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Respuestas a la Sociedad con Pavimentos de Hormigรณn Jeffery Roesler, PhD, PE Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


12th International Conference on Concrete Pavements Minneapolis, Minnesota USA August 30-September 3, 2020 http://12thiccp.concretepavements.org


Background 

12th International Conference on Concrete Pavements continues history of this series of conferences dating back to 1977

First six conference organized by Purdue University  1st,

4th, 5th ICCP - West Lafayette, Indiana, USA (1977, 1989, 1993)

 2nd,

3rd, 6th ICCP - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA (1981, 1985, 1997)

Past five conferences in series organized by ISCP  7th

ICCP - Orlando, Florida, USA (2001)

 8th

ICCP – Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA (2005)

 9th

ICCP - San Francisco, California, USA (2008)

 10th

ICCP - Québec City, Québec, Canada (2012)

 11th

ICCP - San Antonio, Texas, USA (2016)


Preliminary Conference Schedule 

Sunday, August 30, 2020  

Registration (Open Noon through Wednesday) Welcome Reception and Exhibit Hall Opening

Monday, August 31, 2020 

Exhibit Hall Open

Plenary Session

Technical Sessions

Poster Displays

Student Poster Board Displays (afternoon)

Wednesday, September 2, 2020 

Exhibit Hall Open (morning only)

Student Poster Board Judging (morning)

Technical Sessions

Poster Displays

Awards Banquet and Entertainment (evening)

Thursday, September 3, 2020 

Field Trips and Site Visits (morning)

Tuesday, September 1, 2020 

Exhibit Hall Open

Student Poster Board Displays

Poster Displays

Workshops

Field Trips and Site Visits

http://12thiccp.concretepavements.org


Presentation Objectives: Respuestas a la Sociedad con Pavimentos de Hormigรณn 1. What is the state of the art in designing high performance concrete pavements? 2. How to use existing or new material to enhance concrete pavement performance? 3. What new technology to design/construct concrete pavement to reduce costs & increase performance? 4. What solutions are needed with concrete pavements for societal transportation challenges?


Presentation Outline: Respuestas a la Sociedad con Pavimentos de Hormigรณn

Design

Technology

Materials

Emerging Opportunities


Outline

Design

Technology

Materials

Emerging Opportunities


Concrete Pavement Solutions

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)


Concrete Pavement Overlay Solutions

Uruguay Ruta 24 (2016)

IRI = 2.0m/km

Hamilton County, IL (2013-14)


Short Jointed Slab Systems Ruta 60, Chile (2010)

Santiago (2010) Cerro Castillo, Chile (2012)

Punta Arenas (2012) 10


Mechanistic-Empirical Design Software

Bonded Overlays of Asphalt

JPCP, CRCP, Overlays

Thin Concrete Overlays of Asphalt

JPCP & Overlays

Short Jointed (Unbonded) Systems


M-E Pavement Design Process Climate

Traffic Materials

Structure

Response

Time Damage Accumulation

Distress


Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) Pavement Design Benefits • M-E Pavement calculates slab thickness and considers & sensitive to: • • • • • • •

Joint spacing Traffic volume especially for heavy trucks Climate Tied concrete shoulder/widen lane Dowels and the size Base type and friction Construction effects (curing, construction temperature)

• M-E Pavement method need calibration or modification for local conditions


Outline

Design

Technology

Materials

Emerging

Opportunities


Sustainable Cementitious Substitute Silica Fume Metakaolin

Class C Fly Ash

Class F Fly Ash

Slag

Calcined Shale


Recycling of Old Pavements

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

Compressive Strength (psi)

8000 7000

17

6000 5000

0%

4000

20%

3000

35%

2000

Virgin Aggregate

Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA)

50%

1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Testing Age (days)

Steel Furnace Slag


Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) for Pavements • Fiber Materials: • Type I: Steel FRC • Type II: Glass FRC (alkali-resistant only) • Type III: Synthetic FRC (moisture and alkali-resistant) • Type IV: Natural FRC (moisture and alkali-resistant) • Specified as a dosage rate (kg/m3) or volume fraction (% of total volume) • Steel 39 kg/m3 ~ 0.5% Vf • Polypropylene 4.6 kg/m3 ~ 0.5% Vf


Macro vs. Micro Fibers Macro-Fibers Hooked end

Diameters: 0.2 to 0.8 mm Length: 20 to 65mm Steel, Synthetic, etc.

crimped

Micro-Fibers

Diameters: < 0.1 mm Length: 6 to 20mm

Polypropylene, Steel, Carbon, ...


Variety of Macrofibers Emboss-48

Smooth-40

Emboss-50

Smooth-58

Hook-60

Helical-25


FRC Slab Testing


Concrete Slab - Load vs. Deflection Synthetic Macrofibers vs. Plain Concrete 225

Plain 0.48% Synthetic Macro Fiber

200

0.32% Synthetic Macro Fiber 175

Load (kN)

150

125

100

75

50

25

0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Average Interior Maximum Surface Deflection (mm)

10

11

12

13


Modified Strength Equations for FRC Pavement Design

ASTM C1609-12

• MOR’ = MOR + f150 • MOR = plain concrete flexural strength • MOR’ = effective flexural strength of FRC • f150 = residual strength (ASTMC1609-12)

• Stress Ratio (SR)= (Total Stress) (f150 + MOR)

Roesler et al. (2019)


Example Projects with Macrofibers North Lorang Road, Kane County

Western Avenue, Chicago

2007-13 Health Center Parking Lot, UIUC

Airport Apron

2006-13 Law School Parking Lot, UIUC


Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Pavement • Re-emergence of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) • Sustainability = lower cement content, lower initial cost, faster opening time • Equipment = high density pavers

• Challenges to adoption • Mix design/selection is different • Slab thickness design procedure

ASTM D1557

PCC

RCC

HMA


RCC vs. other cement-based pavement materials Roller-Compacted Concrete

Pervious Concrete

Conventional Concrete

Cement Content

Soil-Cement CementTreated Base

Full-Depth Reclamation Cement-Modified Soil

Water Content

Flowable Fill


Concrete Pavements Curls Moisture/Temperature

Wei and Hansen 2011


Internal Curing of Concrete Pavements • Effects of moisture curling: • Early age cracking (low and high severity), • Reduced smoothness (increased IRI) • Combined load+environment to produce premature failure with top-down or longitudinal cracks.

• Dry regions are more susceptible (California, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, etc.) Internal Curing Aggregate

RH=relative humidity Moisture loss (t) @ RH: 20-50% Concrete Slab

Low RH

Slab High RH 4mm


Fine Lightweight Aggregates (FLWA) for Internal Curing • Generally an expanded natural aggregate (shale, slate) or slag • Aggregate absorption values of 9-35% • For example: • • • •

4mm

Expanded shale Absorption: 14.3% SSD SG: 1.63 OD SG: 1.43

Expanded Slate (Stalite)

Expanded Slag (Phoenix Services)

Expanded Shale Castro et al. 2011


Curling of FLWA (F0) vs. Virgin (V0) mixtures without moisture curing Virgin Materials

27% FLWA

1.4m x 0.15m x 0.08m beams

Amirkhanian and Roesler (2016)


Moisture Profile for Normal (Virgin) and FLWA Concrete


Outline

Design

Technology

Materials

Emerging Opportunities


Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) o Reciclado • Uso de Material Existente

• Elimina la incorporación de una nueva capa base

• Recicla mediante la Pulverización del Pavimento Asfaltico Existente, Base, Subase, y capas de la subrasante • Usualmente se adiciona un estabilizador • Rápido y sustentable


Secuencia Típica de Construccion del Reciclado


Sawcut Timing: Ultrasoncic Test System (UTS) and Computer Vision â&#x20AC;˘ Common concrete pavement question: When to saw-cut concrete? What is a good saw-cut?

ASK

Joint Raveling

Transverse cracks Too late

Too early


Non-Contact Ultrasonic a Computer Vision for Joint Raveling Limitations: Access, contact, & companion specimens

Limitations: Relative quantification

Technique 1: Non-contact Ultrasonic Testing System (UTS)

Technique 2: Computer vision-based technique

Computer

Air-coupled ultrasonic transmitter (sender)

AIR

Ď´i Incidence angle Leaky Rayleigh waves (LR-wave)

Acoustic baffle

DAQ (NI X6363)

1 2

Contactless MEMS 3 4 (receiver)

Surface guided wave (R-wave) CONCRETE

Shear wave (S-wave) Longitudinal wave (P-wave)

In-situ final setting time

Quantify sawcut damage Objective

Estimate earliest time of saw cutting when the risk of raveling is minimal


Non-Contact Ultrasonic Principle Leaky Rayleigh (LR) wave

air

concrete Computer

DAQ (NI X6363) Air-coupled ultrasonic transmitter (sender)

AIR

Ď´i Incidence angle Leaky Rayleigh waves (LR-wave)

Acoustic baffle

LR-wave propagation

1 2

Surface guided wave (R-wave) CONCRETE

Shear wave (S-wave) Longitudinal wave (P-wave)

Contactless MEMS 3 4 (receiver)


Non-Contact Ultrasonic Test Setup Receiver movement controller (1mm per step)

50kHz Transmitter Acoustic buffer

4 MEMs Receivers

Transmitter angle controller

Contactless receivers

Computer

DAQ (NI X6363) Contactless transmitter

Scanned points (1mm spacing) 3 contactless receivers Scanning direction 10 mm 76 mm

133 mm Cement paste

Scanned region 266 mm 533 mm

Acoustic baffle

Moving direction of the receivers

Contactless transmitter

133 mm

70 mm


Leaky Rayleigh Wave Energy over Time

Energy of LR-wave signals at different times

LR-wave energy over time for the four MEMS sensors (20 mm spacing)


Computer Vision Assessment for Joint Raveling Step 1: - Take multiple pictures of each saw cut - Construct point cloud and dense model

Step 2: Build Mesh model

Step 3: Compute surface area of damaged and undamaged elements


Quantification of Joint Raveling Damage over Time 3D Meshed model

Damage development over Time


Determination of Sawcut Time Construct damage index (DI) plots of all mixtures using CVbased technique C-39

C-45

Determine the acceptable DI (DIa) using CV-based technique and statistical data analysis

C-50

740

700

660

620

580

540

500

460

420

380

340

300

260

220

180

140

45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 100

Damage index (%)

Determine the final setting time (tf) using non-contact UTS of all mixtures

Time (minutes)

Establish sawcut timing ts from DIa

Establish relationship between tf and ts

đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018; = 1.3 â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x201C; + 39

DIa


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 â&#x20AC;¦12

Near surface waves


▪ Slab thickness and Steel depth ▪ Delamination ▪ Void ▪ Cracks


Concrete Joint Activation Detection â&#x20AC;˘ Do notched contraction joints (above) actually propagate a crack through the slab thickness?


Shear Wave Transmissions with MIRA Device

Activated transducer or transmitter 2 1 3

Sensing transducers 4

5

6

30 mm

7

8

9

10

11

12

Incident S- waves

h

d

â&#x20AC;˘ Signal energy:

Concrete slab

â&#x20AC;˘ Normalize transmission energy (NTE)

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ??¸ = đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;6

đ?&#x2018;žđ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;: i : transmitter from 2 to 4 j: receiver from 7-12


Normalized Energy (NTE) Plot

Amplitude (a.u.)

Diffracted S-wave pulse received by channel 9

Direct S-wave pulse received by channel 6

Reflected S-wave pulse received by channel 9

Notch

Reflected and diffracted S-wave pulse received by channel 6


Laboratory Test Sample Results No crack

Partial crack

Full crack


Outline

Design

Technology

Materials

Emerging Opportunities


Photocatalytic Concrete Pavements (TiO2 cements) • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) reduction • TiO2 oxidizes NOx in the air into nitrates in the presence of sunlight

O2

Atmospheric Gases H2O

UV Radiation

NOx Pollution NO NO2

• Self-cleaning surface • TiO2 degrades surface contaminants • Self-cleaning property helps to maintain a higher albedo and the ability to oxidize NOx over time

• Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation • Concrete overlays with a higher albedo have a lower surface temperature and Global Warming Potential (GWP)

TiO2

∙OH Hydroxyl Radicals

NO3- Reaction Byproduct

Photocatalytic Concrete Pavement


NOx Removal Mechanism â&#x20AC;˘ TiO2 when added to cement leads to the ability to remove atmospheric NOx â&#x20AC;˘ TiO2 absorbs photons (from sunlight) that have more energy than its activation energy to form electron-hole pairs

NOx Removal Mechanism đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2 + â&#x201E;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x2C6; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x201E;&#x17D;+ + đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??ť2 đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018; + â&#x201E;&#x17D;+ â&#x2020;&#x2019;â&#x2C6;&#x2122; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ??ť + đ??ť + đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2 + đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;  +â&#x2C6;&#x2122; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ??ť â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ??ťđ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2 đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;  + đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;3â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??ťđ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2 +â&#x2C6;&#x2122; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ??ť â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;  + đ??ť2 đ?&#x2018;&#x201A; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;2đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;  +â&#x2C6;&#x2122; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ??ť â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ??ťđ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;3


Photoreactor Test Setup


Photocatalytic Performance


Photocatalytic Paste Specimen Performance 120

Noncarbonated 100

PEF (µmol/m2.hr)

Carbonated 80

60

40

20

0 W_W4_T2.5_F15

W_W6_T2.5_F15

C_W4_T2.5_F15

C_W6_T2.5_F15

2.5% TiO2, W4 = white cement with w/c=0.4, F15 –15% fly ash


Energy Consumption U.S. (2017)

Significant opportunity!


Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)


Expand BEV Charging by Placement in Pavement


Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation â&#x20AC;˘ UHI: A sustained increase in temperature in urban areas as compared to adjacent rural areas â&#x20AC;˘ Causes include: low reflectance materials including concrete, low wind speed in cities because of urban form like building, little vegetation


Pavement properties affect UHI â&#x20AC;˘ At the surface: Optical Properties â&#x20AC;˘ đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x2018;? is the albedo of the pavement surface â&#x20AC;˘ đ?&#x153;&#x2013; is the emissivity of the pavement surface

â&#x20AC;˘ Within each pavement layer: Thermal Properties â&#x20AC;˘ đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? is the (volumetric) heat capacity, in J/m3K â&#x20AC;˘ đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC; is the thermal conductivity, in W/mK


Rapid measurement of pavement albedo with D-SPARC

Sen (2019)

Albedometer


3D Pavement - Urban Canyon Model and Mesh Coarse

Medium

Fine

66


UHI Mitigation with Reflective Concrete Pavements

Existing 2 m air temperature

Reflective concrete pavements

Typical concrete pavements

Reflective roofs, walls, & pavements


Lateral Position Detection for Autonomous Vehicles (AV) â&#x20AC;˘ Modifying pavement signature (markings or materials) to detect lateral roadway position of AV â&#x20AC;˘ Bad weather conditions (rain, snow, ice, fog)


Electrically-Conductive Concrete for Lateral Vehicle Position Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Eddy current system detects conductive concrete

Eddy Current Sensor (Metal Detector)


Summary of Current & Future Impacts for Concrete Pavements • Excellent concrete pavement design methods • AASHTO Pavement ME, Overlays, Opti-Pave

• Sustainable materials solutions • Pozzolans, recycled aggregates, TiO2 cements, FRC

• Newer technology for concrete pavement • RCC Pavement, Full-Depth Reclamation, internal curing, noncontact sensing for construction decisions

• Societal challenges for temperature, air quality, safety • Urban Heat Island – reflective concrete • Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer – BEV charging • Passive sensors for lane positioning for Autonomous Vehicles


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