True Italian Taste 2020 - Pizza Guidebook (English Edition)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS THE HISTORY OF PIZZA .......................................................


THE MAKING OF PIZZA ........................................................


PIZZA IN THE WORLD .........................................................


“POP” PIZZA ............................................................................




LABELS .......................................................................................


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA THE HISTORY OF PIZZA The year is 1889. On a day of June, the city of Napoli welcomes the King Umberto I and his wife, Margherita. The Queen was hungry, thus she called the best pizzaiolo in town to prepare something for the royal couple. Raffaele Esposito, the best pizzamaker in the whole Peninsula, knew how to satisfy his queen. On a flat disc of bread he decided to recreate the Italian flag, symbol of the country. Basil for Green, Mozzarella for White and tomatoes for Red. However, it was not only the look that made quite the impression. The meal prepared by Esposito tasted so delicious that the Queen decided to publicly promote and celebrate the pizzaiolo and its delicious Pizza. In return of her appreciation, Esposi- Fishermen Returning Near Naples, Ivan Aivazovsky, 1874 to nominated the new dish he just made Pizza Margherita, after all Italians’ Queen. History was made. This historical event cemented the legacy of Pizza in Italy, making the meal popular among both the plebe and the royals. Nonetheless, the 1889 event has not to be confused with the invention of pizza! While the very first pizzeria dates back to 1738 in the Port’Alba neighborhood of Napoli, the creation of pizza can be located way back in time! In fact, one could say that the plate we now call Pizza is indeed the synthesis of Italian history. How is that so? It was with the Romans that bread started to be smashed in a circular form. At the time this proto-pizza was just a disc of flour mixed with salt, water and seasonings. Centuries pass and Olive Oil makes its way on the disc, alongside sliced Cheese. Instead of random seasonings, Basil becomes the privileged choice. We are now around the XVI century and the term Pizza is commonly used among the Italian population. In 1492 the Italian Christopher Colombus makes his way to the New World, bringing back to Italy tomatoes for the first time. The sauce made from the fruit turned out to be what the Pizza was lacking, and with the further addition of Mozzarella in the ‘800s, Pizza as we know it was finally born. Following the same history of Pasta, Pizza came to the Americas together with Italians who were moving from the Peninsula in the XIV century. There, this tasty disc’s popularity grew crazy! The first official pizzeria in the US appeared in New York City and from there it reached the West Coast and the rest of the world! There is almost no place on the globe where you won’t be able to find a Pizza! Traveling from a country to another, the Italian Pizza blended with the local cultures it encountered, creating new ways of enjoying this dish. From Pepperoni Pizza in the US to Bánh Tráng Nướng in Vietnam. Be aware of Basil, Mozzarella and Tomatoes. The Italian flag of food


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA THE HISTORY OF PIZZA counterfeits though! Italians are so proud of their authentic food that the Neapolitan Pizza gained in 2009 an STG certification to certify its quality. This certification proves that the pizza you are eating is made in the traditional way with certified Italian ingredients, such as Olive Oil, Mozzarella and so on. Another important recognition came from UNESCO in 2017, when the Art of Neapolitan “Pizzaiuoli� became inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The ultimate recognition for a meal that is indeed a culinary heritage for the whole world.

Little Italy in New York


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA THE MAKING OF PIZZA The Italian pizza, its essential aroma and flavor is known and appreciated both in Italy and abroad. Pizza can have different doughs, toppings and shapes, but what is the real original recipe? In 1984 Antonio Pace and Lello Surace united the most important and renowned pizza makers of the time; they wanted to draw up the rules to recognize a True Neapolitan Pizza and differentiate it from the many other existing varieties, thus giving it maximum dignity and gratitude. Neapolitan pizza has some aesthetic requirements to be considered as such. It is rounded, with a diameter that must not exceed 35cm, and has a raised edge (the famous “cornicione”). Additionally, it must be soft and fragrant. The ingredients are very important too. The philosophy here is “keep it simple”: water, salt, yeast and flour are the only ingredients you need to prepare the pizza dough. For what concerns the topping, according to tradition, the products used should be of Campania origin. Fresh tomatoes, mozzarella di bufala, fresh basil, and olive oil; are found in recipes that have been handed down through generations. Baking must take place strictly inside a wood-fired oven. The baking temperature of the pizza in a wood oven is crucial for a tasty and crunchy final product. A wood-burning oven can reach very high temperatures and the dough immediately forms a crunchy crust on the edges and on the base. Additionally, the burning wood releases multiple aromas, giving the pizza a whole different flavor. However, over the years, pizza doughs have undergone an evolution aimed at differentiating the use of raw materials. Amongst the variants, the one made up with wholemeal flours has now become a classic for pizza processing. This kind of dough has many nutritional benefits, as the one made with kamut flour. Perhaps what constitutes the most alternative and innovative dough in the panorama of pizza doughs is the one made by adding vegetable charcoal. This dough is characterized by a very dark, color and is known for its high digestibility: in fact, vegetable carbon promotes the absorption of gases, and therefore the body’s natural digestive processes. 06

THE HISTORY OF PIZZA THE MAKING OF PIZZA The variety of pizza, however, does not only concern the different types of dough, but also the toppings. What are the pizzas that are never missing on an Italian menu? The pizza Margherita is probably the most famous pizza that exists and in the world it is considered the true symbol that represents Italy. The toppings for Margherita pizza are simple and very fresh: tomato sauce, Italian olive oil, fresh basil and mozzarella. The pizza Quattro Formaggi is one of the types of pizza that do not involve the use of tomato sauce. The main cheeses for the Quattro Formaggi are mozzarella, gorgonzola, parmesan and fontina or gruyere. Pizza Capricciosa is made up of mozzarella, tomato sauce, olive oil, cooked ham, mushrooms, artichokes and black olives. Pizza alla pala is another type of Italian pizza that can have a different connotation depending on where you order it. Invented in Rome, this long, oval-shaped pizza is served on a wooden “shovel”, hence the name. Another kind of pizza invented in Rome is the Roman Round Pizza, often called “Scrocchiarella” because of its crunchiness The pizza Quattro Stagioni, another great classic, allows you to taste four slices of pizza with different toppings. Each wedge represents a different season, but the base for all is made up of tomato sauce and mozzarella. Spring is represented by the artichokes, autumn by the mushrooms, summer by tomatoes and basil, and winter by cooked ham and black olives. Then we have the sliced pizza, which is characterized by a very long leavening process and a very moist dough. It is rolled out in large rectangular pans, then baked. The result is a soft and light pizza, about 1 cm high and very different from classic pizzas such as the Neapolitan one. The most famous Sicilian pizza is the Sfincione. The recipe was originally imported through Sicilian immigrants who went to the United States in search of work and today it is very popular. The Sfincione resembles pizza by the 07

THE HISTORY OF PIZZA THE MAKING OF PIZZA slice: it is a soft and rather thick pizza, generally served in square slices. Its traditional toppings are tomato sauce, onions, anchovies, herbs and a cheese with a strong flavor like caciocavallo. Sicily offers other kinds of pizzas, like the “Pizzòlu” of Siracusa, a round pizza filled with raw ham, cheese, rocket or other fresh ingredients. In Catania the pizzerias serve the Schiacciata: a layer of pizza dough, a layer of cheese and anchovies (or potatoes, sausages and broccoli), and tomato sauce. Then the pizza is covered with another layer of dough and brushed with beaten egg. Pizza Fritta is often used as a “quick lunch” or as “street food”. It is huge and also cheap, especially if purchased on the street. The dough is the same as that used for Neapolitan pizza, but with a rather substantial filling. The traditional filling for fried pizza is ricotta, cicoli and a sprinkling of pepper. However, it is also filled with fiordilatte and tomato sauce, or with fresh ricotta and salami. Once the filling has been added, the pizza is closed in a crescent shape and then fried in boiling oil for a few minutes. The Calzone is very similar to fried pizza, but it is cooked in a wood oven. The Neapolitan version of Calzone has in fact the same crescent shape as the fried pizza, but the pizza maker adds some tomato sauce and fresh basil before cooking it in the oven.


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA PIZZA IN THE WORLD As mentioned earlier, Pizza made its first appearance outside Italy in the United States with the arrival of Italian immigrants in the late 19th century. This phenomenon was born in cities with large Italian populations, such as San Francisco, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia where pizza was initially sold on the streets of Italian neighborhoods. In the late 19th century in Chicago, for example, pizza was introduced by a street vendor who walked up and down Taylor Street with a bucket of pizzas on his head. This was the traditional way in which pizza was sold in Naples, in copper cylinders with handles on the sides and a lid on top to keep the pizzas warm. It wasn’t long before small cafes and grocery stores started offering pizzas to their Italian American communities. The emigrant Neapolitans have made pizza known and appreciated in the world and by now many chefs of many different nationalities have become expert pizza makers: there is actually a world championship for specialized pizza makers. In 1897 Gennaro Lombardi, a Naples baker, opened a grocery store on Spring Street in Manhattan. From his charcoal oven, he began selling tomato pies wrapped in paper and tied with rope The first pizzeria in the USA, Lombardi’s to local workers. In 1905, Lombardi was granted the first license in the United States to open a pizzeria. It was not only a popular trattoria, but also a resource for the “Little Italy” community. “The Italians met there and shared local news and chat; Gennaro also helped other Italian immigrants find a job when they arrived”. There are different types of pizza, even in Italy depending on the area in which you are located you can find pizzas made in different ways, from fried pizza in Naples to “pizza al tegamino” in Turin. This means that if in Italy, the cradle of pizza, Famous Italian actress Sofia Loren eating pizza there are so many ways to prepare it, in 09

THE HISTORY OF PIZZA PIZZA IN THE WORLD the rest of the world there will be as many that are continuously able to surprise all the most curious. In New York we can find the famous “New York pizza”. The New York pizza is thin enough to be folded but not too much, because it has to withstand the tomato sauce seasoned with garlic and oregano and grated mozzarella while you eat it while walking. It is sold in large triangular slices, and is the perfect food to fill your stomach on the way home. Then there is the Hawaiian pizza created in 1962 by the Canadian Sam Panopoulos who added pineapple and ham on a pizza Margherita. Crocodile Australian Pizza. Even the Southern hemisphere is clamoring for its version of the very Italian pizza. They say, however, that in those parts the salami or sausage are little used, better garnish it with crocodile meat, then. If you don’t like the genre, you can always try the one with kangaroo! Herring pizza in Russia, pizza takes on a local connotation with the addition of herring and salmon, all on a 4-5 cm high dough. Hawaiian Pizza. Do not try to eat this in front of an Italian! While the latter may sound unfamiliar with you, we are sure that you are going to recognize the next one! Vietnamese Pizza (known as Bánh Tráng Nướng) is essentially grilled rice paper used as a pizza base. This super popular Vietnamese street food snack is easily cooked at home with any toppings you have on hand. Despite the infinite variety of pizza that we can find all over the world, the only and original remains the Italian one that has accompanied our life for centuries and to which we must always remain faithful.


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA “POP” PIZZA Pizza is nowadays one of the most popular and appreciated dishes worldwide. Imported to the US by Italian immigrants in the 1950’s, its popularity spread rapidly to all continents and soon it became a part of each country’s culinary fabric, thanks to its versatility and condiments variety that easily adapt to local ingredients. In the last fifty years pizza took such a relevant role in everyone’s culinary habits that it became one of the fundamental elements of pop culture worldwide, from contemporary art and movies to fashion and social media. Pizza in Pop Culture Pizza has an interesting place in pop culture, holding a prominent spot in movies and tv shows, since it represents the perfect definition of comfort food in every age and situation. It starts making appearances in the 1980’s in mainstream media like animated shows (remember Michelangelo’s weird topping combinations in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles?) and major movie productions; iconic scenes like Tony Manero’s double stacked pizza in Saturday Night Fever, Star Wars parody monster Pizza The Hut in Spaceballs or Kevin McCallister eating pizza in a limo in Home Alone 2 will forever hold a special place in the public’s heart. In the animation world, Matt Groening makes various references to pizza in all of his creations: Fry, from Futurama, is a pizza delivery guy before travelling to the future and Homer Simpson is shown munching on a slice of pizza multiple times throughout the series, and once even a few minutes after being born. In more recent times, Disney Pixar decided to take on a graphic design challenge in

Macaulay Culkin as Kevin McCallister iAn Home Alone 2, 1990

John Travolta as Tony Manero in Saturday Night Fever, 1977

the making of the best-selling animated movie Inside Out and modified the toppings on the pizza slices depending on the taste habits of different countries where the movies would be distributed (in Europe the most disgusting pizza is represented by broccoli pizza, while in Japan it’s green peppers pizza). Scene from The Simpsons, by Matt Groening


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA “POP� PIZZA Pizza is also heavily featured in tv series, both in light-hearted comedies and dramas. From Friends to The Office US or Breaking Bad, pizza accompanies the protagonists in their journey through everyday life, appearing in the background or with dedicated special episodes. Pizza is also an evergreen presence in video games: you can order take out in The Sims series, Nuclear Throne dedicated an entire secret level to pizza as an homage to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, the same pizza chain appears throughout many of the GTA games and Mario Party 9 features a mini game revolving around pizza. Even the characters from Silent Hill 2 find some time to have a slice of pizza, despite living in a city teeming with monsters!

Matthew Perry, David Schwimmer and Matt LeBlanc in Friends, 1995

Bryan Cranston as Walter White in Breaking Bad, 2008

Scene from a GTA game


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA “POP” PIZZA Pizza and Art Given its late diffusion on the international scene, pizza is not as present in classical art as other kinds of food, like meat or desserts. It is however a popular subject and, why not, also an amazing matter for contemporary art. Philadelphia based illustrator Hawk Krall decided to celebrate the city’s love for pizza by painting a huge mural depicting celebrities from the city eating pizzas, including Bill Cosby and The Fresh Prince of Bel Air. Brooklyn artist Sheryo did something similar “Pizzadelphia” mural by Hawk Krall, Philadelphia in New York, where he included a pizza mural in his Food Murals series. Japanese graphic designer Yusuke Fuji created a new writing font by organizing eight slices of pizza around the basic shape of a circle. One of the most extravagant art projects involving pizza surely is Jonpaul Douglass’s Pizza in the Wild series; in 2013 the American photographer started running around LA and taking pictures of pizzas that he positions in random places all over the city. Swedish artist Thomas Lund, on the other hand, went even further and created the Paint Your Pizza website, where anyone could create a painting that would later be reproduced on a pizza using various ingredients and delivered to the client’s house. In the past twenty years pizza has even made its debut on fashion “Mail”, Pizza in the Wild series by Jonpaul Douglass, Los Angeles runways. Worldwide known designers included pizza in their designs, simply as a pattern or as the absolute protagonist on the catwalk. Surely no one will soon forget iconic pieces such as Jeremy Scott’s Pizza Silk Robe for the Food Fight Collection by Moschino or Beyonce’s piz- Pizza Silk Robe, Jeremy Scott for Moschino za patterned t-shirt and pants outfit designed by Kiko Mizuhara X The Opening Ceremony.

Chiara and Valentina Ferragni


Pizza and Social Media Food bloggers, influencers, Instagram celebrities - in the era of shared graphic content, no one can resist a good photo, and what’s better-looking than pizza? The hashtag #pizza has almost 50 million posts and a huge number of dedicated profiles on Instagram. There is a community of food influencers producing content specif-

THE HISTORY OF PIZZA “POP” PIZZA ically revolving around pizza; one among the others is Italian master pizzaiolo Ian Spampatti, that posts dough making and cooking tips on his Instagram profile (29.5k followers) and Youtube channel (44k followers). Pizza has also been the center of a few viral phenomena during the years; worth mentioning are Italian chef Domenico Corolla, whose portraits of celebrities “painted” on pizza with tomato sauce went viral after being posted on Facebook, and Chiara Ferragni - worldwide known businesswoman, influencer and model - who gave life at the “self-regenerating pizza” joke after posting a picture of herself eating a slice of pizza from a non-cut, full pizza.

HOW EXACTLY BIF IS PIZZA IN THE WORLD? The data collected by the Centro Studi Cna (National Confederation of crafts and small and medium-sized enterprises) on data from Infocamere and Infoimprese, claim that in Italy about 8 million pizzas are produced per day, for a business that has reached the value of 15 billion euros. There are almost 127 thousand companies selling pizza, of which 76,357 are real catering establishments, 40 thousand are restaurant-pizzerias and about 36,300 bar-pizzerias. The pizza chefs employed in the activity are almost 105 thousand, but they double on weekends. The pizza market in the world is well developed on every continent, especially in Western Europe which records a value of 59 billion US dollars, immediately followed by the USA with 53.8 billion US dollars. As for the third area with the largest income from the pizza market, it is represented by Latin America which has a market of 15.5 billion US dollars, a figure still very high but much lower than the first two countries mentioned. Then we have Asia which is positioned in fourth place with a market worth 13.4 billion US dollars, followed by Middle- East, Africa, eastern Europe and Australia for a total value of 128 billion US dollars.


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA HOW EXACTLY BIF IS PIZZA IN THE WORLD? According to the data collected in Asia by the Travel Food Agency, even in Asia you could try one of the best pizzas of your life, in fact with the help of some Italian restaurateurs in countries pretty far from Italy excellent pizzerias were born. Here below the three best pizzerias in Asia of 2019: 1. Pizza Massilia – Bangkok, Thailand 2. Gustoso – Mumbai, India 3. KYTALY – Hong Kong These were the pizzerias that won a place on the podium, but they are not the only ones, in fact there are also excellent pizzerias around the whole Asia like in Japan and Malaysia. It should also be said that among the 10 best pizzerias in Asia there are also two pizzerias in Vietnam, respectively in Hanoi and in HCMC, of which the Italians are very proud. The main objective for all restaurateurs remains to use high quality raw materials, and above all at zero km, in order to allow the consumer to always enjoy an excellent pizza. Restaurateurs abroad try to keep the traditional Neapolitan pizza alive but many others are trying to differentiate themselves in the pizza market, pushing themselves to produce gourmet creations and with typical local products.


Considering the great importance that Italy gives to the quality of its agricultural and food product, it is no surprise that the country, alongside the European Union, has acted to protect its products from counterfeits and copies. Therefore, two different labels were created to ensure the quality and the geographical indication of the ingredients commonly used on pizza. By geographical indication it is meant: “A distinctive sign used to identify a product as originating in the territory of a particular country, region or locality where its quality, reputation or other characteristic is linked to its geographical origin.”


European Commission


THE HISTORY OF PIZZA LABELS PDO, Protected Designation of Origin, and PGI, Protected Geographical Indication, are two certifications synonymous with typical high-quality food and wine products. But what exactly do these acronyms mean and what is the difference between them? Let’s say straight away that these are distinctive brands of typical products officially registered and issued by the European Union on a proposal from the Ministry of Agricultural Policies which at the same time commit producers to constant checks by an independent certification body. PDO and PGI are therefore trademarks protected and protected at a European Community level, for the benefit of consumers and against counterfeiting. Remember that Italy is the European country with the highest number of PDO and PGI agri-food products registered by the European Union! 1 PGI, IGP in Italian, Indicazione Geografica Protetta, simply means that a product can be traced back to its geographical origin during at least one phase in the production process. Meaning it can be linked to a place or region where it is produced, processed or prepared. Although the ingredients used may not necessarily to come from that geographical area, all PGI products must also adhere to a precise set of specifications and may bear the PGI logo. PDO, DOP in Italian, Denominazione di Origine Protetta, means “Protected Designation of Origin.” It is the stricter of the two certifications. If a product is labeled PDO, then you can be sure that it has been produced, processed, and prepared in a specific geographical area, using the recognized know-how of local producers and ingredients from the region concerned. These products, whose characteristics are strictly linked to their geographical origin, must adhere to a precise set of specifications and may bear the PDO logo. Therefore, the difference between PDO products and PGI products lies in the fact that, for PDO products, everything concerning the processing and marketing of the product originates in the declared territory; while for the PGI product, the declared territory confers to the product, through some phases or components of its processing, but not all the factors that contribute to obtaining the product come from the declared territory. More simply, the PDO mark certifies only products wholly obtained and packaged in the declared area of origin, while the PGI mark certifies that not all the production process is linked to the declared area of origin, but the most important phases are, i.e. those that give the product its peculiar character.

We hope that this guidebook has sparked not only your appetite, but also your curiosity towards our beautiful country and its mouthwatering pizza tradition. Thank you for dedicating some of your time to this delicious journey around the world, we are sure that in this event you will have the opportunity to taste a True Italian pizza. Buon appetito!


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