Bottled Water Reporter

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W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G


IN THIS ISSUE Why Develop How to Be a Successful a Water Stewardship Plan Advocate

Why PET Is a Valuable Resource




Also Inside:

Embracing the Life Cycle of Plastics IBWA Launches New Online Grassroots Action Center A PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER ASSOCIATION

VOL. 59 • NO. 2


20 | How to Be a Successful Advocate for Your Company and the Bottled Water Industry in 2019 Successfully advocating is not hard to do, but it will take some time and attention. COMMUNICATIONS

22 | Why PET Is a Valuable Resource Working together, we can educate consumers on the value of recycling their PET containers. TECHNICAL UPDATE

24 | IBWA Aligns Its Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide With Latest AWS Standard By aligning with the Alliance for Water Stewardship standards, IBWA assists members in developing their water stewardship programs and provides them a basis to seek AWS standard certification. VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP

28 | How IBWA Helps You Reach Your Potential IBWA member James Sas (Creekside Springs) discusses how IBWA helped him establish his first bottled water plant in 2003 and continues to help his business grow today.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 | Beyond Benchmarking Insights from IBWA’s third water and energy use ratio benchmarking study How does a company know what “success” in environmental sustainability looks like? One way is by tracking environmental performance through metrics and peer benchmarking to provide a clear snapshot of progress over time. Read this article to learn how IBWA’s latest water and energy use benchmarking study provides an inventory of useful information for bottlers, allowing them to go beyond benchmarking to demonstrate how years of metrics and information collection intersect with efficiency initiatives. By Carolyn Clemmens and Laura Nelson

15 | Embracing the Life Cycle of Plastics As the No.1 packaged beverage in the United States, bottled water plays an active and important role in how consumers pursue a healthier lifestyle. Meeting the increasing demand for bottled water means bottlers are constantly considering their packaging options. As consumers continue to show a penchant for sustainable packaging materials, more bottlers are looking to increase their use of recycled PET. By Chris Torres

CHAIRMAN'S COMMENTARY................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.......................................4 WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CPO QUIZ..........................................................26 ADVERTISERS....................................................27 CALENDAR........................................................27


BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 59, Number 2. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.


Bottled water has the lowest water use and energy use ratios of any packaged beverage. But, for some reason, the misinformed media and bottled water critics still try to position the bottled water industry as an environmental scourge. Because nothing could be further from the truth—it’s time we put even more effort into educating the public with the facts. IBWA’s third “Water and Energy Use Ratio Benchmarking Study” further demonstrates that the bottled water industry continues to improve upon our already impressive sustainable practices. It clearly shows that we are strengthening our existing programs to expand our water and energy use stewardship. This study, which you can read all about in “Beyond Benchmarking” on page 10, explores the industry drivers for our low water and energy use and reveals some of the best practices of our member bottlers. Here are the study’s key takeaways: Bottled water facilities have the lowest water use ratio and energy use ratio when compared to other packaged beverages—and that includes carbonated soft drink and beer production. On average, 1.39 liters of water— including the 1 liter of water for consumption—and 0.21 mega joules (MJ) of energy are used to produce 1 liter of finished bottled water. That’s outstanding! So, not only is bottled water the No.1 packaged beverage (by volume) in the United States—the drink that 72 percent of Americans identify as their favorite, according to a 2018 Harris Poll—but also it’s a proven environmental sustainability success story. Want more details for this “good news story”? How about the fact that the industry has made tremendous efforts at plastic resin reduction through lightweighting our containers (average weight of a 16.9oz PET plastic bottle is 9.25 grams—compared to a plastic soda bottled, which is 23.9 grams)—and the fact that our bottles are 100-perecent recyclable, even the cap—and the fact that we are the No.1 item in curbside recycling programs, being recycled at 53.9 percent. So, why does the media and others misrepresent our industry? I think they are unaware of the facts. And who can blame them, when there’s so much misinformation in the news and on social media? That’s where we come in. I’m asking all IBWA members to share our good news story—and include the facts. If you have social media, use it to promote bottled water facts, backed by science. Work to educate your communities about the great sustainable practices we abide by every day. Meet with your local, state, and federal elected officials and let them know how bottlers and industry suppliers continuously research and look for new ways to improve bottled water's environmental footprint. And if you need any help, just reach out to the IBWA staff. I know they are more than ready to provide a helping hand. Lynn Wachtmann IBWA Chairman 2




International Bottled Water Association OFFICERS Chairman Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc.. Vice Chairman Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Treasurer Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Immediate Past Chairwoman Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Tara Carraro, Nestlé Waters North America Jason Chambers, Mountain Brook Water Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Kari Mondt, Allied Purchasing Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Dennis Rivard, Crystal Mountain Products, Inc. Bryan Shinn, WG America Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Louis Vittorio, Jr., EarthRes Group, Inc. Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Tara Carraro, Nestlé Waters North America C.R. Hall, Hall’s Culligan Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Bryan Shinn, WG America Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Julia Buchanan, Niagara Bottling, LLC Audrey Krupiak, WG America Company Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee Leslie Alstad, DS Services of America, Inc. Jeff Davis, Blackhawk Molding Co. Government Relations Committee Viola Johnson Jacobs, DS Services of America, Inc. Derieth Sutton, Niagara Bottling LLC. Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, DS Services of America, Inc. State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Supplier and Convention Committee Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America


Plan Now to Join Us for the 2019 IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show

Dates: November 18-21 Place: Anaheim, CA

Hotel: Marriott Anaheim

PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE REDUCING OUR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Why track the bottled water industry’s environmental sustainability efforts? Answering that question is easy: IBWA tracks our environmental performance to 1) benchmark where we are, 2) evaluate the data to promote best practices and review performance drivers to identify areas that could improve with resource conservation, and 3) provide facts to the public, media, and government officials to educate them about our efforts. In “Beyond Benchmarking” (p.10), Carolyn Clemmens and Laura Nelson (Antea Group) present findings from IBWA’s third water and energy use benchmarking study. The latest data reveal that the bottled water industry continues to have the lowest water use and energy use ratios in the packaged beverage industry. In short, bottled water’s water use ratio stands at 1.39 liters for 1 liter of finished product—and that includes the 1 liter of water for consumption; industry’s energy use ratio is 0.21 mega joules (MJ), a decrease of over 9 percent since 2013, which is equivalent to an energy avoidance of over 593 million MJ—enough to power nearly 16,000 single-family homes for a full year. The bottled water industry is succeeding in other areas too, like our use of recycled PET (rPET), which we cover in “Embracing the Life Cycle of Plastics” (p.15). The rPET market experienced less-than-impressive growth in recent years, but since 2018 things are improving. According to industry experts, both the virgin PET and the rPET markets are healthy, which is good news for the bottled water industry because bottlers have many reasons for choosing to package in plastic, including its safety, strength, energy efficiency, and reliability. To meet consumer demand for more sustainable products, many bottlers are pledging to use more rPET and other recycled materials to contribute to a circular economy. If you’d like to help IBWA promote the environmental stewardship efforts the bottled water industry has taken, I encourage you to become an active industry advocate. You can learn how by reading this issue’s Government Relations column (p.20). Read the Communications Column (p.22) to learn about promoting bottled water’s recyclability—and the fact that many bottlers are pledging to use more recycled content in their packaging. And in the Technical Update column (p.24), we discuss how the association has incorporated the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) standards into the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide. This issue of Bottled Water Reporter presents a lot of information about the environmental stewardship efforts the bottled water industry continues to take. Our record is impressive. But what I most take note of is that—even with the current research illustrating that bottled water has the smallest environmental footprint of any packaged beverage—we still strive to improve. We still review our processes and packaging and look for ways to reduce their impact on the environment. And for that, we should be commended.

Joe Doss IBWA President 4




International Bottled Water Association BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074

IBWA STAFF President Joe Doss Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst Vice President of Communications Jill Culora Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner Director of Science and Research Al Lear Director of Communications Sabrina E. Hicks Manager of Member Services Cheryl Bass Communications Coordinator Chris Torres Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Linda Alfakir Executive Assistant Patrice Ward Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer

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IBWA Launches Online Grassroots Action Center to Help Members Connect With Elected Officials To enhance the association’s grassroots capabilities and help members better connect with both federal and state legislators, IBWA recently launched a new resource: the IBWA Grassroots Action Center. Members can find this tool by visiting the Bottled Water Matters website——and then clicking on the “Take Action” tab. The Grassroots Action Center includes the following new resources: • a portal to find who represents you at the federal and state levels 6



• posts by IBWA Government Relations (GR) staff to keep you up to speed on relevant political and policy news • event registration links for GR-related activities, including webinars and legislative fly-ins • a legislative search engine to view proposals in Congress and all 50 states • quick links to view key bills that impact the industry, with information on IBWA’s position and possible grassroots letters to weigh in on the matter (coming soon)

• access to a key voting record to allow IBWA members to see what members of Congress are taking actions in support of the industry (coming soon) The new and improved IBWA Grassroots Action Center is incredibly easy to use. Members can also download a VoterVoice app to their smartphones and link it to the action center to take action on behalf of your company and industry with just a few finger taps! (VoterVoice is IBWA’s grassroots services provider.)

Do you know who represents you at the federal and state level? Members who are interested in downloading the VoterVoice app or want to learn more information about this new resource should contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin:



Have You Viewed IBWA’s YouTube Videos Lately?

IBWA’s YouTube channel was one of the first social media tools the association developed, and it currently contains 42 videos, which vary in length from a few seconds to several minutes. The videos cover a diverse range of topics important to the bottled water industry: healthy hydration, recycling, safety, environmental stewardship, and more. You can access IBWA’s YouTube videos from

a few locations on the association’s flagship website: www.bottledwater. org. On the home page, view the entire library of IBWA videos by clicking on the YouTube icon, which is located at the top right-hand side of the page. IBWA also presents a featured video on the bottom left-hand corner of the home page. Members can also find many of IBWA’s YouTube videos on the Bottled

IBWA CPOs: Visit the Member's Only section of IBWA's website to view educational videos available for CEUs.


Water Videos section of the website, which is located under the Newsroom tab. For quick and easy access to IBWA’s video archive, bookmark the direct link to the association’s YouTube channel: user/BottledWaterMatters. When visiting IBWA’s YouTube channel, take a little time to scroll through the video archive. Click and play a few videos—and if you see anything you like—copy

and paste the URL to share in email communications and on your company’s social media channels. If you share one of IBWA's videos on social media, always encourage people to give it a thumbs up! If you have ideas for future IBWA videos, please send them to IBWA Vice President of Communications Jill Culora:

Are You a CPO? Earn CEUs Online A new opportunity to earn IBWA continuing The seminars are best accessed with certain education units (CEUs) is now available internet browsers, such as Chrome and Interon the Member’s Only side of the IBWA net Explorer. If you experience issues viewing website: IBWA has the seminars, check your browser for updates. posted recordings of seminars from the To review available seminars, visit 2017 and 2018 annual business meetings. Currently, there is no education. You will be asked to charge to view the recordings, and log in to the IBWA Member’s Only CEU each seminar will yield 1 IBWA page. (If you do not know your CEU to certified plant operators member password, please contact (CPOs) who watch the recordings IBWA Manager of Member Services and notify Education and Technical Cheryl Bass: Programs Coordinator Linda Alfakir (lalfakir@ If you do not see the page after you log in, that you have completed try refreshing your browser or re-inserting the the seminar and wish to be credited with link provided above. CEUs. To start the credit process, simply If you have any questions, please contact email Linda the name of the seminar and the Linda Alfakir or IBWA Vice President of speaker name(s). She will then inform you if Education, Science, and Technical Relations more information is needed. Bob Hirst:

MAR/APR 2019




Niagara Bottling Hosts Legislators at Allentown, PA Facility On January 17, 2019, Niagara Bottling hosted a plant tour for State Representatives Gary Day (R-PA) and Doyle Heffley (R-PA) of the Pennsylvania Assembly at its Allentown bottling facility. Both representatives toured the plant as a part of Niagara’s Elected Official Outreach Program (EO-OP). The program was created as a tool to educate lawmakers on Niagara’s culture, values, and processes. The tours provide a space to discuss policies and regulations that impact the bottled water industry. With a goal of trying to understand how legislative and regulatory policy affect the bottled water business, Reps. Day and Heffley asked questions about workforce competitiveness, recruitment, training, recycling, recycled PET (rPET) supply and demand, and agency oversight of the bottled water industry. IBWA encourages all members to host a plant tour with your elected

Pictured from left: Jose Antigua, Rep. Doyle Heffley, Aureo Nieves, Logan Lutz, Erynn Day, Rep. Gary Day, Dan Arnold, Keith Brilhart, Candice Rodrigues, Craig Pfaff, and Kevin Boell. officials. Hosting plant tours is an incredibly effective way to get to know those who influence the policies impacting your livelihood. Building connections with your federal or state officials is critical to passing

good legislation and regulation for the industry. For more information on how to host a plant tour, please contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin: cmartin@


IBWA’s 2019 Capitol Hill Day: Start Planning Now to Participate on June 5 IBWA will host visits with members of Congress in Washington, DC, on Wednesday, June 5, 2019. IBWA has made it a goal to bring more bottled water advocates than ever to Capitol Hill to meet with members of Congress and educate them about our industry and our companies—and explain how federal policies affect the bottled water business. Never met with a member of Congress before? This organized visit makes for a great introduction on how YOU easy—and necessary—it is to schedule time with elected ARE HERE officials to educate them about the bottled water industry. IBWA staff will set up appointments with legislators who represent the district(s) where your facilities are located. IBWA members can elect to be in groups or on their own when visiting with their members of Congress. If you like, an IBWA staff member will accompany you on your visits. What to expect. As an attendee, you will be invited to participate in a pre-Hill Day webinar, where IBWA's talking points will be reviewed and “Hill Day” expectations will be set. On June 5, before heading to Capitol Hill, you will attend a briefing, which will review the day’s congressional visits and the industry’s position on issues of interest. All participants will receive a briefing packet that you can review and take with you to the Hill. IBWA members will then travel by bus to DC, take a picture at the U.S. Capitol (a digital image will be provided to all participants), and then head to the lunch, where a key member of Congress will speak before scheduled visits begin that afternoon. For questions and additional information, please contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin: 8




Consumers’ thirst for bottled water products continues to grow. According to a Harris Poll conducted on behalf of IBWA in November 2018, 72 percent of Americans claimed bottled water as their favorite non-alcoholic drink. The industry is not only dedicated to keeping up with that demand but also committed to working hard to continuously improve its environmental footprint. Check out these growth statistics and data showing how the bottled water industry is becoming even more efficient. 2018 [P]* Volume Share of Stomach by U.S. Beverage Segment

Per Capita Consumption (Gallons) Bottled Water and Soft Drink Trends

(Billions of Gallons) Tap/Others


Carbonated Soft Drinks

Value-Added Water

1.1% Energy Drinks 1.2%


Wine/Spirits 2.3% Sports Beverages 2.5% Fruit Beverages 4.7%





Bottled Water



5.8% Beer



Milk Coffee



of Americans say bottled water (still and/or sparkling) is their favorite non-alcoholic beverage.

1.39 L

It takes only 1.39 liters of water (including the 1 liter of water for consumption) to produced 1 liter of bottled water.





Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation (2018) *Preliminary

Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation (2018) * [P] = Preliminary


Most Americans think that bottled water should be available wherever other drinks are sold.


Bottled water is the most recycled product in curbside recycling, at 53.9 percent. Soda bottles have a curbside recycling rate of 20.4 percent.


The bottled water industry’s energy use ratio decreased over 9 percent from 2013-2017. That decrease is the equivalent to an energy avoidance of more than 593 million megajoules—enough energy to power 16,000 single-family homes for a full year.

Sources: “U.S. Bottled Water through 2022,” Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2018; Harris Poll conducted on behalf of IBWA, 2018; “2017 Post Consumer PET Bottle Bale Composition Analysis,” National Association of PET Container Resources. “Water and Energy Use Benchmarking Study,” IBWA, 2019.



How does a company know what “success” in environmental sustainability looks like? While there are many ways to define success, tracking environmental performance through metrics and peer benchmarking enables companies to see a clear snapshot of progress over time—unique to their journey but in the context of an industry. Benchmarking isn’t just about comparing numbers, it’s about moving beyond the data to evaluate processes and identify changes that can lead to significant progress. IBWA’s latest water and energy use benchmarking study provides an inventory of useful information for bottlers, allowing them to go beyond benchmarking to demonstrate how years of metrics and information collection intersect with efficiency initiatives. For the bottled water industry, this ties to strengthening existing programs around water and energy stewardship to keep up with ever-evolving consumer and beverage industry trends. IBWA member bottlers recognize that the best approach for environmental sustainability is proactive resource management based on a comprehensive understanding of how water and energy are used in operations. In its third benchmarking study, IBWA explores what drives industry water and energy use and how companies implement practices in their operations to use resources more efficiently.

Approach to IBWA Benchmarking First, set the scope. Determine the best criteria that will allow for calculation and assessment of industry operational energy and water performance. For this study, IBWA set out to quantify resource use by collecting specific data and engaging members to acquire key information to evaluate resource use and gauge performance. IBWA used two key performance metrics: water use ratio and energy use ratio. Those metrics aligned with previous studies, as well as IBWA member goals and other beverage industry studies, such as the Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (

MAR/APR 2019



Water Use Ratio: Average liters of water used in facility processes (including product water), to produce 1 liter of bottled water. Energy Use Ratio: Average amount of total energy consumed on site from all sources [purchased electricity, fuel and steam – measured in mega joules (MJ)] used in facility processes, to produce 1 liter of bottled water.

Next, encourage participation. Present the business case for collaboration. Creating buy-in is important in successful benchmarking studies. Increased participation provides a more robust data set for comparison, measurements, and progress tracking. Sharing and discussing results from various companies promotes a common understanding of issues and inspires collaboration that can lead to improved environmental stewardship among companies. A total of 73 North American bottled water facilities participated in the 2018 study, which represents over 55 percent of total 2017 U.S. bottled water production according to the Beverage Marketing Corporation report, “Bottled Water in the U.S. Through 2022.” Then, collect data. Standardize data collection and don’t get lost in the weeds. There can be a never-ending list of metrics to collect that could help assess a bottler’s environmental footprint, but IBWA set out to determine what metrics were most critical to measure and guide businesses moving forward. That includes quantitative environmental data as well as supplemental process information—both




Bottled water facilities have the lowest water use ratio and energy use ratio when compared to other beverage sectors. are important in “telling the story” behind the numbers. IBWA sent a standard data collection workbook to member bottlers, which included well-defined data categories and a unit conversion guide to support participants with consistent quantitative data entry. IBWA also presented supplemental process questions (e.g., presence of on-site blow molding operations) to map and evaluate performance trend drivers. Establishing a baseline and asking for the “why” behind the numbers enables a better understanding of trends and drivers over time [e.g., the energy use ratio for facilities with on-site blow molding operations 0.21 MJ/L is higher than facilities without blow molding on site (0.18 MJ/L) because the blow molding process requires additional energy use].

2018 Key Takeaways If reviewing IBWA’s three water and energy use benchmarking studies, you might ask, What progress has been made toward environmental stewardship in the North American bottled water industry?

BENCHMARKING The results of the 2018 IBWA benchmarking study show that, in general, bottled water facilities have the lowest water use ratio and energy use ratio when compared to other beverage sectors. In comparison, other beverage sectors, as reported by Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (2016), such as carbonated soft drink bottling and beer production, average larger water and energy use ratios driven by higher intensity processes unique to those other beverages, such as flavor mixing, blending, carbonation, fermentation, cooking, distilling, etc. On average, 1.39 liters of water (which includes the 1 liter of water for consumption) and 0.21 MJ of energy are used to produce 1 liter of finished bottled water. Water use ratio varies in magnitude when compared across “types” of bottled water. In 2017, approximately 78 percent of participant facilities indicated that "Other" water is their primary bottled product. [For the purposes of this IBWA study, Other waters are defined as all bottled waters other than mineral and spring water, with or without the addition of minerals for taste. It includes purified water (produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other processes), sparkling bottled water, or well water.] As shown in the table at right, Other water bottlers reported an overall higher water use ratio than Spring water bottlers, as expected by the processes related to Other water production that may not be as prevalent in Spring water production (e.g., purification processes/reverse osmosis, startup/run time associated with product changeover, etc.).




Spring Water




Other Water




Spring Water




Other Water




Water Use Ratio

Energy Use Ratio

IBWA BENCHMARKING SNAPSHOT • 3 studies completed: Established an average water use ratio for the North American (U.S. and Canada) bottled water industry (2013); adding an energy use ratio component (2014); and five-year trends in water and energy use ratios assessed (2018) • 73 participating facilities (55 percent of total 2017 United States bottled water production) • 1.39 liters of water (including the 1 liter of water for consumption) per 1 liter of finished bottled water • 0.21 mega joules of energy used per 1 liter of finished bottled water

SPOTLIGHT: ENERGY USE RATIO Energy use ratio decreased over 9 percent from 2013 to 2017, equivalent to an energy avoidance of over 593 million megajoules—enough to power nearly 16,000 single-family homes for a full year. Source: US Energy Information Agency, 2017 Average Annual Energy Usage, Single Family Residence











Energy Use Ratio (MJ/L)

Water Use Ratio (L/L)











Source: “2018 Water and Energy Use Benchmarking Study,” Antea Group for IBWA, 2018. MAR/APR 2019



Bottled water companies continue to implement measures, such as the ones identified below, to reduce water and energy use in operations. Leading Water Stewardship Practices • Improving performance in the reverse osmosis process. •

Integrating concentrate recovery.

Optimizing washer units to maximize efficiency.

Improving data collection.

Resolving system leaks.

Leading Energy Efficiency Practices • Lighting efficiencies such as use of natural light or LED. •

System automation; process optimization through scheduling, settings updates, etc.

Increased employee engagement.

Regular inspections and repairs for compressed air and steam systems.

Energy audits and surveys.

The results of this benchmarking study can and should be used by bottled water companies to evaluate performance over time and to better understand where there are opportunities for resource stewardship within their operations. Here are some ways to use this study: Collect and review water and energy use data. Once you have confidence in your data, analyze the information in the context of the benchmarking study, looking at current process and performance gaps against industry results and your initial data calibration. Learn the story behind the numbers. Take a closer look at the drivers within your operations that lead to lower or higher ratios when compared to the IBWA benchmarking. Consider measuring the impact of initiatives (such as new technologies) on sustainable growth and improvement. Once you know the drivers and understand what “makes up” the numbers, develop an action plan. Consider "lowhanging fruit"(easy wins) and longer-term initiatives. Identify additional opportunities for improvement through best practice sharing and alignment to organizational objectives. To prioritize action, make this a multi-stakeholder approach, implement new initiatives with the plan of measuring performance, and determine how results will be communicated and tracked.

What’s Next? After three water and energy use benchmarking studies, IBWA has a more defined understanding of operational water and energy use in the North American bottled water industry. The next frontier for benchmarking will be 14



The IBWA Benchmarking Data Collection workbook is comprised of Excel-based forms, designed for streamlined water and energy data reporting at the operations level. The workbook also includes a “Company Wide Summary” tab that presents total water and energy use ratios over the reporting period. Interested in calculating your operations’ water and energy use ratio? You do not need to wait until the next IBWA study. IBWA members can obtain a copy of the IBWA Benchmarking Data Collection workbook or provide thoughts on potential processes or drivers to evaluate in future studies by contacting IBWA Director of Science and Research Al Lear (

better understanding the “story” behind these ratios versus focusing only on direction or magnitude of performance trend. In other words, what is it that makes up the “0.39 L” of process water that is used to produce 1 liter of bottled water? The time is right for this closer lens on performance drivers. Tools and reports such as the 2017 IBWA Life Cycle Assessment ( BottledWaterLCI_ExecutiveSummary_2017-10-24_ Quantis%28003%29Final.pdf) and IBWA’s 2016 Water Risk and Best Practice Study ( Final%202016%20Best%20Practices%20Framework.pdf) are available for all bottled water companies to look deeper into production processes and identify opportunities for resource conservation. There is clear value in best practice sharing. At the 2018 IBWA Annual Business Conference, IBWA closed the "Water Use Study Results" benchmarking education session by asking the audience for examples of drivers for the “0.39 L,” and there was no shortage of insights. From new technology that reduces reverse osmosis reduction rates, to investments in plant cultural awareness of water and energy conservation, to building reclaim technologies into new plants or upgrade plans—the future of sustainability rests on collective action. Keep an eye out for opportunities to participate in future IBWA environmental sustainability studies and conversations. Understanding the meaning of water and energy use ratios is only part of the story; true success is experiencing sustainable growth while becoming more efficient. Carolyn Clemmens is a sustainability specialist at Antea Group and manager of the 2018 IBWA Benchmarking Study. Laura Nelson leads Antea Group’s Corporate Reporting and Disclosure service and serves as associate director of the Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (BIER).


Since 2016, bottled water has been the No.1 packaged beverage (by volume) in the United States. That success is indicative of two things: First, it confirms that Americans continue to strive for a healthier lifestyle, and they are choosing healthy hydration and bottled water in place of sugar-sweetened beverages to help them achieve it. Second, our on-the-go society appreciates being able to grab bottled water in a convenient, lightweight, durable, and recyclable PET container and continue on with their busy day.

With such strong market growth, one could predict a strengthening PET recycling market. Although the virgin PET and recycled PET (rPET) markets have a history of less-thanimpressive growth, data suggests that both markets are on the upswing.

Virgin PET and rPET Market Status

explains Perc Pineda, PhD, the chief economist for the Plastics Industry Association (PLASTICS). Pineda says that while virgin PET prices experienced a downtick in the last quarter of 2018, the pricing was consistent with the overall producer price index of plastic materials and resins, which were 2.1 percent higher at the close of 2018 than 2017.

From approximately 2015-2017, the rPET market experienced a downturn, as pricing for virgin PET lowered due to an influx of virgin supply from Asian countries, according to George Smilow, chief operating officer of PQ Recycling. But things took a turn in 2018, and now both the virgin PET and rPET markets are healthy, according to data from Plastics News (www.plasticsnews. com/resin). Prices for virgin PET and rPET have moved upward, which suggests a stable-to-strong market for PET,

A few recent studies provide a snapshot on how shaky the rPET market was in 2017 and explain why. According to a study by the National Association of PET Consumer Resources (NAPCOR), total use of rPET in specific domestic market segments in 2017—domestically produced and imported—food and beverage bottle usage was significantly down, which offset a slight increase in non-food bottle usage (napcor. com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/ NAPCOR_2017RateReport_FINAL.

pdf). For all bottles, the combined total usage of rPET in 2017 was 403 million pounds, which was approximately 30 million pounds lower than 2016. The total use of rPET in all packaging applications in 2017 was 694 million pounds, which was down 18 million pounds compared to 2016. However, rPET usage was up nearly 5 percent in the film and sheet category, at 291 million pounds. The fiber and strapping sectors had increases of 14 and 4 percent, respectively, compared to 2016. A More Recycling study published in October 2017, with input from American Chemistry Council (ACC), the Association of Plastic Recyclers (APR), and the Sustainable Packaging Coalition (SPC), documented end-market demand for post-consumer resin (PCR). This study’s results showed that the most common barriers against using PCR were that (1) there wasn’t enough


Source: NAPCOR, Report on Postconsumer PET Container Recycling Activity in 2017 ( NAPCOR_2017RateReport_FINAL.pdf )




of a price advantage over virgin resin and (2) there wasn’t enough PCR available that matched companies’ specifications ( endusedemand_report_v8_1.pdf). “It was a difficult time for recyclers, but now things are improving,” says Patty Moore, executive director of the Plastic Recycling Corporation of California.

Why Industries Choose Plastic Manufacturers have uses for plastic that consumers may not immediately notice. “There are a number of plastic materials used in high-tech and highstress environments, making them valuable for manufacturers across numerous sectors of the economy,” says Pineda. “From building and construction to medical devices, plastics are used by manufacturers based on advantages such as safety, strength, energy efficiency, and reliability.” Experts say there’s a legitimacy as to why PET and other plastics are used so much: It’s the best material available. “Plastics can do things that other materials simply cannot—the versatility and durability of plastic is unmatched,” explains Pineda. “Overall, they are lighter and more efficient than many alternative materials. Their lighter weight minimizes their environmental footprint by decreasing production of waste, energy

use, and carbon emissions through the full lifecycle of the product.” In addition to bottled water bottles, containers made from PET commonly found in homes include products such as cooking oil, peanut butter, shampoo, liquid hand soap, and pharmaceuticals, among several others. “As far as packaging, it’s lightweight, convenient, recy-

clable, unbreakable, there’s great clarity to view the contents, it’s economical, and resealable,” says Smilow." Plastics are universal.”



The fiber industry is also a significant user of rPET. According to NAPCOR’s “Report on Postconsumer PET Container Recycling Activity in 2017,” the fiber and strapping sectors saw growth, up 14 and 4 percent respectively, compared to 2016. The film and sheet industries experienced a 5 percent increase over the same period, growing to 291 million pounds. “Synthetic fiber, like polyester, is the most popular fiber in the world, making it a primary end market for recycled PET,” explains Pineda. “It is used in carpets, pillows, and even fabrics for performance wear. Recycled PET offers sustainability advantages over virgin PET because it requires less energy to produce compared to virgin polyester. Additionally, using

U.S. ADAPTS TO CHANGING PET MARKET Once the world’s largest importer of recyclable materials, China banned two dozen types of waste material in 2018 and set tougher standards for contamination levels. Other countries in Asia began accepting scrap imports, says George Smilow, chief operating officer of PQ Recycling, but those efforts have since slowed. He added that a crash in the crude oil market had negative affects on the PET market also. Perc Pineda, PhD, the chief economist for the Plastics Industry Association (PLASTICS), explains that U.S. exports of PET wastes, parings, and scrap to China dropped 91.9 percent year-to-date ending October 2018 compared to October 2017. That meant the United States and other countries had to adapt by developing an infrastructure to recycle more PET. The rise of companies such as Loop Industries (for more, see p.18) could mean less of a reliance on exporting recycled materials to other countries across the world. And Loop isn’t alone in noticing the opportunities in the rPET market. For example, California-based CarbonLite—one of the largest food-grade, post-consumer rPET manufacturers—has an existing rPET manufacturing facility in Texas and plans to construct a new facility in Pennsylvania ( carbonlite-to-open-new-pet-recycling-plant-in-pennsylvania). CarbonLite’s Pennsylvania facility is expected to be fully operational by early 2020, and the company anticipates being able to make more than 2 billion postconsumer bottles per year, saving 60,000 tons of carbon per year.

MAR/APR 2019




rPET also helps divert bottles from going into landfills.” The plastic product industry was the eighth-largest industry in the United States in 2016, and, despite increasing criticism of single-use plastic products, including plastic straws, utensils, and bags, the plastics industry remains strong. According to PLASTICS’s “2018 Size & Impact Report Summary,” shipments in the plastics industry totaled $432.9 billion in 2017, which represented a 6.9 percent increase from 2016 (www. SizeAndImpactReport_Summary.pdf ). Jobs in the plastics industry have also increased, according to the report. The U.S. plastics industry accounted for 989,000 jobs in 2017, an increase of 2-4 percent from 2016.

bottles, cups, takeout containers, pants, or shoes—companies are pledging to use more rPET and other recycled materials and contribute to a circular economy: •

Danone’s Evian brand has pledged to use 100-percent rPET for its bottled water products by 2025.

Nestlé Waters North America plans to use 35-percent rPET in its water bottles globally by 2025.

Coca Cola, which already has a 100-percent rPET bottle for its bottled water brand in Mexico, launched an initiative last year in which it plans to collect and recycle the equivalent of each bottle or can the company sells by 2030 ( brandconnect-chain_national-rightrail-br andconnect%3Ahomepage%2Fbrand connect-sidebar). The company says it wants to adhere to the values of a closed-loop circular economy.

Pledges to Use More rPET Consumers are demanding more sustainable products and packaging, and an increasing number of manufacturers are stepping up to meet those demands. Whether they make fiber, new plastic 18



Shoe companies, such as Nike and Adidas, also use plastic from recycled bottles in their products.

In addition, companies like Danone, PepsiCo, Coca Cola, Unilever, and L’Oréal, among others, have pledged for more sustainable products by signing the New Plastics Economy Global Commitment, an initiative developed by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation in collaboration with United Nations Environment. The goal of the initiative is to help accelerate the shift to more sustainable packaging and products. Speaking about the pledge, Moore says, “It’s a very important part of continuing to increase the amount of PET that’s being recycled in this country.” Those same companies have also partnered with the Canada-based Loop Industries to use its PET resin in their products. Created in 2015, Loop Industries is an innovative technology company that is using new technology to “upcycle” plastics, using a process that separates plastic from fossil fuels and can break used PET down to its base building blocks. Any impurities from the PET are then removed, and the base chemicals are rebuilt into virginquality PET plastic. The company

claims to be the only one in the world that can depolymerize all forms of PET waste with zero energy input and recreate the waste into food-grade PET.

According to the National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR), recycled PET (rPET) is a valuable raw material with over 1.4 billion pounds used annually in domestic production of new packaging and other goods.

Plastic product manufacturers are also investing in programs and organizations, such as The Recycling Partnership, to expand recycling collections. The Recycling Partnership is a nonprofit that leverages funding from corporate partners to help transform recycling in different cities across the United States. IBWA is a partner of The Recycling Partnership.

But there’s still work to do. According to NAPCOR’s “Report on Postconsumer PET Container Recycling Activity in 2017,” the recycling rate for PET bottles in the United States was 29.2 percent, which was a slight increase over the 2016 rate of 28.4 percent (napcor. com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/ NAPCOR_2017RateReport_FINAL. pdf). Interestingly, in a survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of IBWA, 78 percent of respondents say that consumers should be primarily responsible for recycling empty bottled water containers. So, what will persuade consumers to recycle more? Perhaps consumers would recycle more if they were aware of the positive effects recycling empty PET plastic containers




Recycling Responsibility Bottled water drinkers are some of the best recyclers, making bottled water the No.1 item in curbside recycling at 53.9 percent; the curbside recycling rate for soda bottles is 20.4 percent. According to NAPCOR, more than 2 billion pounds of PET are recycled annually in the United States and Canada (napcor. com/reports-resources/environmentalimpact). About 750 million pounds of rPET goes back into domestic production of new packaging (





Source: NAPCOR,

has on the environment—if they began to identify PET as a valuable resource. An APR report released in January 2019 shows how significant the impacts are when recycled plastic resin is used to manufacture new products ( ). According to the report, the use of recycled plastic reduces overall energy use by: •

79 percent for PET

88 percent for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)

88 percent for polypropylene (PP)

The bottled water industry already has a proven record as a good steward of the environment, but it is not content to just be recognized for the successful efforts of the past. Bottled water bottlers and suppliers are continuously searching for new ways to improve the industry’s environmental footprint. Using rPET is proving to be an invaluable option.

Using recycled plastic limits emissions by: •

67 percent for PET

71 percent for HDPE

71 percent for PP

Ultimately, consumers and bottlers want the same thing: healthy hydration provided in a convenient package that is environmentally sustainable.

Chris Torres is IBWA’s communications coordinator. Contact him at ctorres@

MAR/APR 2019



How to Be a Successful Advocate for Your Company and the Bottled Water Industry in 2019 By Cory Martin, IBWA Vice President of Government Relations

President Dwight D. Eisenhower once said, “Politics ought to be the part-time profession of every citizen who would protect the rights and privileges of free men.” Politics and policymaking cannot be an activity that only a small minority engage in. Without proper insight from constituencies, bad policies that harm economic growth can be the result. 20



The good news is that the bottled water industry is engaged, and we’ve been able to work together to achieve some great policy results over the last few years. But, 2019 brought with it many changes, especially concerning who represents the industry in Congress and across all 50 state legislatures. So, it is up to each of us

to ensure our elected officials have a firm understanding of our companies and the positive impact we all have on our communities. What will it take to be a successful advocate in 2019? Successfully advocating is not hard to do, but it will take some time and attention.

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Get to Know Your Elected Officials


First, to be a great advocate, you need to know who your elected officials are at the federal and state levels. You can even take this one step further and get to know who your local leaders are as well. Many times, they can affect change of local ordinances and have the ears of those serving in higher office. IBWA can help you get to know your elected officials at all levels. A great resource is found at—all you need to do is click on the “Take Action” tab, scroll down to the “Find Politicians” section, then insert your zip code. You’ll find information on who represents you at the federal and state levels.

a connection include calling their DC and in-district staff to introduce yourself and discuss issues that impact your business, sending personal emails or letters to their offices, attending in-district meetings (such as townhall events), participating in IBWA grassroots efforts, and engaging positively with officials on social media.

Tell Your Story

Host a Plant Tour

Once you know who represents you in office, the next step is to reach out to make sure they know about you and your company. Legislators will struggle to pass sound public policy that positively impacts your business and the industry if they do not know who you are or what you do! To tell your story effectively, give insight into what your company does, what brands or products you produce, how many people are employed at your facility, and what engagement you may have in the local community. If you have more than one facility within your company, you will want to create your story for each location.

When elected officials and their staff participate in plant tours, they often comment, “I had no idea.” They really don’t have any idea how water is bottled or the impact members of IBWA have on the industry until they can see it for themselves. That’s why it is critical to get your elected officials into your plants, distribution facilities, or sales offices, so they can gain a much better understanding of how your company operates, and how policies they are debating in the halls of Congress or in state capitols will impact your business. The experience of meeting with you on your turf will actively influence their decision making during their term in office.

Connect With Your Elected Officials

Attend IBWA Events

There are several effective ways to make a connection with your elected officials. The two most effect ways include hosting a plant tour and visiting with them and their staff in-person at either their Capitol Hill, state legislative, or district office. Other effective means of making

IBWA organizes several industry fly-ins each year at both the federal and state levels. Participating in these events will show elected officials that you are serious about your engagement—you have taken time from your busy schedule and spent precious re-

sources to make sure they understand how proposed bills or current regulations impact your business. While I strongly encourage you to make attending an IBWA fly-in event a priority in 2019, sometimes that isn’t possible. But, this doesn’t mean you won’t have another opportunity to advocate for the industry. IBWA stands ready to welcome you to Washington, DC, to help you meet with your members of Congress and their staff, and we are more than happy to do the same with your state legislators.

Get Involved and Make a Difference Being a successful advocate in 2019 starts with a desire to make a difference! The strength of IBWA comes directly from its member engagement. The industry is stronger because of your involvement, and I promise that as you engage in 2019, you will have a positive impact on policies affecting the industry in DC and across the country.

MAR/APR 2019



Why PET Is a Valuable Resource By Jill Culora, IBWA Vice President of Communications

This past year, we’ve seen a distinct uptick in companies making pledges regarding the recyclability of their product’s packaging, using recycled content, and working to improve recycling rates. This new trend is the result of a perfect storm of factors: 1) an increase in litter awareness due to traditional and social media stories regarding plastic in the environment; 2) companies taking action to address the needs of consumers, who for many years have increasingly shown a preference for purchasing products that are friendlier on the environment; and 3) the emergence of legislation mandating sustainable actions. As discussed during IBWA’s November 2018 Communications Committee 22



meeting, the European Union (EU) has now approved a ban on single-use plastics such as straws, plates, cutlery, and cotton-swab sticks throughout Europe by 2021. Bottled water, most likely due to its 100-percent recyclability, is not included in the all-out “ban,” but it is affected by EU measures that set recycling goals of 90 percent and product design restrictions that will require single-use plastic drink bottles to have caps and lids attached. Across the globe in Australia, governments in all states and territories have agreed to an ambitious target: 100 percent of Australian-produced packaging will be recyclable, compostable, or reusable by 2025.

Closer to home, California has been grappling with both tethered cap and recycled content legislation in recent years. And in Seattle, legislation is on the books that completely bans Styrofoam and requires all food service businesses to use only recyclable or compostable food packaging, containers, cups, utensils, and straws. In the past year, we’ve seen businesses respond quickly with the following packaging pledges: • Kraft Heinz pledged to make 100 percent of its packaging globally recyclable, reusable, or compostable by 2025. • Snack food giant Mondelēz International (the manufacturers of, among


other products, Cadbury chocolate and Oreo cookies) said it would make all of its snack food packaging recyclable by 2025. McDonald’s pledged all of its food containers and packaging will come from renewable, recycled, or certified sources by 2025. SC Johnson pledged that 100 percent of its plastic packaging will be recyclable, reusable, or compostable by 2025. Adidas pledged to eliminate the use of “virgin” plastic polyester by 2024.

Industry Efforts Bottled water has long been packaged in 100-percent recyclable or reusable containers—for many decades now. Even the bottle caps are made from highly sought-after, valuable, and recyclable materials. Our environmental stewardship record is impressive. Yet, even though bottled water has the smallest environmental footprint of any packaged beverage (learn more at, we continue to look for ways to reduce our impact on the environment. One way to do that is by using more recycled plastic. To date, at least two IBWA members have made pledges regarding recycled content in packaging: • Danone has pledged that its brand Evian will be packaged in bottles made from 100-percent recycled plastic by 2025. • Nestlé Waters North America announced that it will use 25 percent recycled plastic across its entire U.S. domestic portfolio by 2021. The company plans to reach 50 percent recycled plastic by 2025. Here’s the catch: In order to use more recycled content, you need to have access to large amounts of recycled content. However, according to a 2018 report by the Association of Plastic Recyclers (APR) and the American Chemistry Council (ACC), plastic

bottle recycling declined slightly in 2017, slipping 3.6 percent to 2.8 billion pounds. APR and ACC cite a few industry challenges that contributed to the decline: changing export markets; increases in single-stream collection, which can lead to increased contamination of the recyclables; and the fact that the growth in the use of plastic in bottles “was offset by continuing progress in lightweighting and increased use of concentrates with smaller, lighter bottles.” The bottled water industry is focused on increasing its use of recycled content, and the recycling industry is responding by investing to secure the U.S. infrastructure—so, what’s the missing link? The need for increased consumer participation in recycling programs. And it seems that consumers agree. Results from a recent Harris Poll show that 78 percent of Americans identify consumers as the party who should be primarily responsible for recycling their empty bottled water containers.

Educate to Motivate IBWA and its member companies are working hard to educate consumers

about the importance of recycling— and thereby helping to increase recycling rates. In recent years, IBWA has partnered with The Recycling Partnership and Keep America Beautiful, joining forces to amplify our pro-recycling messages. In addition, last year IBWA launched a website campaign—— to harness the social media reach of like-minded partners. IBWA members and staff also continue to work in the states to ensure that the industry’s voice is heard when legislatures consider any proposed recycled content legislation. With few signs that concerns about plastic are going anywhere any time soon, it’s clear that the industry still has work to do. Fortunately, we have a good story to tell. With all IBWA members working together, perhaps we can educate consumers on the value of PET. . . perhaps we can inspire them to see it as the valuable resource it is...and perhaps, together, we can increase recycling rates of all plastics and help contribute to a circular environmental economy.

BENEFITS OF PLASTIC As an industry, bottled water is well-positioned to push back in the fight against plastic. Just consider the impressive list below of the attributes of PET and polycarbonate plastic. • PET and polycarbonate bottles are 100-percent recyclable. • PET and polycarbonate bottles are reliable, protecting contents from contamination and preserving product taste and freshness. • PET bottled water bottles are the most common item in curbside bins (53.9 percent). • PET bottles are convenient and are increasingly lightweighted, so they use less plastic per package. • PET and polycarbonate plastic are accepted for recycling in virtually every program in the United States and Canada. • PET can be recycled and used in bottle and thermoformed packaging over and over again. According to the National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR), no other plastic can make a stronger closed-loop recycling claim. • PET and polycarbonate plastic are shatter-resistant. • PET containers are resealable, with plastic caps, and neck rings that can be left on bottles and are not considered contaminants in the recycling process.

MAR/APR 2019



IBWA Aligns Its Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide With Latest AWS Standard By Al Lear, IBWA Director of Science and Research

As a policy leader, IBWA continues to encourage members—bottlers and suppliers—to practice stewardship with respect to water resource management. To assist the member­ ship, IBWA, through its Environmental Sustainability Committee, developed the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide. The guide provides a reference that current and prospective members can use with existing facilities and when developing new bottling facilities. The guide also provides a basis for members to self-audit their water stewardship efforts.




Elements of IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Since 2017, IBWA has been a member of the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS), a global collaboration comprising businesses, NGOs, and the public sector. AWS members contribute to the sustainability of local water resources through their adoption and promotion of a universal framework for the sustainable use of water known as the International Water Stewardship standard, or AWS standard. This standard seeks four outcomes: good water governance, sustainable water balance, good water quality status, and healthy status of

Important Water-Related Areas. In addition to the four outcomes described above, the following six steps of the current AWS standard are incorporated into the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide: Step 1. Commit: Commit to being a responsible water steward. • Establish a leadership commitment on water stewardship. • Develop a water stewardship policy. Step 2. Gather and Understand: Gather data to understand shared water challenges and water related risks, impacts and opportunities.


• •

• • •

Define the physical scope: Identify the site’s operational boundaries, the sources the site draws its water from, the locations where the site returns its discharge to, and the catchment(s) that the site affect(s) and is reliant upon. Identify stakeholders, their waterrelated challenges and the site’s sphere of influence. Gather water-related data for the catchment. Gather water-related data for the site. Gather credible and temporally relevant data on the site’s: - governance (including water stewardship and incident response plan) - water balance (volumetric balance of water inputs and outputs) - water quality (physical, chemical, and biological quality of influent and effluent) and possible sources of water pollution - Important Water-Related Areas (identification and status). Identify water-related costs (including capital investment expenditures, water procurement, water treatment, outsourced water-related services, water-related R&D and water-related energy costs); revenues; and shared value creation (including economic value distribution, environmental value and social value). Improve the site’s understanding of its indirect water use. Understand shared water-related challenges in the catchment. Understand and prioritize the site’s water risks and opportunities.

Step 3. Plan: Develop a water stewardship plan. • Develop a system that promotes and evaluates water-related legal compliance. • Create a site water stewardship strategy and plan. • Demonstrate responsiveness and resilience to water-related risks into the site’s incident response plan.


Notify the relevant (catchment) authority of the site’s water stewardship plans.

Step 4. Implement: Implement the site’s stewardship plan and improve impacts. • Comply with water-related legal and regulatory requirements and respect water rights. • Maintain or improve site water balance. • Maintain or improve site water quality. • Maintain or improve the status of the site’s important water-related areas. • Participate positively in catchment governance. • Maintain or improve indirect water use within the catchment. • Provide access to safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and hygiene awareness for workers on-site. • Notify the owners of shared waterrelated infrastructure of any concerns. Step 5. Evaluate: Evaluate the site’s performance. • Evaluate the site’s water stewardship performance, risks and benefits in the catchment context. • Evaluate water-related emergency incidents and extreme events. • Consult stakeholders on water-related performance. • Update water stewardship and incident response plans.

Step 6. Communicate and Disclose: Communicate about water stewardship and disclose the site’s stewardship efforts. By incorporating the six steps above into the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide, we align it with the AWS’s global standard. That alignment serves two purposes: It assists IBWA members in developing their water stewardship programs and provides a basis for IBWA members to later seek certification to the AWS standard if they so choose.

Reviews and Revisions Since the AWS standard was released in 2014, there has been useful information gained on its use and implementation. The standard is undergoing a review and revision process that will lead to a second version of the Alliance for Water Stewardship standard in 2019. IBWA has been following and engaging in the standard revision process and plans to revise the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide to ensure alignment with any updates to the AWS standard. IBWA is also developing a companion checklist for members to use with the IBWA guide when reviewing their water stewardship programs. If members have any question on this project, they can contact IBWA Director of Science and Research Al Lear: MAR/APR 2019





certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Linda Alfakir ( / Fax: 703.683.4074), IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22134. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________ Company__________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________ City_______________________________________________________ State/Province______________________________________________

ZIP/Postal Code____________________________________________

Check your selection for each question


When a consumer first sees a food product on a grocery store shelf, the first part of the label the consumer will see is the _____.


Nutrition facts panel Principal display panel Information panel Net contents statement


Within the six steps of the Alliance for Water Stewardship standard, _____ is part of committing to be a responsible water steward.


Developing a scope Creating a plan Developing a policy Maintaining good water quality


The statement of product identity appears on the _____.


Information panel Back panel Container closure Principal display panel


Implementing a water stewardship plan involves each of the following except _____.


Maintain or improve site water balance Provide access to safe drinking water Update water incident response plans Comply with regulatory requirements and respect water rights


The information panel MUST always include the name of the food product manufacturer.

OO True OO False





Hazardous waste generators are regulated by_____:


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency The U.S. Department of Commerce The U.S. Department of Labor


Which of the following is NOT a common mineral found in natural waters?


Potassium Calcium Chromium Magnesium


IBWA’s Water Stewardship Best Practices Guide is aligned with the Alliance for Water Stewardship’s standards.

OO True OO False


Effective removal of Cryptosporidium parvum cysts is achieved through use of_____:

OO Filters that meet the specifications of NSF Standard 53 OO Distillation OO Ozone OO All of the above


Beginning in 2019, IBWA’s new requirement for PFAS testing is set at a frequency of_____.


Once in 2019, then every 3 years Annually Quarterly Every 4 years




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Polymer Solutions Int'l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Downtown Wholesalers .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Outside Back Cover Support your industry while getting ahead of the competition! Place an ad in IBWA's Bottled Water Reporter magazine. IBWA’s award-winning, bimonthly magazine, Bottled Water Reporter, is the only trade magazine in the United States that exclusively targets the bottled water industry. IBWA has proudly been offering digital editions of its magazine online since 2009. Issues are mailed directly to IBWA members and nonmember subscribers six times a year. Bonus distributions occur during the IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show and the IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings. Review past issues at Contact Stephanie: 817.719.6197 /




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VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP JAMES SAS MANAGING PARTNER CREEKSIDE SPRINGS AMBRIDGE | PA ALL ABOUT JAMES As a hobby, James enjoys rebuilding old pickup trucks from the 1950s. During his college years, James sang for the Pittsburgh Opera.

James Sas is proud of how far his business, Creekside Springs, LLC, has come since its first plant opened in a converted dairy plant in 2003. At that time, most of his background was in accounting and restructuring financially distressed companies. Those financial skills helped James acquire the dairy plant and make the necessary renovations to reopen it as a water bottling facility. Today, Creekside Springs has three bottling facilities: two are in the Pennsylvania towns of Ambridge and Pulaski Township, and the third is in Salineville, Ohio. “Fifteen years ago, we could see the potential of bottled water and were attracted to the potential market growth,” explains James. “We didn’t realize we were that smart in our forecast until years later.” Creekside Springs is a full-line bottled water supplier for private label, contract package (co-packing), and store brand agreements. The company bottles spring, distilled, purified, and enhanced products, ranging from single-serve 12 oz. bottles to 5-gallon bottles. It also manufactures 1-gallon HDPE bottles. James states that he discovered IBWA around the time he purchased his first plant, and that facility was established with help from IBWA supplier members and vendors. Although James was fluent in cashflow, he knew a little less about bottling. “IBWA was the most robust source of information regarding the bottled water industry,” says James. “But [it] also was the primary audit organization with quality and control structures that we could validate and start using for our initial operations.” James explains that he initially joined IBWA for the opportunity to interact with fellow bottlers, suppliers, and vendors in the industry. As Creekside Springs grew, he valued the benefits more—like IBWA’s Certified Plant Operator (CPO) program, which helped provide the training and technical education for company staff. “We also gained a good deal of knowledge from the IBWA stand-alone audits as we continued to strive for better sanitation, efficiency, staff training, etc. to support our growth,” James says. “Now our organization is large enough to develop our own QA [quality assurance] programs, plant designs, and train many of our staff, and we utilize IBWA in a regulatory and advocacy role. We still use IBWA training, CPO certification, and other avenues to enhance our employee best practices, but the focus on the audit compliance and regulations has been replaced with broader objectives.” IBWA continues to help Creekside Spring grow by keeping the company aware of any technical, political, and training issues on the horizon. The company’s interactions with other IBWA bottler and supplier members have also contributed to its growth. James believes that being an IBWA member is invaluable.




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