True Italian Taste 2020 - Olive Oil Master Class

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Online Guidebook

H I S T O R Y O F -

TABLE OF CONTENTS THE MYTHS .............................................................................


THE ORIGINS ...........................................................................


COMTEMPORARY HISTORY ...............................................


MANUFACTURING PROCESS ..............................................



O l i v e o i l -

PROPERTIES ............................................................................




THE MAIN VARIETIES OF OLIVE OILS .............................


TASTING PROCESS .................................................................


OIL TASTING: THE PARAMETERS .....................................


LABELS .......................................................................................






Since ancient times, the Greeks have had a tradition of divine worship. According to Greek mythology, the birth of olive trees was the result of a competition between the goddess of wisdom - Athena and Poseidon - the sea god, to find the guardian deity of the new city in Attica (an ancient city of Greece). In the end, the wise goddess won by a gift welcomed by the Attica people: A green laden olive tree, symbolizing a peaceful and prosperous life. This legendary tree became an important part in the life of the ancient Mediterranean people. Olive trees appeared in the rituals of the ancient Greeks; Olive oil was poured on the ground to make sacrifices for the gods and applied to the athletes before participating in Olympic competitions. Since the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, when an athlete won, the olive branch was a prestigious reward for them; with an excellent performance, the athlete will receive an amphora filled with olive oil - one of the most valuable gifts at this time!

The history of Olive Oil is the history of the Mediterranean Sea and its numerous civilizations. From the very first olive-growing attempts in the Middle East, mainly to make ointments and medications, the making and culture of olive oil has been spread over the centuries by the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Babylonians, the Jews, the Greeks and the Romans, each one contributing to the spreading of olive trees and the development of the harvesting, processing and storage techniques. It was the Romans, however, who started to upgrade the olive oil from a mere seasoning element to the important role it serves nowadays. To be able to enrich vegetables, cereals and meat with its unique taste, the Olive Oil HAD to be of excellent quality. The fall of the Empire marked the beginning of a dark age for olive trees, which lasted until the Middle Ages. Back then, people preferred to eat animal fats, as they lasted longer. For centuries, olive groves survived in just a few areas, and the only ones who kept growing them were religious orders, who used their products for liturgical services. It was not until 1100 AD that olive oil began to flourish again and found favor with the middle classes as a good alternative to animal fats in the Italian eating habits of the time. It was precisely in Italy that olive oil went through a veritable Renaissance: in 1400, Italy became the greatest producer of olive oil in the world, extending its exports to all of Europe. In the following centuries, Olive Oil trade became so valuable that kingdoms and countries started to fight over its control. The Venetian, for example, even had to protect their ships from pirates who were pillaging its oil cargos!

The Olive tree was not only the reward for the winners but also became a symbol of peace. In battle, the Greeks used olive branches for armistice. But the tree is most famous for the story in the Bible. In the Book of Genesis, when the Great Flood occurred, Noah on the wooden boat traveled around the world to rescue all the animals that survived. On the boat, Noah released a dove to search for new lands after the disaster. The dove returned with an Olive branch, at that moment, Noah realized that God had stopped punishing the Earth and peace had returned to our World.







In 1700, the Franciscan missionaries brought Olive Oil to America, where it eventually played an increasingly important role in imports, boosted by the demand of Italian and Greek immigrants. In the meantime, in Italy olive cultivars were officially listed for the first time, based on the region they were grown in. Top of the list, in terms of quality and quantity, are Tuscany and Puglia, which have been and universally recognized as the greatest oil-making regions. The XX century starts with frosts and cold temperatures for Italy, marking a tough time for the growth of olive trees in both the North and the South of the peninsula. It is in this hard time that Olive Oil starts to be refined to meet the demand of a population struggling with two World War. It was in the second half of the century, La raccolta delle olive, (Harvesting Olives) Luigi Bechi, 1930 however, that the agricultural landscape of Italy changed. In 1966, regulations were made by European Community, at the time a small community of six countries among which Italy was the main producer of Olive Oil. More attention was put into the products, after a quality drop caused by the though condition, and, with the late entrance of Spain, Portugal and Greece in the Community, Olive Oil was ready once again to be exported abroad. The rising production of other European countries meant more competition for the Italian producer, who started to differentiate their olives and to enhance the quality of their oils. With the support of the European Union, new quality labels were created, such as PGIs and PDO, and Italian Olive Oils came back stronger than ever. With the success of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil has returned a staple in all Italian households and beyond, with Italy, Spain and Greece still being the world’s greatest producers of such a precious product.1


S.Vannucci, Storia dell’ulivo, chapter in M.Pisante, P.Inglese, G.Lercker, L’ulivo e l’olio, Coltura&Cultura


Step 1: Collecting and grading the olives After the ripe olives have been combed from the trees, they are picked over by hand to weed out unsound olives. The olives are divided into categories according to their plumpness, state of ripeness, and quality. Then the olives are taken to the press and stored for a short period of time, from a few hours to several days. The period is short enough to prevent fermentation but long enough to allow the olives to get warm so that they release their oil easily.

3 criteria for selecting olives: roundness, ripeness and good quality

Step 2: Washing and milling the olives The olives are rinsed in cold water and then passed along a conveyor belt between rollers or continuous hammers. This machinery, often called the olive crusher, breaks down the cells and de-stones the olives. Depending on the resiliency of the olives’ skin and the stage of maturation, it may be necessary to pass the fruit through the mill a second time. Step 3: Creating an olive paste through malaxation In ancient times, the olives were mashed into a paste with a simple mortar and pestle. This principle was expanded upon until the stone mortars were large enough to require slaves or pack animals to operate them. In the modern process, the milled olives travel from the mill into vats in which slowly turning blades mash the olives into a homogenized paste. Step 4: Cold-pressing the olive paste to extract the oil The oil is extracted by loading the paste into a hydraulic press. The olive paste is evenly spread over hemp pressing bags or disks covered with synthetic fibers. Each bag or disk is covered with approximately 9-13 lb (4-6 kg) of paste. Between 25 and 50 bags or disks are stacked onto a press plate. Plate guides are inserted at intervals of five to six bags. The plates serve to maintain the balance of the stack and to distribute the pressure evenly. A piston pushes up against the stack, and the oil seeps slowly through the pressing bags to attached tubes. The solid material remains inside the pressing bags. 07





The term cold-pressing refers to the fact that the oil is extracted without heating the paste, further ensuring the purity of the oil. The oil that is expressed is a reddish mixture of the oil and the inherent vegetable water. This is the oil that receives the appellation of “extra-virgin” olive oil. The paste is removed from the bags and run through several more presses to obtain the lesser grades of oil that remain. Step 5: Separating the oil from the vegetable water Originally, the oil and water mixture were stored in vats until the oil rose to the top and was skimmed off. Some fermentation was inevitable, affecting the taste and smell of the olive oil. Today, the separation is accomplished swiftly by pumping the mixture into a centrifuge. The centrifuge comprise a rotating drum and an auger that are spun on the same axis at great speed. Because the oil and the vegetable water are of differing densities, the centrifuge forces them apart and into separate receptacles. Step 6: Storing and packaging the oil The oil is stored in underground vaults until it is ready to be shipped. Then the oil is canned or bottled on an assembly line. Cans or dark-tinted bottles will keep the deep-green color of the olive oil intact. Oil placed in clear-glass bottles will fade to a yellowish-green.However, the flavor is not affected. In many cases, olive in clear-glass bottles will fade to yellowishoil distribut- Oil placedgreen,but the flavor is not affected. ors purchase the olive from the producers and rebottle it. Packaging has become more ornate as the popularity of olive oil has grown. It is not unusual to purchase olive oil in unusually shaped bottles topped with netting or rope. Some packagers also hire professional artists to design their labels.


Olive oil is considered the healthiest fat on earth. In fact, the edible types of oil, the extra virgin and pure olive oil, are very valuable also because of their beneficial effects for the human body. First of all, it contains polyphenol which is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory natural substance. It is precisely because of this kind of molecules that olive oil, especially the extra virgin one, has a fruity taste together with more bitter and spicy tones. With this specificity of its antioxidant action, it helps to neutralize free radicals within our body, poten- Olive oil – the healthiest fat on earth tial harm for the healthy cells because they favor the insurgence of cancer. Generally speaking, a good extra virgin olive oil should contain 100 mg/kg and it should be preserved in a dark and not too warm environment. Monounsaturated fats - present for 73% in 100 grams of olive oil – help to keep at a healthy level the amount of cholesterol LDL, the so-called “bad” cholesterol, which is responsible for cardiovascular diseases, the first cause of death in the world. It also keeps under control the amount not only of the bad cholesterol but also olive oil reduces the level of blood glucose stimulating the production of insulin. Moreover, polyphenols together with Vitamin E prevent cellular aging. In fact, the oleic acid in the olive oil’s composition is unlikely to oxidize, so when the diet is rich in olive oil cells deteriorate less quickly and age more slowly. But all these benefits are not enough for the prince of Mediterranean Diet ingredients. It is very common, especially between children and women, to suffer from constipation, and olive oil can be helpful also for this disorder. Swallowing a spoon of olive oil every morning helps to regularize the digestive system. One of the effects of olive oil on the hepatobiliary system is that it ensures optimal bile drainage and stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder. In short, olive oil stimulates the digestion of lipids, because they are emulsified by the bile. It also stimulates the absorption of various nutrients, for instance calcium, iron, and magnesium. Another fat-soluble vitamin found in olive oil is vitamin K, which is necessary for coagulation and for processes that involve the fixation of calcium in the body. A tablespoon A spoon of olive oil every morning can regu- of olive oil contains about 10 percent of the daily dose larize the digestive system. of vitamin K recommended for an adult! Finally, as already said, polyphenols are beneficial for human cells, tissues, and organs… including bones. One particular polyphenol, oleuropein, is responsible for many of extra virgin olive oil’s bone-protective effects. Oleuropein stimulates the proliferation of bone-forming osteoblasts, helping to restore the balance of bone reconstruction and formation in favor of stronger bones. 09





Olive oil is among the most versatile ingredients used in Italian cuisine. It is not only part of the dressing of almost every dish, but it is absolutely essential for some traditional recipes. Therefore, it is used both for cooking and for enhancing the flavor of each component of the meal. With its delicate, bitter, slightly pungent but also fresh and fruity taste, olive oil allows food to express itself at best in the gourmand’s mouth, making it impossible for anyone who tries it to go back to other types of dressing.

Cakes and desserts too can be done with olive oil; it helps to soften the dough when butter is not needed. An easy but delicious cake is the “olive oil cake”, light and delicate, perfect for a healthy breakfast. Finally, as a dressing, it is delicious to pour on dishes aromatic oil, which is also very easy to do-it-yourself! In fact, everyone can personalize it, making it more agreeable, according to personal tastes. Rosemary olive oil, for instance, is obtained by placing rosemary’s little branches or just the leaves cut into pieces into a bottle of olive oil and leaving it to absorb the full taste of the added ingredient. And the same process can be done with garlic, chili peppers, truffles or other dozens of ingredients. In every Italian pizzeria there is a non- written rule to offer spicy olive oil to put on pizza.

The fastest and easiest use worth mentioning is to use it raw. Just a spoon of it in your “bruschetta” – piece of bread with tomato, basil and mozzarella – deepens the overall flavor of the dish turning this very simple recipe into an Italian delicacy exquisite for adults and children. But even without the other ingredients just raw olive oil drizzled on a good freshly baked piece of bread is heaven for your palate. Even Italian restaurant owners, if they are sure of the quality of the olive oil proposed, would be happy to make you soak up their oil right from the plate with a piece of bread as a starter. These two uses proposed above are those in which it is easiest to feel the exact taste of olive oil, but normally in the Italian cuisine it is mostly used as a dressing for several – if not all – Italian dishes. It is put on top of every course of the meal. Beginning with the starters, it is very common in Italy, especially in the summertime, to make a sort of vinaigrette sauce, the so-called “pinzimonio”, in a bowl mixing together olive oil, vinegar, salt and lemon juice, in which everyone can dip sticks of fresh vegetables like celery, carrots or fennel. On entrées it is an essential dressing for all types of pasta, with all types of sauce, starting from the tomato sauce, while for the second course olive oil is poured on meat, fish and vegetables on the side. It is very common to garnish a plain salad with just olive oil and salt – and for the most gourmands mixed with vinegar.


Some aromatic oil made from olive oil.

Thus, raw olive oil is useful for almost every dish of the Italian cuisine, but it can also be used for cooking procedures. Especially extra virgin olive oil, thanks to its high level of monounsaturated fats, has better resistance to high temperatures, without suffering from oxidative damages. This makes this kind of oil perfect to fry. It is better a fried meal with extra virgin olive, with perhaps some more calories per gram, than carcinogen substances. And Mediterranean cuisine knows it since it counts among its exquisite typical dishes the so-called “frittura di pesce”, mixed fried fish served with lemon and leaf of lettuce. Of course, it can be poured on a pan before to brown whatever is on it, and, finally, it is essential for the preservation of some vegetables because it fights the deterioration due to microbes. “Melanzane sott’olio”, literally eggplants in olive oil, “zucchine, cipolle, peperoni”, zucchini, onions and peppers, are just some examples of the dozens of veggies suitable to be conserved in a glass jar filled with oil. Olive oil is mostly an ingredient for cooking or dressing but notice that it has great medical effects on the human body, as mentioned above, and on the skin, since it softens it. In fact, it is an important ingredient in the cosmetic industry, especially put in skin lotions. Finally, it is also helpful for the housework, for polishing the floor, or in general to clean the wooden surfaces, furniture or floors. 11




THE MAIN VARIETIES OF OLIVE OILS Note that, even when using same the cultivar, the growing area is determinant for the final characteristics of the extra virgin olive obtained. From the same Tuscany olives grown in Marche region, it is obtained as a product of bright green, deep fruity with artichoke notes, the taste is pleasantly bitter, and spicy and very persistent with pleasant back taste of artichoke typical of this variety.

Although it would be impossible to list all the diverse regional varieties of olive oils, it is in fact possible to highlight some macro categories of Olive Oil: 1. The term Virgin Olive Oil, for example, denotes oil obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical or other means that cause no alteration or deterioration of the oil. No heat, no chemical interaction, no solvents, no radiation! Therefore, the oil must not have been subjected to any treatment other than that of mechanical expeller pressure, washing, centrifugation, and filtration. The best oils, those called “extra-virgin,” are cold-pressed, a chemical-free process that involves only pressure, which produces a natural level of low acidity (below 0.8%). Climate, soil, variety of olive tree and time of harvest account for the different organoleptic properties of different virgin olive oils. “Organoleptic” properties refer to the oil’s flavor, bouquet and color. The term comes from the Greek organon (tool) and leptos (fine), and usually refers to the instant when all the senses are employed in a food’s assessment. 2. Olive-pomace oil is the product of a treated oil mixed with virgin olive oils fit for consumption. When the flesh and pits are ground (after pressing them for virgin olive oil), olive pomace oil is made by treating this product with solvents or other physical treatments. It is usually used in deep frying foods, thanks to its resistance to high temperatures. It is also used for food industrial purposes, and in cosmetics for soap making. There are minor differences among the Olive Oils used for food consumption as well, since they are produces using different olives depending on the Italian region the Olives are cultivated. The Extra Virgin olive oil from Liguria, for example, is made mainly with the Taggiasca cultivar, the most diffused and appreciated in the area which gives a product yellow-golden color and makes it taste mainly sweet with delicate notes of almonds and artichoke. The Extra Virgin olive oil from Tuscany is made with a single cultivar or a blend of them and give a product green color, mostly appreciated for the accentuated fruity bitter and spicy note that remain stable on time.


Olives in Apulia produce oil with a clean and intense fruity taste, with scents of artichoke and almonds, with a slightly chilly and bitter taste and a very good floral scent. Campania’s Olive Oil is a well-rounded, nutty oil with a mild spicy finish taste. Moving southern, we reach Calabria, whose Olive Oil grants a green sensation to the nose that remembers the green grass, green tomato and aromatics herbs. The taste remembers the green olive and the unripe vegetables with the bitter and spicy as a back taste. Moving towards Italy’s insular regions, we can find Sicily’s oil, a fruity medium-strong taste with pleasant fresh grass sensation, usually not very persistent, and Olive Oil from Sardinia. The taste of this last region is more fruity with a sensation of artichoke, wild cardon and green tomato, bitter and spicy, pleasantly present. Such diversity offers countless possibilities of combination when making Italian recipes and non-Italian recipies.

Leccino Olive

Ogliarola Salentina

Raia Olives

Bosana Olives

Biancolilla Olives

Nocellara del Belice Olives 13




TASTING PROCESS The tasting of extra virgin olive oil is a unique experience of its kind, since it allows you to grasp the aromas, colors and characteristics of a territory and to appreciate its authenticity. Just like wine, extra virgin olive oil is also evaluated. From “pure” tasting to the most suitable glasses, there are precise rules to follow. During past times the acidity of the oil - together with other parameters - made it possible to determine the quality of Italy’s yellow gold. But the chemical analysis that can only be done in the laboratory is not everything. Therefore, oil tasting remains the most efficient tool. The purpose of this tasting is to identify possible defects in the oil and classify it methodologically, through sensory analysis

The first step in the analysis of the olive oil can be done visually. Here the factors you need to evaluate are clarity, density and color. Clarity depends on the filtration processes; the density of the oil varies according to the territorial origin of the olives and the color must be between yellow and intense green. However, a visual analysis alone is not enough to understand the different shades of taste and quality the olive oil has. Therefore, a proper tasting process must include two more steps: olfaction and taste. In both phases, the sensations received by the sample under examination are noted on the card provided.

tions) through the mouth, allowing both to extend the sample into the oral cavity and to perceive the volatile aromatic components through forced passage through the retronasal route (exhalation). The inspirations must be three in order not to confuse the taste buds. You must perceive tactile stimuli such as consistency and fluidity. Even the sensations triggered by the taste have their weight. In principle, you are faced with a good oil when you perceive notes of tomato, almond, artichoke and cut grass. To take into account the tactile sensation of the spicy, the oil should be swallowed. Do you feel a sweet, bitter or spicy taste? Well, it means that you are tasting an extra virgin olive oil worthy of the name! The relevant parameters that characterize the extra virgin olive oil at the tasting are: • Fruity: the bouquet of perfumes that the oil gives off. Typical of Southern Italy. There are light, medium and intense fruity oils • Bitter: it must always be in balance with the spiciness and never dominate it • Spiciness: the oil must never annoy the throat. At the end of the tasting the mouth must remain clean. to indicate the balance of the oil tasted; • Body: these are the notes of fullness and consistency that the oil leaves on the palate. The best extra virgin olive oil is the one that offers pleasant sensations when you swallow. As a result, it is not edgy. A good oil must leave pleasant sensations on the palate, it must not be angular. Hereinafter the qualities considered good in the tasting process of Olive Oil2

When the tasting process starts, the oil is tasted in dark colored glasses, usually cobalt blue. The glass contains about 15 ml of oil, it is covered by a watch glass. The oil is poured into a colored glass and cool the container by covering it with the palm of your hand. Then it is moved in a circular motion, holding it in the palm of your other hand. The rotation should be really slow. The temperature must reach around 28 degrees centigrade. After removing the watch glass, the taster proceeds with the olfactory analysis, trying in 30 seconds to perceive as many odors as possible. Finally, smell the oil and pick up the pleasant sensations. Bring the oil to your mouth but be careful not to ingest it. We then proceed to the evaluation of the oral sensations by retronasal and tactile way. Taking a sip of oil of about 3 ml one tries to distribute it throughout the oral cavity so that all the receptors of the mouth are involved and the bitter and spicy sensations can be well perceived. Let the oil rest on the tongue. At the same time, inhale to oxygenate the oil and rock it in the oral cavity in order to stimulate all the taste buds. Stripping is carried out (series of short and repeated inspira-






Herbal Olive Leaf Shallot Artichoke Green Banana Green Tomato Green Apple Olive Tobacco Leaf Green Tea Mint Sorrel Salad leaves Fig leaf Dried Herbs

Acacia Hawthorne Peony-flower Honey Pine (coniferous) Rose Linden

Almond Cashew Nut Meal Toasted Nut Peanuts Toasted almond



Lime Lemon Apple Grapefruit Passionfruit Banana Mango Melon

Butter Fresh Cream Spicy Pimento Pepper Cinnamon

A.Patella, Come fare una degustazione di olio extravergine di oliva, blog post in






These flavors are, on the contrary, considered a defect: Rancid Defect

Fusty Defect

Muddy Defect

Peanut Linseed Oil Putty

Brined olives Lactic

Salami Baby Vomit Smokey Blue Cheese Fetid Milk Bacon

Musty Defect

Winey Defect

Burnt Defect

Mold spores Moldy dry hay

Solvent Vinegar

Caramel Cooked Toffee Metallic

The extra virgin olive oil is accompanied by the similarity of flavors. A full-bodied, intense oil must be combined with a substantial dish, while delicate foods must be combined with equally delicate oils. Bitter oils go perfectly with dishes such as grilled red meat, boiled, braised and overcooked. Spicy oils give the right touch of liveliness to bruschetta, soups, legumes. Oils with vegetable scents refreshing dishes such as tomato salad, caprese or cereal soup. And finally, sweet oils flavor shellfish, seafood and light first courses, but also desserts such as apple strudel. oils with bitter notes go well with strong dishes such as ragù, chicory, grilled red meat. In general, extra virgin olive oil expresses all its raw strength but you can also use it for a sauté. If its taste is light fruity, in this way it preserves the aroma of the sauce.

What not to do before tasting? Before tasting you must follow the following instructions. Not having smoked up to 30 minutes before the taste, nor having used any perfume or having lunch before tasting. It is also important not to have a cold, allergy or similar, and also pay attention not to drink coffee before tasting. A word of advice: never exceed the number of tastings of different oils in a single session to avoid probable saturations of the sense organs and, consequently, incorrect evaluations. In addition, between one tasting and another, try to “cleanse” your mouth by eating a slice of apple or drinking a little water, preferably sparkling and at room temperature.






LABELS Considering all the importance that Italy gives to the quality of its agricultural and food product, it is no surprise that the country, alongside the European Union, has acted to protect its oils from counterfeits and copies. Therefore, two different labels were created to ensure the quality and the geographical indication of the olive oils. By geographical indication it is meant: “A distinctive sign used to identify a product as originating in the territory of a particular country, region or locality where its quality, reputation or other characteristic is linked to its geographical origin.”

PDO, Protected Designation of Origin, and PGI, Protected Geographical Indication, are two certifications synonymous with typical high-quality food and wine products. But what exactly do these acronyms mean and what is the difference between them? Let’s say straight away that these are distinctive brands of typical products officially registered and issued by the European Union on a proposal from the Ministry of Agricultural Policies which at the same time commit producers to constant checks by an independent certification body. PDO and PGI are therefore trademarks protected and protected at a European Community level, for the benefit of consumers and against counterfeiting. Recall that Italy is the European country with the highest number of PDO and PGI agri-food products registered by the European Union! 4 PGI, in Italian IGP, Indicazione Geografica Protetta, simply means that a product can be traced back to its geographical origin during at least one phase in the production process. Meaning it can be linked to a place or region where it is produced, processed or prepared. Although the ingredients used may not necessarily to come from that geographical area, all PGI products must also adhere to a precise set of specifications and may bear the PGI logo.

Therefore, the difference between PDO products and PGI products lies in the fact that, for PDO products, everything concerning the processing and marketing of the product originates in the declared territory; while for the PGI product, the declared territory confers to the product, through some phases or components of its processing, but not all the factors that contribute to obtaining the product come from the declared territory. More simply, the PDO mark certifies only products wholly obtained and packaged in the declared area of origin, while the PGI mark certifies that not all the production process is linked to the declared area of origin, but the most important phases are, i.e. those that give the product its peculiar character. 4 Make sure that your Italian Olive Oil has one of these two labels on it, so you will know that what you will be using won’t be a fake Italian Sounding product, but a true, authentic Italian oil! We conclude this journey throughout the history, making and understanding of Olive Oil with an ancient Italian proverb that goes: “Con l’olio d’oliva ed il sale, si fa buono anche uno stivale.”, literally meaning “With olive oil and salt, even a boot can taste good”.

PDO, in Italian DOP, Denominazione di Origine Protetta, means “Protected Designation of Origin.” It is the stricter of the two certifications. If a product is labeled PDO, then you can be sure that it has been produced, processed, and prepared in a specific geographical area, using the recognized know-how of local producers and ingredients from the region concerned. These products, whose characteristics are strictly linked to their geographical origin, must adhere to a precise set of specifications and may bear the PDO logo.


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MIPAAF, Ministry of Agricultural, Alimentary and Forestal Policies


Con l’olio d’oliva ed il sale, si fa buono anche uno stivale

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