way to being achieved.

Another priority for the program was ensuring mentees felt consistently encouraged throughout their experience. As a result, program coordinators have established routine check-ins between mentors and mentees, strengthening these relationships and giving mentees a place to voice any concerns or questions. In addition, the coordinators themselves will be in regular communication with both mentors and mentees, making any adjustments as needed. Final pairings were made earlier in September, and so far, we have only received positive feedback!

For the 2018-19 term, program coordinators chose fifteen young leaders from around the world and paired them with thirteen mentors from the IDA Leadership Committee. Over the next year, mentors and mentees will work together, allowing these young professionals to gain exceptional insight into the field of water reuse and desalination.

As the YLP Mentorship Program expands, we continue to develop new strategies which will help the program succeed even further. In the future, we hope to include mentors outside the IDA Leadership Committee, as well as provide new opportunities for the mentees themselves, such as co-authoring papers, conducting independent research, developing business relationships, and This year, the program’s coordinators prioritized more. matching mentors and mentees with similar interests. Each candidate completed a detailed We are both amazed at and grateful for the IDA questionnaire before undergoing a series of community’s enthusiasm for this program. If you are phone interviews (and, when possible, face-to-face interested in learning more, or possibly participating interviews), helping the selection committee pair in the future, please contact Michael Warady at potential mentees with mentors who will enhance or Kamakshi Sharma their experience as a young leader. at

About the IDA YLP Mentorship Program The IDA YLP Mentorship Program was designed to help young professionals enter and excel in the desalination industry. To do so, the program pairs selected participants with industry experts, allowing these young leaders to learn first-hand


from their mentor. Participants also gain invaluable opportunities to connect with desalination businesses and personnel, jumpstarting their careers. The program is open to all IDA members 35 or younger. More information can be found here.



About the Authors

Kamakshi Sharma is Technology Development Engineer at QUA Group and is focused on QUA’s membrane technology commercialization and growth initiatives. She has a background of over three years in working with membrane technologies for a variety of water treatment applications and holds a degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. She is actively involved with QUA’s proposals, technical advising, application development, and pre- and post-sales support of numerous projects using ultrafiltration (both ceramic and polymeric), membrane bioreactors, and electrodeionization.


Michael Warady is a Project Manager for aquaTECTURE LLC, where he leads capital project development efforts and assists with investments into growth-stage water technology companies. Prior to his work at aquaTECTURE, Michael led international supply chain efforts for Clean Energy Associates, a solar panel procurement and quality assurance firm based out of Shanghai, China. He has also consulted on several water specific projects including supply chain work for Oasys Water, fundraising for a 22 MGD desalination plant, and a $100 million water technology private equity fund called Mazarine Partners. He received his Bachelor’s degree from Duke University and his MBA from Yale University.


Thank you to the IDA YLP Mentors! Leon Awerbuch – President and Chief Technology Officer of Leading Edge Technologies Ltd. (LET); Dean of IDA Academy, Co-chair Energy and Environment Committee, member Technical Programs Committee Borja Blanco – CEO of Aqua Advise; Chairman of the Technical Programs Committee (TPC) Carlos Cosín – CEO of Almar Water Solutions; IDA Treasurer, Chair of the Finance Committee, member of Technical Program Committee Dr. Mike Dixon – CEO, Synauta; Co-chair of the Technical Programs Committee, member World Congress 2019 Technical Program Committee Dr. Ruan Guoling – Chief Engineer of the Institute of Seawater Desalination and Multipurpose Utilization, SOA (Tianjin); Chair Education, Scholarship, Fellowship Committee; member World Congress 2019 Technical Program Committee Dr. Masaru Kurihara – Senior Scientific Director of “Mega-ton Water System”, Funding Program for World Leading Innovation R&D on Science & Technology, Japan, and Fellow of Toray Industries, Inc.; Member Site Selection Committee, member Affiliate Committee Shawn Meyer-Steele – Managing Director, H2OPROFESSIONALS; Chair of Affiliate Committee, member of Site Selection Committee and World Congress 2019 Technical Program Committee Fayyaz Mubeen Muddabassir – RO specialist and international consultant; President of PAKDA Alistair Munroe, Chairman – CEO and Founder of PROJECX and Chairman, CEO and Founder of International Power and Water Investments; IDA Parliamentarian Leo Tua Para – Sales Manager Americas, Piedmont Pacific Juan Miguel Pinto – Sales Manager, Desalination Americas for Energy Recovery Inc (ERI); Chair YLP Committee, member Affiliate Committee, member Membership and Elections Committee Miguel Angel Sanz – Director of Strategic Development, Treatment Infrastructure, Suez; IDA President Devesh Sharma – Managing Director, Aquatech; Co-chair IDA Constitution and Bylaws Committee, Co-chair IDA Energy and Environment Committee, member World Congress 2019 Technical Program Committee Dr. Rick Stover – President, Gradiant Membrane Systems; member of IDA Energy and Environment Committee Alejandro Sturniolo – Vice President for Sales and Marketing, South America, at Fluence Corporation (formerly RWL Water); Co-chair Finance Committee Dr. PK Tewari – Head, Desalination Division in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) India; President of INda Dr. Domingo Zarzo – Technical and Research & Development Manager, Valoriza Agua (SACYR GROUP); Co-chair IDA Awards Committee, President of AEDyR (Spanish Desalination and Reuse Association), member of the Board of Trustees and Scientific Committee in IMDEA Agua (Madrid Institute of Advanced Studies- Water)


Hosted by

IDA WORLD CONGRESS 2019 Dubai, October 20-24


Excitement Builds for the 2019 IDA World Congress: Crossroads to Sustainability IDA Extends CFP Deadline to 30 January 2019 Due to many requests from the community and our new and streamlined Call for Abstracts/ Papers Submission Tool the 2019 World Congress Technical Program Committee Chairmen are pleased to announce a final extension for the abstract submission deadline to January 30th, 2019. Read more about the submission process and requirements here. We invite all stakeholders to take advantage of this new date and submit your abstract for consideration in the Technical Program The IDA requires that abstracts be submitted using the required template.

• Policy, Finance and Market Challenges • Desalination, Water Reuse and Our Wider World • Seawater Desalination • Brackish Water Desalination • Thermal Desalination • Algal Blooms: Pre- and Post-treatment • Operations and Optimization of the EnergyWater-Waste Nexus • Industrial Applications of Desalination and Water Reuse • Environmental Considerations • Innovation IDA invites papers covering the following subject areas • Making Waste Useful that reflect the achievements and future challenges in • Renewable-driven Desalination • Seawater Mining the fields of desalination and water reuse.

Early Registration Now Open for the IDA World Congress IDA is pleased to announce that early registration is now open for the 2019 IDA World Congress. Both early registrants and IDA members qualify for significant discounts. Please visit for more information on how to register online –we hope to see you there!



New to this year’s World Congress is the IDA Corporate Golf Day

‘Crossroads to the Greens’ To be held on the championship Majlis course, ranked as one of the ‘Top 100 Golf Courses in the World’ by Golf World Magazine, and located at the worldfamous Emirates Golf Club in Dubai. Don’t miss the opportunity to have some fun with colleagues on the prestigious and challenging Greens of the Majlis

course the IDA World Congress. Companies can brand a hole or a tee with their corporate name and logo. Donation is USD $1000 per hole or tee. For more information on sponsorship, please contact us at

IDA Welcomes World Congress Exhibitors and Sponsors IDA welcomes exhibitors and sponsors for the 2019 World Congress and corporations who traditionally exhibit at IDA events and provide sponsorship support. Already, almost half the exhibition space has been purchased—so hurry to reserve your place! Exhibitors

Silver Sponsors:


will have the opportunity to showcase their products and create new relationships with other businesses from around the world ensuring Crossroads to Sustainability. The IDA community is growing, be part of the dynamic engagement to ensure global water sustainability.

Bronze Sponsor:


Learn more about purchasing your booth space here. Sponsors enjoy unparalleled opportunities to promote their industries among the Congress’ esteemed delegates. What’s more, sponsors can tailor their experience to their needs, choosing from different sponsorship packages and opportunities. If you’re interested in becoming a sponsor, email or visit here.


Follow Our Updates We hope to see you in Dubai for this unforgettable experience. Learn more about the Congress and how you can get involved here, and follow us on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter for regular updates at




IDA CO-ORGANIZES 2019 WFES WATER FORUM: DISRUPTING THE WATER-ENERGY-FOOD NEXUS TO OPTIMIZE EFFICIENCY, SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY Organized in partnership with IDA, the new WFES Water Forum will focus on solutions to the world’s significant water scarcity challenges and will present the latest approaches to water supply, demand and security that can help address these issues. Held on January, 14-16, 2019, the program will explore how the latest thinking and technology can optimize resource efficiency, sustainability and security in the GCC region. In addition, it will explore the evolving role of water in energy production and conversely the use of power in water supply and how technology advances are creating a low-carbon, more cost-efficient future in clean water production. Also on the agenda is discussion of the actions that will be required to achieve innovative resource sustainability, provide more water resources for food production, and grow food with a fraction of the water used today. Day One focuses on sessions covering an Update on the UAE’s 2036 Water Security Strategy from the Ministry of Energy and Industry; Creating an Integrated Water Management Strategy to Optimize Efficiency, Security and Sustainability in GCC Countries moderated by Dr. Najib H Dandachi, CEO, AL Usul, UAE; Harnessing Renewable Technology to Reduce the Energy Footprint of Water, led by Leon Awerbuch, IDA Director and President, Leading Edge Technologies, USA; Increasing the Use of RO to Supply Low-Carbon, Cost Efficient Water, moderated by Rachid Ghamraoui, IDA Vice President, Vice President of BESIX Middle East, UAE; and The Evolving Role of Water in Energy Exploration & Production, moderated by Dr. Mike Dixon, IDA Director/CEO, Synauta, Canada. The program also features a panel discussion on The Microgrid of Water, led by


Emmanuel Gayan, CEO and Managing Director, Osmoflo, UAE. The program on Day Two centers on The WaterFood Nexus, beginning with a panel discussion on Water and Food: UN SDGs and Resource Sustainability, moderated by Mr. Chris Holmes, Senior Advisor at Boston Consulting Group, USA. Ensuing panels address Water-Food and the Bio-Economy: Future Challenges and Solutions, led by Dr. Olcay Unver, Deputy Director, Land and Water Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy; and Aquifer Management & Water Security with moderator Dr. Mohamed Hamyd Dawoud, Advisor - Water Resources Environment Quality, UAE. Other sessions on Day Two include DSM strategies to Increase Water Efficiency, Establishing Regional Targets for Leakage and a closing keynote on Water and the Environment in the Gulf Countries (GCC). Tech for Good: Disruptive Technology for Better Lives is the focus of Day Three. The centerpiece of Tech for Good Day will be the “Tech for Good Forum” held in the Water Theatre at WFES. This brings together UN Agencies, NGOs and donors and technology provides and entrepreneurs to discuss how humanitarian assistance is being furthered by modern advances in renewable energy, digital technologies, autonomous and remote devices and more. The Water Hall at WFES also contains the Tech for Good Hub where agencies and companies will be displaying solutions throughout the week. For more information or to register, please visit forums#/


CALL FOR PAPERS OPEN FOR 2019 IDA ACTION4GOOD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: CREATING RESILIENT SOLUTIONS TO WATER NEEDS IDA is now accepting papers for its third Action4Good International Conference, “Creating Resilient Solutions to Water Needs.” The deadline for extended abstracts is February 28, 2019, and the conference itself will be held from May 12-14, 2019 in Santa Margherita Portofino, Italy. A portion of the event’s proceeds will be given to an ongoing water-related humanitarian project and the IDA Sustainable Water Resources Foundation (IDA SWRF) for their work.

will highlight the increasing necessity of these new developments, demonstrating how they will enable us to provide for the economic, societal, and other needs of future generations.

This technical program is supported by IDA’s affiliates and cooperation agreements, such as the UN FAO, the Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance, the Global Solar Council, and others. We are very grateful for their ongoing help. Additionally, we are grateful to the city of Genoa The conference’s technical program addresses for their patronage, as well as the Rotary Club of critical energy and environmental issues, examining La Spezia and Lunigiana and the IDA SWRF for what role desalination and water reuse projects their support. can play in creating a more sustainable world. Discussed topics include the Water-Energy-Food Visit nexus, non-conventional means of supplying water, action4good-conference/call-for-papers/ for and other innovative technologies. Accepted papers more information about the submission process.

Call for Papers


Submission Deadline: February 28, 2019

May 12-14, 2019 Santa Margherita, Italy

Registration Now Open!

IDA International Conference

Creating Resilient Solutions to Water Needs

Under the patronage of

Regional Affiliate


Organized by

Supported by



IDA THANKS SPONSORS FOR 2019 ACTION4GOOD CONFERENCE Please consider supporting our Action4Good conference by becoming a sponsor. Sponsors enjoy numerous benefits, including complimentary conference registration, logo-presence on conference literature, pre-event marketing and publicity, and more. IDA offers three categories

of sponsorship, enabling sponsors to tailor their experience to their needs. Join the companies who have already sponsored this event. For more information, email sponsorships@ or visit here.






APPLICATIONS BEING ACCEPTED THROUGH JANUARY 31 FOR CHANNABASAPPA MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP The International Desalination Association (IDA) announces that it is now accepting applications for the 2018-19 Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship. Through this program, IDA awards scholarship grants of up to $5,000 USD to one or more graduate students who have been accepted into a program of doctoral studies and who intend to pursue a desalination and water reuse related research thesis. IDA also announces that ISDMU, the Institute of Seawater Desalination and Multipurpose Utilization, SOA (Tianjin, China), is co-sponsoring the scholarship for FY 2018-19 via a matching contribution to the IDA Sustainable Water Resources Foundation (SWRF), which will issue a $5,000 matching grant. This makes the total scholarship value $10,000 USD. The objective of IDA’s scholarship program and the IDA SWRF capacity-building program is to encourage engineers and scientists to further their post-graduate education in subjects related to desalination, membranes and water reuse. Applicants must have graduated from an accredited university and must be from the top 10% of their class in science or engineering. The applicant must prove admission to a graduate program of doctoral studies in desalination or water reuse and must exhibit leadership and achievement potential. All applicants must be members of IDA.


The applications will be considered on the basis of undergraduate and graduate transcripts, references from university staff and one or more IDA members, along with the individual’s motivation statement for a planned career in desalination or water reuse technologies. “IDA is committed to advancing knowledge in desalination and advanced water treatment and encouraging education in the industry that we serve. The Channabasappa Scholarship Program is one of our initiatives aimed at achieving this goal. We thank ISDMU China for their generous support to the IDA SWRF to provide a matching contribution to support this year’s scholarship program and hope that other businesses and organizations will follow their lead. With the support of the academic, public sector and corporate communities, IDA and the IDA SWRF can expand the number of scholarships available to assist more students and help assure our industry will have the talent it needs for the future,” said Shannon McCarthy, IDA Secretary General. The deadline for applications is January 31, 2019. The Scholarship Award will be announced within 60 days of the application deadline. For more information or to download an application, please visit


IDA SEEKS HOST AGENCIES FOR 2018-19 AND 2020-21 FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM IDA is seeking host agencies for its 2018-19 and organizations and corporations connect worldwide, 2020-21 Fellowship Award Program. strengthening the international desalination community. The IDA Fellowship Program gives recipients the opportunity to work alongside other colleagues Host agencies are usually high-profile public utilities from different organizations in the desalination or research organizations known for their leadership industry. By spending time in these different host in the water reuse industry. Previous host agencies agencies, recipients gain unprecedented insight include Singapore’s National Water Agency, the into the organization’s operations, strategies, Saline Water Conversion Corporation, the U.S. and policies. In turn, recipients exchange these Bureau of Reclamation, the Ministry of Electricity insights with the global desalination community. and Water in Kuwait, Oman Public Authority for Ultimately, IDA fellows become a link in the industry, Electricity and Water, and others. transferring vital knowledge and innovative strategies from one organization to another. To learn more about host agencies and the IDA IDA ensures this information is disseminated Fellowship Program in general, please email widely through publications, presentations, and or view the training section conferences. In this way, IDA fellows help different of

SPONSOR AN IDA ACADEMY COURSE In a time where sustainability is a global issue, educating individuals about water reuse strategies and desalination is increasingly important. By sponsoring an IDA Academy course, you can help inform industry professionals worldwide about the

significance of their mission. These courses can be held at international IDA events or within your own company, ensuring individuals around the globe are up to date with cutting-edge research in our industry.

Customized Company Training Many of the world’s top desalination and water reuse leaders have used IDA’s academy courses at their own facilities. This in-house training brings staff together, ensuring every individual can speak intelligently about the importance of sustainability and advanced water treatment technologies. Only when individuals are on the same page can effective work truly begin. At IDA, we know our courses provide this incredible opportunity for unity. The IDA Academy Program is an internationally renowned resource, providing higher education and professional development to companies around the globe. Our courses have one aim: to spread information about desalination, water reuse, and advanced water treatment. Our academy’s Master Teachers include internationally recognized


desalination professionals, whose fields of expertise varies from technology to economics to plant operations and more. These instructors combine their expertise with extensive field experience, ensuring that courses address both the theoretical and practical aspects of the industry. In general, academy courses are designed for mid- to senior-level management personnel. The academy also offers an introductory course for individuals with under one year of industry experience, helping new professionals gain a foundational knowledge of desalination and its technologies. Of course, we can tailor any course to your company’s individual needs, allowing this resource to help you fulfill the future goals of your organization.


IDA Academy Courses at the 2019 IDA World Congress Currently, IDA is still looking for sponsors to fund IDA academy courses at our 2019 World Congress. Sponsoring an academy course allows industry professionals to enhance their knowledge regarding desalination, creating specialized experts in the field. But beyond that, sponsorship means increasing your brand’s visibility at one of the industry’s biggest events. These opportunities for publicity and exposure include:

• Two (2) complementary full registrations to the World Congress including the Welcome Reception, Technical Program, Exhibition, lunches and refreshment breaks, and Closing Reception and Presentation Awards • Two (2) Academy Course Full Registrations • Two (2) full individual annual memberships (one year only) • Logo in pre-Congress sponsorship ads in IDA Connections Quarterly Membership Magazine • Logo on marketing materials leading up to the World Congress, including email and social media campaign • Logo on Academy Course signage and materials • Logo on World Congress website

To learn more about sponsoring a course at the 2019 World Congress, about IDA Academy in general, or about sponsoring a course for your own company, email



IDA WELCOMES OUR NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS Bechtel is one of the most respected global engineering, construction and project management companies. Together with our customers, we deliver landmark projects that foster long-term progress and economic growth. Since 1898, we’ve completed more than 25,000 extraordinary projects – many first-of-a-kind – in 160 countries on all seven continents. We operate through four global businesses: Infrastructure; Nuclear, Security & Environmental; Oil, Gas & Chemicals; and Mining & Metals. Our company and our culture are built on more than a century of leadership and a relentless adherence to our values, the core of which are safety, quality, ethics, and integrity. These values are what we believe, what we expect, what we deliver, and what we live. For more information, please visit:

The Orange County Water District (OCWD) has pioneered groundwater management for 85 years and water reuse for more than 40 years. The District takes the limited water supply found in nature and supplements it to provide groundwater for 19 cities and water agencies serving 2.5 million residents in north and central Orange County. During the 1970s, OCWD built the first federal desalination facility in the state of California and the largest prototype Multi-Stage Flash distillation plant in the U.S. Though the desalter portion ran for less than a year as federal support ceased, Water Factory 21, as it was called, continued and paved the way for the world’s largest advanced water purification project for potable reuse – the Groundwater Replenishment System. The GWRS, a joint collaboration between OCWD and the Orange County Sanitation District, came online in 2008 and uses microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide to produce 100 million gallons per day of “new” water. OCWD is an international leader in water reuse; groundwater recharge, monitoring, modeling and management; water quality management; and public education. Each year, thousands of engineers, scientists, elected officials and water experts from around the globe visit OCWD to learn about its cutting-edge work. Tours may be booked at

UET WATER (Universal Environmental Technologies, Inc.) is a dynamic global group, offering custom personalized innovative water and wastewater treatment solutions that are project specific. With state-of-the-art manufacturing and a team of experienced process engineers, along with an array of technologies in membrane filtration/ desalination such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, EDI and wastewater treatment technologies such as extended aeration, ASBR and MBBR, UET WATER is able to provide global solutions to industries such as hotels, breweries, food and beverage, power, mining, municipal and all types of water desalination projects. We thrive in providing the world with quality water treatment solutions that are project specific, reliable, durable, safe, efficient and cost-effective. Please see our website for additional information on our water treatment solutions and capabilities:


14TH MEMBRANE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE TO TAKE PLACE IN SINGAPORE MST2019, the 14th international Membrane Science and Technology Conference, will take place June 13-14, 2019 at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. This international conference will showcase recent advancements in membrane research, development and applications related to water production and desalination, wastewater treatment and reclamation, gas and liquid separation & purification, energy issues, the environment, special needs, etc. It will provide a forum for exchange of ideas and discussions for the global membrane community while also serving to build important professional networks.

membrane and process characterization; and modeling and simulation. The deadline for submissions is January 31, 2019. Plenary speakers are Prof. Jeffrey McCutcheon, University of Connecticut, USA; Prof. J.S. (Hans) Vrouwenvelder, KAUST, Saudi Arabia; Prof. Dr. Ivo Vankelecom, KU Leuven, Belgium; Prof. Kang Li, Imperial College London, UK; Prof. Michael Guiver, Tianjin University, China; and Prof. Yung Chang, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan. Held every two years, the MST conference is organized jointly by universities in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Iran. The MST2019 is organized by the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre (SMTC), Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) of Singapore.

The Call for Abstracts is now open. Conference topics include membranes for: desalination, water and wastewater treatment; gas and liquid separations; fuel cell and energy applications; food and bioproduct applications; pharmaceutical and medicine applications; and special needs. In addition, the conference will address: For more information about the MST2019 novel membranes and fabrication methods; and the Call for Abstracts, please visit advanced methods and sensors for


Did You Know? IDA Global Connections offers companies an outstanding opportunity to show their support for the IDA and the desalination, water reuse and advanced water treatment industry that we serve, while reaching approximately 10,000 industry professionals around the world. IDA offers a variety of sponsorship opportunities in our flagship publication. For details, please visit or contact Download Media Kit here. 84

Shannon McCarthy

Karen Zilinek

Michele Pzsenny

Ann Seamonds

IDA Secretary General

Office Manager/ Membership Services

Deputy Secretary General

Editorial and Public Relations Consultant

Cristina Mauleรณn Social Media and Marketing Consultant



WFES Water Summit – Co-organized by IDA January 14-16, 2019 Abu Dhabi, UAE

IDA Action4Good: Creating Resilient Solutions to Water Needs May 12-14, 2019 Grand Hotel Miramare Santa Margherita, Italy

IDA 2019 World Congress, hosted by DEWA October 20-24, 2019 Dubai, UAE


AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition February 25- March 1, 2019 New Orleans, LA USA

WSTA 13th Gulf Water Conference March 12-14, 2019 Kuwait


May 7-9, 2019 Melbourne, Australia


Part of

Principal Partner

Hosted by

Content Partner

14 - 17 JAN 2019 | ADNEC, ABU DHABI

Take action, at WFES Water. Explore cutting-edge solutions to critical water concerns, tackling issues of scarcity and supply through long-term investment and innovation. Join government officials and business leaders to innovate and promote water sustainability in arid regions.




Attendees From 170 Countries

Worth Of Projects Announced

Exhibiting Companies

Access a World of Networking Opportunities Register today at 14 - 17 Jan 2019 | ADNEC, Abu Dhabi Key Sectors WFES






Organised by WFES






“Crossroads to the Greens” IDA Corporate Golf Day at Emirates Golf Club

IDA is pleased to announce “Crossroads to the Greens” the IDA Corporate Golf Day on the championship Majlis course at the world-famous Emirates Golf Club. Don’t miss this opportunity to have some fun on the greens with colleagues at the IDA World Congress. Emirates Golf Club has two, 18-hole par 72 championship courses, both carved out of the desert. These include the Wadi and the much-loved Majlis, venue for the Dubai Desert Classic. The Majlis course, is ranked as one of the ‘Top 100 Golf Courses in the World’ by Golf World Magazine.


For more information, please contact us at

have you visited our new

website? We’re excited to announce that both IDA’s new website and the World Congress’ microsite are now live! Both sites enhance user experience by providing streamlined navigation and easier access to information. Explore both sites at or, and let us know what you think! As always, feedback is appreciated.


Become a member of IDA Connecting the global desalination and advanced water treatment industry

Knowledge-sharing, exchanging ideas, expanding educational opportunities, providing solutions and always advocating for the advancement of desalination and water reuse technologies are important aspects of the IDA mission. Our work will soon be amplified by the establishment of the IDA Sustainable Water Resources Foundation. Membership Benefits: • Reduced conference registration fee at the IDA World Congress and other Association activities including conferences, seminars, and workshops • Reduced fees on the exhibition stand at IDA exhibitions and ability to reserve premium exhibition stands at the IDA World Congress • Eligibility to apply for the IDA Scholarship and Fellowship programs, IDA Young Leaders Program and participate in the IDA Mentorship and Internship Programs Complimentary publications including: • Conference proceedings (full technical papers), available on the IDA website • Subscription to Water.desalination + reuse quarterly journal • Copy of the IDA Water Security Annual Handbook • IDA Online Membership Directory IDA Global Connections a quarterly publication • Subscription to ID • An online copy of Desalination at a Glance (the latest edition of IDA’s ABCs of Desalting)

Join the IDA Community Today! IDA is a non-profit organization, bringing together people, ideas, and knowledge to advance sustainable water solutions. We are a UN recognized non-governmental organization (NGO) and partner of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization WASAG – Global Framework on water scarcity in agriculture. For more information on membership, please contact


Connecting People and Ideas to Water Solutions

Address P.O. Box 387 Topsfield, MA 01983 USA Phone +1-978-774-0959

IDA Global Connections - Winter 2019  
IDA Global Connections - Winter 2019