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Stop Human Trafficking 6 Fighting the Opioid Crisis 12 Reducing Recidivism for Defendants with Mental Illness 22 Banning Plastics: One Villageâ€™s Approach 26
A Focus on
GNARLY ISSUES How local government can help
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AUGUST 2019 VOL. 101 NO. 7
F E AT U R E S
6 Stop Human Trafficking Insights from local government managers in North Carolina can inspire other cities and counties to begin their own efforts to stop human trafficking. Margaret Henderson, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
12 Opioids How the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, is fighting the crisis. Audrey Fraizer, Salt Lake City, Utah
16 Strategic Planning Revisited Consider three key factors as you manage this critical priority. Kel Wang, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; and Michael Sambir, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
22 Reducing Recidivism for Defendants with Mental Illness Loudoun County, Virginia’s post-plea program highlights collaboration among multiple stakeholders. Valmarie Turner, Loudoun County, Virginia and David Street, Loudoun County, Virginia
26 Banning Plastics: One Village’s Approach Do your homework, develop consensus, and stay current on state legislative developments. Jorge Gonzalez, ICMA-CM, Bal Harbour, Florida
28 Beyond the Parkland School Shootings What every community can learn from an independent public safety analysis. Leonard A. Matarese, ICMA-CM, IPMA-CP, Buffalo, New York
D E PA RT M E N T S 2 Ethics Matter!
Understanding ICMA’s Ethics Enforcement Process
4 Letter from the Editor 5 Celebrating 100 Years 34 Leadership
Key Considerations for Developing Local Commercial Cannabis Regulation
Did That Actually Happen? In a Bizarre Crisis, Emergency Planning Saves the Day
38 ICMA New Members 43 Professional Services Directory
International City/County Management Association AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 1
Understanding ICMA’s Ethics Enforcement Process Why Accountability Matters
One critical element of ICMA’s approach
MARTHA PEREGO, ICMA-CM, is ethics director, ICMA, Washington, D.C. (email@example.com).
to improving the ethics of the profession is to hold our members accountable for their conduct. When a member’s conduct raises ethical concerns, ICMA carries out a formal peer review process to objectively determine whether the member violated the ICMA Code of Ethics. After all, if the profession doesn’t have a mechanism to enforce its high standards, what’s the value in having a Code at all? Based purely on the trends, the likelihood that a member will go through the ICMA ethics enforcement process sometime in his or her career is very low. With a total membership of more than 12,000, the annual workload ranges from 30 to 50 cases. However, the lack of familiarity with the enforcement process generates questions when incidents of wrongdoing hit the light of day. Given the profession’s commitment to accountability, ensuring that the process for enforcing the Code of Ethics is clear and understood is important. To add clarity, here are answers to frequently asked questions: Who oversees the process? The ICMA Constitution requires the ICMA Executive Board to establish a standing Committee on Professional Conduct (CPC) and gives
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BY MARTHA PEREGO, ICMA-CM
the full Board the authority to adopt rules of procedure for enforcement of the Code. The Rules give the CPC sole authority to investigate ethics complaints, determine when a violation of the Code occurred, and recommend sanctions to the full Executive Board. Who is covered by the Code of Ethics? When joining ICMA, the individual agrees to comply with the Code. Members working for a local government, special district, municipal league, or council of governments—whether on a full-time, part-time, or interim basis, or as an intern— must adhere to the entire Code. Members who are working in another field, students, and Life members and retirees must follow Tenets 1 (Democracy) and Tenet 3 (Integrity). When does ICMA launch a review? A review will only be initiated when a valid complaint is filed with ICMA. ICMA staff working on ethics issues do not initiate a review because their role is to administer the enforcement process. It would be a conflict of interest to serve both as the complainant and the administrator. What constitutes a valid complaint? The complaint must be in writing, clearly outline the alleged misconduct, and support the allegation with documentation. Next, we assess whether the alleged misconduct, if proven to be true,
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ICMA Creating and Supporting Thriving Communities ICMA’s vision is to be the leading association of local government professionals dedicated to creating and supporting thriving communities throughout the world. It does this by working with its more than 12,000 members to identify and speed the adoption of leading local government practices and improve the lives of residents. ICMA offers membership, professional development programs, research, publications, data and information, technical assistance, and training to thousands of city, town, and county chief administrative officers, their staffs, and other organizations throughout the world. Public Management (PM) aims to inspire innovation, inform decision making, connect leading-edge thinking to everyday challenges, and serve ICMA members and local governments in creating and sustaining thriving communities throughout the world.
would be a violation of the Code. If the answer is yes, ICMA will proceed with the formal review.
Do I have an ethical obligation to file a complaint when I see unethical conduct? If you are a member of ICMA, yes. The
guideline under Tenet 3 states, “When becoming aware of a possible violation of the ICMA Code of Ethics, members are encouraged to report the matter to ICMA. In reporting the matter, members may choose to go on record as the complainant or report the matter on a confidential basis.” Ethics complaints do come from the public and elected officials. But we can’t rely on others to enforce our ethical standards. There is a whole universe of inappropriate conduct where the associated risk and potential damage may only be visible and really understood by another professional in the field. Therein lies part of the value of self-policing. Is it confidential? The entire review process is confidential, unless and until it results in a finding by the ICMA Executive Board that a member has violated the Code and the appropriate sanction is a public one. Absent that, ICMA does not comment that a member may be under review and every ICMA member must maintain confidentiality about the review. Does the ethics complaint process end if the member quits ICMA? No! Once a case has been opened, ICMA will continue the
process to its conclusion. That said, ICMA cannot open a case with a former member unless that person agrees to participate. What about the member’s point of view? The process begins with the assumption of innocence. After all, the information presented may not be accurate. And the member’s perspective on what transpired hasn’t been heard. The member is given the opportunity to review the entire complaint and all documents, and provide a written response to the CPC. The opportunity to explain what transpired and provide supporting documentation, as well as statements from others, is key to getting at the facts. The CPC reviews the member’s response and if the facts are clear, it will draw a conclusion as to whether the member’s conduct violated the Code. If
2018–2019 ICMA Executive Board PRESIDENT
Karen Pinkos* City Manager, El Cerrito, California PRESIDENT-ELECT
Jane Brautigam* City Manager, Boulder, Colorado PAST PRESIDENT
David Johnstone City Manager-Retired, Candiac, Quebec, Canada VICE PRESIDENTS
Frans Mencke City Manager, Hoorn, Netherlands Tim Anderson Chief Administrative Officer, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Sue Bidrose Chief Executive Officer, Dunedin City Council, New Zealand
the facts aren’t clear, the next step is to ask the state association to appoint a fact-finding committee. If the member fails to respond, the CPC will use a fact-finding committee to gather more documentation. What role does fact-finding play? Members assigned to the fact-finding committee gather the missing information and report back to the CPC within 60 days. They interview the member, may interview others connected to the case, collect public records, and in the case of legal matters, obtain court records. They do not determine guilt or innocence. The factfinding committee submits its findings to the CPC for review. A copy of the report is provided to the member. This is the final step in the data-gathering process. What are the penalties? If the CPC concludes that the member did violate the Code, it can select from an array of censures, including private censure, public censure, suspension from membership for up to five years, permanent membership expulsion or bar, and credential revocation. All the options beyond a private censure require approval by the ICMA Executive Board. Is there an appeal process? Any sanction can be appealed to the Executive Board, where the member can address the board in an executive session hearing. How is the outcome publicized? ICMA notifies the complainant and the state association president that the matter has been resolved. When a public censure is issued, notice of that action is shared with the news media, as well as the appropriate governing body. ICMA members must be willing to report in good faith matters of concern. Allow an objective peer review process to sort out the facts and reach an independent judgment. Allegations of unethical conduct by public officials that go unaddressed can undermine the public’s trust and harm the reputation of the profession.
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Wally Bobkiewicz* City Manager, Evanston, Illinois Clint Gridley* City Administrator, Woodbury, Minnesota Mountain Plains Region
James Jayne County Manager, Coconino County, Arizona Heather Geyer City Manager, Northglenn, Colorado Michael Land* City Manager, Coppell, Texas Northeast Region
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Martha Bennett* Chief Operating Officer, Metro Council, Portland, Oregon Maria Hurtado Assistant City Manager, Hayward, California
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AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 3
LETTER FROM THE EDITOR
Nice to Meet You, ICMA! Get to know PM’s New Managing Editor Hello! Let me introduce myself. I’m Kerry
KERRY HANSEN is digital managing editor, Public Management Magazine, ICMA, Washington, D.C. (email@example.com).
Hansen, ICMA’s new digital managing editor of PM Magazine. I’m thrilled to be part of the ICMA team and to be publishing such a celebrated magazine. PM has a long, rich legacy—having been in print for 100 years now—and I’m very excited for what lies ahead. Now let’s get started! This month, PM tackles some of the gnarly issues that many communities face across the globe—from smaller challenges, such as cannabis regulation and banning plastics, to life-and-death situations like human trafficking and opioid addiction. We call these gnarly issues because they’re some of the tougher struggles a community could face, and they often don’t have an easy solution. You’ll find articles on the public safety analysis conducted after the Parkland school
BY KERRY HANSEN
shooting; how a county in Virginia piloted a program to reduce recidivism among defendants with mental illness; and how advance planning can make all the difference in an unexpected crisis. Is your community facing one of these gnarly issues? Email us and tell us your story at firstname.lastname@example.org. ICMA also has an upcoming free webinar, “Grappling with Gnarly Issues,” on September 11 at 1:00pm ET. Learn more at icma.org/coachingwebinars. Now that I’ve introduced myself, I’d love to hear from you. Is there a topic we haven’t covered recently that you’re interested in hearing about? Do you have an idea for an article that you’d like to write? Email us at email@example.com and let me know! An association magazine is here to serve its readers, and I want to make sure we have an ongoing dialogue. Enjoy this August issue!
Cut through the noise The only job board devoted to management and management-track positions, the ICMA Job Center is the single best career resource for job seekers and employers alike.
FOR JOB SEEKERS • Find the top local government management and management-track jobs.
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• With more than 12,000 unique visitors and over 150,000 page views each month
Get started with the ICMA Job Center at icma.org/jobcenter | Follow us at @ICMAjobcenter 4 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
1919 – 2019 PM in August 1963 The 1963 August issue of PM Magazine covered many interesting topics. Articles focused on prospects for smaller cities, city manager’s workshops, and balanced community development, to name a few. This issue also contained another “What Cities Are Doing” section filled with news from cities across the United States. For example, in Roseville, California, the
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city founded a municipal tree farm that began with an anonymous donation of 7,000 evergreen trees. The trees were planted in a portion of the land at the city sewage treatment plant, and the wastewater from the plant was used to irrigate the farm. The author wrote, “It is estimated that the city will incur almost no new costs in the opening of the farm. In addition to using the trees for the city street tree program, many of the trees will be used initially to landscape a new municipal golf course and a recently purchased park site.” Another interesting news item came from Titusville, Florida. In 1963, by act of the state legislature, the cities of Titusville and Whispering Hills consolidated to form the new city of Titusville. The author writes, “In addition, the consolidated city includes the unincorporated area of the Indian River City and considerable territory.” The new land area would encompass 15 square miles and have a population of 18,000 residents. The “Management Digest” section included columns about the role of businessmen in urban revitalization and management appraisal of conflicting human values. Both columns were also published in the May–June 1963 issue of the Harvard Business Review.
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 5
BY MARGARET HENDERSON
TRAFFICKING North Carolina Shows How Local Government Staff Can Play a Pivotal Role
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While human trafficking has existed for centuries, communities are paying new attention to the problem. Some high-profile cases — such as the massage parlor investigation in Jupiter, Florida, in March 2019 — have generated extensive media coverage about a specific type of trafficking. There have also been improvements in legislation that address associated crimes, public funding opportunities that focus community attention on improved interventions and response, and — perhaps most importantly — evolving cultural attitudes that are willing to name the illegal behaviors as unacceptable. »
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 7
NANCY HAGAN, APRIL 2019
Human trafficking involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to compel another person to perform labor or a sex act for the profit of a third person. Victims can be adults or children, foreign or domestic born. The trafficking can involve purely labor or purely commercial sex or can be a blend of both. The forms and dynamics of trafficking can vary widely and typically take advantage of local community characteristics. A convention center or military base might generate a market for sex trafficking, for example, whereas seasonal farm work and restaurants might generate a market for labor trafficking (see sidebar, “Environmental Conditions That Enable Trafficking”). Tracking Trends
The Polaris Project is affiliated with the National Human Trafficking Hotline. Using statistics from callers, the project identified 25 business models of human trafficking.1 In research conducted in 2018 by the School of Government at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, focus groups of local government workers in the state reviewed the business models to assess which might be visible to staff of any department.2 (See sidebar, “Business Models of Human Trafficking Most Visible to Local Government Staff.”) This research illuminated the critical importance of training first responders and inspectors for any purpose—environmental health, code enforcement, fire codes, and so forth. But the focus groups also pointed out the importance of building awareness more
Victims slept on massage tables.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT ENABLE TRAFFICKING
broadly among staff who work in libraries, handle registration or licensing functions, manage water/sewer/solid waste/recycling, respond to parking violations or nuisance calls, or work in public waiting areas.
The following are environmental conditions that enable sex or labor trafficking, either by generating a market for the act, amplifying a vulnerability, transporting victims, or facilitating contact with buyers. • Tourist destinations • Large public events • Seasonal farm work • Online advertising opportunities • Truck stops • Highway rest stops • Military bases • Factories • International borders • Colleges and universities
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Terra Greene, city manager of Lexington, North Carolina (pop. 20,000), attended a basic awareness training event hosted by the fire department that was open to all city and county staff. “One key note that was so disturbingly impactful for me to hear in the awareness training … human trafficking is incredibly profitable because the controller or profiteer can sell the same human being over and over again.” For local governments, the default setting might be to assume that dealing with trafficking falls to law enforcement, social services, or possibly public health clinics. However, research, educational efforts, and real-life scenarios3 together indicate that additional city and county departmental staff have the potential to identify and report the indicators of trafficking, to build community awareness, and to strengthen local systems of response and intervention. Greene confirms the access city staff have to homes, businesses, and the community at large and goes on to acknowledge the discomfort they might have about reporting indicators of trafficking. “It is critical that public servants take their role one step further when it comes to overall public safety and speak up if they see something. That step can feel like it taps into tremendous inner courage because oftentimes it is innate behavior to mind
trafficking identified by the Polaris Project (https://polarisproject.org/typology) can be visible to local government staff:
1. Escort services 2. Illicit massage, health and beauty businesses 3. Outdoor solicitation 4. Residential brothels 5. Domestic workers 6. Bars, strip clubs, and cantinas 7. Traveling sales or clean-up crews 8. Restaurants and food service sites 9. Peddling and begging rings, fundraising sales 10. Agriculture and animal husbandry 11. Personal sexual servitude; forced marriages 12. Health and beauty services 13. Construction industry 14. Hotels and hospitality industries 15. Landscaping businesses 16. Illicit activities operated by gangs and organized crime
your own business, especially when on private property.” Donald Duncan, city manager of Conover, North Carolina (pop. 8,000), began his process of strengthening local government response in a similar way, by immediately integrating the content of a “Human Trafficking 101” training event into the content of his public work. “After sitting through the session, I Door cannot lock. began to realize how often we see signs of human trafficking, but do not realize it. It was sobering and admittedly depressing. I had been on the periphery of human trafficking and did not understand that until taking the initial training.” He thought back to the time his wife, an elementary school teacher, suspected one of her students was being abused. Ultimately, it was discovered the child was being prostituted by her own family. While the situation was obviously harmful to the child, no one called it “human trafficking” at the time, but that is what it was. Taking Action
Conover allows for itinerant merchants to conduct door-to-door sales. After a rash of harassing salesmen, the city council directed Duncan to strengthen the policy governing such sales. “We now require these sales groups to present their identification and pay for a permit. The officers on duty run a quick search through National Crime Information Center (NCIC) to make sure there are no outstanding warrants or prior convictions of fraud or violent crime. After implementing this new procedure, one group came to the police department, and we noticed one person bringing in members of the sales crew, handing them their identification documents4 as they approached. Staff never suspected trafficking until the group was gone.” Moving forward, Duncan will promote one general and two specific initiatives. First, he decided to offer the basic training to all city staff as part » NANCY HAGAN, APRIL 2019
Almost all of the 25 business models of
NANCY HAGAN, APRIL 2019
BUSINESS MODELS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING MOST VISIBLE TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT STAFF
17. Factories 18. Carnivals 19. Forestry and logging 20. Health-care settings 21. Recreational facilities The four business models of trafficking that are not likely to be seen by local government staff in the course of their regular duties are the production of pornography, commercial cleaning services operating at night, arts/entertainment functions, and remote, interactive, commercial sexual sites.
All of victims’ possessions. AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 9
NANCY HAGAN, APRIL 2019
In response, Parrish immediately deployed city staff from police, engineering and inspections, and code enforcement to investigate the massage parlor to determine if illegal activity was happening on the premises. The investigation included a review of the licensing and on-site activity. The multidepartment team effort uncovered evidence confirming the owners were in violation of the law. Charges related to human trafficking were filed against them. Since then, police routinely follow up with code enforcement to make sure businesses are operating legally. “We appreciate residents being vigilant and willing to say something when they suspect criminal activity is happening. This is an example where multiple city departments worked together, using existing resources, to address and resolve this incident of human trafficking,” said Parrish. Key Strategies
Addressing the problem of human trafficking is not simple or easy. Here are some initial strategies to consider. 1. Build awareness of the indicators and basic dynamics of trafficking across all governmental departments, beyond law enforcement and social services.
Rice at the massage parlor.
VULNERABILITIES = OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAFFICKERS
of the safety training regimen and is working with an area service provider to arrange that training. Second, he is building on a tradition of training staff to be aware of indicators of criminal activity. In the past, the city implemented Fleet Watch, an initiative of the NC Crime Watch program. “To support community policing, the police department-initiated training for sanitation, meter readers, code enforcement, and fire crews to recognize signs of crime and domestic abuse. The idea of broadening awareness to include indicators of human trafficking will not be a stretch,” said Duncan. Third, Duncan will work with key city staff to consider trafficking through the lens of organized crime, using strategies that evolved from intelligence gathering methods used by the military in Iraq and Afghanistan. The logic underlying such strategies is that gangs represent domestic terrorism and organized crime.” Through peer pressure and forced initiations, they also act as human traffickers. The tactics used to identify foreign terrorists work just as well in North Carolina with NC GangNET5 and other gang intervention models currently in use. With slight modifications these could all be applied to combat human trafficking.” City Manager David Parrish, of Greensboro, North Carolina (pop. 287,000), learned human trafficking was allegedly taking place in the Gate City during a council meeting. One evening, a resident raised a concern, outlining what types of services were for sale at a local massage parlor. The resident referenced how the city had responsibilities for business licensing that should not enable associated illegal activity.
In general, human traffickers look for points of weakness to exploit. These vulnerabilities can be social, political, financial, or situational, taking many different forms. Here are some examples:
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• Family conflict/instability • Financial stress • Social isolation • Homelessness • Limited English proficiency • Addictions • Immigration status • Unsafe community or living conditions • Sexual orientation/gender identity • Lack of transportation • Rejection by family or community • History of physical or sexual trauma • Foster care placement; aging out of the child welfare system • Political instability • Cultural background • Natural disasters
ONLINE RESOURCES FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS* Suggestion: Invite area service providers to provide basic training, describe local resources for intervention, and begin to build relationships across organizational lines. Encourage selfeducation through online resources and state or national training opportunities. (See sidebar, “Online Resources for Local Governments.”) 2. Develop protocols for reporting indicators of potential trafficking. Debrief and adjust as needed, once reports are made. Suggestion: At a staff meeting, discuss and decide on the preferred options for reporting (e.g., local law enforcement, local rapid response team, or the National Human Trafficking Hotline at 1-888-373-7888 or text 233733), as well as expectations for informing departmental supervisors, the city/county manager, or elected officials. 3. If your community has a particular challenge with any of the environmental conditions that enable trafficking or any of the business models that traffickers employ, consider taking a focused approach. (See sidebars, “Environmental Conditions That Enable Trafficking” and “Business Models of Human Trafficking Most Visible to Local Government Staff.”) Suggestion: Convene a multidepartmental team to apply existing processes, policies, and procedures to the challenge that relates to trafficking, in order to develop strategies of prevention or intervention. 4. If your community is working to address any wicked problem (e.g., homelessness, food scarcity, substance abuse, success in school), know that you are also working to prevent trafficking. Suggestion: Take time out in those existing work groups to consider the issue through the lens of human trafficking. For example, is there a particular way that the local homeless population is being manipulated? (See sidebar, “Vulnerabilities = Opportunities for Traffickers.”) While the concept of human trafficking is overwhelming to most of us, there are specific steps any community can take to begin to address the issue. Once local government staff members learn about the indicators of
• Public Management Bulletin #12:
“Human Trafficking in North Carolina: Strategies for Local Government Officials.” This bulletin covers ways in which human trafficking can be viewed through the lens of local government. The bulletin begins with a discussion of the basics—what human trafficking is, how it operates, and where it tends to turn up—followed by an examination of human trafficking as a local government concern. The author concludes the bulletin by outlining six strategies that local government leaders can take to address human trafficking in their communities. • Public Management Bulletin #15:
“Exploring the Intersections between Local Governments and Human Trafficking: The Local Government Focus Group Project.” This bulletin focuses on the business models traffickers use to manage their human trafficking enterprises and reports on focus group discussions with local government officials to determine how greater awareness of these models and their various signs within the community might be incorporated into their daily work. • Public Management Bulletin #16:
“Labor Trafficking—What Local Governments Need to Know.” This bulletin focuses on what labor trafficking is and how it shows up in North Carolina. * from the School of Government, UNC-Chapel Hill, available at www.sog.unc.edu.
trafficking, they tend to respond in the same way as other professional groups: “We’ve been seeing the signs all along, but we didn’t know that it was trafficking.” The responsibilities of local government staff put them in homes, businesses, and public spaces on a regular basis. They also tend to be people who care about, and are connected to, their communities. Given that trafficking often operates in plain sight, local government staff offer untapped potential for noticing its indicators. As Terra Greene observes, “Human trafficking is a very real humanitarian issue, which requires acute awareness and courage to actively contribute to the solution.” Remember: Human traffickers only need local governments to do one thing—nothing. Hopefully, these examples and insights from local government managers in North Carolina can inspire other cities and counties to begin their own efforts to stop human trafficking. MARGARET HENDERSON is a lecturer in public administration; Director, Public Intersection Project, The School of Government at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, (firstname.lastname@example.org).
ENDNOTES AND RESOURCES
“The Typology of Modern Slavery: Defining Sex and Labor Trafficking in the United States” at https://polarisproject.org/typology 2 For a discussion, see PMB No. 15, June 2018, “Exploring the Intersections Between Local Government and Human Trafficking: The Local Government Focus Group Project,” available at www.sog.unc.edu 3 Media reported that law enforcement used the observations of a health inspector to build the investigation in the Jupiter, Florida, illicit massage parlor case, in early 2019. 4 One indicator of trafficking is that a third party takes and controls access to the identification documents of victims. Traveling sales crews are a business model that traffickers employ. 5 https://www.ncdps.gov/Our-Organization/ Law-Enforcement/State-Highway-Patrol/NCGangNET NC GangNET is a database that has a web-based capability of allowing certified users to enter and/or view information on gang suspects and members that have been validated as such using standardized criteria. 1
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Opioi HOW LOWELL IS FIGHTING THE CRISIS
BY AUDREY FRAIZER
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You name it, the city of Lowell, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, has tried it in its fight against opioid use and abuse. And it’s a war where more and more battles are being won. The overall strategy—one that garnered a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice and extensive community support—presents a major departure from punitive approaches to opioid use and abuse. The approach is called collaborative compassion and involves developing a stronger understanding of opioid use and connecting overdose victims to treatment, according to Robin Toof, director of the two-year funded Lowell Opioid Overdose Project.1 The project inspired communitywide involvement backed by data gathering to lend greater insight into the nature of the opioid crisis. Among the initiatives funded through the grant is a robust database that leads to evidence-based solutions for local government to better tailor their responses, including intervention, education, prevention, and enforcement. Jon Kelley, director of operations, communication, and IT for Trinity EMS, Inc., a private ambulance provider with roots in Lowell, is a data person. He understands the importance of collecting and applying data to identify and solve problems. As an emergency medical technician (EMT), he recognized the devastation of opioid abuse and recognized that it doesn’t discriminate by zip code. He wanted to do something about it. “This can happen to anyone,” he said. “It’s everywhere. People get hurt, get a prescription for opioids, and, in some, an addiction develops. As a data person, I knew the data was there. Data gives us the opportunity to do some good. We can do so much to turn the tide.” »
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“Any time we can help someone, it’s one more opportunity for that person to change [his or her] path,” Kelley said. Data Show Progress
Statistics show the tide is turning, but first, a little about Lowell’s history in coming to terms with its the opioid crisis. While information varies depending on the source, overlapping reasons for high numbers of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdoses in Lowell include demographics not unlike those of any large urban center. Lowell is the fourth most populous city in Massachusetts (111,670 according to a 2018 census estimate) and, according to a 2017 Community Needs Assessment,2 housing and homelessness emerged at the top of the list of unmet needs in the Lowell community, with substance abuse resources identified as second, and jobs as third. Lowell and neighboring Lawrence are reportedly regional hubs of the opioid trade, and fentanyl has featured prominently in that trade.3 Data is a big factor in curbing fatal and non-fatal opioid use. The Massachusetts Ambulance Trip Reporting Information System (MATRIS), originally created to collect and maintain standardized EMS patient
data and information based on trip records, was enhanced statewide to accurately identify ambulance trips that are opioidrelated—for example, that a trip was listed as a poisoning, that the trip included administration of naloxone, or that the patient admitted to drug use. As mentioned, Trinity EMS is committed to data collection to better frame the issue within its expanded service area. Collection starts at the communication center. Since 2015, Joseph Breen, a Trinity EMS dispatcher and quality assurance supervisor, has reviewed every single patient care report that indicates an opioid-related call. He monitors volume to identify spikes and tracks demographics such as age and gender of the patients, time of day and day of the week, and location of fatal and non-fatal overdoses within each community. In 2016, Trinity EMS added FirstWatch (www.firstwatch. net) to instantly notify community leaders when a call involving an overdose comes in to the communication center. The software speeds up notifications into real-time data in a format compliant
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with HIPAA (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996). A FirstWatch app displays the data as pinpoints on a map—the what and the where—to hasten response to the scene. The same call also triggers an email to the Lowell Community Opioid Outreach Program (CO-OP, www.lowellma.gov/1193/ CO-OP), which follows up with the individual regarding treatment options. The faster the response, the better the outcome.
Data shows that programs such as CO-OP and Lowell House (lowellhouseinc.org, an addiction recovery service) are helping to lessen the problem. From 2015 through 2018, Lowell had one of the highest numbers of opioid overdoses and fatalities in the state, with 63 deaths and 579 confirmed nonfatal overdoses in 2015, 68 deaths and 687 confirmed nonfatal cases in 2016, 53 overdose deaths in 2017, and 64 overdose deaths in 2018.4 (Statistics are unavailable for nonfatal cases in 2017 and 2018.) Numbers for the first quarter of 2019 show a dramatic increase of 30 percent in nonfatal overdoses. Success is a matter of reaching people before the overdose becomes fatal; fewer people are dying. Kelley said Trinity’s approach and its continued positive results have attracted attention statewide. Everybody
...CALLERS MIGHT NOT COME
RIGHT OUT AND ADMIT AN “OPIOID OVERDOSE” WHEN TALKING TO THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL DISPATCHER. wants to be on the winning end of the opioid fight, although reasons may vary. In Lowell, it’s a matter of taking responsibility. “These are our people. These are our citizens,” he said. “Let’s own this. Let’s figure out how we can help.” FirstWatch has partnered with more than 200 medical and police agencies nationwide interested in opioid abuse prevention and suppression. Agencies can contact FirstWatch to configure a controlled drug trigger based on key words (e.g., opioid, Narcan) to identify potential overdoses at the 911 level. The data’s application is also agency-specific, such as mapping areas of particularly
high overdoses—which could indicate a surge in fentanyl. The task is much more difficult than you might expect, said Sylvia Verdugo, FirstWatch clinical solutions specialist. For example, callers might not come right out and admit an “opioid overdose” when talking to the emergency medical dispatcher. Many lack awareness of Good Samaritan laws that protect victims and those who call 911 for help from charge and prosecution. Massachusetts passed its Good Samaritan Law in 2007. Often, it’s a matter of gathering clues. Did the caller mention physical symptoms (altered status, respiration rate)? A medical protocol software—
Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS)—simplifies the collection through the targeted keywords picked up during the emergency dispatcher’s questioning of the caller. The scripted questions direct the emergency dispatcher to the specific chief complaint (the patient’s medical situation) to coordinate medical response. Verdugo recommends that agencies develop standardized definitions of opioid overdose to clarify what exactly they want in a data surveillance program. She also encourages agencies to work together—share information—to develop best practices. Why does it matter? “FirstWatch gives you the evidence,” she said. “But what absolutely matters is the story behind a number, and the face that goes with the story. Knowing what we can do to help someone.”
AUDREY FRAIZER is managing editor, Journal of Emergency Dispatch, International Academies of Emergency Dispatch, Salt Lake City, Utah (audrey. email@example.com). ENDNOTES AND REFERENCES
Lowell Opioid Overdose Project. Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) October 1, 2016–September 30, 2018 (grant period) http://www. pdmpassist.org/content/lowell-opioidoverdose-project (accessed May 21, 2019). 2 2017 Community Needs Assessment. http://www.commteam.org/wpcontent/uploads/2017/06/2017Community-Needs-Assessment.pdf (accessed June 14, 2019). 3 Vance A, Schuster L. “Opioid Addiction Is a National Crisis. And It’s Twice as Bad in Massachusetts.” Boston Indicators. https://www.bostonindicators. org/reports/report-website-pages/ opioids-2018 (accessed May 31, 2019). 4 Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Number of OpioidRelated Overdose Deaths, All Intents by City/Town 2014-2018. May 2019. https://www.mass.gov/files/ documents/2019/05/15/Opioidrelated-Overdose-Deaths-by-City-TownMay-2019.pdf (accessed June 3, 2019). 1
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BY KEL WANG AND MICHAEL SAMBIR
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Consider three key factors as you manage this critical priority
s a manager, you know that approving a strategic plan is one of the most important decisions any city/county governing body makes. It also establishes the foundation and scope for your organization’s performance management program. But what are the factors you need to consider to manage this work? Here we present a diagnostic tool (Table 1) to help you prepare and present your plan in confidence. This tool is drawn from our experience developing and updating the strategic plan for Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The factors that are important to consider are (1) the people involved, (2) the process, and (3) what we call the “artifact,” which means the structure and components of the plan, including the publication and its content. These three factors will require attention throughout the development of your strategic plan. Challenges can arise at any time, but for the sake of illustration we’ve set out the three factors in a linear fashion starting at the very beginning of developing a strategic plan. So what is the first thing that needs attention? People: Define Roles and Responsibilities
You and your team have researched best practices and looked at examples of strategic plans. You have brainstormed and created a project plan with timelines and milestones. You think you’re all set to go. »
TABLE 1. THE THREE FACTORS OF A STRATEGIC PLAN
1. Underestimating the complexity of change
2. Not having an evidence-based approach
3. Not being integrated
Cultural resistance Limited community buy-in ● Absent or unfocused leadership ● “Business as usual” without concern for what community members want
Insufficient consideration of changes in the environment ● No linkage between results and actions/decisions ● Lack of preparation for resource requirements and risks ● Absence of a culture of evidencebased decision making
Define roles and responsibilities
Leverage a robust approach
Apply a holistic approach
Little understanding or recognition of community identity ● Competition for resources and attention ● Imbalance between short-term actions and long-term impacts
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But you may have underestimated the complexity of managing change, and several barriers can stand in the way: The organizational culture resists what the plan sets out; the community isn’t ready to buy in to it; leadership is absent or unfocused; or business units keep doing what they’ve always done, with no concern for what the “customers” (read: community members) want. The solution to the “people” barriers begins with one action: defining roles and responsibilities for key stakeholders.
Once these are defined, you can develop frameworks for governance and engagement. In the local government sector, you as an organizational leader have to consider three key stakeholder groups involved in developing and implementing the plan: elected leaders, employees, and the community. 1. Elected leaders. The chief role of elected leaders is to provide the vision, or the big picture, of what they seek to achieve. They should not be engaged in prescribing actions or managing activities for implementing the strategic plan. Instead, their responsibility is to demonstrate the organization’s commitment by being visible and present through the process of implementation. The single most effective way of doing this is through active, two-way communication with those who will be implementing, or affected by, the strategic plan: organizational employees and the community.
2. Organizational leaders and employees. Organizational leaders
and employees implement the strategic plan by developing and managing the activities that lead to the achievement of its goals and objectives. The role of organizational leaders—including the chief administrator, senior managers, and middle managers—is to empower staff and employees to do that work. Empowerment will increase employees’ ownership and improve the chances of success. Another critical role of employees is to act as the interface with community members, serving as the conduit of information to and from the community.
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3. Community. Government should serve the people. In the best case, the strategic plan is directly informed by what the community wants. The accompanying sidebar, “Strategic Planning in Edmonton,” describes the city’s approach. A key measure is how successfully the strategic plan engages the community and meets its needs. The most critical role for the community is to provide feedback on what matters to it. This should occur at the beginning, when a new plan is being considered and then developed; during the middle, when it is being implemented; and at the end, when it is in place and being used to weigh and prioritize opportunities, make decisions, and shape services. We can think about these three participants and the relationships among them as a funnel (Figure 1). The community communicates its needs and hopes for the future through employees. Elected leaders distill that into a vision. Developing and implementing a strategic plan calls for visible leadership to engage employees and the community, so that the organization can achieve what the community has said is important. As an organizational leader, you will not have a physically visible role in creating the strategic plan; your responsibility is to be a behind-the-scenes catalyst for the work: you empower employees and foster an organizational culture that puts community front and center.
Figure 1. Stakeholder Relationship Funnel
Strategic Planning in Edmonton BY KEL WANG
The city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, created its first strategic plan with a 10-year horizon in 2008 and refreshed it in 2018 for another 10 years.1 In both cases, to develop and renew the plan, the city undertook extensive engagement with the public. For example, to renew the plan in 2018, the city leveraged a comprehensive engagement approach, including facilitated discussions, drop-in public meetings, telephone and online surveys to engage the general public, and pop-up sessions to engage hard-to-reach or marginalized populations. The approach focused on seeking diverse opinions and experiences to take in a wide spectrum of information. The results were enormously positive: 6,407 participants in sessions and surveys; 9,094 social media engagements (e.g., clicks, reshares, likes, and comments on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram); and 3.9 million digital and display impressions. We knew we had reached members of the community when we saw a note to the mayor and a council member from a sixth-grade student at an Edmonton elementary school. The feedback was used to refine the city’s long-term vision, shape its strategic goals, and create the principles to guide the implementation. The general public demonstrated an increased understanding of city programs and services, caring about the community, and possible interest in public service.
Based on community feedback and the city council’s direction, the strategic plan contains four strategic goals on which the city will focus: Healthy City, Urban Places, Regional Prosperity, and Climate Resilience. The strategic plan and the four strategic goals then cascade down to a corporate business plan that outlines the administration’s priorities in the next four years: 2019-2022. The corporate business plan includes a set of transformational projects, programs, and everyday services, improvement initiatives, and capital infrastructure projects. The city will work hard to implement these priority actions in order to advance the strategic goals. https://www.edmonton.ca/city_government/documents/ ConnectEdmonton_Book_Web.pdf 1
Process: Use a Robust, Evidence-Based Approach
You’ve created the plan through proper engagement. The plan contains a long-term vision articulated by goals and objectives and has indicators or measures to monitor progress and results. Implementation is next. But you may have just missed a critical component: evidence to inform your decisions.
The strategic plan allows city staff to connect their work to the city’s vision and strategic goals and understand how their work will affect the community. The line of sight between city vision, strategic goals, priority action results, and dayto-day work adds clarity to the value of employees’ work. Parallel to the development of the strategic plan, the city created a set of culture commitments to guide how the work is approached and how it is done: safe, helpful, accountable, integrated, and excellent. These commitments play an important role in how city staff serve residents and provide internal services to colleagues. Approving the strategic plan is one of the most important decisions any governing body makes, and the development process is as important as the plan itself. Both the process and the artifact (the structure and components of the plan) will lead to community building, common priorities, and engaged staff. These are the key benefits that creating a strategic plan offers a local government. Kel Wang is corporate performance lead, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (firstname.lastname@example.org).
You’ll face challenges, and evidence will help you find the way forward. For example, the plan doesn’t sufficiently consider a changing environment; the organization’s activities have very limited influence on the results of indicators or measures so the decisions or actions to improve the results aren’t clear; or implementation is not considered during planning so people are surprised by potential resource
requirements and risks. The solution is to have a robust approach before beginning to develop the actual plan and continuing through development and beyond. 1. Before development. Communities are different, and each has its own set of macro-environmental conditions that the strategic plan must consider. Knowing these conditions will help inform decisions about »
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which opportunities the community should capitalize on and which actions the plan should evaluate. It will also help identify threats to the community that may require attention. Typical conditions to consider include the political climate, the economy, social and cultural factors, the environment, technology, and legislation. 2. During development. The development of the actual plan should be governed by what you’re trying to achieve. And to understand that you’ll need to develop a set of indicators or measures to guide decision making (i.e., what actions will you undertake to effect change in these indicators?). The indicators you select will help you begin to understand, at a high level, the costs of implementation. What kinds of indicators do you need? A sound indicator will be useful when it is: • Specific: It needs to demonstrate a clear linkage to goals and objectives. • Measurable: It can be measured and reported in quantitative or clear qualitative terms. • Actionable: It can be influenced by a specific local government program or other activities. • Realistic: Its target or goal can be realistically achieved, given available resources.
• Timely: It can be produced in a time frame that permits meaningful reporting. Comparing your indicators or measures against those of other organizations or best practices (benchmarking) adds an additional and valuable lens to your selection. 3. After development. Create an ongoing culture of evidence-based decision making. Setting up and using a robust approach before and during development is just the beginning. The real work begins when the plan is in place: While developing a plan is important, it is also critical to ensure that this evidencebased approach will be in place and sustained during the entire life cycle of the strategic plan. Creating this culture will involve all the stakeholders described earlier: elected leaders, organizational leaders and employees, and the community. Organizational leaders foster this culture. Elected leaders promote and demonstrate the importance of this culture by their actions. Employees support this culture by making reliable data available in a timely fashion and presenting data with solid and creative analysis and visualization. The community advocates and advises using data and
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holds the government accountable to its expectation and commitment based on results and targets. When embedded before, during, and after development, the evidence-based approach can be achieved. Artifact: Apply a Holistic Approach
You planned ahead to address the issues with people and process: You are now confident people will be engaged and the process will result in good decision making. There is only one final step: an integrated organization. Lack of integration means that the strategic plan will convey little understanding or recognition of your identity (what you stand for and how you will achieve it), and there will be competition for resources and attention between goals and objectives, or an imbalance between short-term actions and long-term impacts. The solution is a holistic approach that takes three things into account when you create the structure and components of the plan. 1. Highlight community identity.
Does your strategic plan present your identity—that is, who you are as a community? The idea is simple: You cannot be all things to all people.
a plan with goals and priorities will help you consider trade-offs and help focus on the things that matter most to the community. If everything is important, then nothing really matters. So being holistic in resources is about allocating and re-allocating organizational resources (i.e., human and financial resources) to achieve the goals and objectives. It signals priorities for actions and decisions. 3. Balance short-term actions and long-term impacts. Is the strategic plan
Today’s world is mobile and fluid. You need to recognize who and what your community is, to itself and to people beyond your boundaries. Knowing your identity is essential to presenting yourself as a choice. People choose where to live, work, and play, so recognizing and understanding who and what your community is helps define you to those who would choose to come, or choose
to stay. So being holistic in identity is about recognizing the unique political, material, and social value conditions of your community and including these key attributes as part of your strategic plan. This is what makes your plan a reflection of your community.
2. Focus resources on community priorities. Can you achieve what you set
out to do in the strategic plan? Developing
Figure 2. The Three Factors of a Strategic Plan
Deﬁciency 3: Not integrated
Deﬁciency 2: Not evidence-based
your North Star when it comes to decision making and actions? “Short-termism” refers to decisions and actions that focus excessively on short-term results without considering longer-term consequences. Having a strategic plan will extend the horizon on decision making, pushing you to consider those longer-term impacts. Ideally the plan should extend beyond the next one or two election cycles while at the same time encouraging timely (annual or biennial) reporting. You know you have taken a holistic approach when your strategic plan highlights the identity of your community, allocates resources to community priorities, and makes a long-term commitment with timely reporting.
Deﬁciency 1: Underestimating the complexity of change
A Complex Undertaking
As noted before, approving a strategic plan is one of the most important decisions any governing body makes. For that reason, the development and implementation of the plan is complex and challenging. Whether your role is to develop, present, or approve the plan, you need to remember that all three factors outlined in Table 1 are integral and should be aligned. Figure 2 presents another way to look at the three factors. People, process, and artifact lead to a successful strategic plan with long-term transformational impact for the communities we serve. KEL WANG is corporate performance lead, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (kel.wang@ edmonton.ca). MICHAEL SAMBIR is strategic coordinator, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. (michael.sambir@ edmonton.ca).
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for Defendants with
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Loudoun Countyâ€™s post-plea program highlights collaboration among multiple stakeholders
BY VALMARIE TURNER AND DAVID STREET
Many of the issues we face from day to day in local government are ambiguous and refuse to adhere to our jurisdictional boundaries. As professionals, we’re expected to wade into such circumstances with confidence and emerge with demonstrable results. We often meet this expectation, but when issues arise at the intersection of professional adversity and human suffering, a collaborative, inclusive, multijurisdictional, and multitiered process can make all the difference. The National Alliance on Mental Illness (www.nami.org) indicates that approximately 2 million people with mental illness are booked into jails each year, and nearly 15 percent of the men and 30 percent of the women have a serious mental health condition.1 The further entry of people with serious mental illness into the criminal justice system is a concern not only nationally but locally. In FY 2017, Loudoun County’s Department of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Services provided treatment to more than 300 people in the county’s adult detention center. As with any complex issue, solutions are often multifaceted and require a “many tools in the toolbox” approach. One important tool that Loudoun implemented is a special docket in the Loudoun County General District Court. The mental health docket, as implemented in Loudoun, is a docket complemented by a structured post-plea program designed to provide direct support for defendants diagnosed with serious mental illness. Its mission is to provide coordination between the mental health and criminal justice communities to reduce recidivism, improve public safety, and support people with serious mental illness.
TABLE 1. KEY PARTICIPANTS IN THE PLANNING SESSION FOR THE LOUDOUN COUNTY MENTAL HEALTH DOCKET LOCAL
Department of Community Corrections Department of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Services Department of Family Services Office of the Commonwealth’s Attorney Office of the Public Defender Loudoun County Sheriff’s Office Town of Leesburg Police Department STATE
Loudoun County General District Court Loudoun County Magistrate’s Office Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services NONPROFIT
Friends of Loudoun Mental Health Loudoun Skillsource Affiliate Center OTHER
Loudoun County Community Criminal Justice Board Loudoun County Community Services Board Representatives of elected officials Consumers of mental health services
This is accomplished by developing individualized, comprehensive, communitybased treatment plans reinforced by court supervision. While mental health dockets (also commonly referred to as behavioral health dockets) have been implemented in 10 courts across eight jurisdictions in Virginia, Loudoun’s development process is noteworthy due to the high level of collaboration between public and nonprofit organizations, elected and appointed officials, and professional county staff. RECOGNIZING NEEDS
The origins of Loudoun’s mental health docket date back to 2013, when approximately 30 representatives of Loudoun’s human, social, and criminal justice communities engaged in a two-day facilitated crosssystems mapping exercise that used the Sequential Intercept Model2 to map how people interacted with both mental health services and the criminal justice system. The model identified five intercepts: 1) law enforcement and emergency services, 2) initial detention and initial court hearings, 3) jails and courts, 4) reentry, and 5) community corrections and community support. The planning session itself is a milestone in that it placed a critical mass of the “right” representatives of the “right” organizations in a room together in a structured environment. The group, which included a number of stakeholder organizations (some of which are listed in Table 1), was facilitated by Virginia’s Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services through a grant. »
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In the mapping process, attendees followed the path of a person through the criminal justice system. What the group found was that people with serious mental illness ended up being funneled through the system with everyone else receiving a fine, jail sentence, or probation with no firm requirement or plan for treatment of the underlying mental health issue. The map showed that a lack of focus on the needs of
from custody. The county’s performance metrics bear this out: Of the 300 inmates who accessed treatment in the adult detention center, fewer than 40, or approximately 12 percent, continued into communitybased treatment upon release. Building the Team and Planning the Docket
Two main factors kickstarted the course charted by Loudoun’s cross-systems mapping exercise.
IN THE NINE MONTHS SINCE ITS LAUNCH, ALL BUT ONE OF THE MENTAL HEALTH DOCKET’S PARTICIPANTS ARE COMPLIANT WITH THEIR PLEA AGREEMENTS AND TREATMENT PLANS. the individual contributed to the perpetuation of a cycle in which a mental health crisis leads to crime, then crime leads to interactions with law enforcement and, ultimately, to further entry into the criminal justice system. In short, people were not accessing mental health services once released
The first was the existence of a state-level cross-systems mapping initiative that began in 2008 and supported local mapping exercises like the one in which Loudoun engaged. The statewide focus on and support of the mapping exercise permitted Loudoun’s criminal justice and human
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services communities to see the extent to which the system was being impacted by persons with serious mental health issues. So the group decided to make changes. For example, Loudoun successfully leveraged training and additional state resources to build on the work already accomplished at the state level and in other jurisdictions across Virginia. The second was the existence of an active and engaged stakeholder organization, the Loudoun County Community Criminal Justice Board (CCJB), a 19-member board made up of members mandated by state code and members appointed by Loudoun County’s Board of Supervisors. The discussions held at the CCJB level resulted in the establishment of a subcommittee to complete a feasibility study on the implementation of a mental health docket in the county. The CCJB and subcommittee both included subject-matter experts who were able to communicate effectively with criminal
justice/law enforcement professionals and mental health care providers, thereby facilitating multijurisdictional and multidepartmental collaboration. The Loudoun County General District Court strongly supported the creation of the docket, and the Department of Community Corrections; the Department of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Services; the Office of the Commonwealth’s Attorney; and the Office of the Public Defender worked together to advocate and plan for its implementation. Loudoun’s human, social, and criminal justice communities made a critical choice early in the planning process: to focus on the needs of the individual. That decision was reached, in part, because of the participation of key stakeholders in the crosssystems mapping session and their ongoing support and engagement as the planning process for the docket progressed.
Over the course of 2015–16, the subcommittee embarked on a research and development planning process that involved a wide variety of tasks. The subcommittee reviewed and developed administrative procedures and processes, researched models the docket could follow (pre- or postplea, for example), attended highly specialized training, and visited other jurisdictions in Virginia with established dockets. During these visits, they observed courts, met with judges and local stakeholders, and observed participants in the docket process, as well as the staff supporting the docket. The team found the jurisdiction visits particularly informative, as they allowed the team to incorporate best practices from throughout Virginia into a model that would best meet the needs of Loudoun’s community. Adapting to Challenges
Plans rarely go unchallenged. It wasn’t until late 2016 that the Supreme Court of Virginia established standards
for mental health dockets. The lack of standardization before the court acted left jurisdictions to implement these types of dockets in a variety of different ways. A major concern of Loudoun’s implementation team was the potential for the county to design and implement a program that could be out of compliance with standards the Virginia Supreme Court might eventually adopt. Fortunately, the conversation surrounding mental health and the criminal justice system was amplified across Virginia by ongoing state and local mental health initiatives, which contributed to the creation of the Supreme Court’s standards concurrently with Loudoun County developing its program. While much of the training and research for the docket was supported by grant funding, it was implemented with existing resources. Originally, the team hoped to receive an implementation grant to accommodate the additional work required by the docket. However, the team did not receive the grant and had no dedicated funding from the county or other sources to implement the program. Instead of delaying or canceling implementation, the team decided to move forward with a limited initiative that could accommodate 10 participants in the first year, hoping that early success would demonstrate the docket’s effectiveness, thereby making it a stronger candidate for future funding. Funding wasn’t the only resource issue at hand: All departments, organizations, and agencies involved had to prioritize the docket and its potential participants, sometimes at the expense of
other priorities. For example, the district court judges cleared time on the court schedule to accommodate the docket. One of the judges is the presiding judge of the docket and the other judges assume the nonspecialty cases of the presiding judge while cases on the docket are being addressed. Gauging Success and Looking Forward
In the nine months since its launch, all but one of the mental health docket’s participants are compliant with their plea agreements and treatment plans. In the short term, that gives the docket a 90 percent success rate; however, the program team and supporting departments are well aware that success is defined along a spectrum and must be evaluated just as the need for care is: on the individual level. In some cases, success means a participant won’t be rearrested because the docket team had the opportunity to intervene before or during a crisis. In other cases, success means a participant adheres to a long-term illness management and recovery plan and reintegrates with the community through volunteer work, skill development, or permanent employment. As limited as 10 participants may seem, the positive results of the program have already contributed to additional support and resources. In fact, in the development of the FY 2020 county budget, dedicated funding was approved for several positions supporting the docket, including a clinician and a case manager, which will allow the mental health docket to expand from
10 to 25 participants. As the docket develops a longer track record, the county expects to conduct a recidivism study to evaluate its long-term effectiveness in keeping people in treatment and out of the criminal justice system. The mental health docket is successful because the state, county, and nonprofit communities worked tirelessly to advocate for, develop, and implement the program. The support and perspective that each stakeholder group provided was invaluable to recognizing and acknowledging need, facilitating crossjurisdictional communication and collaboration, and adapting to challenges. Making the docket a reality provides those affected with access to mental health services, often for the first time, and builds a support network that follows them into the community. The docket team, comprised of several of the same agencies that participated in the initial cross-mapping exercise, continues to benefit from the collaborative groundwork that was laid in 2013.
VALMARIE TURNER is assistant county administrator, Loudoun County, Virginia, and oversees Loudoun’s human services departments (Valmarie.Turner@Loudoun.gov). DAVID STREET is project manager, Loudoun County, Virginia (David.L.Street@ loudoun.gov). ENDNOTES AND REFERENCES
Jailing People with Mental Illness (https:// www.nami.org/Learn-More/Public-Policy/ Jailing-People-with-Mental-Illness) 2 The Sequential Intercept Model (https:// www.prainc.com/sim/) 1
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PLASTICS: ONE VILLAGE’S APPROACH
Do your homework, develop consensus, and stay current on state legislative developments
In the old days, sun, sand, and surf might have been
enough for managers of coastal communities to protect. But with growing public engagement on questions of environmental quality, a global issue can quickly become a local matter. In Bal Harbour, Florida, a community of about 3,000 people surrounded on three sides by pristine waters, the issue of limiting singleuse plastics arose quickly. We are home to a mix of condominiums, impressive beach hotels that have hosted presidents, and an
internationally known, upscale shopping destination–the Bal Harbour Shops. What started as an initiative to research banning plastic straws expanded to become one of the most complete bans on single-use plastics in Florida. Few have not seen the disturbing images of marine life and plastic pollution. According to the Ocean Conservancy, plastic has been found in more than 60 percent of all seabirds and 100 percent of sea turtle species,1 and eight million metric tons are
BY JORGE GONZALEZ, ICMA-CM
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estimated to enter the ocean each year.2 The Ocean Conservancy’s 2018 International Coastal Cleanup3 found that plastic bags, lids, straws, and stirrers were among the top 10 most frequently collected items by thousands of volunteers who tracked debris. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and numerous state agencies are partners in the organization’s annual cleanup. As village manager, I had to anticipate the kinds of
problems we’d face in getting an ordinance passed—in terms of gaining business support, drafting appropriate language, and managing enforcement. Here is Bal Harbour’s story and the lessons we learned, which may be helpful to other communities that are considering similar environmental action. The Bal Harbour Story
The story really started in January 2019 with our annual strategic retreat, an informal (but open to the public) daylong session where elected officials and staff can identify and prioritize shared policy goals. Healthy discussion of the pros and cons of a plastics
ban took place at this meeting. What emerged was a consensus: A plastics ordinance would come up in formal session later in the year. First, we did our homework. We were well aware of the worldwide movement to keep oceans clean and sea life safe by reducing plastics. Florida’s tourism and entertainment icon—the Walt Disney Company—announced a plan to eliminate single-use plastic straws and stirrers globally by the middle of 2019. And in our community, where two of four hotels are run by Marriott, we found a similar plastic straw ban already in progress. As our mayor, Gabriel Groisman, succinctly noted, “That’s what consumers want.” We also found that on the retail side, shops and restaurants were likewise on their way to limiting plastics. With this level of momentum, we felt that we could afford to be bolder, with a more sweeping, protective ordinance that went beyond plastic straws. An important part of our research and preparation was making direct personal contact with affected businesses. Hand delivering the idea—which admittedly is easier in a small municipality—allowed us to assess how long the phase-in period should be, what exceptions might be needed, and how to handle enforcement.
First, for practical reasons, we decided to keep the focus strictly on commercial use— hotel and retail. As Mayor Groisman put it, “It’s not a good practice to ban personal use. We don’t want to have law enforcement come up on people having a picnic.” Second, we drafted exceptions for medical and dental facilities, for schools, for state or federal government entities, and for individuals who could request a reasonable accommodation for medical, physical or religious reasons. In drafting language, a somewhat tricky aspect was crafting definitions. What exactly is “single use”? It might be easy to define, for example, a situation where a soft drink and straw are served alongside each other, but what about a kid’s juice pack? Our ordinance created an exception for prepackaged drinks, where the straw is integral to the packaging. In defining “single use,” we also used identifiable standards for such items as reusable
bags, recyclable paper bags, and compostable carryout bags. Here too, we had to give thought to exceptions ranging from food contamination protection to pet waste bags. Finally, we decided to implement the ordinance in stages. First, we will conduct a public education campaign until October 1, 2019, allowing vendors to deplete their existing stocks of plastic items. After that, we will start a 60-day written warning period during which our code compliance officers will issue notices of violations. Full compliance, with fines of $250 per infraction for a commercial establishment and $25 for any individual selling or distributing single-use plastics, will begin December 1.4 State Developments
Even as we moved forward with our ordinance, we made contingency plans in case of a possible preemption at the state level. At the state capitol, the Florida House and Senate passed legislation that would have created a five-year moratorium on plastic straw ordinances. Knowing a preemption effort was possible, our ordinance was designed to be “severable,” meaning that even if one subsection of the ordinance became unenforce-
able, the rest of it would remain in effect. Fortunately—and to our pleasant surprise—Governor Ron DeSantis issued his first veto as governor in rejecting the moratorium bill. In a May 10 message, DeSantis wrote that bans on single-use plastic straws have not “frustrated any state policy or harmed the state’s interests.” We achieved community and political consensus with quiet, behind-the-scenes staff work and direct engagement with the business community, and we didn’t let the perfect become the enemy of the good. For coastal communities, stewardship of the oceans and the larger marine ecosystem is deeply connected to name and branding. In Bal Harbour, we’ll continue to proudly think globally and act locally. JORGE GONZALEZ, ICMA-CM, is village manager, Bal Harbour, Florida (jgonzalez@ balharbourfl.gov). ENDNOTES AND RESOURCES
Data based on peer-reviewed research reported by the Ocean Conservancy. 2 Study by Jenna Jambeck at the University of Georgia, published in Science: https://science. sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768/ tab-figures-data. 3 Ocean Conservancy, 2018 International Coastal Cleanup (https://oceanconservancy. org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/BuildingA-Clean-Swell.pdf). 4 The text of the ordinance can be found here: https://legistarweb-production. s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/attachment/ pdf/339545/re_plastics.pdf. 1
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 27
BEYOND THE PARKLAND SCHOOL
WHAT EVERY COMMUNITY CAN LEARN FROM AN INDEPENDENT PUBLIC SAFETY ANALYSIS How looking at the aftermath of this tragedy provides insights that can help communities plan with the goal to prevent or mitigate the devastation of future events Parkland, Florida, is the type of community that many Americans strive to be able to call home. Located in the northwest corner of Broward County, its 10 square miles is home to about 33,000 people living in approximately 9,000 households, whose median family income is more than $135,000. The medium home value is approximately $600,000. Many residences are in gated communities; others are on large acreage lots. Parkland is a young community—the average age of a resident is 41 years. Many families moved here to feel safe—the crime rate is extremely low—or 28 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
BY LEONARD MATARESE, ICMA-CM, IPMA-CP
to allow their kids to attend modern, successful public schools. Parkland is a family-oriented community, with nice parks and open spaces and few commercial establishments. The city library and recreation center are focal points. Residents living in Parkland reported a generalized sense of “complacency” before February 14, 2018. On that day at 2:19:54 PM, this world changed forever. At that exact moment, a teenage former student of Marjorie Stoneman Douglas High School entered the school armed with an AR-15, and in the course of eight minutes murdered 14 students and three adults and wounded 17 more before leaving the building.
After the Tragedy
A series of investigations followed immediately after the tragedy— by local law enforcement agencies, a commission created by the governor’s office, and a separate study commissioned by the Broward County School Board. As information unfolded, thanks largely to the investigative work of the Sun Sentinel newspaper, which won a Pulitzer Prize for its work, it became increasingly clear that there were serious failures in performance not only by the Broward County Sheriff’s Office (BSO), with whom Parkland contracted for police services, but also by the Broward County School Board. It emerged that numerous incidents involving the shooter prior to the assault could have, should have, alerted authorities to the potential danger.1 » AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 29
By April, the city of Parkland, in response to the understandable concern of residents whose entire image of the community had been terribly shaken, decided to conduct an independent study of ways to improve the safety and security of Parkland residents and visitors. Elected leaders and professional staff recognized that complacency—essentially “living in a bubble”—often prevents critical review of day-to-day activities. Often, we are too close to those day-to-day operations to see the underlying issues that can cost lives. The Parkland study would encompass a wide range of issues to determine the future of law enforcement in the community as well as to assess safety issues in city facilities and properties. Parkland issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the study and appointed a selection committee of highly respected local law enforcement officials to
PARKLAND IS A FAMILY-ORIENTED COMMUNITY, WITH NICE PARKS AND OPEN SPACES AND FEW COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS.
recommend the organization to be awarded the contract. The selection committee tapped the Center for Public Safety Management (CPSM, www.cpsm.us), ICMA’s exclusive provider of public safety technical services, which has completed more than 325 public safety studies. CPSM’s mission was to help Parkland leaders understand how they might improve the safety and security of their residents and visitors in the future. We believe that much of what we learned in Parkland has lessons for other localities, particularly concerning the relationships between residents and the police before a serious event occurs. Our resulting report also suggests a course of action that local governments should consider when a tragedy affects their community. The entire study can be found on the CPSM website. CPSM was called in after the fact, but periodic assessments of all aspects of school/community safety can change outcomes in the face of a disaster like the one that befell Parkland. What to Ask in a Safety and Security Review
Here are seven questions for local government and public safety leaders to ask in a safety and security review. 1. How have the role and training of school resource officers (SROs) changed? Are your SROs prepared?
The first school resource officer (SRO) program in the United States began in the late 1950s with the goal of improving the relationship between the local police and youth. Officers were placed in schools on a full-time basis to serve as teachers and counselors. The National Association of School Resource Officers (NASRO), created in 1991, adopted the “triad” approach for law enforcement programs in the schools—the role of the school resource officer as that of a teacher, counselor, and law enforcement officer. However, the expectations for the position of SRO changed dramatically starting with the shooting at 30 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
Columbine High School in Colorado in 1999 and intensified as the number of school shootings continued to increase. Now the emphasis is on the SRO as a warrior, responsible for engaging, alone if necessary, armed invaders in schools. In fact, the SRO assigned to Marjorie Stoneman Douglas High School failed to respond to the shooting and remained outside the building. Several members of focus groups convened by CPSM during its study were quite vocal in their condemnation of the personal conduct of several members of the Broward County Sheriff’s Office (BSO) in connection with the February shootings. One individual stated, “At the time that we needed them most, there was an epic failure; it occurred before, during, and after the shootings.” Others suggested that what has been exposed was a lack of training and staffing at the schools. Numerous participants questioned the amount and quality of training provided to deputies and, in particular, SROs. Others described a significant “breach of trust” that occurred in the wake of the February shootings and suggested that this situation must be openly discussed and addressed before reestablishing trust with the community. One parent indicated, “My kids do not feel safe in the hands of the BSO [Broward County Sheriff ’s Office].” Another person stated, “BSO is a joke to teenagers.” Participants in the focus groups made it very clear that they were personally aware that “the SRO position is undesirable because the expectations are so high.” Nevertheless, they believed that every effort must be made to provide incentives for officers to take these positions.
the sheriff’s office both potentially missed opportunities to divert him. Localities should examine regularly what is being done in their school systems to identify problem students as early as possible. 3. Are the police staffed and organized properly to ensure regular interaction with the community? Police chiefs often lament that their
officers are too busy to effectively perform community-oriented policing activities. But has the department conducted a meaningful workload analysis to determine whether officers are deployed properly to ensure that they have available time for proactive functions when they are responding directly to calls for service? CPSM found that the workload and staffing for BSO deputies assigned to Parkland left ample time to perform such functions, but that it was not considered a priority for the agency. Figures 1 and 2 show the results of the analysis. 4. Are 911 calls routinely monitored and reviewed to ensure that response to high-priority calls is occurring as expeditiously as possible? Is there someone in the organization responsible for continuously
analyzing whether response times are occurring within acceptable limits as » Figure 1. Deployment and All Workload, Weekdays, Summer 2017 Added patrol
Figure 2. Percentage of Workload, Weekdays, Summer 2017
2. Does the municipality closely monitor activities, especially disciplinary actions, and identify troubled students in local schools? Some school systems have been
reluctant to take disciplinary action against students violating school policies and even the law. In Parkland, the commissions studying the events at the high school found that the individual who allegedly committed the shootings was identified numerous times as a potential danger; yet no action was taken. Thus, the schools and
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 31
ARE LOCAL GOVERNMENT STAFF MEMBERS TRAINED AND REGULARLY UPDATED ON THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE TO EMERGENCIES?
defined by the locality? And are response times analyzed using not just citywide average times, but also by zone or beat and seasonally? Are response times measured from time of receipt to actual arrival of responding units? This is particularly critical when 911 calls are directed to a call center and then transferred to the dispatching agency, as was the case in Parkland, with a resulting delay in response to the shooting incident. 5. Has there been a meaningful review of security in all public facilities in the community? Is it updated on a regular basis? Such a review should
include not only the obvious facilities such as city hall and courtrooms but also all public places where residents and visitors gather, including parks and libraries. Are city employees part of the security plan? Are they charged with closely monitoring and rapidly reporting suspicious activities of visitors to city facilities? Is there in place a way to monitor and identify who should be on specific properties? In Parkland, the recreation center is a very active facility for community activities for adults and children. However, we found that there was no way for recreation supervisors to readily identify who should be present there.
6. For police services (either contracted or internally provided), is there a clear, measurable set of performance standards? If performance standards
have been set, are they monitored on a regular basis and is there a resolution process for when those standards are not met? Do elected officials and city administrators regularly review performance, and is the achievement of these standards part of the evaluation of the police department and police chief? 32 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
7. Are local government staff members trained and regularly updated on the appropriate response to emergencies? In addition to quickly calling for 911
assistance, local government staff should know what actions they should be taking while awaiting the arrival of first responders. For example, are all employees familiar with the location of external automatic defibrillators? Do they have up-to-date training on how to use them and perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? Are Stop the Bleed kits located in local government facilities and are staff members trained to use them? The Need for Regular Review
The CPSM final report covers a very broad range of issues and this article has suggested just a few of the areas that an independent safety and security analysis should address. We know that by asking these and many other focused questions, in advance of an emergency, tragedies may be averted or at least minimalized. Hopefully, few communities will ever experience the trauma and loss that the residents of Parkland suffered. But local government leaders can better prepare their communities to prevent or mitigate the devastation of many events that endanger their residents by seeking assistance in reviewing public safety exposures on a regular basis. LEONARD MATARESE, ICMA-CM, IPMA-CP, is managing partner, Center for Public Safety Management (email@example.com). ENDNOTES AND RESOURCES
For a detailed report on these failures, go to http://projects.sun-sentinel. com/2018/sfl-parkland-school-shooting-critical-moments/. 1
Veterans Local Government Management Fellowship
Connecting Veterans to Local Government What is VLGMF? VLGMF is a 16 to 20-week Career Skills (Skillbridge) Program that will provide transitioning service members with management training and hands-on experience in the local government environment with the goal of preparing them for smooth transitions into local government careers. This program will match eligible and selected Fellows with surrounding local government sponsors based on the skills, education, experience, and the preferences of both parties.
Are there additional benefits? The International City/County Management Association (ICMA) along with its sponsor Engaging Local Government Leaders (ELGL) will provide a number of professional development, networking, coaching, and free professional membership opportunities that will enhance the future success of transitioning service members in local government.
Who is eligible? Service Members who: ➤
Are on active duty and within 180 days of transition (separation or retirement) from military service.
Hold a Bachelor’s Degree with 3+ years of leadership experience (or equivalent related experience) OR
Hold an Associate’s Degree with 5+ years of leadership experiences (or equivalent related experience) WITH the intent to complete their Bachelor’s Degree in the next 2-3 years.
Have a strong interest in serving in local government management.
Possess one or more of the following areas of experience that are relevant to local government management: international local government experience, public affairs, information operations and public relations, engineering, public works, utilities, human resources, public policy analysis, law enforcement, information technology, fire or EMS services, public finance, strategic management, parks and recreation, project or program management, economic development, and business or public administration.
Have the support of their commander (or equivalent) to participate.
What are the dates? ➤
Cohort 19-03: September 9 – December 20, 2019 (Deadline to Apply: August 16, 2019)
Cohort 20-01: January 6 – April 24, 2020 (Deadline to Apply: December 6, 2019)
Cohort 20-02: May 11 – August 24, 2020 (Deadline to Apply: April 19, 2020)
For more information, email the VLGMF Program Manager, Scott Robinson, at firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit icma.org/vlgmf
Key Considerations for Developing Local Commercial
Has your state voted to legalize cannabis for medical or recreational use? Here is a checklist to help communities develop their own policies. BY REBECCA DESANTIS
In this past mid-term election,
REBECCA DESANTIS is content and engagement coordinator, ICMA, Washington, D.C., (email@example.com).
cannabis was a hot button issue on many state and local ballots. Seven states1 voted on a total of 36 ballot measures, ranging from taxing medical cannabis to legalizing the use and possession of recreational commercial cannabis. This doesn’t include the large number of local cannabis initiatives that were on the ballot in many states. The results on election night show some movement in cannabis legalization, possibly reflecting the 64 percent of Americans2 who say marijuana should be made legal, according to a recent Gallup poll. Voters in two states, Missouri3 and Utah4, voted to legalize medical cannabis. Michigan5 became the first state in the Midwest to legalize cannabis for adult recreational use. Ohio6 and Wisconsin7 voters approved a number of local initiatives around decriminalization and cannabis reform. If recent history is a precedent, there is a chance that there may be more movement in cannabis legalization in the future. For now, though, in states that voted to change existing cannabis policy, local governments are facing decisions around cannabis regulation. This can be a challenging task without the right tools and resources. Based on its recent research report, Local Impacts of Commercial Cannabis,8 ICMA has developed a checklist for local government leaders who may be developing commercial cannabis regulations. This checklist includes key considerations that local governments can use to develop their own policies. The recommendations fall under four key considerations: • Assess the context for your decisions. • Facilitate leadership, coordination, and communication. • Plan for extensive community engagement. • Regularly monitor indicators and review your regulations.
34 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
Download the checklist from the ICMA website: http://bit.ly/cannabis-checklist. ENDNOTES AND RESOURCES
https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomangell/2018/10/03/voters-in-sevenstates-will-see-these-marijuana-questions-on-election-day/#3ba1b5ec17c5 2 https://news.gallup.com/poll/221018/record-high-support-legalizingmarijuana.aspx 3 https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomangell/2018/11/06/missouri-votesto-legalize-medical-marijuana/#5d1fb77b575c 4 http://www.governing.com/topics/health-human-services/ Utah-Will-Soon-Have-a-New-Medical-Marijuana-Law--But-Not-the-OneApproved-by-Voters.html 5 https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomangell/2018/11/07/marijuana-wonthe-midterm-elections/#d7ceeaa3a915 6 https://www.marijuanamoment.net/five-ohio-cities-decriminalizemarijuana/ 7 https://www.marijuanamoment.net/wisconsin-voters-widely-embracemarijuana-legalization-in-the-midterms/ 8 http://bit.ly/ICMA-Cannabis-Report 1
CHECKLIST FOR DEVELOPING LOCAL COMMERCIAL CANNABIS REGULATIONS Has your state voted to legalize cannabis for medical or recreational use? Below are key considerations for local governments when beginning to develop their own policies.
Assess the context for your decisions. ○ Understand what your state law allows local governments to regulate and note any key decision points. ○ Review local results on cannabis ballot measures for perspective on community opinion. ○ Talk with surrounding communities about your respective plans for regulating the industry.
Facilitate leadership, coordination, and communication. ○ With your governing body, identify and articulate your motivations for allowing regulated commercial cannabis activities. ○ Assemble a team of staff representing the wide array of government functions impacted by commercial cannabis activities.
Plan for extensive community engagement. ○ Even in communities thought to be pro-cannabis, anticipate uncertainty and fears about the issue. ○ Take time to meet with community members in various settings—formal and informal, in person and online. ○ Include cannabis industry representatives in your engagement. ○ Document your progress and consider posting on your website.
Regularly monitor indicators and review your regulations. ○ Consider sunset provisions or other incremental measures requiring future extension or updates to your policies. ○ Check in with key staff liaisons for updates on public safety and health statistics, code complaints, revenues collected, applications received, and other metrics.
Learn more about commercial cannabis and what local impacts could affect your community by downloading the report at icma.org/cannabis-report.
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 35
Did That Actually Happen? In a Bizarre Crisis, Emergency Planning Saves the Day
BY BRAD TOWNSEND, ICMA-CM
Personnel responsible for emergency situations should be fully trained. Municipal leaders have used the Emergency Operation Center (EOC) approach when interdepartmental response is required. Public safety departments have been trained in and used the Incident Command Center (ICC) method for many years. Personnel are coordinated by a designated leader from a temporary post on-site. A newer model is the National Incident Management System (NIMS) of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The NIMS protocol involves other departments as well and focuses on educating a variety of people. It guides stakeholders as they plan for and deal with different kinds of crises. You can enroll in on-site training at the Emergency Management Institute (EMI) in Maryland or learn online at its website (www.fema.gov). Modules are set up for elected officials, managers, administrative staff, public works personnel, and public safety officers. I highly recommend that staff periodically participate in tabletop and field drills as another way to prepare for that extraordinary day. That should help you and others step up and take action.
When your workday starts, it’s typically
similar to any other workday. You may have a list of tasks to complete. It’s probably long, and you’ll be interrupted too many times to actually finish the items before the day ends. No problem because, as Scarlett O’Hara said in Gone with the Wind, tomorrow is another day. But sooner or later, that typical day turns into a crisis management day. That’s when we must pitch the list, grab the emergency response plan, and focus on events at hand. Here is one unique and bizarre situation that made me ask, “Did that actually happen?” It was a day to be grateful for emergency planning. Into the Fray
BRAD TOWNSEND, ICMA-CM, is a career municipal manager and consultant (btownsend196@ gmail.com).
A career in municipal management is a great mix of the ordinary and the extraordinary. The extraordinary may involve an unexpected death, extreme weather, a major accident, a terrorist attack, or a hazmat spill. Local government personnel are almost always drawn into the fray. In fact, they may be first responders and initiate coordinated emergency operations to deal with an incident.
36 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
My day as public works director at the state capital in Springfield, Illinois, was near its end. But in the evening we were notified that multiple police and fire personnel had been called to a residential subdivision. We contacted a couple of public works crews and ordered them to the site. I arrived on the scene and witnessed an astounding sight. Homes had collapsed, with some leaning into each other. Streets had sunk and cracked. Water was spewing from mains. It looked like the aftermath of an earthquake, but there had been no quake. Firefighters set up an incident command post. Police officers and Sangamon County deputies secured the perimeter. Public works crews searched for valves and closed service lines. Engineers identified the problem as mine subsidence. Central and southern Illinois was a prominent coal mining region. We pulled up an old map illustrating the known tunnels and shafts that had been dug since the 1890s. It did not show any in this neighborhood, but the map was obviously incomplete. Underground water had eroded shafts and tunnels, and eventually they collapsed. Thankfully, no one was injured or killed.
Despite the unusual nature of the catastrophe, all city and county departments were prepared to approach it as an incident response: • The mayor declared an emergency. • Actions included securing the neighborhood, shutting down utilities, checking all homes, and evacuating residents. • Churches and human services agencies provided temporary relocation services. • Because public information was critical, spokespersons were assigned the job of talking with media, communicating with residents, and reporting to elected officials. Internal communications were ongoing. • Insurance company representatives were notified promptly and arrived on the scene to process claims quickly and professionally. Post-Crisis Takeaways
It was a blessing to be a small part of a collaboration of local government, faith-based institutions, civic agencies, utilities, and insurance companies in the wake of the catastrophe. Here’s what I learned: • You need to absorb what just happened, but shift gears to
assist and serve (and be ready to lose some sleep, too). • It’s impossible to overemphasize the value of emergency preparation and training. Even though the mine subsidence incident was one we did not anticipate, our preparation and training were highly transferable. • While training available at the time was sufficient for public safety responders, others had little-to-no emergency response training. I was among those with minimal education at the time. This incident occurred using ICC, but before NIMS. I enrolled years later in the online NIMS program. There is no doubt that training of other personnel would have improved coordination and timeliness of the response. We should take advantage of the years of evolution in emergency response preparation. • It’s critical to declare the emergency as soon as possible to legitimize governmental and insurance claims. • Use the emergency response plan to marshal relevant responders and coordinate their efforts. • When the immediate crisis is under control, be ready to get back to the more conventional responsibilities of your job, too. They will not wait because an emergency just happened.
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 37
New Members of ICMA! We would like to welcome the new ICMA members who have joined our association from May 2019 through June 2019. You are now able to take advantage of all your membership has to offer, including PM Magazine! Be sure to explore this and all your member benefits at icma.org/benefits!
Aldo Aguirre Intern/Fellow Parkton, NC
Bobby Joe Bates, Jr., MBA Professor Corona, CA
Patrick Joseph Brown Village Administrator Mahomet, IL
Sona Kalapura Coffee, MPP Environmental Programs Administrator Irvine, CA
Molly Ahearn Administrative Analyst Needham, MA
Sandy Baz, MBA Managing Director Wailuku, HI
Andrew A. Butterfield, BS, MA, MPA St. Pete Beach, FL
Thomas Anthony Coleman, PE City Manager Newark, DE
Krystle L. Alirez, MPA Senior Analyst â€“ Strategy, Planning and Analysis Golden, CO
Robert D. Behn Student Chapter Faculty Advisor Cambridge, MA
L. Philomen Allen, BS Student Bel Air, MD Chris Anderson, MPA Business Process Manager San Antonio, TX Edkesha Anderson Program Manager Augusta, GA Kim Claudette Anderson Senior Regional Planner Ripon, CA Sierra Kauanoeanuhea Hokunani Anderson Graduate Teaching Assistant Mill Creek, WA Caitlin Elizabeth Antos, MA Human Resources Analyst Redondo Beach, CA Christina Arcidy Management Analyst Shoreline, WA Kelley M. Atwood Student Richardson, TX Taben Azad Management Intern Wichita, KS
Justine Caggiano Human Resources Assistant Millbury, MA
Angela Benner Borough Manager Dublin, PA
Glenna Kathleen Campana, BS, CMP Business Services Manager, Building Department Bradenton, FL
Benjamin Joseph Birge Chief Administrative Officer Annapolis, MD
Christopher Cancel City Attorney Assistant Colorado Springs, CO
Tim Bolduc City Manager Crestview, FL
Jeffrey Capps, MS Deputy City Manager College Station, TX
Al Boling Assistant City Manager Ontario, CA
Joseph Ceballes Student Las Cruces, NM
Reggie Tyrone Bookhardt SFC/USA North Chesterfield, VA
Nicholas Cerra Student Fayetteville, NC
Elizabeth Borman, MPA, MUP, SPHR Assistant Human Resources Manager Urbana, IL
Dixiana Chavez, MPA Student Richardson, TX
Jared Bowling, MPA Information Center Manager West Jordan, UT
Suzanne Christman, CEcD Senior Manager, Business Development Clearwater, FL
Kris R. Boyd, MPA Development and Facilities Services Director Waynesville, NC
Luis A. Cibrian Director of Business Operations Colorado Springs, CO
Douglas Brinkley Assistant City Manager Sugar Land, TX
Michael K. Cleghorn City Manager Lawton, OK
Douglas Ballinger Woodbury, MN
Nikola Brooks, MA Business Manager Sunrise, FL
Jim Cleveland, MA Director of Parks, Recreation and Open Space Parker, CO
Bailey Barnett Management Intern Mission Hills, KS
Heath Howard Brown, PE Town Manager Thatcher, AZ
Logan M. Cobbs Assistant to the City Manager Springfield, OH
Danny M. Barton Chief of Police Coppell, TX
Matt Brown, MBA Finance Director Saint Helens, OR
Mark Cochran Assistant to the City Manager/ Economic Development Director Monroe, MI
38 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
Brian Collins, PhD Denton, TX Timothy Coon, MPA City Manager Meriden, CT Drew Corbett, MBA City Manager San Mateo, CA Ana M. Cortez, MPA City Manager Helena, MT Erika N. Cortez Deputy City Manager Imperial Beach, CA SeLena Jeannette Christine Cosma Student Addison, TX Charles Cox, CGFO, MBA City Manager Farmers Branch, TX Samuel Crawford, MPA City Clerk/Assistant to the City Manager Blaine, WA Sarah Crick Milligan, MPA City Management Fellow Wichita, KS Heather Nicole Croney Apopka, FL Julie Joanne Crookston Student Pflugerville, TX Bryan Scott Cummings, PE Director of Public Works Auburn, AL Joshua Shane Curtis VLGMF Colorado Springs, CO Eric M. Dahl County Administrator Palmyra, VA
John D. Dale, MS Fort Lauderdale, FL Drake David Dargon, JD, MPA CPT Mililani, HI Kiearha Davidson, IPMA-CP, PHR, SHRM-CP Human Resource Manager Macomb, MI Andrew J. Davis Student Seminole, FL Michael Delk, AICP Interim Assistant City Manager Clearwater, FL Elizabeth Dennehy, MPA Town Administrator Plympton, MA Richard Edmund Derr, CPM City Manager Oak Ridge North, TX Tammi Lynn Dillavou City Administrator Mitchellville, IA Kourtney Nicole Dinkins Student Orlando, FL David Martin Dittrick Assistant County Manager Edmonton, AB Erin Donnelly Student Norwood, MA Dawn Donovan Town Comptroller Eastchester, NY Kathleen Donovan, CFM Director of Community Development Chatham, MA Margaret Douglas, MPA Teaching Assistant, Sociology Department Seattle, WA Michael John Dudte, MPA City Administrator Chapman, KS George Mitchell Dyke Policy Analyst Suwanee, GA Mark Dykstra Commissioner, Community Services Waterloo, ON Franklin Graham Edrich Local Government Management Fellow West Hartford, CT Scott Eisenhauer Village Administrator Rantoul, IL Philip R. Elswick, PE City Manager Pikeville, KY Michael Esposito, Jr., MPA Special Projects Coordinator Bunnell, FL
Mark Ethun Building Official Decatur, GA
James D. Gaston, III, MPA Village Manager Washington, DC
Jodie Hartman, CPA Director of Finance Lake Zurich, IL
Courtney Fagan, ARM Strategy and Member Engagement Manager Denver, CO
Michael Gawlick, MPA Cookingham-Noll Management Fellow Kansas City, MO
Michael R. Hattery, PhD Henrietta, NY
Keith Paul Farrell Local Government Management Fellow Fort Lauderdale, FL Kris Farro, MPA Recreation Manager Brentwood, CA Todd Feezer Assistant City Manager Laramie, WY Deborah Lee Feng, ICMA-CM City Manager Cupertino, CA Gina Nora Fiandaca Assistant City Manager Austin, TX Kyle Fiedler, MPA Management Intern Wichita, KS Howard Fink, MS Township Manager Holland, MI Pete Fisher, Jr., MA Police Chief Fife, WA Lindsey Marie Freeland, MPP Management Analyst Atherton, CA Gregory Fried Captain Fredericksburg, VA Sascha Friedrich Student Evergreen Pk, IL Ken Frink, PE City Manager Crystal River, FL Cristine Gaiennie, MPA Revenue Manager Carson, CA Janelle Galbraith Management Assistant to the City Manager Redding, CA Susen Kumar Reddy Gali Assistant Director of Public Works – Engineering Coppell, TX Jessica Galleshaw, MS Director Dallas, TX Victor Brizuela Garcia Student Arcadia, CA Yesenia Garza Human Resources Director Seabrook, TX
Dustin Paul Geraci Student Hopkinsville, KY Tonya Gilmore Assistant to the City Administrator Oakland, CA Melissa Godby, BS, MPA Student Murray, KY Lucas Goff County Administrator Winfield, KS James Patrick Goffe, BS, CGFM, CPA, JD Finance Director University Heights, OH Jennifer Gonzalez, Esq. Treasurer/Collector Watertown, MA Luis Angel Gonzalez, MPA Candidate Administrative Intern Santa Clarita, CA Renee Gordon, MBA Director Emergency Communications Alexandria, VA Keith Gorka City Manager Fellow Santa Rosa, CA Greg Graffman, BS, JD, M.Ed. City Manager Kingman, KS Elizabeth M. Grant Army Community Service Specialist Williamsburg, VA Brian T. Graziano Town Administrator Burlington, WI Joshua Michael Green, CPRP General Manager Elk Grove, CA Thomas Guevara Chief of Staff Bexar, TX Spencer B. Gurley-Green Somerville, MA Madison Hagenau, MPA Candidate Minnesota Cities Fellow Minneapolis, MN Søren Bonde Hansen City Manager Guldborg, Denmark Armen Harkalyan, ICMA-CM Executive Director of Finance Ontario, CA D.J. Harrell Assistant Director Fort Worth, TX
Robert S. Hauck City Manager Tomball, TX Test E Hayden The Best Clerk State College, PA Bryan T. Healy, MPA Secretary to the Village Manager Croton-on-Hudson, NY Tamara C Heideman, MPA Candidate Gilbert, AZ Michael Hein, MPA City Manager Groveland, FL Kiley Breann Heine, MPA County Manger’s Office Intern Lawrence, KS Joel Leigh Hensley, MPA Owner Mechanicsville, VA Julie J. High Assistant City Manager Goodlettsville, TN Amber Hinton City Clerk Picayune, MS Michelle Hirose, PE Senior Engineer Decatur, GA Matthew Hirschinger, MPA Assistant to the Town Manager Hudson, CO Dawn T. Holm, BA Director of Finance Sacramento, CA Chris Holsted, PE City Manager Wylie, TX Lisa Howe Administrative Analyst San Luis Obispo, CA Silvia Huffman, CMC City Clerk/Park and Recreation Director Fountain, CO Rob A. Hunt City Manager Tulare, CA Ivana Huq Miami, FL Peter Iglesias, PE City Manager Coral Gables, FL Mark Jacobs Mayor Pro Tem Garden City, MI Dustin Edward Johnson, MPA Candidate Grand Forks, ND continued »
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 39
Andrew T. Jones, MPA Student Bryn Mawr, PA Boniswa Joseph Student Wesley Chapel, FL Kristin Kassner Kassner, AICP Planning Director Bulrington, MA Christine Ann Keefer, MPA Director, Government and Community Services Blythewood, SC Hon. Joshua Steele Kelly, MPA Management Analyst Windsor, CT Winston Kelly Student Seattle, WA Nelson E. Kemper, BS Reno, NV Kelly Kerwin Council Woman Garden City, MI Deron King, MPA Deputy City Manager East Point, Georgia, GA Nolan Kirkman, PE Assistant City Manager Burlington, NC Jacqui Kitchen Assistant City Manager Bakersfield, CA Lee Krohn, AICP Town Manager Shelburne, VT
Wesley Gordon Lile, JD Charleston, ME Jessica Lobedan, MPP Management Analyst Hayward, CA James I. Luke, Jr. City Manager Picayune, MS Jaylee Lynch Councilwoman Garden City, MI David N. MacGillivray Chairman Saint Paul, MN Ovie Stanley Magbegor, BA Tulsa, OK Jeremy Marsette, MBA, PE Director of Public Works Natick, MA Craig Marshman, BA Management Intern Altoona, IA John Martini Assistant City Manager Sparks, NV Mike Mashburn Director Farmers Branch, TX Cody Mayer Management Intern Gladstone, MI Alexandria H. McBride, MS Chief Resilience Officer Oakland, CA
Yng Torng Kuo Taipei City, TPE
David McCorkle, BA, MPA Assistant to the City Manager and Economic Development Manager Worthington, OH
Marguerite Ladd, BA, MA Town Administrator Underhill, VT
Tony McDonald Deputy Administrator Augusta, GA
Jacob LaFontaine Milford, NH
James McGuire Director, Office of Environmental Quality Dallas, TX
Colleen J. Landisch-Hansen Village Administrator Thiensville, WI Erin Leckey City Manager Lake Quivira, KS Russell Leeds Assistant County Manager Wichita, KS Colleen Lettire, BA Communications Specialist Half Moon Bay, CA Melissa Lewis Clerk/Treasurer Bowling Green, VA Tammy Liddle Lobban, BA Senior Management and Budget Analyst Tacoma, WA
Steven McHarris, AICP Interim City Manager/ Deputy City Manager Milpitas, CA Patti K. McLauchlin IT Director Key West, FL Allen Scott McNeill Budget and Management Analyst Arden, NC Thomas J. McQuaid, AICPA, BS, CFO, CMA, CPA, MBA, MS Director of Finance and Accounting Sagamore Beach, MA Roger H. McVeigh Key West, FL Marc Meyers Assistant City Manager Bath, ME
40 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | AUGUST 2019
Glenn Michalowski, MPA Assistant Township Administrator Maplewood Township, NJ
Michelle Orton, BA, CFM Senior Planner Lakeland, FL
Randall P. Miller, BA Borough Manager Orwigsburg, PA
Theresa Osenbaugh, MSW Assistant City Administrator Grain Valley, MO
Tyson K. Miyake, BS Deputy Managing Director Kahului, HI
Kathleen Patricia Osher Manager of Innovation and Performance Excellence Littleton, CO
Bo Moddelmog, MPA Assistant City Administrator McPherson, KS Abigail Monrroy, MPA Community and Economic Development Intern Kings, IL Estrelitta L Moore Chief Deputy to the Mayor Charlotte, TN Kyle Martin Mudry, BS Communications and Grants Coordinator Indiana, PA Mason Edmund Mueller Student Acworth, GA Jesse Muniz, MBA Chief Procurement Officer Albuquerque, NM Shauna Musselman Assistant County Administrator Peoria, IL Maryam Nabizadeh San Diego, CA Nina Nazarian, MCPPO, MPA Town Administrator Littleton, MA Lucy S. Nelson, MBA Mayor Kotzebue, AK Aaron Norton, MPA Management Intern Wichita, KS Kathy Nyland Assistant City Manager Tigard, OR Landon Oâ€™Neal, MPA ICMA Local Government Management Fellow Smyrna, GA David Olson Assistant City Manager Temple, TX Jose Ometeotl City Manager Lynwood, CA Amanda Opitz Assistant to the City Manager Helena, MT Nana Konadu Opoku-Agyemang, MPA Candidate Student Smyrna, GA
Sarah Anne Oslund, MA Communications and Engagement Coordinator Rochester, MN Perez Otonde, BA Student Centreville, VA Jose Ramon Oyola-Cosme Automotive Maintenance Warrant Officer (915A) Fountain, CO Zachary Thomas Parker, MPA Student Shelby, NC Ed Hoyt Parvin Assistant Town Manager Carolina Beach, NC Julius David Peel, BA Student Stark, NH Rachelle Pegg Administrative Supervisor Santa Barbara, CA Walter Henry Pierce, III, CFO Director of Finance Madeira Beach, FL Katie Plutz Aurora, IL Libby D. Popovic, JD, MPA Attorney Tinley Park, IL Daniel Tyler Prentice Deputy County Administrator St. George, SC Jennifer Leigh Prochazka Director of Planning and Development Services College Station, TX Gregory Pronovost Director of Technology Services Bakersfield, CA James Pruetting, Jr., MSM City Administrator Gardner, KS Spencer Quain, MPA Management Analyst North Salt Lake, UT Jesse Allen Ramirez, MPA Candidate Student Los Angeles, CA
Sharmili Reddy, AICP City Administrator Fort Mitchell, KY
Dylan Shaver Director of Policy and Strategy Reno, NV
Tori Straw Treasurer/Assistant Administrator Larsen, WI
Jennifer Schick Walkawicz Garrison Commander Fort Eustis, VA
Katie Regan, BS Program Manager III Stockton, CA
Justin Shea Cultural Facilities Events Supervisor Gulfport, FL
Diane Strickfaden Director of Human Resources Redondo Beach, CA
Randy Walker Mayor Garden City, MI
Khalid Resheidat, PE Interim City Manager New Smyrna Beach, FL
Patrick Denis Shield Assistant Town Administrator Walpole, MA
Cassandra Anne Tabor, MPA Director of Administration New Hope, MN
Fallon Wall, MPA Candidate Student San Antonio, TX
Laura Reveles, MPA Assitant to the City Manager West Des Moines, IA
Jason Shroyer, PE Director of Public Works Little Elm, TX
Doris Tang Management Analyst Hayward, CA
Latasha Denise Ware, MPA Local Government Management Fellow Tacoma, WA
Catherine Ricardo, MPA Township Manager Gradyville, PA
Ronald K. Sigman, CEM Emergency Manager Thornton, CO
Joshua Thomas Tanghe, BS Shelby Township, MI
Korena L. Weichel City Manager Creedmoor, NC
Tarron J. Richardson, PhD City Manager Charlottesville, VA
LaQuintta Simon Fair Housing Services Administrator Garland, TX
Guadalupe Rios, Jr., MBA Program Administrator Dallas, TX
Amrinder Singh Code Enforcement Manager and Building Code Official Norristown, PA
Tracy Roblero Assistant City Manager Montgomery, OH Frederick W. Rogers, MPA Torrington, CT Kiana D. Romeo, MBA Operations Program Manager Riverview, FL Sheila N. Rose, AICP Assistant City Manager Coconut Creek, FL Megan Ross, PE Utilities Director Largo, FL Reagan Chase Rothenberger, MPA Planner Garland, TX Jamye Salazar, BS Town Manager Onley, VA Josue Salmeron, MBA Village Manager Yellow Springs, OH Eduardo Santamaria Assistant City Manager Coral Gables, FL Derrick Sawyer, EFO, MS Fire Director Philadelphia, PA Julianne Schiliro Wellington, FL Jacob Schrader, MPA Student Niceville, FL Madeline L. Sefcik Clerk Rocky Mount, VA Kevin Shaughnessy Assistant Superintendent Norwood, MA
Brandon M. Skopek, MPA Director of Authorities Auburn Hills, MI Bradley K. Slone, PE Deputy City Manager of Operations/ City Engineer Pikeville, KY James S. Smith Student Brooklyn, NY Hon. Jason Smith Student Jackson, MI Sharetta Smith Chief of Staff Lima, OH Michael Snowden, MPA City Administrator Oâ€™Fallon, MT Andrew Spence, MPA Candidate Community Engagement Program Director Stafford, VA Shelly Stanwyck Parks and Recreation Director San Luis Obispo, CA Emily Stednick HR Manager Sequim, WA Kitty Steffens, MPA Analyst Kansas City, MO Dr. Raquishela Stewart CharMeck 311 Division Manager Charlotte, NC Richard Blake Stone, MPA City Manager Abbeville, SC Karla Stovall, CGFO, CPM Chief Financial Officer Little Elm, TX
Stephen Tanner, MPA Candidate Assistant to City Manager Plano, TX Michael Taylor Director of Personnel Pittsfield, MA
Layla Werner Administrative Intern Lake Forest, IL
Bobby Tech, BA Student Lawrence, KS
Neva Leigh White, MLIS Chief Strategy Officer Virginia Beach, VA
John R. Thompson Strategic Planner Oxon Hill, MD
Chrissi Wiersma, CMC, CMFO, CMP, MPA City Clerk/Zoning Administrator Hudson, IA
Zack Thorington City Administrator Powell, WY
Calli Wilsey Senior Management Analyst Reno, NV
Douglas R. Thornley Assistant City Manager Sparks, NV Tim Tingey, CEO City Manager Cottonwood Heights, UT Darren Andrew Traylor Rivera Colrado Springs, CO Kim Marie Turner City Manager Universal City, TX Daniel Van Holland, MPA Candidate Intern Vermillion, SD Devin S. VanDerzee Student Trumansburg, NY Russell Varnado, PMP Special Projects Manager Junction City, KS Kilipaki Vaughan, JD, MBA Deputy Fire Chief Lihue, HI Christi L. Velasquez Administrative Analyst II Santa Barbara, CA Greg Veliz City Manager Key West, FL Charles View Assistant City Manager San Juan Capistrano, CA
Mika Kie Weissbuch Student Berkeley, CA
Fiona Wilson Administrative Services Officer Eureka, CA Lynne Ann Wilson Resource Services Supervisor Castle Rock, CO Josephine Wood, MPA City Administrator Isanti, MN Arnelle Woods, MPPA Executive Assistant to the Assistant City Manager and Chief Resilience Officer Cedar Hill, TX Charles Andrew Young, MPA Purchasing Agent/Financial Analyst Boston, MA Weston Young Deputy Director of Administration Salisbury, MD David Yu IT Infrastructure Manager Fremont, CA Johnny William Ziem Assistant Public Works Director Jackson, WY Monique le Conge Ziesenhenne, MLIS, PhD Assistant City Manager and Library Director Palo Alto, CA
AUGUST 2019 | PUBLIC MANAGEMENT | 41
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WORKFORCE 2030 SUMMIT: Planning for the Next Generation of State and Local Government Employees The Center for State and Local Government Excellence (SLGE), the National League of Cities (NLC) and ICMA Retirement Corporation (ICMA-RC) will be hosting a reception on September 26, and a full day summit on September 27, 2019, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida that will center around the theme of planning for the public sector workforce of the future.
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– Human resource professionals
• Shaping the future workforce through recruitment and development
– Union representatives
• Responding to generational differences and demographic shifts
– Members of the academic and
• Identifying public sector positions showing the greatest growth, position types being reduced or eliminated, positions most difficult to fill • Examining the role of technological advancements on the changing workforce • Adapting education systems and technical training to meet anticipated needs
research communities • Summit Welcoming Reception, September 26, 2019, 5:00pm An opportunity to chat with Summit speakers and attendees
• Prioritizing equity and inclusion
Health and Wellness Benefits • Addressing the issue of work-life balance (e.g., family leave, elder care and other needs through different life stages) • Innovating around schedule flexibility, succession planning and advancement opportunities • Fostering a healthier workforce in a cost-effective manner
THE SUMMIT IS COMPLIMENTARY, BUT SEATING IS LIMITED, SO REGISTER TODAY TO GUARANTEE YOUR SPOT. VISIT:
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