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W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G


IN THIS ISSUE What Topics to How Industry Responds to Discuss With Legislators a Crisis


Bottled Water & Coffee The Perfect Combination


Filtration 101: How to improve product quality, increase process efficiency, and protect your brand's reputation A PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER ASSOCIATION

Where to Earn PCQI Certification

VOL. 56 • NO. 3


30 | “The Senator Will See You Now” Do you know what industry issues to discuss with your elected officials? COMMUNICATIONS

34 | Bottled Water, Flint, and Being There When Needed How the industry responds during times of crisis. TECHNICAL UPDATE

36 | PCQI Workshops: What to Expect If you want to get PCQI certified, there’s a lot to know. VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP

40 | Knowledge as Competitive Edge David Redick (Steelhead Inc.) explains to Bottled Water Reporter why he credits his company's success to its active participation in IBWA activities.

CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 | Bottled Water and Coffee: The Perfect Combination Every home and office delivery business faces the problem of how to acquire new business—even when not in a growth mode. Enter coffee—and tea and allied products. Learn how bundling coffee and bottled water sales can increase your profit margins. By Ken Shea



CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTARY................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.......................................4 WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CPO QUIZ..........................................................38 ADVERTISERS....................................................39 CALENDAR........................................................39


16 | Bottled Water Bio-burden Management Safe drinking water is vital to human existence. For water bottlers that offer this lifesustaining product in a convenient, safe plastic package, preventing bacterial contamination is of paramount importance. This article discusses how to filter out bacteria from your processing equipment and product. By Majid Entezarian, PhD

22 | Filtration Optimization and Quality Monitoring Optimizing a filter process line can help improve product quality, increase process efficiency, and protect your brand’s priceless reputation. But are you aware of all the important technical filtration and quality monitoring considerations you must make to comply with regulatory requirements and reduce risk without compromising quality? By Danielle Wedral and Lisa M. Madsen, PhD

BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 56, Number 3. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, www.bottledwater.org. Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.

CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTARY THE COMPLEXITY OF SIMPLE H2O The Flint, Michigan, public water system crisis is tragic for many reasons, not least of which is that it was preventable. Among the many lessons to be learned from Flint is that safe, quality drinking water cannot be taken for granted. H2O—it’s a simple chemical compound. But sophisticated processes are necessary to produce potable drinking water. Municipal drinking water systems use various methods to treat their water (coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection with chloramine and chlorine). Bottled water companies use a multi-barrier approach to produce bottled water products that are safe to consume, including source protection, source monitoring, reverse osmosis, distillation, micro-filtration, ozonation, and ultraviolet (UV) light. Regardless of whether a bottler uses a spring, well, or municipal water source, that water must go through the multi-barrier approach to help ensure it is safe to drink once it is sealed in the plant’s sanitary packaging environment. That’s why you can never say that a water bottler’s municipally sourced water is just tap water in a bottle. In the United States, tap water is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act, which sets standards for drinking water to protect the public against health effects from exposure to naturally-occurring and man-made contaminants. Because it is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as a packaged food product, bottled water must comply with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), which—and this is the important part that our critics often forget—requires FDA’s bottled water regulations to be as stringent and as protective of the public health as the EPA’s tap water standards. (Read it for yourself on page 109 of the FDCA, Section 410, 3A: bit.ly/FDAC_bwstandards.) A lot goes on behind the scenes to ensure that the water we drink is safe. All of the safety measures are there so that consumers don’t have to worry when they reach for a bottle of water or turn on the tap. However, when public water systems are compromised (as we saw in Flint), bottled water is the best option to deliver clean, safe drinking water quickly into affected areas. To date, the bottled water industry has donated the equivalent of more than 3 million bottles of bottled water to Flint families affected by the crisis. Critics of our industry have suggested that bottled water only needs to be available during disaster relief. What they don’t understand is that the industry’s ability to provide crucial, life-saving bottled water at those times is contingent upon the existence of a viable commercial market. That commercial market provides water bottlers with the capital, inventory, and resources needed to respond at a moment’s notice. If you’d like to learn more about the bottled water industry’s emergency relief efforts in Flint, visit www.bottledwater.org/bottled-water-flint.


International Bottled Water Association OFFICERS Chairman Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Vice Chair Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Treasurer Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Immediate Past Chairman Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Charlie Broll, Nestlé Waters North America Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Louis Vittorio, Jr., EarthRes Group, Inc. Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Charlie Broll, Nestlé Waters North America Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America C.R. Hall, Hall’s Culligan Tom Harrington, DS Services Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Damon Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Jane Lazgin, Nestlé Waters North America Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Jeff Davis, Blackhawk Molding Co. Government Relations Committee Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, DS Services State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Ross Rosette, H2Oregon Supplier and Convention Committee Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International

Joe Bell IBWA Chairman 2



Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America


In this issue of Bottled Water Reporter, we review two topics of vital importance to the bottled water industry: enhancing customer service and filtration. In our cover story, “Bottled Water and Coffee: The Perfect Combination” (p.10) industry expert Ken Shea explains how home and office delivery (HOD) companies can generate additional revenue by offering coffee, tea, and allied products. These product lines can help bottlers add sales and profit at every stop of their HOD trucks. According to Shea, in demand, higher-dollar coffee products and available cubic feet on delivery trucks can be a game-changer for some bottlers—especially those servicing small offices of less than 25 employees. (Of course, we all know that great tasting coffee starts with quality bottled water.)

BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074 www.bottledwater.org

IBWA STAFF President Joseph K. Doss jdoss@bottledwater.org Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst bhirst@bottledwater.org Vice President of Communications Chris Hogan chogan@bottledwater.org Vice President of Government Relations Kristin Pearson Wilcox kwilcox@bottledwater.org Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell mcampbell@bottledwater.org

In the Communications column (p.34), we review how the industry has responded with donations of bottled water for the families in Flint, Michigan, affected by the drinking water crisis. We also introduce a new Flint webpage—www.bottledwater. org/bottled-water-flint—that provides not only updates about industry contributions but also fact-based information about lead regulations for bottled water and public water systems. Our Government Relations column (p.30) offers a helpful resource that members participating in IBWA’s annual Hill Day can tear out and take with them during their meetings with members of Congress. (Hill Day is June 8, as part of the June IBWA Board and Committee Meetings being held June 6-9, 2016, at the Hilton Alexandria Old Town in Alexandria, Virginia.) And for all of you who are looking for ways to become certified as a preventive controls qualified individual (PCQI)—a requirement of FDA’s Preventive Controls Rule—you’ll find lots of useful information about upcoming workshops in the Technical Update column (p.36).

Manager of Member Services Cheryl Bass-Briscoe cbass@bottledwater.org

Joe Doss IBWA President BWR

International Bottled Water Association

While adding coffee and ancillary items to product offerings might be a new interest for some bottlers, proper filtration has always been a top concern for the bottled water industry. In the wake of the Flint, Michigan, municipal water crisis, the public’s interest in water filtration techniques has understandably increased. Thus, this issue presents a special section, “Filtration 101” (p.15). This is a popular topic for IBWA members. In fact, the articles in this section present the material that was communicated to attendees of the highly rated educational session of the same name from the 2015 IBWA Annual Business Conference. We are fortunate that the representatives from the IBWA members who presented that session—3M Purification Inc. and Pall Corporation—also authored these articles for us.

As the articles in this issue of Bottled Water Reporter show, the industry is constantly striving to produce and offer quality products to our customers. It is because of that viable market in which we work that the bottled water industry is able to donate lifesaving bottled water to communities during times of need.




Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner jtoner@bottledwater.org Director of Science and Research Vacant Manager of Publications and Special Projects Sabrina E. Hicks shicks@bottledwater.org

Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Claire Crane ccrane@bottledwater.org Executive Assistant Patrice Ward ibwainfo@bottledwater.org Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod rozmack@gmail.com Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks shicks@bottledwater.org Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer stephanie@bottledwater.org

Better taste. Less waste. Enjoy your favorite blends and explore some of the best new coffee and tea brands, all available in a unique recyclable EcoCup capsule. Most of our capsules can be recycled now*. No need to compromise a great cup of coffee or the environment. TM


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Hood River County’s Measure 14-55 Pits Special Interests Against Cascade Locks Proposed legislation would set a dangerous precedent In the small town of Cascade Locks, located along the Columbia River in Hood River County, Oregon, there’s a battle brewing. A local initiative, Measure 14-55, has been put on the May 2016 ballot that would change the county’s charter to ban the commercial production and transportation of bottled water out of the county. The proponents of the measure tout this as a “water protection measure,” but they have made it clear that this is a direct attempt to ban the Nestlé Waters North America bottling plant project from moving forward. This measure has far-reaching impacts,

not only on this one project in this small town but also on the overall bottled water industry. Measure 14-55 sets a dangerous precedent for an anti-business, anti-economicdevelopment culture. This measure isn’t about water: it’s about misleading a community into passing an unfair and over-reaching action that takes away local control and overrules its decisionmaking authority; prevents millions of dollars in increased annual revenue to the city; and prevents 50 new, good-paying jobs in a town with unemployment at 19 percent. A local campaign, the Coalition for a Strong


DWRF Trustee to Mentor West Point Cadets Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) Trustee Stephen C. Edberg, PhD, ABMM, FAAM, has accepted a position as an adjunct professor in the Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. This is an unpaid position, as Dr. Edberg will not accept compensation from the Army. The appointment, which he’ll undertake in addition to his current work at Yale, DWRF, and other organizations, follows a lecture he gave to West Point Premedical Society (WPPMS) cadets on microbiology and engineering for rapid detection of microbes in water. Dr. Edberg’s lesson also reviewed detailed information about bottled water, an invaluable product for the armed services. “Water is essential,” he said, “and, where the Army goes, bottled water is of paramount importance.” Moreover, the Army establishes treatment and storage facilities that are inexpensive and easy to use, and available to the general population throughout the world. Dr. Edberg’s water test, 6



Cascade Locks, Oregon

Gorge Economy, has been working hard to oppose this measure, and it is asking for support in the final stretch. It needs financial contributions, contacts for local endorsements, locations for lawn signs, and more. Visit the campaign website— www.NoOn1455.com— where you can sign up to join

the coalition, donate personally or as a business, and find more information to help spread the word to your networks that Hood River County citizens need to Vote No on Measure 14-55 by May 17. For any questions, please contact the campaign at 541.200.6955 or info@ NOon1455.com.

Colilert®, has been recognized as saving the lives of 4 million children worldwide per year. Dr. Edberg entered the Army in the 42nd Rainbow Division in the Bronx and received an honorable discharge as field and evacuation medic (designation 91A10) from the 50th Armored Division from Buffalo, New York. In his role as adjunct professor at West Point, Dr. Edberg has proposed to be a mentor for WPPMS cadets and has offered them the opportunity to collaborate on research projects. Dr. Edberg is professor emeritus at Yale University in three departments: Laboratory Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Chemical Engineering. In addition to currently being a DWRF trustee, he is on the adjunct faculty in the Department of Pathology at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Dr. Edberg is the founder and chief scientist at the biotechnology firm Pilots Point LLC (www.pilotspoint.net). He has published more than 200 peer-reviewed articles and has 17 patents. Dr. Edberg has been recognized as a Distinguished Scientist for Foundational Applications in Clinical Microbiology. For more information on DWRF and its mission to educate the public about drinking water quality, production, and delivery, visit www.thefactsaboutwater.org.


How Does Your Fleet Measure Up? Beverage World magazine publishes results from annual vehicle trends survey In its March 2016 issue, Beverage World magazine published the results of its 33rd Annual Vehicle Trends Survey. Although survey participants included producers/bottlers and distributors of all beverage types with annual gross sales between less than $10 million to more than $50 million—the results provide benchmarks that will prove helpful to bottled water fleet managers. Here are a few of the notable trends: • Fleet sizes in 2015 stayed relatively the same as were reported in 2014, a year that capped off a 15-percent reduction in fleet size between 2010-2014. For 2015, producers/ bottlers reported a slight increase— about 4 percent. • Between 2010-2015, the number of beverage operators who leased vehicles grew significantly (i.e., approximately 10 percent). During 2015, about 40 percent stated they used leased vehicles. • Lower costs for traditional fuel seem to have dampened enthusiasm for alternative fuel vehicles. Noteworthy exceptions: natural gas and all-electric vehicles made gains over 2014. • Survey participants state that attracting and keeping qualified drivers is a top operational concern. So much so that many are looking to add to their fleets smaller vehicles that do not require CDL drivers. • Conversely, the use of larger trailers (e.g., 48-foot dry trailer) has been growing in the last five years, which reflects the impact of pallet-staged orders and the growing use of route optimization technology. • About half of all beverage operators surveyed run delivery vehicles for 10 or fewer years; less than a quarter run vehicles for 15 or more years.

• The most prevalent onboard technologies are geared to efficiency and safety. The No. 1 technology used? Remote vehicle tracking.

For more about Beverage World’s annual fleet survey, visit beverageworld.com.

Popular Onboard Technologies for Producers/Bottlers 50%













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[On May 8] Happy Mother’s Day! Let Mom know you love her—encourage her to stay properly hydrated with water! bit.ly/PoweredByHealthyHydration

SOCIAL ME MESSAGING DIA BOARD If you are looki ng for new and educate th

opportunities to

connect with co

nsumers , fe el free to share any of the follo wing on your so cial media site s during May and June—or b e inspired and write your own! The National Day of Outdoor Play em about bottle

d water issues

is May 21

If you are going to participate in Kids to Parks Day, don’t forget to take some #BottledWater with you to stay healthfully hydrated! bit.ly/BWatNPS

National Campaigns May: National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, National Barbecue Month, National Bike Month, American Stroke Month June: Great Outdoors Month, Men’s Health Month, National Safety Month

All #BottledWater containers are 100% recyclable! Be part of the solution #reduce #reuse #recycle instagram.com/p/05bjREKSow/ ?taken-by=bottledwatermatters

[On June 21] Let’s celebrate the Summer Solstice by drinking bottled water! As it heats up outside, don’t forget to stay properly hydrated with #BottledWater! Visit the site below to find out how much water you should be drinking. Staying properly hydrated could be the simplest stroke prevention intervention.

[On May 1-7] It’s National Drinking Water Week – choose #BottledWater as your packaged drink of choice! #HealthyHydration

Download: bit.ly/ReachingOurRecyclingPotential


www.pinterest.com/ pin/414964553142553618/ Stay #hydrated and #healthy by swapping sugar-sweetened beverages for zero #calorie #water! #tipoftheday #BottledWater #health #H2O #DrinkUp #regram @urh2o

Norman recycles. Do you?

[On May 27] It’s Heat Awareness Day! As it starts to heat up outside, remember that #water consumption plays a vital role in helping to regulate your body temp. #health #hydration #BottledWater instagram.com/p/vHISk2KSv4/ ?taken-by=bottledwatermatters

instagram.com/p/2TwswFKSnX/ ?taken-by=bottledwatermatters

Download: bit.ly/RoadHydration View: bit.ly/MeetNormanEp2

May is American Stroke Month. Could hydration improve stroke outcomes? Short answer: YES. bit.ly/HydrationImprovesStrokeOutcomes

June is Men's Health Month. Did you know that men find mental tasks more challenging when they are mildly dehydration. Keep mentally fresh— drink bottled water! www.pinterest.com/ pin/414964553143037293

Not feeling like yourself? You may be dehydrated, so grab a #BottledWater and #DrinkUp! #water #HealthyHydration instagram.com/p/1Iv0WpqSpr/?takenby=bottledwatermatters

[In June] It’s Great Outdoors Month! Time to get outside and have some fun! Stay #hydrated with #BottledWater www.youtube.com/ watch?v=EbQgIMfbKx8




[On May 27] Know the warning signs of heat stress, especially in elderly and pets. Drink #BottledWater. #HeatAwarenesDay #beattheheat www.cdc.gov/extremeheat/ warning.html

[On May 1-7] In honor of National Drinking Water Week, consider donating directly to local nonprofits serving Flint, Michigan. Go to www.good360.org/flint. #BottledWater #safedrinkingwater4all


More Members of Congress Support End to National Parks’ Bottled Water Sales Ban Policy On March 22, 2016, seven key members of Congress sent a letter to the heads of the U.S. House of Representative’s Interior Appropriations Committee urging an end to the National Park Service (NPS) bottled water sales ban policy. The letter, an effort led by Rep. Keith Rothfus (R-PA), whom IBWA worked with in 2015 to champion House amendment language to end the NPS bottled water sales ban policy, included critical support from Rep. Tom McClintock (R-CA), the chairman of the House Natural Resources Federal Lands Subcommittee (which has jurisdiction over the NPS), as well as Natural Resources Committee member Rep. Glenn (GT) Thompson (R-PA). Each member of Congress who signed the letter did so in part because of the education they received on the issue from their IBWA constituent bottled water companies back home, including DS Services, the Water Guy, PolyCycle Solutions, Tyler Mountain, Roaring Springs Bottling Company, and Creekside Springs. IBWA would like to thank these IBWA members for their support and efforts to keep their members of Congress updated on this issue.  On the Senate side, IBWA continues to meet with members of Congress to secure support for language to end the NPS bottled water sales ban policy in the Senate version of the FY 2017 funding bill. Sens. Steven Daines (R-MT) and Bill Cassidy (R-LA) recently requested that the Senate Interior Appropriations funding bill include such language. IBWA worked hard to ensure Sen. Cassidy was provided all the facts concerning the NPS bottled water sales ban policy. Sen. Cassidy is the chair of the National Park Subcommittee of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee and sits on the Interior Appropriations

Subcommittee, which is charged with funding the NPS. Sen. Daines also serves on both of these critical NPS funding and oversight committees. IBWA will continue to educate members of Congress about how the NPS policy, although perhaps well-intentioned, eliminates the healthiest bottled

beverage choice and, as stated in the March 22 letter, “provides minimal and unproven benefits at the expense of impairing access to healthy, clean bottled water.” Efforts by the IBWA membership are helping to generate more opposition against the unfair NPS bottled water sales ban policy.



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THE PERFECT COMBINATION How bottled water companies can get the most out of adding coffee service to their offerings By Ken Shea

Among the various roles that I have played in my 35-plus years in the coffee service and water industries, the most rewarding and challenging was that of operator. Although I was part of a large, national operation, my fiercest competition day in and day out came from the many smaller operators around the country that had owners who actively participated in the running of the business (and who were definitely not just custodial managers). I note this here to serve as notice that an operator's or bottler's relative size should not be a deterrent from looking beyond the 5-gallon bottle for growth opportunities in the world of coffee service.

Building a Customer Base Every home and office delivery (HOD) business is faced with the cost of acquiring new customers, even if the business is not in growth mode. Lost accounts must be replaced or soon you will be faced with route consolidation. But when considering adding brewed beverages to your routes, the good news is you already have customers. I am confident that every account receiving your bottled water deliveries, large or small, has a brewing appliance of some sort on location. Why shouldn’t you enjoy the extra revenue generated by coffee, tea, and the allied products at the customer base you already own? Ask your route drivers or sales personnel to explore how the demand for coffee is currently being met at their clients’ locations. More times than not, a competitor is servicing those accounts. Those vendors have the same opportunity as you. While most coffee service operators do not offer bottled water, almost every one has point-of-use systems in their portfolio of offerings. Consider your key performance indicators. When I was an operator, the No. 1 priority for my company was account retention; a close second was adding sales and profit at every location. Bottled water and coffee is the perfect combination to drive both of those numbers.

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WHY CONSIDER COFFEE SERVICE? • You have the customers. • Cost of entry is relatively low. • You can add profit per stop. • Menu management is easy. • Coffee service is operationally friendly. • You have the opportunity to profit by servicing small offices.

Small Offices, Big Opportunities Don’t overlook your small locations. While most coffee service operators historically have opted not to stop their trucks at offices with less than 20-25 full-time equivalent employees, bottled water service has a much lower bar. (One of the benefits of higher route density). At NAMA’s recent OneShow last April, attendees had the opportunity to see appliance solutions as low as $13.00 to meet that need. Consider the impact of adding more than $100.00 of revenue at an appropriate gross profit with no measurable capital expense! The most recent census bureau summary reports that there are more than 4 million offices with less than 20 employees. Most of those offices are not served by a route driver. Some order products online; many dispatch an employee to shop for the office, which takes away valuable productivity time. Although these small offices are continually being inundated with coffee cold callers, it seems logical that they’d have a more receptive attitude to a solution that could provide them bottled water and coffee service. If you attended the IBWA Annual Business Conference last year in Washington, DC—an event that collocated with NAMA’s CoffeeTeaWater show, you probably remember seeing on the trade show floor the full gamut of brewing systems and products available to satisfy larger offices. Batch brew, brew-by12



pack, whole bean hopper-based systems, and anything and everything you need to add coffee service to your business. Some of those same products can be customized to fit the small office environment.

Menu Management Trepidation and Other Fears A bottled water company with no coffee service presence will likely be fearful of expanding into brewed beverages. Concerns will center on space issues, mounting product receivables, and the timeliness of a return on the investment. Fortunately, the coffee service industry has evolved to a level whereby supply chain solutions exist that significantly minimize the downsides and exposure related to an expansion. In the early days of coffee service, direct manufacturer purchases were a must. Supplier minimums were high for those operator pioneers who were building their businesses from a zero base. Over time, distributors began to emerge that provided a relatively complete menu of products, allowing operators to consolidate their orders with only a modest (and fair) premium to pay. Today, a national network of distributors exists, and it does a tremendous job of not only making order consolidation an effortless process but also offering menu guidance and operating expertise in tandem with their suppliers. You can build an efficient operation today solely from the menu of offerings sourced from the distributor. Brewers, single cup

products, well-known retail and coffee shop brands in fractional packs and bulk, and a full complement of allied products can be sourced with modest minimums, delivered weekly to your warehouse. In fact, with brew by pack, some manufacturers are offering programs to sell direct, with minimum orders of less than $600. (Talk about a low barrier to entry!) At first, you might start offering your new coffee service to the smaller offices, where competition is not as ferocious and you can enjoy incremental profit per stop. You’ll notice that niche opportunities do exist. Over time, however, you’ll most likely be tempted to consider if, how, and when to expand. Perhaps you’ll even explore the idea of adding a private label line of coffee and becoming a major league coffee service operation.

Industry Trends During the last year or so, coffee service operators have reported a rapidly growing demand for amenities beyond the cup. Driven largely by the at-work expectations of millennials, snack sales are a growing part of the office-funded employee benefit package. Many offices have neither vending machines on location nor other options for grabbing an easily accessible, quick snack fix. While temperature control considerations could limit a bottled water operator’s ability to meet the demand for all types of snacks, numerous shelf-stable solutions are on the market with ample shelf life that can be sourced through the distributor and sold by the subpacks. Keep an eye on this opportunity. Another reality driven by millennials is the growing significance of ensuring that their money goes to products and causes that are eco-friendly. Supporting causes at coffee and tea growing countries of origin, environmentally friendly cups matter even more to this age group—the generation that now occupies more workplace seats than any

With Starbucks’ acquisition of Teavana, the demand for high-end, organic teas and tisanes is growing exponentially. You can notice this trend gaining ground in coffee shops around the country—so it follows that tea is becoming more popular in the office setting. No longer offered only in a teabag, teas are now available in packaging that brews directly from your single-cup brewer. Because the tea market offers a selection as diverse as your taste buds, everyone in the office can have what he or she wants: green tea, chamomile tea, chai tea, pure peppermint tea, or, the old standby, English breakfast black tea.

Other Considerations Adding coffee service to an HOD bottled water business, while not a terribly complex consideration, is certainly not a "lay down." Here are some other issues to consider when expanding into this area. Sales skills of route professionals. I spent more than a decade at Standard Coffee Service. Before we were acquired, we did not provide bottled water, only point-of-use systems. Our route personnel were service oriented and relatively efficient sales men and women, building the ticket at the accounts they serviced. The ones that enjoyed the most ticket building success were those who enjoyed customer interaction. The route persons that had the most selling success and remained on the payroll the longest were those who enjoyed the interaction and were motivated by having daily stop


other age group. When putting your menu together, make sure to review labels and look for eco-friendly badging. Because of the increasing demand, more office budget caretakers are willing to pay higher prices for those products.

goals (and the hard work that went with it). We also found that high organizational skills were a common attribute of the successful and longest tenured. When DS Services acquired Standard, we were blessed with the opportunity to consolidate routes, drive service efficiencies, and grow EBITDA, which we did in a big way. We moved some coffee accounts to water routes but little vice versa. In some cases, the move proved successful, but some water route professionals, for whatever reason, did not do as well. My contention was that the DNA of a coffee service route person differed from that of many bottled water route people. Some of our field generals agreed; some did not. I attribute my belief to my perceived differences of the daily tasks at hand for each role at that time. One role required more decision-making interaction in order to build the ticket; the other role was more “delivery-centric.”

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Great coffee and tea begin with great water. Regardless of what future forensics might confirm, it is necessary that your bottled water route salespeople understand and embrace your company’s decision to add brewed beverage service—and view the demonstrated, positive impact to earnings as a benefit. For you, the business manager, it is important to consider the following impacts to daily operations: •

Can I dedicate room on delivery trucks to house daily coffee supplies? Can I efficiently train up my bottled water professionals in the basics of coffee service—and do this quickly?

How will I handle coffee service calls?

Will the addition of coffee service reduce the number of stops my route salespeople can make? If so, how many stops are feasible?

Will I present this opportunity through my route professionals and/ or through dedicated sales persons?

Selling by the square foot. From my days in the distribution business, I have always been fascinated by the cubic dimension opportunity aspect of selling and delivering. We built a significant backhaul network that allowed us to recover much of our delivery costs by picking up products from multiple suppliers rather than dead-head back. We replicated that process when I moved to the operator desk. We did very well at both companies, backhauling coffee, tea, sugar, and creamer canisters, even large consolidated loads from our distributors. High dollars vs. cubic feet was the name of 14



the game. However, we found that picking up foam cups was of little benefit— even though we were going through multiple truckloads per month. I’d suggest that you consider the relative sales and profit opportunity that exists in dedicating one truck bay to coffee supplies vs. that of your bottled water products. I think this is an interesting way to consider adding to or growing your business.

A Synergetic Enterprise No doubt, you’ve noticed the many synergies that exist between bottled water and coffee route businesses. Having seen both types of businesses from the inside only confirms that fact for me to a greater degree. In the world of coffee service, we have witnessed multiple evolutions during the past four decades. Coffee consumption declined for a number of years only to be resurrected by the coffee shop wave that introduced better quality coffee and brought with it a new generation of coffee drinkers who were eager to pay as much as several dollars for their beverage. That change brought the opportunity for operators to present the “coffee shop in the office” concept to businesses. For that, I say thank you to Starbucks, Caribou, Peet’s, and many, many more coffee franchises. In the 1980s, we witnessed the beginning of an exodus from the glass coffee bowl in the office. (I think we can all agree that, after a half hour of sitting in the glass pot, the brew is quite different from what one tastes from a fresh pot directly after brewing is completed.) Air pots,

glass- or steel-lined gravity dispensers with thermal retention properties that eliminated the use of direct heat, proved to extend the life of the coffee in the vessel and maintain higher quality. Then, single cup coffee changed everything. When I was first presented with the Mars Drinks’ Flavia system in the early 1990s, I was convinced that no operator would ever pay as much as 50 cents per cup for a hot beverage. (I missed that one, but fortunately recovered!) Today, single cup dominates retail and coffee service. For operators, the raising of the bar of payment for a single cup allowed for same account sales and profit to more than double that of a batch brew of coffee. Office customers show little resistance to paying 70 cents per cup. A wise operator uses the cost per brew in a coffee shop comparison to illustrate the value proposition of coffee service. One of the biggest opportunities I see today is found in the world of the small office. Operators who bundle bottled water and brewed beverages sales with direct delivery at the appropriate interval could see quite large profit margins. Although other methods can meet those needs (e.g., office supply companies and Internet providers), many products are not parcel carrier friendly, namely bottled water. In the end, there’s really one slogan to remember and take motivation from: Great coffee and tea begin with great water. Ken Shea is an industry veteran who has served as a distributor, operator, consultant, and manufacturer. Through August 2015, he served as DS Services’ vice president of coffee development. Ken now supports national brokerage company G&J Marketing and Sales as vice president of coffee service. A contributing columnist for several magazines, he currently writes a Coffee Service Corner column for CoffeeTalk. In 2013, Ken was recognized as NAMA’s Coffee Service Operator of the Year.

1 0 1 N O I T A R T FIL

n st i e r e i n t e b ro k . d a s e n e w s crisis e r c in m n in e t h e syste ose of us 1” a n th nc 10 er how i o n s i c wat news to Filtration ays s “ i has f i l t r a t publ es is not cludes a d it's alw WA c i ubl a t e r igan’s techniqu istently in ings—an from IB . In p t s h The t l e d w t, Mic r filtration WA cons ess mee sentative t session es. a e n B b o t ut Flin of prop . In fact, I ual busi ar, repre sented th h attende e n e it y abo portanc r industr ng its an s. Last y ration pre shared w im o n uri ate orp they ssio The nd dw C e n l o e s l i l o i t a s t t a P lar es bo and form al s opu the . n n p i c o i e t n th os nI cat atio e m read edu c h n fi t i r a of Pu uc , yo 3M one w s r o l be t fol mem es tha pag the

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Safe drinking water is vital to our existence. It provides us with the hydration that every one of our organs needs to function properly. In bottled water, we have a convenient, portable water source that is very safe to consume when prepared correctly. Generally speaking, all potable water should be checked for four major impurity categories: metal contents, organic contaminants, solid particulates, and living organisms. The sidebar on page 18 presents a partial list of the potential contaminants that can be found in water. (For a comprehensive list, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s website: bit.ly/CDC_ WaterRelatedContaminants). The

removal of these contaminants to a safe, FDA-regulated level is critical. The following technologies can help reduce these contaminants to provide water that is safe to drink: activated carbon, reverse osmosis (RO), pH shift, and filtration. The most critical issue is bacterial contamination because detection usually takes between 24 to 48 hours after the product is shipped or perhaps consumed by the end-user. Due to that associated risk, implementing prevention strategies is obviously a primary concern for water bottlers. The current strategies for quality failures are expensive (e.g., recalls) and could significantly diminish brand value and loyalty.

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WATERBORNE BACTERIAL DISEASES AND CONTAMINANTS Below is a list from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) website identifying waterborne bacterial diseases and contaminants.

• Aeromonas hydrophila

• Leptospira

• Burkholderia cepacia complex

• Leptospirosis

• Buruli Ulcer

• Mycobacterium avium complex

• Campylobacter

• Mycobacterium ulcerans

• Campylobacteriosis

• Otitis Externa

• Chlamydia trachomatis *

• Plesiomonas shigelloides

• Cholera

• Pontiac Fever

• Cyanobacteria

• Pseudomonas

• Dental Caries *

• Salmonella

• Dermatitis (see also Hot Tub Rash)

• Salmonella typhi

• Diarrhea • Diarrhea, Chronic • Diarrhea, Travelers’ • Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (E. coli) • Folliculitis (see also Hot Tub Rash) • Hot Tub Rash • Legionnaires’ Disease • Legionella • Legionellosis

• Salmonellosis • Shigella • Shigellosis • Staphylococcus aureus • Swimmer’s Ear * • Trachoma * • Typhoid Fever • Vibrio cholerae • Vibrio cholerae non-01 • Vibrio parahaemolyticus • Vibrio vulnificus

For a comprehensive list of water-related diseases, contaminants, and injuries by type, visit the CDC website: bit.ly/CDC_WaterRelatedContaminants. * Denotes sanitation and hygiene-related diseases. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.




Preventing Bacterial Contamination Below are several strategies for reducing bacterial contamination: Quality water source. Your water source (whether municipal, well, or natural spring water) should have very low bacteria counts. By starting with good quality water, you can prevent significant issues once that water is introduced to the bottling plant. When the internal surfaces of pipes, fittings, valves, gauges, and beds are contaminated with bacteria, it can be difficult to remove the contaminants from the system because they start to multiply quickly. That’s why prevention methods are worth your time and investment. If bacterial contaminants move throughout your bottling process, the remediation cost increases and obviously reaches its highest level if it ever enters the bottle and is consumed by the end-user. Regular effective CIP. It is inevitable that before any source water reaches your plant that bacteria will somehow be introduced to it. Thus, having a sanitary system design is important in order to meet 3-A Sanitary Standards (i.e., standards developed and maintained for dairy and food processing equipment and systems). Performing regular clean-in-place (CIP) procedures (i.e., cleaning the interior surfaces of pipes, processing equipment, filters, etc., without disassembly) is also important to keep bacteria counts down. CIP procedures have three major characteristics: chemical potency, high temperature, and effective residence time. Bacterial contamination from air prevention. Water treatment and packaging usually requires storage in silos. When the water is pumped into and out of the silos, air is also displaced into and out of the silos. If air is not introduced into the silo, a vacuum is created when the water is pumped out, which could lead to silo implosion.


However, the air that is brought into the silo needs to be sterile (i.e., free of bacteria). Passing the intake air through a sterilizing grade hydrophobic membrane filter is a necessity. The hydrophobic membrane filter repels the condensed water from the air and keeps the pore open, thus avoiding airflow blockage. Water filtration using microporous membrane filters. Passing water through a final membrane filter, such as the one shown at right, is a good process to have in place to avoid having any bacteria enter the bottle. The common membrane filtration choices are 0.45 and 0.2 micrometer (µm) filters, which are available as either log reduction grade or sterilizing grade filters. The log reduction grade filters remove bacteria between 102-106 colony forming units/per centimeter squared (CFU/cm2). These filters do not provide sterile product. In contrast, the sterilizing grades filters are capable of totally retaining a challenge level of 107 CFU/cm2 according to ASTM F 838-05, the standard test method for determining bacterial retention of membrane filters utilized for liquid filtration. The risk of passing bacteria into the final product is reduced by using a sterilizing grade 0.2 µm filter. Because membranes cannot differentiate between particles and bacteria of the same size, they hold back both. If significant quantities of fine particles larger than 0.2 µm are present in the water, premature membrane filter life is experienced. Therefore, final filters need a pre-filter for their protection. The pre-filters, if design appropriately based on water particle analysis, can take a significant amount of contaminant load off the final filters, thereby increasing the useful life of the more expensive final membrane filters. Balancing the con-

Passing water through a microporous membrane filter (microstructure shown here) helps reduce product bacteria levels.

BALANCING THE CONTAMINANT LOAD BETWEEN THE PRE- AND FINAL FILTERS PROVIDES OVERALL COST OPTIMIZATION. taminant load between the pre- and final filters provides overall cost optimization. Integrity testing of membrane filters. Final filters should be integrity tested upon installation, after each hot water sanitization, and after CIP procedures. (To view a 3M-produced YouTube video showing step-by-step instructions for installing membrane filters, visit bit.ly/3M_

InstallMembraneFilters.) If performed correctly, the integrity test should reveal any potential damages, wear, and leaks in the final filtration process. If a membrane filter fails the integrity test, any damage may be the result of, to name a few examples, overexposure to high temperatures, over pressurization of the filter, or chemical attack. Membrane filters are composed of billions of pores, and there is no easy and practical method of ensuring that all of those pores remain sound except by employing an integrity test. The integrity test can be easily performed by completely wetting the filters while they are in the filter housing and pressurizing the upstream of the housing to the manufacturer’s test pressure—and then monitoring the pressure drop over a period of time. This method is known as a pressure hold test (PHT). Each membrane design has a volumetric diffusion rate for air that is also provided by the membrane filter manufacturer. Several training videos are available online that explain how to properly run MAY/JUN 2016



HOW TO CALCULATE PRESSURE DROP Using Boyle's Law, you can calculate your installation's pressure drop using the following equation: cc




Diffusion volume per filter per minute ( min ) # of filters Test time (min)

Vupstream (cc)

.14.7 (psig)

Where ΔP = the maximum allowable pressure loss.

an integrity test, including one by 3M at bit.ly/3M_IntegrityTestHowTo.

Calculating Pressure Hold Value PHT values are dependent on the volume of the specific filter housing employed and the volume of all upstream piping from the shut-off valve to the filter housing, less the volume of the installed cartridges. Therefore, the upstream volume of each installation must be determined on a case-by-case basis. Using Boyle’s law, you can calculate the pressure drop using the following equation—where P1 is the starting pressure as specified by the manufacturer, P2 is the upstream housing pressure at the end of set time, V1 is the upstream volume of the housing, and V2 is the expected volume of air lost at atmospheric pressure per filter per period:

V1 . P1 = V1.P2 + V2 . 14.7 V1 . (P1 - P2) = V2 . 14.7 V1 . ∆P = V2 . 14.7 ∆P = V2/V1 . 14.7 The 14.7 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) is the local atmospheric pressure and should be adjusted for the local barometric pressure where the device is used. The above equation can be rewritten as depicted in the sidebar above. 20



TO ENSURE THAT YOU ARE PRODUCING AND PACKAGING HIGH-QUALITY WATER, IT IS OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE THAT YOU UTILIZE MICROPOROUS MEMBRANE FILTRATION. The actual pressure drop for the above test can be assessed using an automated integrity test device. (You can view examples of a handheld device at www. solutions.3m.com.) Each housing can be programed based on its specifics and called up when testing is needed. The test results will be stored, traced, and printed as hardcopy for quality assurance.

How Membrane Filtration Helps Identify Other Operational Issues To ensure that you are producing and packaging high-quality water, it is of paramount importance that you utilize microporous membrane filtration. Using a membrane as your final filtration step is not enough. Why? Because the membrane could easily be overwhelmed by fine particles—and lead to a short filter life. You should select an appropriate pre-filter that can remove

the fine silt particles and help provide a long filter life for the final membrane. To verify the operation of the final membrane, you should regularly conduct an integrity test. In addition, by utilizing a functioning final membrane you magnify other potential operational issues at your plant. Those issues could include bio-film formation indicating bacteria activity in the line, carbon fines and particulate generation from carbon or other purification towers, source water quality changes, improper pre-filter selection, and other processing malfunctions.

Majid Entezarian, PhD, is a senior technical specialist at 3M Purification Inc. and a member of the IBWA Technical and Educational Committees (solutions.3m.com). Contact him at mentezarian@mmm.com.

ProStack 速 & Polymer Solutions International, Inc. Where Ideas Become Solutions

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Optimizing a filter process line can help improve product quality, increase process efficiency, and protect your brand’s priceless reputation. But are you aware of all the important technical filtration and quality monitoring considerations you must make to comply with regulatory requirements and reduce risk without compromising quality? Filters are commonly used in the bottled water industry to preserve required product quality attributes—such as optical clarity, visible particulate removal, microbiological stability, and organoleptic (e.g., taste and odor) quality. Filters, depending on their classification and rating, can remove inorganic matter (e.g., diatomaceous earth, sand, and rust); colloids (e.g., dispersed particles and gels); and microbes (e.g., mold, yeast, and bacteria). Additional treatment can aid the removal of organic matter and mineral salts. Figure 1 on page 24 shows the relative sizes of contaminants to be removed

in the bottled water production process. Because bottlers can remove the majority of particles and microbes with microfiltration, this article focuses on that, particularly the removal of particulates and microbes greater than 0.1 micron in size. Filters used by the bottled water industry are fit for purpose, which means they have been designed to handle certain removal needs. There’s quite a bit for bottlers to consider when buying and using a filter. Filter removal efficiency must be reviewed, along with process specifications. It’s critically important to discuss with your filter supplier your filtration


Remove contamination to obtain a predefined level of cleanliness

Prevent contaminants from entering the process stream

Adsorb chemical components (e.g., chlorine removal from municipal water sources)

Recover solid materials that can be in the product

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Visible to the eye Cysts & Oocysts


Carbon Fines

40 μM

10 μM

40 μm 1 μM

Bacteria Colloids

μm or micron 1 millionth of a meter 39 millionths of an inch


0.1 μM 100 kD

0.01 μM

1kD = 1000 Daltons Molecular weight for proteins

20 kD

1 kD

Metal Ions

Soluble Salts

Insecticides Antibiotics

0.001 μM

0.2 kD

0.0001 μM Source: Pall Corporation Copyright 2016 by Pall Corporation







concerns, including regeneration and sanitization issues, so that the filter you select will be suitable for your overall bottling process. Surveying your bottling plant and its processes with a holistic view allows for a more effective approach in evaluating control and process optimization points. Figure 2 provides an example of an overall process. Your process may differ slightly based on the incoming water source and the type of product being bottled. Essentially, large particles and small particles are removed first, then colloids (if the source is karstic), and, lastly, microbes before bottling. In addition, gas, CO2, and waste water may be filtered to help ensure foreign contamination does not enter the process stream. If you store your source water, you should consider using vent filters to protect the water from environmental contamination. If your plant produces flavored products, it’s critical to verify that anything added into the process (e.g., gas and flavorings) is not contaminated.


FIGURE 2. SAMPLE FILTRATION PROCESS Focus on Process Control and Product Protection Filtration of Gaseous Feed Streams

Integrated Solutions

Final Filtration for Microbial & Colloidal Control Filling

Upstream Process

Filtration of Liquid Feed Streams/ Water to Reduce Particulates


e.g., Flavor or Ingredient Addition

Filtration of Process Fluids

Waste Fluid Filtration

Source: Pall Corporation Copyright 2016 by Pall Corporation

Think about your particular process map. Where are the fluid quality management points, and how are they controlled? Those points are different from Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). Fluid quality management points allow you to optimize the process economically. An example would be the use of a pre-filter to protect a more expensive final microbially-validated membrane cartridge filter. Other examples you may consider include the following:

Think about your particular process map. Where are the fluid quality management points, and how are they controlled?

incoming water quality

multimedia, resin, or carbon fines downstream

final fluid specification

colloidal material (if your source is karstic)

addition of ingredients/materials processing

seasonal variation in water

processing and filling equipment

utility monitoring.

wear on the final filter (which reduces the change outs of final filters and cleaning of reverse osmosis units and other processing equipment).

What are you trying to protect? For water, you may be protecting downstream processing equipment and, of course, the final product. By opting to use pre-filters, you have the benefit of reducing the following:

Which filters should be changed out more often? Final filters are typically more expensive and require more careful handling; therefore, it is desired to change those filters less often than pre-filters.

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How to Choose a Final Filter When deciding which type of final filter to use, you must first determine the final product’s specification. Most often, the membrane filters used at the final filtration stage have a microbial removal claim. That claim may be for a sterilizing grade filter or may be a log reduction grade. A microbial rating is not an indication of the largest opening or pore in the filter; rather, it is an indication of the level of microbial removal the filter is qualified to provide. (Note: European mineral water regulations specifically control the filtration methods that can be utilized.)


Before choosing the best final filter to use at your plant, here are a few things to consider:

After implementing a different cartridge pre-filter technolgy

Is the filter compatible with your process?

What is your cleaning in place (CIP) regime?

How often does the line run (24/7)?

What are the storage and handling protocols?

What are the desired flow rates and is there potential source variability?

Because the mechanical stability of the filter is important when selecting a filter cartridge, will it experience multiple steam sterilization cycles?

Do you sanitize with hot water or chemicals?

What’s the maximum pressure at high temperature the filter should withstand?

Is there significant pulsation upstream of the filling unit?

A recent Pall study reviewed the effects of using pre-filter technology at a water bottling plant that had eight boreholes feeding into standard cartridges into four bottling lines.

Before prefiltration • change out monthly

• change out quarterly • improved flow rates and production time • decreased maintenance

Prefiltration benefits

• Optimal filter: lower differential pressure • Longer filter life: fewer change outs, which frees up operator time and can increase production • Bigger picture: maintained or improved quality, improved (reduced) annual spend per gallon/volume, and increased production per year

MICROBIAL REMOVAL GRADES Sterilizing grade filters remove >107 B. diminuta (model organism) per cm2 of the filter area

Micro-reducing grade filters focus on removal per filter area of industry relevant organisms

• Defined in "FDA Guidelines on Sterile Products Produced by Aseptic Processing (1987)"

• Will have a correlated integrity test

• Correlated to an integrity test • Provide an effluent with 0 recoverable challenge organisms




• May sometimes provide an effluent with 0 recoverable challenge organisms, but routinely passes a percentage of these microorganisms (log reduction) • Provide a stable product under recommended conditions











Based on your answers to questions regarding specification, process compatibility, and removal goals, a filtration system may be the appropriate approach.

MASS SPECTROMETRY The System Solution Based on your answers to questions regarding specification, process compatibility, and removal goals (e.g., high source variability), a filtration system—instead of a series of housings with disposable filter elements—may be the appropriate approach. Answering questions about the process and working directly with your filtration supplier can help you make the best economic processing decision for your company. Hollow fiber or other continuous microfiltration systems can remove contaminants from surface and groundwater sources to reduce turbity and bacterial levels, and remove cysts and oocysts. Such systems should be considered when the flow rate is high [>100 gallons per minute (gpm)] and the final membrane filter change out is frequent. In addition, you may consider this type of system when there is colloidal material in the feed water, the disposable prefilter economics are unsustainable, or there is seasonal varation from the source. This technology has been shown to provide a 28 percent cost improvement by effectively protecting the reverse osmosis unit.

Quality: The Big Picture The Oxford Dictionary defines “quality” as “the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.” Bottled water producers can set quality specifications to monitor aspects of the process, including the product, any ingredients you may add, the source water, the equipment used, and any utilities that feed into the process. Many different quality monitoring measurements can be implemented into a process. Here are a few examples: Integrity testing (IT) is a recommended quality monitoring technique for the final filtration stage of the process. Filter integrity testing, for those filters with IT values correlated to microbial removal, confirms the filter efficiency is as specified by the manufacturer and the filtrate quality as claimed. It helps to protect your process and product as well as guide troubleshooting of contamination events. Among the most overlooked sources for microbial contamination are sampling ports or other fittings with threaded connections.

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TRADITIONAL BOTTLED WATER MICROBIOLOGY Microbiological testing is performed to ensure that what you don't want present in the product or environment is not there. Testing methods include Multiple Tube Fermentation or Most Probably Number, membrane filter method, and real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.

Multiple Tube Fermentation or Most Probably Number • Presence of coliform is indicated by turbidity in a culture media, pH change, and/or presence of gas. Results are then compared with statistical tables. (1-2 days)

Membrane Filter Method • Direct count of coliform or organism by filtering sample through membrane and placing membrane on growth media. (~18 h) • Then the number of physical bacteria colonies that grow are counted.

Real-time or Quantitative PCR • Looks for microorganisms by their DNA. —e.g., Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas, Legionella, etc. • As little as 3 hours to result. • Benefits of PCR: rapid, sensitive, and specific.

Documentation is critical to any quality system. Maintenance of process quality records and batch record keeping helps prove your process is doing what you say it does. Some of the documentation you may ask for from your filtration suppliers include filter qualification information, technical performance reports, a datasheet, and a Declaration of Compliance to food contact regulations. In the lab, quality monitoring includes testing to make sure the product meets chemical, physical, and microbiological standards. Microbiological testing is performed to ensure that what you don't want present in the product or environment is not there. Traditional methods include the use of Most Probably Number (MPN) – Multiple Tube Fermentation or filter membrane plating techniques. There are newer molecular methods available that include real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. (See the sidebar above for more information.) Molecular methods are currently utilized in the food industry for product release. The area is advancing and 28



includes genetic sequencing to trace foodborne illness outbreaks more quickly. As you optimize your process and quality monitoring systems, don’t be afraid to ask your filtration supplier questions. Having a good relationship with your filter supplier can help you optimize your processes more quickly. Danielle Wedral is an applications scientist with Pall Food & Beverage SLS Global Technical Support with experience in biotechnology, PCR application support, and the beverage industry. She currently serves on the IBWA Technical Committee: danielle_wedral@pall.com. Lisa M. Madsen, PhD, is the Pall Food & Beverage Global Product Manager for standard cartridge products. She works with a wide range of food and beverage customers and is responsible for Pall’s Food Contact Compliance program.

Safer water, lower cost The Pall Aria™ FB Continuous Microfiltration System enables water bottlers to produce high purity water at lower operating costs. • Consistent effluent quality regardless of variable source quality • Typical reduction: 4-6 log bacteria, up to 3 log virus • Reduced OPEX for downstream RO membranes • Automated processes maximize production time

0.1 micron hollow fiber membrane

Calculate Pall Aria System cost savings for your process! Call 1-866-905-7255

“The Senator Will See You Now” How IBWA members can prepare for a meeting with their elected officials on Capitol Hill By Kristin Pearson Wilcox, IBWA Vice President of Government Relations, and J.P. Toner, IBWA Director of Government Relations

Summer is right around the corner, and we have longer, warmer days ahead of us. It’s a great time for firing up the grill, weekends at the beach, and maybe even a family vacation to Washington, DC. IBWA offers a great opportunity for members to combine work and play this June. IBWA will hold its June Board and Committee Meetings on June 6-9, 2016, along with one of our biggest government relations events of the year—Hill Day—on Wednesday, June 8. What can members do to prepare for their meetings with members of 30



Congress? First, be on the lookout for Splash e-newsletter articles and emails from IBWA containing information about how to participate in Hill Day. Members who are unable to attend the board and committee meetings throughout the week are still welcome to join us on Hill Day, as we take to the halls of Congress to educate our elected officials about the issues important to the bottled water industry. Second, you can participate in the pre-Hill Day webinar that covers industry issues; the ins and outs of business in Washington, DC;

and how to prepare for a meeting with your elected officials. (Webinar details will be shared with IBWA members soon.) Third, make your travel plans to come to our nation’s capital—and bring your family! To help you prep for these meetings, we’ve created the following primer. Simply tear out the script on the following page and keep it with you, so you have a handy resource that covers the issues important to the bottled water industry. We look forward to seeing you and will do all we can to make sure you have a memorable day on the Hill.

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Industry Issues to Discuss NPS Policy Allowing Parks to Ban the Sale of Single-Serve Plastic Water Bottles •

My company is concerned about a 2011 National Park Service (NPS) policy allowing national park units to ban the sale of bottled water in single-serve plastic containers. This policy may deprive visitors of healthy hydration options and contradicts the Administration’s ambitious healthy foods initiative as well as the First Lady’s efforts to encourage people to drink more water. Industry research shows that when bottled water isn’t available, 63 percent of people will choose soda or another sugary drink—not tap water. The NPS has admitted that parks are not tracking whether the bottled water sales ban is reducing waste or benefits visitors. Bottled water’s environmental footprint is the lowest of any packaged beverage. In response to concerns about the sales ban, Congress directed the NPS to submit a report to justify the action by 19 parks to ban the sale of bottled water.

My trade association has studied the policy and found that it arbitrarily singles out bottled water and cannot be justified. I would like to leave that report with you and ask that you support overturning the bottled water sales ban policy as discriminatory and ineffective, and direct the NPS to develop an effective and fair recycling program. (To read IBWA’s report, visit www.bottledwater.org/ public/Advocacy.pdf.)


Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) has introduced a bill (S. 821) that would require food product packaging containing bisphenol A (BPA) to include that information on the label. These attempts to ban or require the labeling of food containers made of polycarbonate plastic, which contains BPA, are concerning. BPA has been safely used for more than 50 years in many plastic food containers. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—as well as food regulatory agencies in Canada,

Europe, Japan, and New Zealand— have found BPA to be safe. Single-serve bottled water containers are made from PET, a plastic that does not contain BPA. However, many in the home and office delivery segment of the bottled water industry use containers made of polycarbonate plastic, which contains BPA. Replacement of existing BPA container inventories with other plastic containers for many home and office bottled water companies is not viable in terms of costs and technology. Please oppose efforts to ban or mandate labeling requirements for food product packaging that contains BPA.

FDA Funding •

My company supports adequate funding for FDA so that the agency can implement regulations for the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) without imposing fees or regulatory taxes on the industry. FDA regulates products representing almost 25 percent of consumer spending and includes 80 percent of our nation’s food supply. Food

CAPITOL HILL INTRODUCTIONS When people first meet their elected officials, they are sometimes at a loss for how to start a conversation. Here’s a suggestion. • Hi my name is _____________________. My company is _______, and we make __________ [products/brands] in _________ [name your state(s)] and have ___________ [total number of] employees. • I am here with the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), which represents all different types of bottled water products, including spring, mineral, artesian, and purified bottled water and makers of retail small-pack and 3- to 5-gallon water cooler containers for homes and offices. IBWA also represents suppliers of equipment used to produce and distribute bottled water products. • The total economic impact of the bottled water industry is over 115 billion dollars. • We are committed to working with the FDA, which regulates bottled water as a packaged food product. My company adheres to stringent government and industry standards for safe, high-quality bottled water. I’d like to speak with you about some of the issues that are important to my industry.

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safety is a national priority and is an essential part of national defense. Bottled water producers, which are strictly regulated by the FDA, supported passage of FSMA. Our industry is preparing for, and complying with, FSMA’s requirements. Nonetheless, complying with FSMA will cost the bottled water industry and FDA hundreds of millions of dollars. The Administration’s budget request includes a little over $25 million for food safety, but it would also require expensive user fees for food facility registration and inspections. Ninety percent of IBWA’s members are small businesses with annual sales of less than $10 million. Regulatory user fees would have a significant negative financial impact on my company and our industry. Please support strong funding for FDA’s food safety work and oppose the imposition of user fees and regulatory taxes on the bottled water industry.

Responses to Give If Asked About… Water Scarcity •



The bottled water industry has been discussed in connection with recent drought conditions in California, and some activists are seeking restrictions on the use of water to produce bottled water. Contrary to their false claims, bottled water is not a significant contributor to the drought. The amount of water and energy used to produce bottled water products is less than all other types of packaged beverages. Bottled water accounts for only 0.01 percent of the annual water used in the United States. That is the amount of water that Los Angeles uses in only four weeks. IBWA members across the country are good stewards of water and the WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

environment and are making even more strides to enact conservation strategies at their facilities. In addition, bottled water companies are stepping forward to provide bottled water to communities where local water supplies have run dry, as they do during other natural disasters, such as hurricanes, wild fires, and earthquakes. While we currently do not have an industry position on federal drought legislation, we believe proposals to reduce water usage in times of drought should be comprehensive and treat all users equally. Please oppose any efforts to unfairly single out bottled water for water-use restrictions.

Environmental Concerns •

Municipal Water Safety •

The members of IBWA continue to respond to the ongoing crisis in Flint, Michigan, and other communities where lead has contaminated the public water supply for more than 100,000 families, as well as schools and businesses. IBWA member companies are donating millions of bottles of bottled water to Flint alone. In times of crisis, bottlers coordinate with state, county, and municipal emergency management agencies and emergency relief partners. Per FDA regulations, bottled water is tested for lead annually (at a minimum). Testing for microbiological contaminants must be done weekly. However, most bottled water companies test their source water and finished product far more frequently, even daily. On a gallon-for-gallon basis, the frequency of FDA-required testing for bottled water is 20-30 times more than the Environmental Protection Agency’s required testing for tap water in large communities such as Flint.

Our industry supports strong municipal water systems because bottled water companies that produce purified water products often use municipal water sources. Once the municipal source water enters a bottled water plant, however, several processes—including reverse osmosis, deionization, and filtration—are employed to ensure that it meets FDA standards. Please ensure that America has a strong municipal water supply and oppose any efforts to unfairly single out bottled water for water-use restrictions.

Annual bottled water production accounts for less than 0.02 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn in the United States each year. Even with continuing growth and increased consumption, bottled water still has the smallest water and energy use footprint of any packaged beverage. Our industry is a strong supporter of recycling. We encourage the development of effective and innovative locally-focused curbside and awayfrom-home recycling programs. Those programs provide bins Americans can use during day-to-day consumption of products in plastic containers, like bottled water, and for amped up efforts in times of crisis, such as in Flint.

See You June 8 If you have questions about IBWA’s June Hill Day, please contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Kristin Pearson Wilcox (kwilcox@ bottledwater.org) or Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner (jtoner@bottledwater.org). Inquiries regarding IBWA’s June Board and Committee meetings should be directed to Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell (mcampbell@bottledwater.org).

Café Valet®—Easy, delicious coffee, every time.

With the push of a button, the patented Café Valet Single-Serve Coffee System delivers a great-tasting, 10 oz. cup of coffee in just minutes. The brewer’s compact footprint, simple operation and low maintenance make it perfect for virtually any setting … and make the Café Valet program a great fit with water and other consumable programs. Key features of the Café Valet program include: • Proprietary, pre-packaged, disposable brew baskets, ordered through their supplier • A sturdy, reliable brewer that requires no service calls and is UL approved • Consistently fresh, delicious coffee that keeps coffee drinkers coming back for more When you add it all up—taste, convenience, value, durability—you see why the Café Valet Single-Serve Coffee System is a great investment for your organization. Contact your G & J sales associate or customer service at 727-785-0066 to learn how you can bundle Café Valet with your current program

Bottled Water, Flint, and Being There When Needed By Chris Hogan, IBWA Vice President of Communications

On March 23, 2016, an independent panel reported that the public water system crisis in Flint, Michigan, “is a story of government failure, intransigence, unpreparedness, delay, inaction and environmental injustice” (bit.ly/ FlintReport_IndPanel). The panel, appointed by Michigan Governor Rick Snyder, concluded that the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality held “primary responsibility for the water contamination in Flint.” As the effects of this preventable crisis continue to impact Flint residents, the bottled water industry has stepped in 34



to provide bottled water for the city’s beleaguered residents.

Aid Without Fanfare Working in coordination with state, county, and municipal emergency management agencies and emergency relief partners (e.g., Convoy of Hope), IBWA member companies continue to donate bottled water, with nearly 3 million bottles donated as of press time. Bottled water companies have been coordinating their product donations through the Food Bank of Eastern Michigan and directly with the City of Flint. In addition,

IBWA member Nestlé Waters North America—along with Walmart, Coke, and Pepsi—announced they would provide up to 6.5 million bottles of water to approximately 10,000 Flint public school students through the end of 2016. Drinking water crisis situations like Flint (or even natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, wildfires, etc.) present a bit of a public relations sticky wicket for the bottled water industry. Water bottlers want those in need to know what resources and products are available to them, but they don’t want to be seen as profiting from

COMMUNICATIONS a crisis. Thus, most companies making bottled water donations, a lot of them IBWA members, do not draw extra attention to their philanthropic efforts. (In fact, IBWA is aware that many of our members have donated bottled water products to Flint; however, some wish to remain anonymous.) But their efforts are commendable. IBWA members immediately rerouted trucks and coordinated with local suppliers to provide Flint residents with safe, clean bottled water.

Getting Information Out While our members can choose to keep quiet about their individual product contributions, IBWA has an important role to play in keeping people up to date on the bottled water industry’s response to Flint. Thus, we created a Bottled Water & Flint webpage: www.bottledwater.org/bottledwater-flint. That page provides not only updates on the bottled water industry’s Flint-related activities but also fact-based information about lead regulations for both bottled water and public water systems, testing, and recycling. To communicate the industry’s response to Flint, IBWA is also utilizing traditional and social media. We’ve issued two press releases, been interviewed by numerous news outlets, and provided journalists with bottled water and lead regulation facts. We also sent a letter to Governor Snyder and Flint Mayor Karen Weaver offering our assistance.

Supporting Public Water Systems One fact journalists and our critics are often surprised to learn is that the bottled water industry has always supported a strong U.S. public water system. Not only does it provide citizens with clean and safe water for consumption and household tasks (e.g., cleaning laundry, cooking, bathing, etc.) but also public municipal water is often used by the industry as a source for purified bottled water products—a fact we’ve never

hidden. However, it is important to note that purified bottled water is not “just tap water in a bottle.” Once the source water enters the bottled water plant, several processes are employed to ensure that it meets U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for purified water. The finished water product is then sealed in a bottle under sanitary conditions and sold to the consumer.

IN TIMES OF NEED, THE BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY IS READY TO HELP. IBWA also supported President Obama’s signing of the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014. That important legislation supports a strong American public water infrastructure and created the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Authority (WIFIA). That program will provide low-interest federal loans to communities to help reduce the cost of financing large water and wastewater infrastructure projects.

organization that utilizes public-private partnerships to improve recycling at the local level and make recycling easier for Americans. It supports community recycling programs in their efforts to be more accessible and efficient, and engages the full recycling supply chain— everyone from the local government to industry end markets, haulers, material recovery facilities, and converters. IBWA is also a member of the Michigan Recycling Partnership and supports the innovative Recycle By Design program backed by Governor Snyder. That program incentivizes and accelerates the development and implementation of innovative strategies to increase overall recycling in Michigan.

Continue to Help Ultimately, the message is this: in times of need, the bottled water industry is able to help—no matter what the situation: public water crises, hurricanes, earthquakes, manmade disasters, etc. To remain ready and able to send out truckloads of bottled water at a moment’s notice, however, there must be a viable commercial marketplace that supports its production. Any efforts to reduce the commercial viability of bottled water could seriously threaten its availability during emergency situations, such as Flint, Michigan.

Recycling in Flint and Beyond With the rapid influx of bottled water into Flint, how best to recycle the increased number of empty plastic containers became an important issue for the city. IBWA has long encouraged the development of effective and innovative locally-focused curbside and away-from-home recycling programs. We are a member of The Recycling Partnership, which recently took over the management of recycling efforts in Flint. The Partnership is an innovative

FEDERAL REGULATIONS FOR LEAD IN DRINKING WATER You can learn more about the federal regulations for lead in drinking water by visiting the Drinking Water Research Foundation’s website: www. thefactsaboutwater.org/ask-theexperts/lead-and-drinking-waterfor-children.

MAY/JUN 2016



PCQI Workshops: What to Expect By Bob Hirst, IBWA Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations and FDA-certified PCQI Lead Instructor 36



The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) final rule for Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Hazard Analysis, and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food (i.e., the Preventive Controls Rule) includes a requirement that food facilities have preventive controls qualified individuals (PCQIs) on staff. To help members comply with that new requirement, IBWA is offering numerous PCQI workshops around the country in 2016 and 2017. In fact, IBWA already debuted two workshops last April: one in the Atlanta area and the other in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania area. FDA’s Preventive Controls Rule states its requirement for PCQIs as follows: Many activities required by the final rule must be conducted (or overseen) by a preventive controls qualified individual, a new term we are coining here. A preventive controls qualified individual (PCQI) is a qualified individual who has successfully completed certain training in the development and application of risk-based preventive controls or is otherwise qualified through job experience to develop and apply a food safety system. To date, FDA has not released specific guidance on how to determine if someone is qualified through job experience. If you choose to pursue a qualification through experience, you will need to work with your FDA inspector(s). However, if you choose to attend training to be certified as a PCQI, you may do so by completing one of IBWA’s PCQI workshops. After completion, you will receive a certificate that you can provide to FDA inspectors as documentation that the facility is in compliance with the Preventive Control Rule’s requirement that each facility have a PCQI on staff.

Workshop Details After arriving and signing in at the workshop location, you will receive a 524-page participant manual and a

TECHNICAL UPDATE FUTURE PCQI WORKSHOPS IN 2016 IBWA currently has PCQI workshops scheduled for the following locations: • May 11-13: Minneapolis (Plymouth), MN • May 24-26: Los Angeles (Ontario), CA • September 14-16: Phoenix, AZ area • September/October: Portland, OR area • Month TBD: St. Louis, MO area The Food Safety Preventive Controls Alliance has mandated that registration is limited to 30-35 per workshop, so register early to assure a place at the worktable!

PCQI workbook. The classroom will be set up with circular tables, each one for a working group. You will work with that group throughout the 2.5 day workshop. Each group will receive sample food safety plans from which to work. To date, the Food Safety Preventive Controls Alliance (FSPCA), the developers and maintainers of the PCQI curriculum, has provided only plans for food ingredients and products. Although no beverage or bottled water plans have been made available for these workshops, IBWA will have a sample bottled water plan for reference—but applying the process to other foods will be educational. Come prepared for a dynamic, interactive experience, working with your work group and the other workshop participants.

The Preventive Controls Rule Effect As you can see from the schedule at right, many of you will already be familiar with much of the workshop material. The workshop will, however, make clear how the Preventive Controls Rule will enhance your Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP)

program and help you develop a food safety plan more focused on food safety hazards than former Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans. Throughout the workshop, your lead instructor will present PowerPoint slide lectures, followed by numerous breaks for group activity. Each working group will be asked to report on its progress after each work session to ensure that all ideas are shared with the entire group. Those reports will be presented by a designated spokesperson or each group can elect to have members alternatively present.

Why Attendance Matters The FSPCA has strict rules for the workshops. For example, physical attendance for the full workshop is critical to receiving a PCQI certificate after the final day. For IBWA’s workshops, Bob Hirst, an FDA-certified lead trainer, is required to record attendance each of the three days and to report that attendance to the FSPCA. Members have asked IBWA about the possibility of attending the PCQI workshop via live teleconferences or webinars. Due to concerns over proof of attendance throughout the entire workshop, FSPCA will not currently permit lead instructors to present the workshop via any alternative to live workshops. In fact, if an attendee misses a portion of the workshop, FSPCA has instructed lead instructors to work with that person to make up any missed parts of the workshop. (Here’s a good place to insert a note about the need for no interruptions—from work or other responsibilities—during the workshop hours.) If you have any questions about IBWA’s PCQI workshops, please contact IBWA Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Bob Hirst (bhirst@bottledwater.org) or IBWA Program Coordinator Claire Crane (ccrane@bottledwater.org).

PCQI WORKSHOP 2.5 DAY SCHEDULE DAY 1: 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM Chapter 1: Introduction to Course Chapter 2: Food Safety Plan Overview Break Chapter 3: Good Manufacturing Practices and Other Prerequisite Programs Chapter 4: Biological Food Safety Hazards Lunch Chapter 5: Chemical, Physical, and Economically Motivated Food Safety Hazards Break Chapter 6: Preliminary Steps in Developing a Food Safety Plan Chapter 7: Resources for Preparing Food Safety Plans

DAY 2: 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM Review and Questions Chapter 8: Hazard Analysis and Preventive Controls Determination Break Chapter 9: Process Preventive Controls Lunch Chapter 10: Food Allergen Preventive Controls Break Chapter 11: Sanitation Preventive Controls Chapter 12: Supply-Chain Preventive Controls

DAY 3: 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM Review and Questions Chapter 13: Verification and Validation Procedures Chapter 14: Recordkeeping Procedures Break Chapter 15: Recall Plan Chapter 16: FSMA Regulation Overview Wrap Up

MAY/JUN 2016





certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Claire Crane (ccrane@bottledwater.org / Fax: 703.683.4074, IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________

Company_ _________________________________________________



State/Province_ _____________________________________________

ZIP/Postal Code_ ___________________________________________

Check your selection for each question


Workshops that enable plant staff to earn a PCQI certificate must be facilitated by a _____.


Certified trainer Lead instructor Experienced individual Certified school teacher


FDA provides for the following two (2) options for designating someone at the plant to oversee the plant’s food safety program.


Documented experience, approved by FDA HACCP certification Attend a PCQI workshop, receive PCQI certificate College degree


The requirement for a PCQI in each facility is found in_____.


FSMA supplier programs FDA CGMP regulations IBWA Code of Practice FSMA Preventive Controls Rule


A sequence of questions to assist in determining whether a control is a CCP is known as a _____.


Decision tree Critical limit Flow diagram Process matrix


The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan is called a _____.



Process diagramming Hazard analysis Risk assessment Health assessment



Although the PCQI workshops will educate participants on the preventive controls rule, their primary focus is on the _____.


HACCP plan Recall plan Sanitation SOP Food safety plan


Each individual engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food, or in the supervision thereof, must receive training in principles of food hygiene and food safety, including employee health and personal hygiene.

OO True OO False


Work experience does not qualify one to be a PCQI.

OO True OO False


Under FSMA, the _____ will become an integral part of the food safety plan.


Recall plan Employee policies SARA Title III notice MSDS sheets


Whereas an IBWA certified plant operator must be present during all production hours, a PCQI is not required to be present at all times.

OO True OO False

ADVERTISERS Analytical Technology Inc. . . . www.analyticaltechnology.com . Inside Back Cover Blackhawk Molding Co.. . . . blackhawkmolding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Café Valet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.cafevalet.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Edge Analytical. . . . . . . . . . . . www.edgeanalytical.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 National Coffee Service & Vending . . . . . . . . . www.marleycoffee.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

CALENDAR 2016 MAY 11-13 IBWA PCQI Workshop Ramada Plymouth Hotel and Conference Center

Pall Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . www.pall.com/FoodandBev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Pacific Ozone. . . . . . . . . . . . . www.pacificozone.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Polymer Solutions Int'l. . . . . . www.prostack.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Quality Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.qualitytruckcompany.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 R. Bardi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.r-bardi.com . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Front Cover

Steelhead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.steelheadinc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . Back Cover


It’s IBWA Award Season: Who Will You Nominate? If you are looking for an economical and gratifying way to recognize your employees—or create a buzz around your business—you won’t find a better opportunity than participating in the 2016 IBWA Award Program. Every other year, IBWA pauses to acknowledge and celebrate the commitment of individuals and companies to the bottled water industry. Without the dedication of IBWA member companies and their staffs, there is no doubt that the bottled water industry would not enjoy its past or current success. And that’s an achievement worth commemorating! IBWA’s award categories offer something for everyone: • Route Salesperson of the Year • Plant Manager of the Year • Supplier of the Year • Environmental Stewardship Award • IBWA/Kristin Safran Directors’ Award

• IBWA/Selby Advocacy Award (“The Selby”) • Bottled Water Hall of Fame • New This Year: Product Innovation Award A bonus—there is no charge to submit an entry to any of IBWA’s award categories. To learn more—and to download nomination forms or fill them out online— please visit www.bottledwater.org/awards. If you have questions, contact IBWA Publications and Special Project Manager Sabrina Hicks at 703.647.4601 or shicks@ bottledwater.org.

Minneapolis (Plymouth), MN

MAY 11-14

Northwest Bottled Water Association Convention & Trade Show Embassy Suites Hotel Portland Airport Portland, OR

MAY 24-26

IBWA PCQI Workshop Ontario Airport Hotel and Conference Center Los Angeles (Ontario), CA

JUNE 6 - 9

IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA


IBWA PCQI Workshop Phoenix, AZ area



Northeast Bottled Water Association Fall Convention Sands Resort and Casino Bethlehem, PA


IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show (co-location with NAMA CoffeeTea&Water Show) Gaylord Opryland Resort and Convention Center Nashville, TN

MAY/JUN 2016



VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP DAVID REDICK VICE PRESIDENT SALES AND MARKETING STEELHEAD INC. SAN ANTONIO | TX ALL ABOUT DAVID David graduated from U.C. Berkeley—twice, earning his BS in Mechanical Engineering and then MS in Engineering Controls. When not working, he enjoys running (marathons), skiing (water or snow), golfing, fishing, and camping. If not for the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, David would have likely attended— as a competitor in High Jump.

David Redick knows a thing or two about working in the bottled water industry. The mechanical engineer has spent the past 21 years working in the industry, beginning at Portola Packaging as the engineering manager, later serving as the general manager of CapSnap’s water division, then moving to Steelhead Inc. (which was then part of True Integration Ltd, a joint venture with Ram Mechanical). In 2008, he took a two-year hiatus from bottled water to join Videojet, an ink jet company, but he was lured back to Steelhead and his current position as vice president of sales and marketing. Throughout the years, David has always been an active IBWA member, traveling to attend meetings, joining committees, and exhibiting as a supplier on the trade show floor. He credits his business’ success to his involvement with the association. “IBWA membership has definitely brought benefits. Recently, we signed a huge contract with [a bottler member], and I think what weighed a lot on the decisions was that we are active members with IBWA,” says David. “To get the most out of your membership, you need to be both proactive and active at IBWA.” Learning about regulatory information—specifically regarding the Food Safety Modernization Act—helps David give Steelhead an edge over competitors. He says, “FSMA will affect bottle washers. IBWA keeps us a step ahead of our competitors because we know what the requirements are for bottlers, and we are able to meet the new compliance rules.” While outsiders may view the bottled water industry as large and competitive, it feels surprisingly small and family like to David, who compares it to a close-knit, friendly community. There’s a unique camaraderie throughout the industry. David explains, “Members help one another. It’s not uncommon for a member to reach out to a new member and provide advice in any way they can.” Steelhead Inc. is an engineering-based company and a leading, innovative manufacturer of 3- and 5-gallon water bottling washers, fillers, cappers, and water treatment equipment. It has been in business for more than 40 years and supplies globally to customers in 70 countries. Steelhead boasts the first mineral injection system and the first oneoperator bottling system. Recent innovations include one of the most effective ozone sterilization systems available and its latest washer technology and 5-gallon production systems. David says his customers are often surprised by how Steelhead stands behind its products and the support that it gives: “We bring a lot of bottling equipment design experience to the industry.”




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One Operator Bottling Systems: 150 – 350 bph 5 Gallon Systems

Water Treatment: RO, Mineral Injection, Ozone

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Full Plants: Turnkey Solutions for Every Size


High Speed Bottling Systems: 450 – 3000 bph 5 Gallon Systems




All bottling processes are not equal. Steelhead stands alone with our commitment ommitme ent ients. to innovation, efficiency and bottom line profitability for our clients.


Profile for IBWA

Bottled Water Reporter  

HOD Issue May/June 2016

Bottled Water Reporter  

HOD Issue May/June 2016

Profile for ibwa