Page 1

W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G


IN THIS ISSUE When Is the Best Why Develop a How Is IBWA Leveraging Time to Prepare Bottled Water for November Code of Practice? Partnerships? Elections?


Also Inside:


VOL. 58 • NO. 2


24 | Getting Ready for Election 2018 Your vote can impact the November elections. COMMUNICATIONS

26 | Leveraging Partnerships to Help Boost U.S. Recycling Rates IBWA partners with Keep America Beautiful to #DoBeautifulThings. TECHNICAL UPDATE

28 | IBWA Develops a Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship Quantifying your environmental stewardship efforts just got a little easier. VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP

32 | IBWA’s Legacy of Knowledge Viola Johnson Jacobs, government affairs and regulatory compliance manager at DS Services of America, Inc., loves to share the bottled water knowledge she has garnered through her involvement with IBWA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 | Refuting Opposition to Bottled Water With Science and Common Sense Why is bottled water often scrutinized over its perceived environmental impact? Because the public deeply misunderstands how bottled water companies use water. When critics of bottled water spread faulty information, that misunderstanding continues to proliferate. However, this article provides scientific facts that you can use to help dispel common myths about bottled water and the industry’s business practices. By Louis F. Vittorio, Jr., P.G.

18 | The Value of rPET Right now, bottled water companies voluntarily elect to produce bottles made from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). However, due to legislative efforts at the state level, such as those occurring in California, beverage manufacturers may soon be required to increase their use of rPET. Find out why recycling experts state this is a good thing. By Chris Torres

DEPARTMENTS CHAIRMAN'S COMMENTARY................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.......................................4 WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CPO QUIZ..........................................................30 ADVERTISERS....................................................31 CALENDAR........................................................31


BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 58, Number 2. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.


Sometimes, it really is about who you know. Bottled water is a complex, but beautiful, industry. Complex because we deal with a multitude of issues to ensure we produce a safe, great-tasting, healthy hydration beverage for our customers; beautiful, because—as members of IBWA—we work with some of the best people on Earth. People join professional associations for many reasons—some want access to great educational materials; some want to be seen as an industry leader; others are looking to attend organizational events at discounted rates. By far, when people talk of why they join IBWA, they say it is because members of IBWA are more than willing to share their hard-earned knowledge with you. In fact, Viola Johnson Jacobs (DS Services of America, Inc.), the subject of this issue’s Value of IBWA Membership profile (see p.32), considers access to bottled water experts the thing that makes IBWA most special to her: “You just can’t put this many experts together in one place anywhere else. . . They have the knowledge of not just the industry and regulatory bodies but legislative history.” IBWA members have earned a reputation as knowledgeable industry professionals who are willing to share the lessons they have learned during their many years in the industry. In past Value of IBWA Membership profiles, others have stated as much. Joe Bell (Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc.) said, "Because of the way IBWA members have treated us, we have always opened our doors to anyone with questions. If we don’t know the answer, we find someone that can help. I believe this makes the bottled water industry different from other industries. The camaraderie is an invaluable benefit of IBWA membership.” And supplier member David Redick (Steelhead, Inc.) noted that, while outsiders may view the bottled water industry as large and competitive, it feels surprisingly small and family-like to him. He described IBWA as a close-knit, friendly community: “Members help one another. It’s not uncommon for a member to reach out to a new member and provide advice in any way they can.” And I agree. We are a bottled water family at IBWA. Sure, we’re a competitive group— but we know that if we really want to affect change and strengthen this association, we have a better chance at doing that if we stand together. This year, I’ve challenged IBWA members to share with prospective members personal examples of how their IBWA membership helped their businesses grow. My goal is for each current member to get a least one new member to join the association—and that can happen, if they hear how supportive we are of one another.

Lynn Wachtmann IBWA Chairman


International Bottled Water Association OFFICERS Chairman Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc.. Vice Chair Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Treasurer Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Immediate Past Chairwoman Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Tara Carraro, Nestlé Waters North America Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Kari Mondt, Allied Purchasing Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Dennis Rivard, Crystal Mountain Products, Inc. Bryan Shinn, WG America Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Louis Vittorio, Jr., EarthRes Group, Inc. Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Tara Carraro, Nestlé Waters North America Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. C.R. Hall, Hall’s Culligan Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Bryan Shinn, WG America Company William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Julia Buchanan, Niagara Bottling, LLC Audrey Krupiak, WG America Company Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee Leslie Alstad, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Jeff Davis, Blackhawk Molding Co. Government Relations Committee Derieth Sutton, Niagara Bottling LLC Viola Johnson Jacobs, DS Services of America, Inc. Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, DS Services of America, Inc. State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Supplier and Convention Committee Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America





NOV/DEC 2016



PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE RECYCLING FACTS AND CONTENT The bottled water industry has a long-standing reputation as a good steward of the environment. But, if you believe everything you read on the internet, you wouldn’t know that. False and misleading information about the bottled water industry and our environmental stewardship is prevalent online. Lately, our critics have been trying to use that misinformation to sway public opinion and help restrict water bottling operations from obtaining the necessary permits and approvals to conduct business in their local communities. Thus, the cover story of this Environmental Sustainability issue of Bottled Water Reporter—“Refuting Opposition to Bottled Water With Science and Common Sense” (p.10) by IBWA Board Member Louis F. Vittorio, Jr.— identifies some of the common myths used to opposed bottled water. As principal hydrogeologist and vice president of IBWA supplier member EarthRes Group, Inc., Vittorio broaches the misunderstandings that surround water use for bottled water products from a scientific perspective—and provides actual facts about the impact a bottled water plant has on its surrounding environment. Our second feature, “The Value of rPET” (p.18), by IBWA Communications Coordinator Chris Torres, discusses the invaluable role of the bottled water industry in plastics recycling—and reviews the economical and environmental benefits of using rPET in bottled water containers. For now, incorporating rPET into your bottled water containers is voluntary; however, changes may be on the horizon. Already in California, legislation has been introduced that would require all plastic (PET and HDPE), glass, and metal containers to use postconsumer recycled content material. Our Communications column (p.26) includes an exciting announcement: IBWA is partnering with Keep America Beautiful (KAB) to amplify the reach of our environmental stewardship and recycling messages on social media. Through this partnership, we will have access to KAB’s social media audience, which is 24 times the size of our current audience, and be a national sponsor of America Recycles Day, which occurs annually on November 15. In the Technical Update column (p.28), we discuss why IBWA decided to take a leadership role in water resource sustainability efforts by developing a Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship. That document is currently in draft form, but we anticipate finalizing it by our June Board Meeting, which will be held in Alexandria, Virginia, on June 7, 2018. Lastly, as this is an important election year with many state and federal races being held in November, the Government Relations column (p.24) encourages members to “do your part” and vote!


International Bottled Water Association BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074

IBWA STAFF President Joe Doss Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst Vice President of Communications Jill Culora Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner Director of Science and Research Al Lear Director of Communications Sabrina E. Hicks Manager of Member Services Cheryl Bass-Briscoe Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Claire Crane Communications Coordinator Chris Torres Executive Assistant Patrice Ward Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks

Joe Doss IBWA President




Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer

Delivering High Profits for over 13 Years High Margin

Strong Sales

5-hour ENERGY shots sell on average 1.5 million bottles a day. ®

Brand Recognition

Over 91% of all energy shots sold are 5-hour ENERGY shots. It’s the brand your customers want to buy. ®

Water & 5-hour ENERGY shots ®

Not only will it give your H2O a boost! Water is one of the most common items purchased with 5-hour ENERGY shots. ®

Contact: Brandon at ©2018 Living Essentials Marketing, LLC. All rights reserved. Individual results may vary. See for more details. Regular Strength 5-hour ENERGY® shots contain caffeine comparable to a cup of the leading premium coffee. Extra Strength 5-hour ENERGY® shots contain caffeine comparable to 12 ounces of the leading premium coffee. Limit caffeine products to avoid nervousness, sleeplessness, and occasional rapid heartbeat.

Delivers more dollar sales per SKU than any other brand.


Strong media support year after year.


(Tweet on April 17, International Haiku Poetry Day) when you are thirsty reach for healthy hydration water hits the spot #Haiku4u

king for new op portunities to co nnect with educate them about bottled w share any of th ater issues, feel e following on yo free to ur social media si te s during March and April—or b e inspired and write your own!

consumers and

(Post on March 20) Did you know that children who primarily drink water or milk—and not juice or sugar-sweetened beverages—have fewer dental caries than those who drink soda? In fact, nutritionists and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that the complementary beverage should be plain water. For more info, #WOHD18 #DrinkMoreWater

National Campaigns March: National Nutrition Month, National Groundwater Awareness Week (March 11-17), World Kidney Day (March 8), Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Day (March 14), World Oral Health Day (March 20), First Day of Spring (March 20), World Water Day (March 22), American Diabetes Alert Day (March 28) April: National Minority Health Month, Stress Awareness Month, National Pet Day (April 11), World Voice Day (April 16), National Park Week (April 21-29), Earth Day (April 22)

(Post in March) DYK that March is National Nutrition Month? Let's follow what experts at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics have to say about healthy hydration: "Drink More Water. Quench your thirst by drinking water instead of sugary drinks. Stay well hydrated by drinking plenty of water if you are active, live or work in hot conditions, or are an older adult." For more, visit,

8 concerning things that happen to your body if you're constantly dehydrated

(Tweet on days leading up to Tax Day, April 17) Working on your taxes can be stressful. Know what is scientifically proven to help decrease stress? Drinking water! #Cheers2That #DrinkMoreWater

Think water is boring? Then watch this video to learn some tips that will help you increase your daily water intake. pin/414964553159414913

(Post on March 8) Did you know that consuming plenty of fluid helps the kidneys clear sodium, urea, and toxins from the body which, in turn, results in a “significantly lower risk” of developing chronic kidney disease? That's according to researchers in Australia and Canada. Researchers provided evidence that moderately increased water intake, around 2 liters daily, may reduce the risk of decline in kidney function. For more, #WorldKidneyDay #DrinkMoreWater

DYK bottled water has the lowest water use ratio of all packaged beverages? #worldwaterday janfeb_bwr_final/14


April 11 is National Pet Day!


A drink of water after meals rinses the mouth and restores a healthy pH. #WOHD18 #DrinkMoreWater

(Post on April 22) On Earth Day— and every day—Be a Recycling Champion by remembering to PutItInTheBin!

March 28 is American Diabetes Alert Day. While food is often a focus when it comes to diabetes, don't forget that the beverages you drink can also have an effect on your weight and blood glucose! It’s important to stay hydrated and, according to the American Diabetes Association, water is simply your best choice when it comes to hydration.


More Than 150 IBWA Member Bottling Facilities Earn Excellence in Manufacturing Designation Each year, all IBWA bottler members must be inspected by an independent, third-party organization. Depending on their performance, they can earn either an Excellence in Manufacturing Designation or a Certificate of Compliance. The guidelines for the inspection program are described below. The IBWA Excellence in Manufacturing designation represents the highest standard in manufacturing quality for bottled water plants. This title recognizes whether a bottled water facility’s food safety plans are in compliance with the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. The following guidelines have been established: • If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and three or fewer minor nonconformances, the plant is awarded a certificate for Excellence in Manufacturing.

• If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and from four to 10 minor nonconformances, the plant is awarded a Certificate of Compliance. The certificate acknowledges that the plant is in compliance with its food safety plan. • Plants that are cited by the auditor for one or more major nonconformances and/or more than 10 minor nonconformances do not pass the annual audit. Those plants are required by IBWA to provide a plan for returning to compliance with their food safety plan and all applicable GMP requirements. IBWA would like to congratulate the following 157 facilities for achieving Excellence in Manufacturing (listed below) and the 43 facilities that earned a Certificate of Compliance (listed on page 8) in 2017.

Excellence in Manufacturing

DS Services of America, Inc. 6055 S. Harlem Ave. - Chicago, IL 6155 S. Harlem Ave. - Chicago, IL Carnegie, PA Denver, CO East Peoria, IL El Paso, TX Elgin, IL Ephrata, PA Fort Lauderdale, FL Fresno, CA Grand Prairie, TX Kansas City, KS Katy, TX Kent, WA Kentwood, LA Lakeside, CA Las Vegas, NV Lindenhurst, NY Los Angeles, CA Mableton, GA Midland, TX Milpitas, CA Orlando, FL Portland, OR Sacramento, CA Salt Lake City, UT Santa Ana, CA

Absopure Water Company O’Fallon, IL Plymouth, MI Alaska Glacier Products Anchorage, AK Aqua Filter Fresh Pittsburgh, PA Aqua Solutions, LLC dba Culligan of Ottawa, Illinois Ottawa, IL Aqua Systems Avon, IN Aquarius Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan of Tulsa Tulsa, OK Arctic Glacier dba Koldkist Bottled Water Portland, OR Berkshire Springs Southfield, MA Boxed Water Is Better Lindon, UT Brevard Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona Beach, FL C&S Enterprises Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Columbia, Missouri Columbia, MO Canadian Valley Water, Inc. El Reno, OK Century Springs Bottling Inc. Mukwonago, WI

CG Roxane Benton, TN Johnstown, NY Moultonborough, NH Norman, AR Weed, CA Chameleon Beverage Company Commerce, CA Creekside Springs Salineville, OH CRH California Water, Inc. dba Culligan of San Diego, California San Diego, CA Crystal Clear Bottled Water Company Des Moines, IA Culligan of NWA dba Hall’s Culligan of Rogers, Arkansas Lowell, AR Culligan San Paso Co. dba Culligan Santa Maria Santa Maria, CA Culligan Water Conditioning of West Texas, Inc. Midland, TX Culligan Water Moscow, LLC dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Coeur D’Alene, Idaho Coeur D’Alene, ID DAKS Enterprises, Ltd. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Boone, Iowa Boone, IA Danville Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Danville, Illinois Danville, IL Drink More Water Gaithersburg, MD

Earl Ising, Inc. dba Culligan Soft Water Service of Livermore, California Livermore, CA Eastern Wisconsin Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan of Burlington, Wisconsin Burlington, WI Eureka Water Company dba Ozarka Water Company Oklahoma City, OK Firmage Bottled Water Corporation dba Culligan Bottled Water of Utah Salt Lake City, UT Grand Springs Distribution Alton, VA

Gregory S. Gayler dba Angelo Water Service San Angelo, TX H2O Conditioning of Cameron County, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of The Rio Grande Valley San Benito, TX Ideal Pure Water Omaha, NE K&S H2O Inc. dba Culligan of Davenport Davenport, IA Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Service Napoleon, OH Mayer Bros Apple Products Inc. West Seneca, NY McCollum Bottled Water, L.L.C. dba Culligan Bottling of the Tri Cities, Tennessee Blountville, TN Melwood Springs Water Company Blue Ridge, GA Milbert Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Inver Grove Heights, MN Inver Grove Heights, MN Misty Mountain Spring Water Abingdon, VA Mountain Valley Spring Company Hot Springs, AR Nestlé Waters North America dba Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water Cabazon, CA Livermore, CA Ontario, CA MAR/APR 2018




Nestlé Waters North America dba Deer Park 405 Nestlé Way - Breinigsville, PA McBee, SC

Pinnacle Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Grand Junction, Colorado Grand Junction, CO

Nestlé Waters North America dba Ice Mountain Spring Water Stanwood, MI

Plooster Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Chadron, Nebraska Chadron, NE

Nestlé Waters North America dba Nestlé Pure Life 7713 Penn Drive - Breinigsville, PA Dallas, TX Denver, CO Greenwood, IN Lee, FL Red Boiling Springs, TN Sacramento, CA Nestlé Waters North America dba Ozarka Hawkins, TX Houston, TX Pasadena, TX Nestlé Waters North America dba Poland Spring Water Hollis Center, ME Kingfield, ME Poland Spring, ME Niagara Bottling 811 Zephyr St. - Stockton, CA 1025 Runway Dr. - Stockton, CA 2560 E. Philadelphia St. - Ontario, CA 4800 Langon Rd. - Dallas, TX 4851 Mountain Creek Pkwy. - Dallas, TX 5675 E. Concours St. - Ontario, CA Aurora, CO Bloomfield, CT Brigham City, UT Chester, VA Gahanna, OH Groveland, FL Los Lunas, NM Missouri City, TX Phoenix, AZ Puyallup, WA Rialto, CA Seguin, TX West Valley City, UT North Carolina Bottled Water Co. Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Goldsboro, North Carolina Goldsboro, NC Northeastern Water Services, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Binghamton, New York Endicott, NY Northwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan of Twin Falls, ID Twin Falls, ID Orth Water Solutions, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Ogallala, Nebraska Julesburg, CO Pace’s Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Pace’s Culligan Cedar City, UT




Polar Beverages Walcott, MA Premium Waters Crivitz, WI Fargo, ND Las Vegas, NV Quincy, IL Willmar, MN

Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Tucson, Arizona Tucson, AZ Stimco, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Pampa, Texas Pampa, TX T&B Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Carroll, Iowa Carroll, IA Walter C. Voigt, Inc. dba Central Valley Culligan Fresno, CA

Publix Super Markets Dacula, GA Deerfield Beach, FL Lakeland, FL

Water Conditioning of Mankato, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Madelia, Minnesota Madelia, MN

Pure Flo Water Company Santee, CA

Water Conditioning of the Tri-Cities, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of The Tri-Cities, Washington Kennewick, WA

Quality Water “Works”, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kalispell, Montana Kalispell, MT Riverside Water Technology, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Perryville, Missouri Perryville, MO Roaring Spring Water Roaring Spring, PA Robert N. Garner dba Culligan Water Treatment of Brazos County, Texas College Station, TX RS Water Holdings, LLC dba Culligan of DFW Irving, TX RTD Beverages Covington, LA Saegertown Beverages Saegertown, PA Sam H. Jones Furniture & Appliances, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Pocatello, Idaho Pocatello, ID

Waterco of the Central States, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water of Panama City Panama City, FL Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Spokane, WA Spokane, WA

Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Yakima, WA Yakima, WA Western Water Works, LLC dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Dodge City, Kansas Dodge City, KS WG America Company dba The Water Guy Birdsboro, PA Wheatland Waters, Inc. dba Culligan of Greater Kansas City Olathe, KS Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of Denver Englewood, CO Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of LaVista, Nebraska LaVista, NE Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Hall’s Culligan of Wichita, Kansas Wichita, KS Wisconsin Glacier Springs New Berlin, WI

Certificate of Compliance IBWA would also like to congratulate the following facilities for earning a Certificate of Compliance in 2017: A Better Water, Incorporated dba Culligan Bottled Water Production of North Central Indiana Monticello, IN Berkeley Club Beverages Berkeley Springs, WV Boxed Water Is Better Holland, MI

Silver Creek Bottling Streamwood, IL

Central Nebraska Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Grand Island, Nebraska Grand Island, NE

Silver Springs Bottled Water Company Ocala, FL

CG Roxane Olancha, CA Salem, SC

Southeast Texas Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Southeast Texas Water Beaumont, TX

Creekside Springs Ambridge, PA

Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, AZ

Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Tukwila, WA Tukwila, WA

CRH California Water, Inc. dba Culligan of Oxnard, CA Camarillo, CA Crossroad Farms Dairy dba The Kroger Company Indianapolis, IN

Dakota Splash Sioux Falls, SD Delta American, Incorporated dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Baton Rouge, Louisiana Baton Rouge, LA Diamond Springs Water Charlotte, NC Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Corpus Christi, Texas Corpus Christi, TX Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Waseca, Minnesota Waseca, MN DS Services of America, Inc. Phoenix, AZ D.T. Water Corporation dba Mast Family Culligan Fort Myers, FL Famous Ramona Water Ramona, CA (Certificate of Compliance List continues on p.31.)



International Bottled Water Association


IBWA Congratulates 82 New or Re-certified CPOs IBWA would like to congratulate the following bottled water professionals who successfully passed IBWA’s certified plant operator (CPO) exam in 2017. Absopure Water Compay Plymouth, MI Chris Erickson

Culligan Water of Twin Falls Twin Fallas, ID Mark Thompson

Century Springs Bottling Inc. Mukwonago, WI Doug Landess John Ove

DS Services of America Kansas City, KS Stephen Bulow

Crossroads Beverage Group Reading, PA Jennifer Smith Culligan Burlington, WI Patrick Scanlon

Genco Water Springfield, MO Charles Lick Hall's Culligan Wichita, KS Marvin Johnson

Culligan Indianapolis, IN Ross Munroe John Wilburn

Illinois Pure Water Ottawa, IL Apryl McDermott Jeff McDermott Jeff McDunnin

Culligan Panama City, FL Naoki Imaizumi

Montana Artesian Water Kalispell, MT Lew Weaver

Culligan Rapid City, SD Chris Bensen

Mountain Valley Spring Company Hot Springs, AR Robert Williams

Culligan Victoria, TX Matthew Hoffman

Nestlé Waters North America Breinigsville, PA Christopher Acker Ian Fairbairn Katherine Nothstein Tyler Novosat John Scanzaroli

Culligan of DFW Irving, TX Justin Ratts Culligan of Houston Houston, TX Carl Blacconeri Brent Chinn Joel Estrada Culligan of Seymour Seymour, IN Kevin Beavers Culligan of West Texas Midland, TX Armando Hernandez

Nestlé Waters North America Cabazon, CA Chuck Barlick Nestlé Waters North America Dallas, TX Maria Velasquez Nestlé Waters North America Houston, TX Mallory Wilson Alvaro Falquez

Culligan Water Burlington, WI Garron Baumeister

Nestlé Waters North America Ontario, CA Tiffany Liu Chris Saunders

Culligan Water College Station, TX Brent Garner

Nestlé Waters North America Pasadena, TX Karita Wynn

Culligan Water Corpus Christi, TX Tim Sommers

Niagara Bottling Allentown, PA Jacob Fugazzotto

Culligan Water Conditioning Pocatello, ID Blake Jones

Niagara Bottling Aurora, CO Mohammed Boufadize

Certificate of Completion Certified Plant Operator Examination This is to certify that has completed the prescribed IBWA curriculum covering all aspects of Advanced Water Treatment Technology and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Quality Standards and Good Manufacturing Practices as they relate to bottled water. In witness whereof, we have duly affixed our signatures.

President, IBWA December 31, 2017 Date

Niagara Bottling Byhalia, MS Sherryln Walker Niagara Bottling Chester, VA Michael Patania Niagara Bottling Dallas, TX Tyler Burkhart Amanda Stepansky Niagara Bottling Gahana, OH April Harrington Niagara Bottling Hamburg, PA Kaitlyn Bandholz Kristopher Waldon Niagara Bottling Los Lunas, NM Alejandra Talamantes Niagara Bottling Missouri City, TX Kenyatta Burriel Cyril Dokosi Daryl Elles Charles James Niagara Bottling Oklahoma City, OK Stephanie Tachell Niagara Bottling Ontario, CA Armando Guerrero Niagara Bottling Phoenix, AZ Dawn Comeaux Alan Lendvay Niagara Bottling Pleasant Prairie, WA Roberto Rodriguez Niagara Bottling Seguin, TX Alexis Cantu Niagara Bottling Stockton, CA Audra Borges Connor Klein Gabriel Ortiz

Shayron F. Barnes-Selby Chairman, IBWA December 31, 2020 Certificate Expiration Date

Plains Dairy Amarillo, TX Sara Marshall Tim Zinn Premium Waters Chippewa Falls, WI Heidi Larson Premium Waters Douglas, GA Rodney Manning Paula Steptoe Premium Waters Greeneville, TN Stacey Wishon Premium Waters Quincy, IL Chad Hudelson Gail Sullivan Premium Waters Riverside, MO Lyjeane Swope RTD Beverages Covington, LA Harold Herrmann Chris Melton Saegertown Beverages Saegertown, PA Kevin Schlosser Southeast Texas Water Beaumont, TX Jake Smith Southern Beverage Packers Appling, GA Brian Hatcher Sterling Water Culligan Willmar, MN Robert Fader Waiakea Bottling Hilo, HI Maurice Goulding WG America Company Birdsboro, PA Ian Roth Hilary Tracy

MAR/APR 2018





I recently attended a conference where executives from various carbonated soft drink, tea, juice, and other beverage companies spoke on their products. The presentations and questions asked of the presenters focused on increasing branded products, re-branding, marketing, and product growth. This made sense as the executives care deeply about their products and wish to grow their business and corresponding revenue, as any business should. However, after an executive of a bottled water company spoke, the audience switched their focus to questions on water use, sustainability, and recycling. I thought, What is going on here? All beverage products use packaging, and many are substantially heavier than bottled water products; and all use water, most using more water per ounce of product than is used in bottled water products. Why the targeted focus of these issues on bottled water? What I've come to realize—after delving into these issues on numerous projects—is that there is a deep misunderstanding surrounding water use for bottled water products. The misunderstanding is aided by ever-present media attention to real water shortages, drought, public supply water quality issues, population growth, and climate change.

I believe the misunderstanding boils down to a faulty premise of people being denied access to clean water, while bottled water companies privatize the resource and grossly profit while doing so. That premise is clearly and absolutely false. But, it is attention-grabbing, and bottled water opponents revel in sharing that false information with their friends, media, environmental groups, and those with an affection for conspiracy theories. I’m reminded of the movie Mad Max: Fury Road, where—in a dystopian, parched-planet future—all water is controlled by a deranged anarchist. In stark contrast and in true reality, bottled water is a healthy product that companies are providing, and it is not water that they are denying. In this article, I address the misunderstandings surrounding these issues so that—after digesting the scientific facts and data—the truth will become evident to the reader. I discuss head-on water use and privatization, among other issues listed on the following pages. The article evaluates the most common opposition arguments to bottled water and provides an analysis using science and common sense to put these faulty arguments into perspective and refute them.

MAR/APR 2018



Common Opposition Points Commonly heard opposition points to bottled water include the following: •

The industry uses excessive water and is privatizing and depleting water resources.

It is just tap water in bottle.

The quality is the same or less than tap water.

It is not regulated or not from protected sources.

It is a costly and unnecessary luxury.

There is a lack of recycling and excessive plastic waste.

It has a large environmental footprint.

Myth: Industry’s Excessive Water Use, Privatization, and Source Depletion Throughout my career, I have been tasked with developing water sources that meet several criteria: having excellent water quality, being well protected from pollution sources, having sufficient volume while not affecting the rights of other users, and not having an adverse impact to environmental receptors. Above all of that, a potential water source for a bottled water facility must be sustainable to justify its use and the long-term investment required to make a viable beverage product. I have written about sustainability and water resource management in the January/February 2016 issue of Bottled Water Reporter (BWR), and, to that end, I refer the reader

FIGURE 1. BOTTLED WATER'S SMALL WATER USE Bottled water 0.011% Livestock <1% Domestic self supply 1% Mining 2% Aquaculture 3% Industry 4% Public supply 12%

Irrigation 32%

Thermoelectric power 45%

Of all the water in the United States, bottled water production uses an extremely small amount of water— just 0.011 percent.

Source:, based on USGS and Beverage Marketing Corporation data




to that article, “Water Source Management in the 21st Century,” for an in-depth analysis on the subject ( WaterSourceManagement). However, I cannot leave out sustainability from the current analysis, as the topics of drought, water scarcity, and water pollution are the subject of many mainstream media articles. While those issues are real and deserve reporting, most articles leave out the perspective of total water available and used by various stakeholders, including the bottled water industry, and that water is a renewable resource. The following graphics (Figure 1 and Table 1) show data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regarding the estimated water use in the United States. As shown, the total estimated water use by bottled water is approximately 0.011 percent of average daily water use. The data shows that the overall use of water for bottled water is insignificant when compared to other uses, including domestic, public supply, agricultural, and industrial uses. If you wish to affect real change in water use, where would you place your energy and focus? Those statistics also speak to the myth of privatization of water resources, where such a small use is not an actual concern, nor should it be a recurring focus. Furthermore, municipalities and public authorities own many of the sources used for bottled water, and those sources typically have permits with time limits and environmental protection. Those additional factors make the concern over water privatization truly a non-concern.

TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF ESTIMATED U.S. WATER USE 2010 Withdrawals By Category, in million gallons per day (MGD)



% of Total

Bottled Water



Public Supply























Thermoelectric power

Values do not sum to 355,00 MGD because of independent rounding. Source: USGS, 2014, “Summary of Estimated Water Use in the United States in 2010,” Fact Sheet 2014-3109,

FACTS I have been told, “Yes, I see your point globally, but what about locally?” I have found that this too is a non-issue, as local sources are developed to be sustainable and are located where there is water. The water used must be renewable to justify the investment that bottled water manufacturers make to bring a source to market. The claim that companies would “drain the aquifer and leave town,” does not make scientific or business sense; it frankly doesn’t “hold water.” I again refer the reader to my article in the January/February 2016 issue of BWR for more discussion on this topic.

section of this article is not an attack on tap water. Municipal water facilities employ water professionals who work to provide clean and safe tap water as mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. They work in a system with different challenges—infrastructure, requirements, and resources. The DWRF report states, “. . . drinking water, whether from the tap or a bottle, is generally safe, and that regulatory requirements for both tap water and bottled water provide Americans with clean, safe drinking water.” Below are four significant conclusions presented in the DWRF report:

To put the water use issue into further perspective—through evaluation of statistics provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—approximately 16 percent of all water treated by public water utilities annually is leaked through aging and damaged infrastructure ( sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/epa816f13002.pdf). Applying the EPA data to the USGS water use statistics, indicates that, on average, the water leaked from public utilities amounts to more than 170 times the amount of water used for bottled water. This fact is not provided to criticize utilities, as it is well-know that the U.S. water infrastructure needs funding for replacement and rehabilitation. However, it is provided to put into context the misplaced and unfounded criticism of water use for bottled water products.

Federal law requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for bottled water to be as protective of the public health as the EPA standards for tap water.

Both tap water and bottled water are regulated (by EPA and FDA, respectively) but differ on non-compliance issues (more on this later).

Both bottled water and tap water have substantial monitoring and testing requirements.

The most notable difference is in the delivery system of the water: tap water is provided via underground utility lines; bottled water is provided in sealed containers.

Myth: Bottled Water Is Just Tap Water in a Bottle From my perspective, the above arguments on water use and privatization are fairly simple and straightforward. The criticism that bottled water is just tap water in a bottle is also straightforward, but not as simple—as there are many aspects to evaluate, including the following: •

water quality


compliance and monitoring

distribution system / infrastructure

health impacts

source protection


Bottled water is marketed—not to displace tap water—but rather as a beverage of choice for convenient healthy hydration. A definitive report comparing both was published by the Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF): “Bottled Water and Tap Water Just the Facts: A Comparison of Regulatory Requirements for Quality and Monitoring of Drinking Water in the United States” (thefactsaboutwater. org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/BW-PWS-Just-the-Facts2011-rev-0314-Enc.pdf). The data presented in the following

The FDA additionally has current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) that include requirements for bottled water that 1) are generally more stringent than community water systems; 2) do not allow for averaging of test results; 3) are consistent, regardless of the number of consumers; 4) are generally not subject to local monitoring waivers or reductions in test frequency; and 5) require more frequent testing on a per gallon basis than municipal water. In addition, under the current Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), bottled water companies (like all food and beverage companies) are now subject to additional requirements, including preparation and implementation of food safety and food defense plans, verification of suppliers, expanded records maintenance, and access by government inspectors. In non-compliance situations, bottled water must be recalled from stores. In contrast, tap water customers must be notified while continued distributions of non-compliant water occurs. Continued distribution results in non-use and boil water alerts at the point-of-use, with potential health consequences. Using Meltwater Media Services, a media search service, I ran a search for reported boil alerts in the United States, from January 31, 2017 through February 1, 2018, and found that there were 3,807 media reports on boil alerts. Typically, boil alerts are sent to customers as a result of line breakages, found source contamination, or failure MAR/APR 2018




Government Accountability Office (GAO), found there were zero outbreaks of foodborne illness from bottled water over a five-year period. Much of the data can be explained through looking at the method of delivery between bottled water and tap water. Community water systems deliver water to consumers (businesses and private residences) through miles of underground iron (unlined and poly-lined), PVC, and lead service lines that can be subject to leakage due to the age of the system and accidental failures. That results in the risk of post-treatment contamination of the water that is delivered to consumers. Bottled water is delivered to consumers in sealed containers filled in sanitary conditions at a bottling plant.

Myth: Bottled Water Quality Is the Same or Less Than Tap Water Source: Erie County Water Authority,

of treatment systems, and they indicate that the water is unsafe to drink as delivered. Data provided in the DWRF report obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 16.4 million people became sick annually from municipal water supplies in 2006. In contrast, a survey of bottled water regulatory authorities, dated June 2009 and conducted by the

Municipal sources used for purified bottled water undergo further treatment and disinfection prior to bottling. A typical water treatment schematic for municipal sources is provided in Figure 2. A typical purified bottled water plant treatment schematic is shown in Figure 3. Multiple barriers of filtration and disinfection are employed at both municipal water facilities and bottled water plants. Municipal water facilities have historically used chlorine disinfection processes, while bottled water plants typically use ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection (more recently ozone and UV treatment have become more commonplace in municipal

FIGURE 3. TYPICAL PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER TREATMENT SCHEMATIC Municipal Water (treated or untreated) Air Filtration

Municipal Distribution System Carbon Filtration

Storage at Plant (if present)

Raw Water Treatment

Entry Point Into Process

Ozone (if applicable)

Bottle Capping, Coding, Labeling

UV Light Disinfection

Final Filtration

Final Ozonation



Bottle Washer/Rinser Mineral Injection

Bottles (inc. storage/conveyance)

Distillation Bottle Blowmolding Reverse Osmosis

Source: IBWA




FACTS treatment works). In addition to disinfection, filtration by several methods is accomplished in both treatment trains (e.g., using carbon and micron and sub-micron filter cartridges). Municipal water can be sourced from surface water; therefore, it may also undergo chemical addition for flocculation and corrosion control. Other exceptions between the two processes exist, but the point is that bottled water sourced from municipal water is treated again prior to bottling. Springs and boreholes used for bottled water are from protected source areas that typically undergo filtration and disinfection at the source, then are again subject to additional treatment and Q/A checks at the bottling plant. The end result is that bottled water is by no means simply tap water in a bottle. I encourage you to contact your source suppliers, be it bottled water or municipal tap water, and ask to take a tour of their treatment facilities. I guarantee that you will be impressed by what you see. The next time you are told that bottled water is just tap water in a bottle, I am sure you will be able to readily dismiss the claim.

Myth: Bottled Water Is Not Regulated or Not From Protected Sources As discussed, bottled water is regulated by FDA as a food product, while municipal systems are regulated by EPA. I have seen media outlets airing statements from environmental groups touting that bottled water is not regulated. Such unfounded claims can quickly be proven false by a simple, vetted Google search for “Bottled Water Regulations.” The top results from that specific search yield FDA and EPA fact sheets concerning bottled water regulations, and the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governing bottled water, specifically 21 CFR 165.110. Here's the truth: Federal law requires that the FDA regulations for bottled water be as protective of the public health as the EPA standards for tap water. Several states also have separate (EPA- and Health Department-based) regulations governing both bottled and tap water sourcing, supply, disinfection, and distribution. In addition, water basin commissions, wildlife commissions, local municipalities, and other government agencies can—and do—regulate water withdrawals. Public systems are usually larger groundwater and surface water sources subject to pollution from population centers. For example, this past year we saw perfluorinated chemical (PFC) compounds reported as found in public and private water systems across the country. In the past several years, lead contamination concerns in water distribution systems have been frequently reported. Bottled water sources, on the other hand, are from usually smaller, more remote and protected sources. Typically, those sources are actively managed and monitored to assure source water


Mass merchandisers/club 34% stores/dollar stores/online 26% Grocery stores 5%


Convenience stores (where the price per gallon is higher) Drug stores

The other 33 percent is accounted for through vending, food service, schools, stadiums, and other sales. Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation, "U.S. Bottled Water Through 2021"

protection and consistent high water quality. Bottled waters that are derived from municipal sources undergo significant additional treatment prior to bottling (see Figure 3).

Myth: Bottled Water Is a Costly and Unnecessary Luxury The inference that bottled water is a costly, unnecessary luxury is made by comparing it to the cost of tap water vs single-serve, convenience store prices. However, as you will see, this is an apples-to-oranges comparison. I have already covered the sourcing and various processes that differentiate bottled water from tap water. But significantly, bottled water is a beverage of choice and convenience that is bought and sold at many price points, just like any other beverage. It is not produced to replace tap water, but instead offered as a healthy alternative for hydration that is convenient, safe, portable, and readily available. When excessive cost and profit is touted as a negative, it is usually comparing single-serve convenience store prices at a buck-or-so a bottle. That is not a realistic comparison for several reasons. First, many single-serve beverage and food products in such stores have increased prices to reflect the retail environment, which includes increased costs for labor, overhead, and, quite simply, convenience. Secondly, as shown in the sidebar above, only 5 percent of bottled water was purchased at convenience stores in 2016. The majority of bottled water is purchased in grocery, retail, and club stores, where the price per bottle sold in cases is MAR/APR 2018




PET (Carbonated) 13.3%

Aluminum Can 7.9% HDPE 4.7%

Glass 66.7%

Gable Top Carton 3.5% PET (water) 3.3% Aseptic Box Foil Pouch 0.5% 0.1%

Sources: Container Recycling Institute, 2013; Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2011; and National Association for PET Container Resources, 2011

much lower for filtered and spring water. Considering all that goes into producing a bottle of water, and the cost of typical bottled water found at merchandising and grocery stores, one cannot argue that bottled water is expensive. Granted, there are exceptions for boutique waters that are sold to upscale markets, but upscale and high-cost products are not the norm for bottled water. What is normal is that upscale boutique products can be found across all consumer product categories. Bottled water is routinely reported in the news as a necessity and lifesaving resource in emergencies. That includes bottled water being used in relief efforts during natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, and forest fires); water main breaks; boil alerts; and water quality crises. Using Meltwater Media Services again, I ran a search online for “FEMA and Bottled Water.” The results found 19,500 articles and 7,000 unique stories for the month of August 2017. Bottled water is available for disaster relief and emergencies because it is a product of a vibrant industry. If not for such an industry, the emergency demand could not be met overnight due to the regulations, processes, and sourcing that goes into bringing bottled water to market.

Myth: Lack of Recycling and Excessive Plastic Waste Increased recycling of product containers made of paper, glass, aluminum, and plastic is an ongoing pursuit for all containerized products. Recycling programs and access to 16



recycling are growing with increased commitments from industry and communities. But again, the critics' focus goes towards bottled water—and not towards increasing recycling or looking at where the most positive impact in material recycling can be realized. The fact is, that all bottled water containers are 100 percent recyclable, and bottled water containers are the most common item in curbside recycling programs, recycled at a rate of 53.1 percent. Figure 4 depicts the percentage of drink packaging in U.S. landfills as a percentage of total packaged beverages landfilled. As shown, even when not recycled, bottled water containers make up only 3.3 percent of all drink packaging in U.S. landfills. Continual light-weighting of PET plastic packaging has seen the average weight drop to 9.25 grams per 16.9 ounce single-serve container. That is almost one-third less than the amount of PET it takes to make soda and other drink containers. (Carbonated soft drink containers must use thicker plastic due to manufacturing processes and to preserve carbonation.) According to the Beverage Marketing Corporation, between 2000 and 2014, the average weight of a 16.9 ounce (half-liter) PET plastic bottled water container declined 51 percent. Despite those successes, increased recycling and access to recycling is important to the bottled water industry. This year, IBWA has partnered with Keep America Beautiful ( to share the goal of improving recycling access and increasing recycling rates through consumer education. (For more on IBWA's partnership with Keep America Beautiful, turn to p.26.)

Myth: Large Environmental Footprint On average, it takes only 1.32 liters of water to produce 1 liter of finished bottled water (including the liter of water consumed), which is the lowest water-use ratio of any packaged beverage product. Figure 5 presents environmental data for the most common drink packages. The analysis considered the energy used to make containers, the CO2 produced in the process, the percentage of packages landfilled, and the packaging weight of a single container. The data shows that bottled water has the smallest environmental footprint of all packaged beverages.

Public Education Is Key When looking at the facts and data, I asked, “How and why do these myths persist?” There is a growing bias against the government and large companies, and, certainly, if it “bleeds it reads.” The reporting of droughts, water shortages, and water quality problems, while real, are often provided out of context of the volumes of water available in the environment, and the amount used by different stakeholders. The misconceptions are further spread by


HDPE Common containers: Nalgene, juice, milk & water jugs.



Aluminum Can Common drinks: soda, beer and juice.


252.8 g 63%

591 83.6

23.9g PET Plastic (carbonated drinks) Same as bottled water but weighs more due to strength demands of carbonation.

Gable Top Carton A layer of cardboard sandwiched between two very thin layers of plastic.


Aseptic Box Made from multiple laminated layers: plastic, paper & foil.


Legend 70.9%


BTUs / container - BTUs are British Thermal Units, a unit for measuring energy use. Figures show how many BTUs are used to make one container – averaged from all sizes within container type.



377 102.5

Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent /1,000,000 containers - The amount of greenhouse gases emitted by producing 1,000,000 containers.



Percentage of packaging “landfilled” instead of recycled. Not all beverage packaging is recyclable.


5g Foil Pouch Multiple layers of different types of plastics and aluminum all laminated together.

PET Plastic (bottled water) Stands for “polyethylene terephthalate” - a form of polyester.



Packaging weight in grams (average weight for a single-serve container.)




9.9g 61.4% 262 12.0

Least environmental impact!


Glass Drink containers: soda, beer & wine bottles.

3703 66.2

Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture (Food Surveys Research Group), Container Recycling Institute, PET Resin Association, Beverage Marketing Corporation, National Association for PET Container Resources, International Bottled Water Association, Planet Ark,, Recycle USA Inc., and the Glass Packaging Institute *Using 2010 data

people’s propensity to forward—in tweet-length texts— tidbits of information they find on the internet but are taken out of context. It’s a lot easier and less time consuming to do a Google search, cherry pick the info, and propagate fiction. In contrast—and through factually evaluating the insignificant amount of water used for bottled water—many of the anti-arguments simply fall away. I have found that getting people to the table to discuss the issues in smalls groups is the best approach to gain knowledge, trust, and understanding on the subject. To that end, education on the issues presented is essential to address the myths that persist around bottled water. Through this article, I have endeavored to present sound information and

data, which I trust can be used to advance the facts—and dispel the myths—surrounding bottled water. Louis Vittorio, Jr., P.G., vice president of EarthRes Group, Inc., received his BS in geology/geophysics from the University of Pittsburgh and his MS in geology from Lehigh University. He currently sits on the IBWA Board of Directors and serves on the association's Technical and Education Committees. Vittorio has developed continuing education seminars focused on water resources for IBWA, regional bottled water associations, and licensed geologists. Using his 30+ years of experience, he has integrated scientific disciplines targeted at the sustainable development of groundwater resources. Vittorio has served as an expert at hearings related to water extraction and has provided expert testimony for numerous water related projects. MAR/APR 2018



Like all food containers manufactured from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), bottled water has an important role to play in the plastics recycling industry. The majority of single-serve bottled water bottles and many home and office delivery (HOD) containers are made from PET, and up to 100 percent of a PET package can be recycled. PET is the most commonly recycled plastic in the world; in fact, in the United States and Canada alone, consumers recycle more than 2 billion pounds of it annually(



MAR/APR 2018



Why Use Recycled Content in Your Packaging? CONSUMERS PREFER TO BUY FROM COMPANIES THAT... use packaging that can be recycled

use recycled content in their packaging

encourage recycling












Gen Xers









Source: Keep America Beautiful,

More and more, bottled water and other industries are increasingly using recycled PET (rPET) in their products. Heavy users of rPET include the fiber, food, sheet and film, and strapping industries. In 2016, 43 percent of rPET in the United States was used for fiber products (e.g., carpet, clothes, and shoes), according to the Association of Plastic Recyclers (APR) and the National Association for PET Container Resources’ (NAPCOR) “Report on Postconsumer PET Container Recycling Activity in 2016.” Food and beverage products were the second-largest users of rPET, at 25 percent. Many bottled water companies have embraced using rPET packaging, offering their product in containers that are made of 50, 75, or even 100 percent rPET. “[Bottled water] may be the singlemost important and impactful kind of product container that is out there,” says APR President Steve Alexander. “Not only is it a great source of supply [for reclaimers], but it is also a great source of utilizing recycled content. That 20



bottle-to-bottle activity is the gold standard for what we have in this industry, so clearly the bottled water industry has been extremely impactful on the PCR [postconsumer resin] market. We would love to be able to use it more.” That increase may happen, as bottled water surpassed carbonated soft drinks in 2016 to become the No.1 packaged beverage in America (by volume) for the first time. One contributing factor may be if, as Americans continue to increase their demand for bottled water (as Beverage Marketing Corporation predicts), they also increase their recycling habits.

Why Use rPET The economical and environmental benefits of using rPET are highly touted. According to NAPCOR, producing products from rPET uses two-thirds less energy than it takes to create products from raw virgin materials. It also reduces greenhouse gas emissions. “One of the other benefits of using rPET is the consumer best

understands sustainability in recycling if the material is going back into the package that it started from,” says Tom Busard, chief procurement officer at Plastipak Packaging. “That seems to be the most easily understood route to explain to the consumer. If you say a water bottle went into fiber, your jacket, or your shirt, or something else, most people would say that’s pretty good. But, if you say a water or soft drink bottle went back into another bottle, then the light kind of goes on.” In the bottled water industry, Beverage Marketing Corporation reports that between 2008 and 2014 the use of rPET went from 3.3 to 21 percent–a 17.5 percent increase. “I think we’re seeing a greater usage of rPET going into food containers,” says Ron Sherga, CEO of EcoStrate, a Texas-based recycling company that collects textiles made from plastic bottles, with a focus on fleece and carpeting products, among others. Part of that increase may be due to the marketability of rPET. According to Tom Szaky, founder and CEO of TerraCycle, “[O]ne of the most

Challenges to Tackle Despite the growth of rPET use in recent years, it still faces some everyday challenges. The recycling industry continues to seek ways to curb contamination at collection facilities, improve recycling technology, improve consumer knowledge and participation in recycling, and increase access to recycling

programs—all things that would benefit rPET usage. But it begins with consumer knowledge and awareness. “I’m a big believer in people having to take responsibility, and I think we love to blame products and the industry, when the reality is bottles and things don’t find themselves on the roadside or the beach,” says Sherga. “People put them there, and I think we demonize the industry rather than stand in front of a mirror and take responsibility. I think the industry is doing a great job in setting up infrastructure. We continue to see new facilities being built that are capable of handling all the materials that are out there, it’s just


important factors consumers cite in their selection of eco-friendly products is the use of recycled content." Data on consumer attributes from Keep America Beautiful, the nation’s iconic community improvement nonprofit organization, supports that claim, as shown in the sidebar at left.

a matter of getting to those facilities in an economic fashion, so that they can return it into the system, but I think we all play a role there.” According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Germany was the leading sorter of waste for recycling in 2015 at 65 percent. The United States was at 35 percent, just one percentage point above the average of all 34 countries belonging to the OECD ( To help increase U.S. recycling rates, APR is participating in efforts to improve both consumer knowledge and recycling participation across the country. Like IBWA, APR is a funding partner

PET Material flows in the U.S. (MMlbs)

Source: NAPCOR,

MAR/APR 2018



of The Recycling Partnership (TRP), an organization that promotes curbside recycling. TRP works with communities to provide communication and consulting expertise, as well as grants, to increase or expand recycling programs. NAPCOR reports that PET bottle recycling in the United States for 2016 stood at a rate of 28.4 percent, which shows that educational efforts like those promoted by TRP are needed.

How to Design Bottles to Be Recycled The bottled water industry is a pioneer in innovative packaging. Now, when there is so much focus on environmental sustainability, learn what you should consider when designing a bottled water container to help ensure its recyclability. Read “Sustainable Sustainable Innovation: Designing Innovation: Bottles to Be Recycled” in the November/December 2017 issue of Bottled Water Reporter ( Sustainable_Innovation). COVER STORY

Designing Bottles

to Be Recycled

By Kim Wheeler

“Recycling starts with the consumer, the household, the curb, so there needs to be a much broader nationwide consumer education program to talk about and reduce the confusion in terms of what’s recyclable, what’s not recyclable, what should be in the bin, and what you need to do in order to get the best possible material in the bin,” says Alexander. “We need to capture more of the good material that we know is in the consumer household, but somehow doesn’t make it into the stream.” More than 90 percent of American consumers have access to PET bottle recycling, and more than 60 percent have access to recycling for non-bottle PET, such as cups, according to NAPCOR ( “Finding ways to get additional collection and finding ways to better educate the consumer on what things can be recycled is a big challenge,” says Busard. “As more material gets collected and is made available, the ability to use it in packaging will grow.” Once recyclables are collected, there’s always a lingering possibility of sorting or contamination issues, but Busard says those issues aren’t insurmountable. “I think contamination is always an issue, as it would be for glass, paper, or any other recyclable,” he explains. “For PET, it’s an issue that depends on how the material is collected.” Busard adds that single-stream recycling programs have made it more of a challenge to handle sorting and contamination. 22



As the global bottled water market continue remains the No.1 s to grow and bottled packaged beverage water in the United States, on bottlers to produce the pressure products with a reduced environm increases as well. ental impact Fortunately, the bottled water industry packaging innovati is a pioneer in on, having halved the amount of single-serve PET plastic used in bottles to produce its the lightest-weight bottles in the packaged beverage market.

But in order to continue this trend of progressive packaging, bottled water product designers must take into consideratio n that making a product of recyclable materials out does not necessarily make it recyclable. A product’s recyclability can be impaired by seemingly harmless design choices that ultimately render it unsuitable to the ture, resulting in contaminaterecycling infrastrucd batches of rPET or, in some cases, disposal in the landfill. In fact, a recent study conducted by Plastic Technologie Inc. (PTI), found s, that as many as five out of seven bottled water containers present some issue during the recycling process.

Innovative bottled water design accounts for not only the look, function, and composition of the bottle but also its practical recyclability. But what design factors influence a bottle’s recyclability? do bottlers know How whether or not the containers they use to convey the bottled water they produce can be recycled effectively?

The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers (APR)—the national trade organization the recyclers that of process more than 90 percent of the post-consum er plastics recycled in North America—provides designers and engineers preferred protocols with for plastic packaging.

The APR Design Guide offers a comprehens overview of seven ive key design features that impact a PET plastic product’s recyclability : base polymers; barrier layers, additives, and coating; color; dimensions; closures and dispensers; labels, and adhesives; and inks, attachments. According PTI study, the most to the common issues bottled containers present water during the recycling process relate to labels, inks, and adhesives, as well as the low weight of the bottles themselves. Using the APR Design Guide, we present below a user-friendly resource of the basics to remember when designing packaging for recyclability.

NOV/DEC 2017

In addition to those challenges, there has been a larger, global issue that has impacted the plastics recycling market. Pricing for virgin resin has been lower than usual the last few years, which has helped limit the demand for the more expensive rPET. In 2016, reclaimers outside of the United States purchased 379 million pounds—22 percent—of all U.S. postconsumer PET bottles collected. That is the lowest export percentage since 2000, according to NAPCOR’s “2016 Report on Postconsumer PET Recycling Activity.” Exports to the Far East—most notably to China—totaled 295 million pounds, down 40 million pounds from 2015. Despite steady declines in exports, postconsumer bottle purchases by U.S. reclaimers (i.e., recycling centers) in 2016 remained steady at 1,374 million pounds, up 1 million from 2015. “The fact of the matter is there continues to be great demand and great capacity for reclaiming that material here in North America,” says Alexander. “Finding markets for the material other than China is not as difficult as it is for some of the other resins.”



Long-term rPET Outlook Experts remain optimistic about long-term growth and increased use of rPET. “We’re trying not to overreact to the current situation,” says Alexander. “It has certainly been difficult the last 18-24 months, as rPET is a commodity. But we strongly believe that enhanced demand is going to only expand the market opportunities for greater utilization for rPET.” Alexander added that, due to legislative efforts at the state level in the United States, there may be more stringent requirements to come requiring beverage companies to utilize materials such as rPET. In California, all beverage manufacturers that sell products in the state that are part of the California Redemption Value (CRV) and are made of plastic must annually provide CalRecycle with the total amount of virgin plastic and postconsumer recycled plastic used in making beverage containers sold in the state. The information that bottlers submit will be posted on the CalRecycle public website. Such state legislation, in addition to sustainability metrics that brand companies vow to reach, means

The use of rPET has already increased by 5 percent in domestic end-market sectors in 2016, and there’s optimism that figure will also grow. “We do believe there’s a good growth model that’s coming,” Alexander says. “We’re very optimistic about the future growth of rPET going forward.” “I think there’s going to be continued requests to have companies be more responsible for the packages they put in the market and to ensure they are truly recyclable, and, secondarily, that they do get recycled into some other products that have a decent value,” says Busard. “So, there would be a good, sustainable circular economy of packaging that we

as consumers use, because plastic and PET packaging is extremely beneficial all the way through the chain. . . With that said, the environment today is such that the environmentalists, the consumers, the political action groups, all are seeking a higher level of responsibility on behalf of the brand owners, the packaging manufacturers, and packaging designers to make sure the packaging that gets put into the market is recyclable and is being recycled.” Some beverage companies are being proactive about increasing their use of rPET. While bottled water is just one of thousands of consumer items packaged in plastic, many bottled water companies already use bottles made from 50, 75, and, in some cases, 100 percent rPET.


companies will likely have to expand their use of recycled materials.

“What we really need is the brand companies to continue their commitment— and expand their commitment—using PCR,” says Alexander. “Some of the most successful recycling companies in the PET arena are those that have long-term contracts with brand companies which utilize PCR. I think that’s a huge step that brand companies can take going forward. The commitment to utilizing increased demand in material is the key to success in the long-term viability and expansion of the recycling industry.”

Chris Torres is IBWA’s communications coordinator. Contact him at ctorres@


ME18-05_BottledWater.Org_6.75"x4.75"ad.indd 1

2/14/18 11:31 AM

MAR/APR 2018




Getting Ready for Election 2018 By J.P. Toner, IBWA Director of Government Relations




Let’s talk elections. Now is an excellent time to start thinking about the upcoming 2018 elections and just how big of an impact they could have nationwide. Not a day goes by that we don’t see news articles covering the political situation in Washington, DC—and we should not be surprised if we see some of that drama trickle down to the states. Voter turnout this November will be critical in shaping the future of the United States—as all 435 House seats, 33 Senate seats, 36 governorships, three territories, and numerous state chambers are up for election. With so many political races taking place, I’d like to dispel the “my vote doesn’t matter” myth. Following is an example of how your vote does, indeed, matter. In IBWA’s home state of Virginia, a race that determined the balance of power in the House of Delegates was decided by a random drawing. Why? Because a district race between two candidates in November 2017 ended in a tie. According to Virginia law, the winner of a tied race is determined by lot—which means a random chance event, such as drawing a name out of a container. And that’s exactly how the winner was drawn by the Board of Electors. Through this “random chance event,” the Republicans maintained control of the Virginia House of Delegates by a slim, 51-49 majority. While that’s an extreme example, we’ve seen numerous close races in the last few years, races that were decided by a handful of votes—votes that could have come from your family, friends, or coworkers. While Republicans have enjoyed several years of continued expansion of their power base at many levels of government, the Democrats are being energized by the fact that many millennials are heading to the polls in their favor. So, no matter what your political leanings, it is clear that your party needs your vote.

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS We will hear all sorts of predictions during the coming months. Will power swing back toward the Democrats in 2018? Will Republicans see gains in what is usually a year when the party of a sitting president experiences loses in many chambers? Are there any avenues for third-party candidates at a time when citizens’ frustration with the twoparty system is at an all-time high? That is all to be determined. But, one thing we do know is that you can have an influence on election outcomes.

Do Your Part Where should you begin? Start by taking an assessment of your employees and the issues both the company and employees might have an interest in. Taxes, health care, hiring practices, immigration, and workers’ rights are just a few highly politized issues that can have an impact on your day-to-day operations. Determine which issues are essential to your company and employees, and let those issues guide you to which races you pay the most attention to. Here are just a few things that IBWA members can do to start election education with your employees: Provide information about issues and candidates. Voters constantly search for answers on where candidates stand concerning the various political issues. As an employer, you can provide your employees information on a host of topics, so why not include info on those issues that could be impacted by the outcome of an election. Helping your employees receive details about candidate positions will help them to make informed voting decisions. You can do this via your website or internal communications tools (e.g., posters or banners hung in the breakroom). Host a candidate meet and greet. IBWA regularly helps members organize meet-and-greet events to help educate legislators about the bottled water industry—but you can also host an event so your employees can learn

about the candidates competing in your local elections. If such an event is scheduled during a campaign, however, there are a few things to keep in mind. When any candidate is visiting your employees, it is not permissible for the company to endorse him or her. In addition, the company can’t discuss the candidate’s campaign; however, the candidate is free to do so in his or her remarks and conversations. If the campaign is discussed, an equal opportunity must be provided to the candidate’s opponent(s), if requested. During a visit, company leadership may endorse a particular candidate in meetings with executives, managers, and shareholders. Be sure to pay close attention to the topics of each meeting, and check with legal counsel to make sure your actions are within state and federal election laws.

Provide voting information. In this case, we are talking more about voting times and places as well as absentee voting instructions. There are several resources that can be used, and IBWA is happy to help members to ensure they get accurate information for the big day. Plan special Election Day events. Transportation to and from polls, friendly competition between various offices/sites, results watching parties are just a few great ways to make Election Day something special within your organization. It’s unlike any other day, so treat it as one! Although November may seem like a long way off, it will be here before you know it. Be prepared for Election Day by planning early, being a resource for your employees, and making a difference in the process in 2018.

Allied Purchasing Partner With Allied to Lower Your Costs    

Member Owned Not-For-Profit Purchasing Co-Op Established in 1937

Contact Kari Mondt 800-247-5956 and ask how you can become a member of Allied Purchasing

MAR/APR 2018



Leveraging Partnerships to Help Boost U.S. Recycling Rates By Jill Culora, IBWA Vice President of Communications

As many of you know, IBWA recently became partners with Keep America Beautiful (KAB). As a new partner, we were invited to attend KAB’s National Confernece last January, in Dallas, Texas, where news of our partnership was officially announced. That event proved to be an excellent gathering of KAB partners and affiliates, who were able to attend recycling-related workshops and 26



sessions, and share ideas for creating and managing successful national and local recycling programs. In most cases, the success stories involved partnerships of two or more organizations, each bringing something unique to the equation that created success. Here’s an example: Keep Louisiana Beautiful parternered with well-known community, business, and government

leaders from across the state to create a program called “Leaders Against Litter.” A key element of this annual, statewide litter-awareness program involves obtaining commitments from local business and community leaders to attend local cleanup events, while doning campaign T-shirts and attracting much needed media attention. Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards and his wife, Donna


IBWA PARTNERS WITH KEEP AMERICA BEAUTIFUL TO #DOBEAUTIFULTHINGS. Edwards, were among the more than 700 leaders across the state who gathered to publicly commit to the following pledge: • SPEAK UP and spread the word that litter is not acceptable. • PICK UP litter whenever they see it. • STAND UP and lead the way for a litter-free Louisiana. The campaign is a call to action for all citizens, encouraging them to do their part in their local communities to protect and preserve their beautiful state. A campaign of this magnitude would not be possible without the partnership between KAB and local and state leaders.

How Our Partnership Works IBWA is leveraging our KAB partnership to amplify the reach of our environmental stewardship and recycling messages through social media. Already, we’ve seen a lot of goodwill recognition online. The hashtag that accompanied the announcement of the IBWA/KAB initiative on social media—#DoBeautifulThings—proved to be effective, as many voiced their excitement over the news that the bottled water industry made a commitment to “Keep America Beautiful.” And, positive stories are a good thing in themselves. Keep America Beautiful’s mission has three pillars: • End littering. • Improve recycling. • Beautify communities. As IBWA shares the goal of improving recycling rates with KAB, our partnership focuses on campaigns and activities that will do just that— encourage consumers to always recycle their bottled water containers with

caps on, while at home or on the go. Our partnership gives IBWA access to KAB’s social media audience, which is 24 times the size of our current audience. IBWA’s Communications staff has been working with KAB staff to plan out the elements of our social media toolkit. As part of the strategy, KAB will share content from IBWA’s platforms and post original messaging alongside of IBWA digital posters. We’ll also collaborate to create new digital posters, which will align messaging from both organizations. In addition, there’s an opportunity to increase our social media reach even more—as both KAB and IBWA are partners with The Recycling Partnership (TRP). IBWA members will have the opportunity to access and use all the digital media assets created or shared for this partnership. For updates and alerts about KAB activities, make sure to read the weekly IBWA News Splash e-newsletter.

Encouraging Americans to Recycle Another significant element of our KAB partnership is IBWA’s role as a national sponsor of “America Recycles Day,” which occurs annually on November 15. In the months leading up to that day—the only nationally recognized day dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States— recognition of IBWA’s sponsorship role will increase, along with our promotion of this important event. America Recycles Day educates people about the importance of recycling to not only the U.S. economy but also the environmental stewardship of the

country. America Recycles Day aspires to motivate occasional recyclers to become everyday recyclers. Like many organizations these days, KAB is employing a “behavioral change” method as a pathway to encourage people who are currently less inclined to participate in recycling to actually recycle. The brainchild of Doug McKenzie-Mohr, PhD, a behavioral psychologist, this approach to marketing communications deviates wildly from traditional marketing. Basically, Dr. McKenzie-Mohr focuses on changing people’s behavior by introducing or creating new social norms. He says the No.1 way people learn a behavior is to observe other people doing that behavior. Public commitments and pledges help advertise the desired behavior and have the effect of motivating others to do the same. For IBWA, it is important that now, as bottled water is the No.1 packaged beverage in the United States, we continue to educate consumers about the importance of recycling their bottles with caps on. For many years, IBWA has worked diligently to proactively encourage consumers to always recycle their empty bottled water containers. Our message that all bottled water containers are 100 percent recyclable— even the caps—is an important one. The fact that our containers are so easy to recycle, where facilities exist, is more relevant than ever—as there are more and more opportunities to give these bottles a second life, not only as new bottles but also as shoes, clothing, outdoor decking, furniture, playgrounds, and more.

MAR/APR 2018



IBWA Develops Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship By Al Lear, IBWA Director of Science and Research

Bottled water is the No.1 packaged beverage in the United States. Some consumers who prefer to drink this safe, healthy, and convenient product may have questions concerning its environmental impacts. As an industry, we have always supported comprehensive water resource management that regulates both the quality and quantity of water resources, treats all users equitably, provides for the sustainability of the resource, and balances the interests and rights of those using this natural resource today and in the future. Environmental stewardship is part of the bottled water industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history, and protecting, maintaining, and preserving water resources for future generations is important to all IBWA members. 28



Why Create a Code of Practice As a policy leader, IBWA encourages members to practice stewardship with respect to water resource management. In addition, IBWA must take the initiative on water resource sustainability efforts and act as a leader for the bottled water industry. To assist our members with those efforts, the IBWA Environmental Sustainability Committee is in the process of developing an IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship. An outline of the Code of Practice was approved in June 2017, and a draft Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship document has been completed. A Code of Practice will provide a reference for current or

prospective members to use with existing facilities and when developing new bottling facilities. The Code of Practice will also provide a basis to audit members to verify adherence to the elements in the Code. As a communications tool, it can help inform consumers and the media of IBWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efforts on the topic of water stewardship.

Water Stewardship Principles The proposed Bottled Water Code of Practice for Water Stewardship document is based on the following three principles: 1) Commitment a) Operations i. Leadership commitment to a clearly defined vision for

TECHNICAL UPDATE efficient source and operational water use as a priority in the organization’s pursuit of operational excellence. ii. As part of the environmental management system, consider the water sources, water use and conservation practices, manufacturing and facility design, water catchment impacts and dependencies, and how to invest in new technologies and innovations that can minimize environmental impact. iii. Bottled water facilities should reuse operations water where feasible and work to reduce water use through increased efficiency. Where reuse of water isn’t feasible, these facilities should put into place wastewater treatment systems to minimize impacts of waste discharge to the ecosystem. iv. Evaluate and mitigate possible issues due to the operational use of water such as, ensuring availability of water in the catchment area. b) Supply Chain i. Evaluate water-related business risks from the source and throughout the distribution chain. ii. Partner with key suppliers to share relevant information on water use, goals, and management plans. c) Catchment i. Evaluate and understand who the key stakeholders are, watershed hydrogeology, community needs for access to water, and watershed capacity. ii. Conduct source water protection and vulnerability assessments with a focus on partnering with the local community to determine the long-term viability of the watershed.

iii. Evaluate condition of ultimate water receiving bodies of site’s effluent/discharge. iv. Work with the local community, government, customers, and other relevant parties during emergency situations such as natural disasters. 2) Outreach a) Community Engagement and Partnerships i. Promote knowledge sharing, identification of community water needs and solutions within the local community, and related public agencies. ii. Participate in water resource education and awareness within the community, in order to establish a culture of sound water management iii. Support clean drinking water and the development of an adequate water infrastructure. iv. Work with the local community, government, customers, and other relevant parties during emergency situations such as natural disasters. 3) Leadership a) Advocacy i. Promote the responsibility of the private sector in supporting integrated and sustainable water resource management policy at the local and federal levels. b) Communication i. Share and communicate goals and performance indicators through company/industry reports, publications, and presentations related to sustainability of watersheds. ii. Maintain an open dialogue when working with government and public authorities on public policy issues. Recognize the role that companies play in policy development discussions

with respect to their technical expertise, management, and knowledge sharing. In October 2017, IBWA became a member of the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS), an international multi-stakeholder organization dedicated to enhancing water stewardship. AWS brings together leading organizations from around the globe that are committed to advancing the responsible use of freshwater. AWS has developed a global standard that allows for continuous improvement in water stewardship and seeks four outcomes: good water governance, sustainable water balance, good water quality status, and healthy status of important water related areas. IBWA included that framework in the Code of Practice as it serves as a guide for members in development of their water stewardship programs.

Next Steps The draft IBWA Code of Practice for Water Stewardship is currently going through review and comment by IBWA’s Environmental Sustainability Committee. Following the committee’s approval at the February Board of Directors and Committee meetings, the document will be submitted to IBWA’s Government Relations, Communications, and Technical Committees for review and approval. The timeline is to have the final IBWA Code Practice for Water Stewardship approved by the IBWA Board of Directors at the June Board of Directors meeting, which is being held in Alexandria, Virginia, on June 7, 2018.

MAR/APR 2018





certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Claire Crane ( / Fax: 703.683.4074), IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________ Company__________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________ City_______________________________________________________ State/Province______________________________________________

ZIP/Postal Code____________________________________________

Check your selection for each question


Which of the following is not a principle of water stewardship for IBWA’s draft Code of Practice?


supply chain operations conservation commitment


According to the IBWA Code of Practice, which of the following is an “approved” laboratory?

OO One that has a business license. OO One that is certified by a state agency having jurisdiction OO One that provides all needed analytical services. OO One that offers the lowest quoted price.


Water that comes from an underground source and requires minimal processing is _____.


natural water treated water municipal water surface water


IBWA’s bylaws require that each member bottling facility have a _____.


certified plant operator approved source health and safety plan minimum of 8000 square feet of warehouse space.


IBWA employed a template for the Water Stewardship Code of Practice developed by _____.




National Ground Water Association American Water Works Association Water Environment Federation Alliance for Water Stewardship



Regulatory definitions for the types of bottled water are found in _____.


FDA’s standard of identity IBWA bylaws FDA’s standard of quality FDA’s CGMPs One that offers the lowest quoted price.


Which one of the following contaminants listed in the Code of Practice Appendix A is a volatile organic chemical?


styrene benzo(a)pyrene endothall di(2-ethyl)hexyl phthalate


Which one of the following contaminants listed in the Code of Practice Appendix A is not a secondary inorganic contaminant?


zinc manganese bromate copper


Which one of the following contaminants listed in the Code of Practice Appendix A is not included in the group of 9 contaminants?


antimony arsenic beryllium nickel


Under the FDA D/DBP Rule, annual testing is required for all of the following in each finished product type except _____.


bromate chlorate haloacetic acids trihalomethanesl


ADVERTISERS 5-Hour Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Allied Purchasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Analytical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Inside Back Technology Cover

Blackhawk Molding Co.. . . . . Inside Front Cover

Frawley Ranches Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

MECO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Tire Service Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

W.T. Maye, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outside Back Cover

Certificate of Compliance

(Continuation of Certificate of Compliance List, p.8.) Keith McCardel, Inc. dba McCardel Culligan Water Conditioning Traverse City, MI

Nestlé Waters North America dba Poland Spring Water Framingham, MA

Keppler Water Treatment, Inc. dba Keppler Culligan Water Treatment Akron, NY

Nestlé Waters North America dba Zephyrhills Water Company Zephyrhills, FL

Life Water LLC dba Mountain Brook Water Kentwood, LA Moon Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kingman, Arizona Kingman, AZ Motsch Water Treatment, Inc. dba Culligan Water Systems of Clute, Texas Clute, TX Nestlé Waters North America dba Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water Los Angeles, CA Nestlé Waters North America dba Deer Park Jersey City, NJ Nestlé Waters North America dba Ice Mountain Spring Water Woodridge, IL

Niagara Bottling Allentown, PA Byhalia, MS Hamburg, PA Mooresville, NC Newnan, GA Plainfield, IN Pleasant Prairie, WI Premium Waters Chippewa Falls, WI Douglas, GA Fort Worth, TX Greeneville, TN Riverside, MO

MARCH 14-16

Convention and SEBWA Trade Show Lanier Islands Legacy Resort Buford, GA MARCH 23-24 NEBWA Spring Conference Courtyard Albany Clifton Park

Clifton Park, NY


MABWA Convention and Trade Show Wyndham Garden River Walk San Antonio, TX

APRIL 9-11

CBWA Convention Best Western Hacienda Hotel Old Town San Diego, CA

APRIL 19-21

SABWA Spring Meeting The Grandover Resort and Conference Center Greensboro, NC

MAY 2-5

NWBWA Convention and Trade Show Red Lion Hotel and Event Center Pasco, WA

JUNE 4-7

IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA


IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show Hyatt Regency New Orleans, Louisiana


JUNE 3-6

IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA

Readington Farms Whitehouse Station, NJ Schuler Water Treatment, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Hutchinson, Kansas Hutchinson, KS Water Boy Bradenton, FL Water Pro, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Moses Lake, Washington Ephrata, WA MAR/APR 2018



VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP VIOLA JOHNSON JACOBS GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS AND REGULATORY COMPLIANCE MANAGER DS SERVICES OF AMERICA, INC. ATLANTA | GA ALL ABOUT VIOLA Viola grew up in England and moved to the United States in the early 1990s. She is currently taking cello lessons, an instrument she started playing as a child, and is studying for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). A soccer mom, Viola is heavily involved in the activities of her two children.

Viola Johnson Jacobs has years of experience in compliance and credits her knowledge of the bottled water industry to her natural curiosity. She is currently a government affairs and regulatory compliance manager at DS Services of America, Inc., where she has been for three years. She is also co-chair of IBWA’s Government Relations Committee. Viola says what she finds most special about being involved in IBWA is the access to bottled water experts and their wealth of knowledge. “IBWA has decades of legacy knowledge in the bottled water industry,” she says. “You just can’t put this many experts together in one place anywhere else, and I find that invaluable. They have knowledge of not just the industry and regulatory bodies but legislative history.” She also enjoys advocacy work and educating legislators on industry-wide challenges. “I really like that I’ve been growing into an advocacy role, and our advocacy opportunities are phenomenal,” says Viola. “Of course, all advocacy is supported by educational efforts.” What astonishes Viola about bottled water is that the public persists in holding on to age-old misconceptions—such as “it’s just tap water in a bottle”—despite easy access to information online that explains otherwise. “The fact that activism against bottled water is still this prevalent, even though so many of the arguments are blatantly false and uninformed, still surprise me,” explains Viola. “And, it’s so easy to debunk those myths. But a lot of people still buy into the spiel we see out there.” Viola’s curiosity about bottled water began years ago, when working as a regulatory technician for bottled water compliance at Coca Cola. She was assigned to a project that had her looking into bottling groundwater. An ex-regulator told her that the work was “sensitive” and that intrigued her. “Of course, that made me really curious and nosey,” Viola says. After researching regulations and compliance, and asking a lot of questions, she became a bottled water guru and inherited many more responsibilities on the project. Her role at Coca Cola would later evolve into full-time bottled water work. After Coca Cola, Viola went on to work as a national compliance manager at Niagara Bottling, LLC, followed by work at a law firm doing financial compliance audits and policy writing before joining DS Services. She loves to share the bottled water knowledge she’s acquired from work and her involvement with IBWA, often giving lectures to family, friends, and even servers at restaurants when they occasionally claim “all water is the same.” Viola explains, “When the server says, ‘They’re all the same,’ my kids roll their eyes. They know I’m about to give the server a friendly lecture. I tell them, ‘No, it’s not the same, and here’s why.’ My friends have heard the lectures, too.”




Reliable instruments for the ozone industRy Interference-Free Measurement of Dissolved Ozone Online Monitoring & Control for Ozonation Systems ATI’s Dissolved Ozone Monitor provides an economical and reliable measurement system for monitoring and controlling ozone treatment systems. With a variety of outputs including 4-20 mA analog, PID control, three adjustable relays, and digital communications (Profibus-DP, Modbus-RTU, and Ethernet-IP). The Q46H/64 is adaptable to any ozone application.

Model Q46H/64

Modular Gas Detector

Model A14/A11 • Expandable and Available for Multi-Channel Applications • Optional Self-Checking Sensors

• No Interference from Residual Chlorine • Direct Measurement of Ozone without Reagents • Multiple Sensor Mounting Styles • Low Operating Cost with Minimal Maintenance Required • Optional pH Sensor for Dual Parameter Monitoring

Digital Gas Detector

Model F12 • Available for AC, DC, or Battery • Uses “Smart Sensors” • Optional Self-Checking Sensors


Portable Gas Detector

Model C16 • Data Logger Standard • Uses “Smart Sensors” for up to 33 Different Gases

Revolutionary ANA Filtration System ZLD (Zero Liquid Discharge)

Consistent Water Quality... Regardless

No Waste Stream

NTU < 0.1 and SDI < 1.0

No Back-Wash No Chemical Cleaning 

Utilizes NASA-Derived Advanced Nano Technology

Removes Bacteria, Viruses, Cysts, Pharmaceuticals

Removes Iron, Lead, & other Metals

Reduce Filtration Costs and Down Time

Less Cost than RO and MF/UF Systems

Systems for Every Size Bottler  10 to 10,000 gpm  Modular Design  Plug & Play

Contact Us for a copy of

our Case Study on the Custom System used by a Coca-Cola independent water bottler. 1-877-705-9864

W. T. Maye, Inc.

Contact Us for all your Filtration Needs We provide Conventional Filter Bags, Cartridges, Membranes, Housings, RO Membranes & Systems, UF/MF Membranes, Custom Systems and more

Bottled Water Reporter  

March/April 2018 Environmental Sustainability Issue

Bottled Water Reporter  

March/April 2018 Environmental Sustainability Issue