W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G
IN THIS ISSUE The Value of Water Source EPA Reports on Management Facts Fracking Activities Partnerships
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER | MAR/APR 2017
IBWA'S FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS
Also Inside: How Low Water Intake Increases Your Risk of Illness and Disease A PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER ASSOCIATION
VOL. 57 • NO. 2
COLUMNS GOVERNMENT RELATIONS
24 | Promoting Recycling Through Partnerships Why work alone when collaborating helps amplify IBWA’s recycling messages? COMMUNICATIONS
26 | Explaining Industry Management of Water Sources How knowing the facts helps you explain that bottlers are good stewards of the environment. TECHNICAL UPDATE
28 | EPA Reports on How Fracking Activities Could Affect Drinking Water What you need to know. VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP
32 | Better Business Through IBWA Benefits Gina Parker (Tailor Made Products, Inc.) explains to Bottled Water Reporter how her IBWA membership has helped her company obtain new business.
CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEPARTMENTS CHAIRWOMAN'S COMMENTARY...........................2
12 | Water Stewardship: Framework for Success
IBWA members shared their best water stewardship practices to create a checklist that can help other bottlers evaluate the state of their operations. Regardless of your production size or bottling type, this framework provides steps you can follow to continue evolving your water stewardship programs. By Laura Nelson
18 | Low Water Intake Increases Your Risk of Illness and Disease Healthy Hydration Education (Part II of II) Find out about recent scientific studies that demonstrate the value of drinking water to reduce risk of chronic diseases—and learn a simple method to assess your hydration status. By Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD
WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CPO QUIZ..........................................................30 CALENDAR........................................................31 CLASSIFIEDS.....................................................31
CONNECT WITH IBWA
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 57, Number 2. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, www.bottledwater.org. Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.
International Bottled Water Association
CHAIRWOMAN’S COMMENTARY ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY + BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY = WIN WIN What does “environmental sustainability” mean? I’ve come across several definitions, but here’s the one that seems to capture the essence of this term: “the maintenance of the factors and practices that contribute to the quality of the environment on a long-term basis.” And what does environmental sustainability mean for the bottled water industry? For me, it means implementing environmentally savvy business decisions and purchasing practices that benefit the environment by reducing waste, increasing re-use of materials, and decreasing the environmental footprint of our business practices, and by actively fostering and communicating eco-friendly habits within the communities where we do business. While those are overarching goals, there are activities we can do on a daily basis within our company’s four walls to contribute to this concept of environmental sustainability. You can save paper by using the double-sided (duplex) option when printing and copying. Monitor your work area throughout the day and turn off lights in areas that are not occupied for extended periods of time, such as conference rooms, break rooms, bathrooms, etc. You could even talk with management about setting office lights on timers or installing light sensors. And don’t forget to turn off the lights in your office or cubicle at the end of your work day. Outside the office, bottlers and distributors can use governors on company vehicles and set them to the local maximum speed limit. Another good environmental sustainability practice is to limit vehicle idle time to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Many people aren’t aware that the bottled water industry is considered one of the original recyclers. Most large 3- and 5-gallon plastic bottles found on home and office bottled water coolers can be sanitized and re-used several times before they are removed from the marketplace and recycled. Our single-serve bottled water containers are also 100-percent recyclable, and IBWA encourages all consumers to recycle their empty bottles through the system their local municipality has in place. Even though our bottles are recyclable, our industry continues to make packaging improvements. For example, PET plastic water bottles are getting lighter in weight, as companies work to reduce the amount of materials used in the container, cap, and label. All of these activities and processes add up and contribute to maintaining our natural resources to ensure their quality, availability, and longevity. IBWA encourages your company to explore and execute concepts and programs that will preserve our natural resources and accomplish sustainable outcomes.
Shayron F. Barnes-Selby Shayron Barnes-Selby IBWA Chairwoman 2
International Bottled Water Association OFFICERS Chairwoman Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Vice Chair Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Treasurer Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Immediate Past Chairman Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Charlie Broll, Nestlé Waters North America Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Bryan Shinn, WG America Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Louis Vittorio, Jr., EarthRes Group, Inc. Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.
IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairwoman Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services of America, Inc. Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Charlie Broll, Nestlé Waters North America Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. C.R. Hall, Hall’s Culligan Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Ed Merklen, DS Services of America, Inc. Bryan Shinn, WG America Company Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.
COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Julia Buchanan, Niagara Bottling, LLC Audrey Krupiak, WG America Company Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee Leslie Alstad, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Jeff Davis, Blackhawk Molding Co. Government Relations Committee Derieth Sutton, Niagara Bottling, LLC Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, DS Services of America, Inc. State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Supplier and Convention Committee Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water Company, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America
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International Bottled Water Association
PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE A TITLE WE DON’T TAKE LIGHTLY Many people don’t know that the bottled water industry is among the original recyclers. The industry was founded by utilizing the reusable container system of the home and office delivery (HOD) segment. Most of the larger 3- and 5-gallon plastic bottles found on home and office bottled water coolers are sanitized and re-used dozens of times before they are removed from the marketplace and recycled. While being one of the original recyclers is an important part of our history, we know that isn’t enough. That’s why bottled water companies continue to strive to find new ways to be good stewards of the environment. In our cover story, “Water Stewardship: Framework for Success” (p.12), we discuss the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework. This framework is designed to provide bottlers—of any size, regardless of production type—a checklist to use to evaluate their current state and identify initiatives to continue to evolve their own unique water stewardship programs. This article also presents a detailed list of resources to refer to for more information about the tools available to help you better understand source water vulnerabilities and opportunities for water conservation. Our second feature, “Low Water Intake Increases Your Risk of Illness and Disease” (p.18), continues the discussion started by Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD, in our January/February 2017 issue. In Part I of this series, Dr. Armstrong reviewed scientific studies that demonstrate the value of drinking water to optimize mood and cognitive processes; in Part II, he explores recent research that shows the value of drinking water to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. He even provides a simple method to assess your hydration status each day. Our columns pay particular attention to environmental stewardship themes that interest IBWA members. The Government Relations column (p.24) highlights the many partnerships IBWA invests in to expand the reach of our recycling messages and promotion. In the Communications column (p.26), we explore a few of the false claims about the bottled water industry's use of water resources—and we provide facts that show we actually use very little water. The Technical Update column (p.28) reviews the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s scientific report on the impacts of fracking activities on drinking water sources. Your company’s environmental sustainability efforts are of great interest to IBWA staff. Please let us know if you have implemented any programs that you think might help others become better stewards of the environment. We’ll make sure to share them with our readers!
Joe Doss IBWA President 4
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074 www.bottledwater.org
IBWA STAFF President Joseph K. Doss email@example.com Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President of Communications Jill Culora email@example.com Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin firstname.lastname@example.org Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell email@example.com Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner firstname.lastname@example.org Director of Science and Research Al Lear email@example.com Manager of Publications and Special Projects Sabrina E. Hicks firstname.lastname@example.org Manager of Member Services Cheryl Bass-Briscoe email@example.com Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Claire Crane firstname.lastname@example.org Executive Assistant Patrice Ward email@example.com Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks email@example.com Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer firstname.lastname@example.org
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WATER NOTES RECYCLING
The Recycling Partnership Holds Media Event in St. Paul, Minnesota, for Cart Recycling Launch As a funding member of The Recycling Partnership (TRP), IBWA and its members are encouraged to promote curbside recycling by participating in TRP events in their area. On January 16, 2017, TRP and the City of St. Paul, Minnesota, held a media event to launch the city’s cart recycling program, which promotes the use of wheeled carts to residents for weekly recyclable collection. The program provides a 64-gallon wheeled cart, but
residents have the option to switch to a smaller 32-gallon cart or larger 95-gallon cart depending on their recycling needs. The city anticipates the shift from bins to carts will increase the recyclable tons collected by 35 percent and overall program participation to increase by 15 percent. IBWA members interested in participating in TRP events can contact IBWA Director of Science and Research Al Lear: alear@ bottledwater.org.
(From left) Gretchen Spear (AF&PA), Sarah Dearman (Coca-Cola), Mayor Chris Coleman (City of St Paul), Jeff Meyers (The Recycling Partnership), Dan Kueppers (Coca-Cola), and Cody Marshall (The Recycling Partnership).
Former IBWA Chairman Co-authors Book on Leadership
Great leadership begins with great understanding. No one knows that better than lifelong business executive, and former IBWA chairman, Charlie Norris and basketball legend Byron Scott who, respectively, resurrected multimillion-dollar corporations and won NBA championships by being team players no matter their position. Whether it’s in the boardroom, on the basketball court, or in everyday life, getting to the heads and hearts of people is paramount to getting the most out of them. In Slam-Dunk Success, Norris and Scott share their parallel formulas for victory and prove that, with the right tools, winning can happen anywhere. As CEO of McKesson Water, 6
Charlie Norris turned a $200 million-dollar company into a company that sold ten years later for $1.1 billion dollars and, as chairman of the board of Freshpet, he helped lead the start-up from early stage testing to become a publicly traded company with a market value of over $350 million. In each job, he led with the same amount of conviction and care. As a player, Scott won three championships with the Los Angeles Lakers, and, as coach, he twice took the New Jersey Nets to the NBA Finals and won Coach of the Year honors with the New Orleans Hornets. With every team his role changed,
but his winning mentality never faltered. Their book—which grew from their unlikely friendship and the realization that two men from completely different backgrounds could have the same leadership ideals—breaks down their keys to motivating others, negotiating deals, and creating prosperity from scratch. Their blueprint includes lessons on listening, turning failure into learning opportunities, and delegating authority with extreme precision. Leadership is a full-time job, and Charlie Norris and Byron Scott’s story is a guidebook for leaders in all
Charlie Norris and Byron Scott’s story is a guidebook for leaders in all fields.
fields and in any position looking to better both their careers and lives. Champions are formed when people make those around them better, and this book shows how you can be a winner every day. To learn more about Slam-Dunk Success, visit bit.ly/AMZN_ SlamDunkSuccess or bit.ly/ BKS_SlamDunkSuccess.
WATER NOTES EDUCATION
Photo credit: Molly Boze
Keep America Beautiful Partners With Water Coalition to Boost Recycling in Flint, Michigan, Schools
Flint residents register for recycling during an event held at Flint’s Children’s Museum.
It was about a year ago when the Flint, Michigan, water contamination crisis received a federal state of emergency declaration and the delivery of millions of bottles of safe drinking water to local citizens began. In January 2016, many IBWA member companies—including Absopure, Flint Culligan, Maumee Valley Bottlers, and Niagara—began donating millions of bottles of bottled water to Flint. Another IBWA member, Nestlé Waters North America, along with The Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo Foundation, and the Walmart Foundation—known as the Water Coalition—announced they would provide up to 6.5 million bottles of safe and clean drinking water to Flint school students. This group of partners is also providing the storage and delivery of the bottled water, as well as the backhauling for recycling of the empty water bottles. The massive number of water bottles flooding the Flint community highlighted the city’s need to bolster its recycling program and outreach. In an effort to increase the capture of water bottles for recycling and to educate students, the
Water Coalition turned to Keep America Beautiful and its local affiliate, Keep Genesee County Beautiful (KGCB). The two organizations are partnering to provide a comprehensive school recycling education program. The Water Coalition is funding the integrated recycling education and awareness initiative for all 10,000 Flint school students. The program uses a multi-tiered approach to increase the number of plastic bottles that are recycled within school grounds, so they can be made into new products rather than making their way to local landfills. It also creates opportunities to provide students, teachers, and staff with the knowledge and the passion to recycle at home, at school, and on the go. The K-12 school-based program objectives include the following: • Provide outreach, tools, resources, and activities to educate, motivate, and activate students, staff, and teachers to recycle more and recycle right. • Organize, support, and share resources with recycling champions at each school to support day-to-day recycling efforts.
• Share best practices and support school personnel responsible for collecting and consolidating recycling at each school on proper recycling bin placement, signage, and collection of the recyclables, • Track and report the amount of recyclables being collected by the schools with the goal of achieving a 25 percent increase in recycling. Another element of the program is for Keep America Beautiful to explore ongoing recycling services for the schools. As part of the overall programming to improve the inschool recycling rate, Keep America Beautiful is providing materials from its “Waste in Place” curriculum; its “I Want To Be Recycled” public service advertising campaign; Recycle-Bowl, its national in-school K-12 recycling competition; America Recycles Day; and other resources. Keep America Beautiful has worked in tandem with KGCB to tailor its recycling educational lesson plans, tools, and activities for Flint’s students, while ongoing recycling education and program implementation will be conducted by KGCB staff and area educational partners. Resources will include take-home materials in an effort to bring the school education and experience home, reaching families in their residences to also enhance curbside recycling participation. “Keep America Beautiful is thrilled to receive broad support from a host of partners in our efforts to educate, motivate, and activate Flint’s students, teachers, and the broader school community to properly recycle the tremendous amount of material that is being generated,” said Brenda Pulley, senior vice president, recycling, Keep America Beautiful. MAR/APR 2017
SOCIAL M EDIA MESSAGING BOARD If you are loo
(Tweet on April 16) Keep your voice box healthy with refreshing water on #WorldVoiceDay—and every day!
king for new op portunities to co nnect with educate them about bottled w share any of th ater issues, feel e following on yo free to ur social media si te s during March and April—or b e inspired and write your own!
March 9 is World Kidney Day. Did you know that 1 in 10 people worldwide is affected by kidney disease? Did you also know that increased water intake (2.5-3.0 L/day) can help prevent chronic kidney disease and the recurrence of kidney stones? #worldkidneyday
✪ For more on the benefits of water
consumption for healthy kidneys, turn to p.18.
National Campaigns March: National Groundwater Awareness Week (March 5-11), World Kidney Day (March 9), World Oral Health Day (March 20), First Day of Spring (March 20), World Water Day (March 22), American Diabetes Alert Day (March 28)
April 11 is National Pet Day. Do you know the signs of dehydration for your pet? www.petsafe.net/blog/ wp-content/uploads/DrinkingInfographic-WebRes.jpg
April: National Minority Health Month, Stress Awareness Month, National Park Week (April 15-23), National Pet Day (April 11), World Voice Day (April 16), Earth Day (April 22)
Spring has sprung! Grab a bottled water and get outside to enjoy nature's reawakening! www.instagram.com/p/ BFWlWuyKShx/?takenby=bottledwatermatters
Happy Earth Day! We all have an important part to play in protecting our planet—not only today, but every day. Remember: always #recycle!
Ever wonder what happens to your empty plastic bottles after you put them in the recycle bin? www.youtube.com/watch?v=TL_qH1ra7J0
Did You Know: People with diabetes have an increased risk of dehydration as high blood glucose levels lead to decreased hydration in the body. www.pinterest.com/pin/414964553151895366
You might not be able to brush after every meal, but you can drink water! "Water neutralizes the effects of acidic and sugary foods. Rinsing removes food particles left behind on/ between the teeth."
DYK: If you’ve already had a kidney stone, drink 2 to 3 liters of water daily to lessen the risk of forming a new stone. bit.ly\KidneyGoldenRules
www.thehealthsite.com/oral-health/10-waysyou-can-prevent-dental-cavities/ Download: bit.ly/BW_EarthDay17 National Park Week is April 15-23! Grab some bottled water and hit the trails! Visit on April 15-16 and 22-23, and get free admission! www.nps.gov/findapark/national-park-week.htm Be fashionable! Recycled your #BottledWater containers to give them a second life as comfy shoes! Check it out—and remember to #recycle every day! www.pinterest.com/pin/414964553151894658
Download: bit.ly/H2Ocleanmouth 8
DYK bottled water has the lowest water use ratio of all packaged beverages? #worldwaterday https://issuu.com/ibwa/ docs/2015_janfeb_bwr_final/14
WATER NOTES MANUFACTURING STANDARDS
IBWA Bottlers Recognized for Excellence The IBWA Excellence in Manufacturing designation represents the highest standard in manufacturing quality for bottled water plants. This title recognizes whether a bottled water facility’s HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plans and GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) are in compliance with the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. The following guidelines have been established: • If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and three or fewer minor nonconformances, the plant is awarded a certificate for Excellence in Manufacturing. • If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and from four to 10 minor
nonconformances, the plant is awarded a Certificate of Compliance. The certificate acknowledges that the plant is in compliance with its HACCP plan and GMPs. • Plants that are cited by the auditor for one or more major nonconformances and/or more than 10 minor nonconformances do not pass the annual audit. Those plants are required by IBWA to provide a plan for returning to compliance with their HACCP plan and all applicable GMP requirements. IBWA would like to congratulate the following facilities for achieving Excellence in Manufacturing (listed below) or earning a Certificate of Compliance (listed on page 10) in 2016.
Absopure Water Company O’Fallon, IL Plymouth, MI
Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Corpus Christi, TX Corpus Christi, TX
Earl Ising, Inc. dba Culligan Soft Water Service of Livermore, CA Livermore, CA
Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Ft. Wayne, IN Fort Wayne, IN
Eastern Wisconsin Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan of Burlington, WI Burlington, WI
Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis, IN
Famous Ramona Water Ramona, CA
Amcon Distributing/Genco Water Springfield, MO Aqua Falls Fairborn, OH Aqua Filter Fresh Pittsburgh, PA Aqua Solutions, LLC dba Culligan of Ottawa, IL Ottawa, IL Aqua Systems Avon, IN Arctic Glacier dba Koldkist Bottled Water Portland, OR Berkshire Springs Southfield, MA Brevard Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Daytona Beach, FL Daytona Beach, FL C & S Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Columbia, MO Columbia, MO Canadian Valley Water, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Plant El Reno, OK Capital Five, Inc. dba Culligan of the Northern Hills, SD Rapid City, SD Central Nebraska Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Grand Island, NE Grand Island, NE
CG Roxane Johnstown, NY Moultonborough, NH Norman, AR Olancha, CA Salem, SC Weed, CA CHR California Water, Inc. dba Culligan of San Diego, CA San Diego, CA Creekside Springs Ambridge, PA Salineville, OH Crystal Clear Bottled Water Des Moines, IA Culligan San Paso Co. dba Culligan Santa Maria Santa Maria, CA Culligan Soft Water Service Company dba Culligan Bottled Water of Minneapolis, MN Brooklyn Park, MN Culligan Water Conditioning of West Texas, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of West Texas Midland, TX Culligan Water Moscow dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Coeur d'Alene Coeur d'Alene, ID DAKS Enterprises, Ltd. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Boone, IA Boone, IA Diamond Springs Water Charlotte, NC
Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Waseca, MN Waseca, MN Drink More Water Gaithersburg, MD DS Services of America, Inc. 6055 S. Harlem Ave. - Chicago, IL 6155 S. Harlem Ave.- Chicago, IL Carnegie, PA Denver, CO East Peoria, IL El Paso, TX Ephrata, PA Fort Lauderdale, FL Fresno, CA Grand Prairie, TX Kansas City, KS Katy, TX Kent, WA Kentwood, LA Lakeside, CA Las Vegas, NV Lindenhurst, NY Los Angeles, CA Mableton, GA Milpitas, CA Orlando, FL Phoenix, AZ Portland, OR Sacramento, CA Salt Lake City, UT
Firmage Bottled Water Corporation dba Culligan Bottled Water of Utah Salt Lake City, UT Grand Springs Distribution Alton, VA K&S H2O INC. dba Culligan of Davenport Davenport, IA Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Service Napoleon, OH Mayer Bros Apple Products Inc West Seneca, NY McCollum Bottled Water, LLC dba Culligan Bottling of the Tri Cities, TN Blountville, TN Melwood Springs Water Company Blue Ridge, GA Milbert Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Inver Grove Heights Inver Grove Heights, MN Misty Mountain Abingdon, VA Moon Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kingman, AZ Kingman, AZ MAR/APR 2017
Nestlé Waters North America dba Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water Cabazon, CA Livermore, CA Los Angeles, CA Ontario, CA Phoenix, AZ Nestlé Waters North America dba Deer Park 405 Nestle Way - Breinigsville, PA Jersey City, NJ Lorton, VA Nestlé Waters North America dba Ice Mountain Spring Water Hilliard, OH Stanwood, MI Woodridge, IL Nestlé Waters North America dba Nestle Pure Life 7712 Penn Drive - Breinigsville, PA Dallas, TX Denver, CO Greenwood, IN Lee, FL Red Boiling Springs, TN Sacramento, CA Nestlé Waters North America dba Ozarka Hawkins, TX Houston, TX Pasadena, TX Nestlé Waters North America dba Poland Spring Water Framingham, MA Hollis Center, ME Kingfield, ME Poland Spring, ME Nestlé Waters North America dba Zephyrhills Water Company Zephyrhills, FL Niagara Bottling 811 Zephyr Street – Stockton, CA 1025 Runway Drive – Stockton, CA 2560 E. Philadelphia Street – Ontario, CA 4800 Langdon Road – Dallas, TX 4851 Mountain Creek Parkway – Dallas, TX 5674 E. Concours Street- Ontario, CA Allentown, PA Aurora, CO Gahanna, OH Groveland, FL Hamburg, PA Missouri City, TX Mooresville, NC Newnan, GA Phoenix, AZ Plainfield, IN Pleasant Prairie, WI Puyallup, WA Rialto, CA Seguin, TX West Valley City, UT North Carolina Bottled Water Co. Inc dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Goldsboro, NC Goldsboro, NC
Northeastern Water Services, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Binghampton, NY Endicott, NY
Stimco, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Pampa, TX Pampa, TX
Ozarka Water and Coffee Service Oklahoma City, OK
Walter C. Voigt, Inc. dba Central Valley Culligan Fresno, CA
Pace’s Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Pace’s Culligan Cedar City, UT Polar Beverages Worcester, MA Premium Waters Crivitz, WI Douglas, GA Fargo, ND Fort Worth, TX Greeneville, TN Quincy, IL Riverside, MO Willmar, MN Publix Super Markets Dacula, GA Deerfield Beach, FL Lakeland, FL Pure Flo Water Company Santee, CA Quality Water “Works,” Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kalispell, MT Kalispell, MT
Water Boy, Inc Bradenton, FL Water Conditioning of Mankato, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Madelia, MN Madelia, MN Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Bellingham, WA Bellingham, WA Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Spokane, WA Spokane, WA
Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culigan of Tukwila, WA Tukwila, WA Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Yamika, WA Yakima, WA WG America Company dba The Water Guy Birdsboro, PA Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of LaVista, NE LaVista, NE Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of NWA Lowell, AR Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Hall’s Culligan of Wichita, KS Wichita, KS Zeiger Bros. Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Hannibal, MO Hannibal, MO
Certificate of Compliance IBWA would also like to congratulate the following facilities for earning a Certificate of Compliance in 2016:
Roaring Spring Water Roaring Spring, PA
A Better Water, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Production of North Central IN Monticello, IN
Robert N. Garner dba Culligan Water Treatment of Brazos County, TX College Station, TX
Berkeley Club Beverages Berkeley Springs, WV
Northwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan of Boise, ID Boise, ID
Cascade Bottled Water Co. Farmington, NM
Premium Waters Chippewa Falls, WI
CG Roxane Benton, TN
Readington Farms Whitehouse Station, NJ
D.T. Water Corporation dba Mast Family Culligan Fort Myers, FL
Schuler Water Treatment, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Hutchinson, KS Hutchinson, KS
Rocksey LLC dba Culligan of Seymour, IN Seymour, IN RS Water Holdings, LLC dba Culligan of DFW Irving, TX RTD Beverages Covington, LA Sam H. Jones Furniture & Appliances, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Pocatello, ID Pocatello, ID Silver Creek Bottling Company Streamwood, IL Silver Springs Bottled Water Company Ocala, FL Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Phoenix, AZ Phoenix, AZ Sterling Water, Inc. dba Sterling Water Culligan of Central WI Rothschild, WI
DS Services of America, Inc. Elgin, IL Midland, TX Santa Ana, CA Gregory S. Gayler dba Culligan Water- Angelo Water Service San Angelo, TX Keith McCardel, Inc. dba McCardel Culligan Water Conditioning Traverse City, MI
Mountain Valley Spring Company Hot Springs, AR
Shenandoah Corporation Staunton, VA Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Tucson, AZ Tucson, AZ Sweet Springs Valley Water Co. Gap Mills, WV
Life Water LLC dba Mountain Brook Water Kentwood, LA
Trumbull Bottled Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Dothan, Alabama and Jackson County, FL Panama City, FL
Motsch Water Treatment, Inc. dba Culligan Water Systems of Clute, TX Clute, TX
Wheatland Waters, Inc. dba Culligan of Greater Kansas City Olathe, KS
A Trained Workforce: CPO Excellence IBWA would like to congratulate the following bottled water professionals who successfully passed IBWA’s certified plant operator (CPO) exam in 2016. Aqua Falls Fairborn, OH Matthew Hanrahan
Culligan of Sedalia Sedalia, MO Michael Smith
Boxed Water Is Better Lindon, UT Lynn Cassinelli
Culligan Water Elmira, PA James Davis
CG Roxane Benton, TN Xavier Despont Pierre D'Hollander Dylan Stiles
Culligan Water of Kingman, AZ Kingman, AZ Lance Garfield
CG Roxane Johnstown, NY Colleen Conkling CG Roxane Moultonborough, NH Joseph DiArenzo CG Roxane Olancha, CA Magdaleno Luna CG Roxane Weed, CA Brian Guitierrez Lourdes Schrievers Chameleon Beverage Company Commerce, CA Morgan Reed Creekside Springs Ambridge, PA James Sas Crossroad Farms Dairy Indianapolis, IN Mary Fox Crossroads Beverage Group Reading, PA Kiel Richmond
Culligan Water Co. of the Pacific NorthWest Tukwila, WA Kemara Chan DS Services of America, Inc. Atlanta, GA Viola Johnson Jacobs DS Services of America, Inc. Fort Lauderdale, FL Anthony Rivera DS Services of America, Inc. Las Vegas, NV Austin Dickson Robert Droze Keppler Water Treatment Akron, NY Donald Bouch David Deppa Charles Keppler Brittani Speziali Juston Worden Montana Artesian Water Kalispell, MT Charles Simon Larel Weaver
Culligan Camarillo, CA Greg Montoya
Nestlé Waters North America Breinigsville, PA Nickolas Baab Ronald Hunsberger Cory Kresge Nancy Spence Jamey Webb
Culligan Northwest Bellingham, WA Brad Caldwell
Nestlé Waters North America Dallas, TX Nicole Langone
Culligan of Boone Boone, IA Aaron Gillett
Nestlé Waters North America Framingham, MA Brian MacQuade
Culligan of Grand Island Grand Island, NE Andrew Pedersen
Nestlé Waters North America Hilliard, OH Stephanie Stromp
Culligan of Hannibal Hannibal, MO Wes Raney
Nestlé Waters North America Jersey City, NJ Philip Pangilinan
International Bottled Water Association
Certificate of Completion
Certified Plant Operator Examination This is to certify that has completed the prescribed IBWA curriculum covering all aspects of Advanced Water Treatment Technology and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Quality Standards and Good Manufacturing Practices as they relate to bottled water. In witness whereof, we have duly affixed our signatures.
President, IBWA Decembe 31, 2016 Date
Nestlé Waters North America Kingfield, ME Steve Russo Nestlé Waters North America Lorton, VA Lorraine Senesky Nestlé Waters North America Phoenix, AZ Anita Remson Elizabeth Sarmiento Nestlé Waters North America Red Boiling Springs, TN Marco Lisi Nestlé Waters North America Zephyrhills, FL Wilfredo Rivera Niagara Bottling Dallas, TX Ashley Norman Seth Yoder Niagara Bottling Hamburg, PA Jared Benshoff Jasmine Gonzalez Robert Nevel Michael Slifko Cory Stoudt Niagara Bottling Missouri City, TX Lima Guilherme Niagara Bottling Mooresville, NC Darshica Bullock Christopher Fink Jonathan Monroe Niagara Bottling Newnan, GA Renita Hedgespeth Tomekia Taylor
Chairman, IBWA December 31, 2019 Certificate Expiration Date
Niagara Bottling Plainfield, IN Mathew Bumgardner Heath Meyer Kelly Tang Katlyn Scott Niagara Bottling Pleasant Prairie, WI Bridgette Krueger Niagara Bottling Puyallup, WA Maria Prada Santosh Vemula Niagara Bottling Salinas Victoria, Mexico Gerardo Trevino Niagara Bottling Seguin, TX Desire Garcia Karina Luzada Niagara Bottling Stockton, CA Samia Awan Woody Ung Connor Zanoni Niagara Bottling West Valley City, UT Hope Morton Jack Payne Schuler Water Treatment Hutchinson, KS Gavin Crowe Jason DeGarmo Rodney Schuler Sterling Water Willmar, MN Lee Fader
Niagara Bottling Ontario, CA Mike Bethke Lara Cameron
FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS
IBWA bottler members share best practices and identify more opportunities for environmental sustainability By Laura Nelson
In November 2016, the World Economic Forum released its annual “Global Risks Report” and revealed that “water crises” top the list of likely worldwide risks during the next 10 years. It’s no surprise—water vulnerabilities have been at the forefront of global environmental conversations for many years because water is connected to nearly every aspect of our daily lives. No single answer or approach, however, will resolve water issues on a global scale because water is uniquely local. In other words, physical, regulatory, and social aspects of water issues vary across watersheds and municipalities. The best approach is proactive and holistic resource management grounded in an understanding of where water is sourced, how it is used, and how local community collaboration can inspire and activate water stewardship on a wider scale.
Leading the Charge Through Industry Collaboration In order to facilitate this kind of collaboration and work towards both local and global resource
management solutions, IBWA engages members of the bottled water industry in environmental stewardship initiatives as part of its commitment to the responsible and efficient use of all natural resources. IBWA began the journey to environmental stewardship at the bottle level: a life-cycle assessment study in 2010, which determined that bottled water has the lowest environmental footprint of any packaged beverage. (To learn more about IBWA’s lifecycle assessment and benchmarking studies, visit bit.ly/BWimpacts.) Moving beyond the product footprint to resource usage through processes within the bottling facility’s “four walls,” in 2014 IBWA reported that bottled water also has the lowest water use ratio and energy use ratio when compared to other beverage sectors. (To learn more, visit bit. ly/LowestWaterEnergyUse.) In 2016, IBWA embarked on the next phase of understanding water stewardship: sharing best practices within the industry and identifying opportunities to look beyond the four walls of the facility to evaluate water stewardship opportunities in a more macro context. MAR/APR 2017
The bottled water industry has a good story to tell when it comes to best practices for water stewardship. After all, water drives this industry, and a holistic approach to water management and conservation is critical to resource longevity. Tapping Into Collective Wisdom The bottled water industry has a good story to tell when it comes to best practices for water stewardship. After all, water drives this industry, and a holistic approach to water management and conservation is critical to resource longevity. Throughout the years, bottlers have undoubtedly launched initiatives and built standard operating procedures to effectively manage water use on an individual level, but a formal collection of those best practices and tools had not been created. To create a consolidated platform for information sharing, IBWA’s Environmental Sustainability Committee launched a survey in July 2016 with the intent of collecting water stewardship best practices across the North American bottled water industry. IBWA members were asked to provide examples of their best practices, in addition to identifying other common water stewardship opportunities at both an operations and a community level. Data was collected from 86 IBWA member plants representing 31 companies that account for approximately 70 percent of the annual bottled water produced in the United States, by volume.
SAMPLE SURVEY QUESTIONS • What are the top five best practices for water management at your facility? • Has your facility assessed the sustainability of water supplies within the last five years? • What is the general level of opportunity within the following categories: Operating Procedures and Housekeeping, Water Recycling and Reuse, Process Modifications
Five common topic categories were identified across the survey responses, with specific actions and initiatives detailed for each: Equipment Checks and Process Controls Meter Use and Water Mapping Water Recycling and Reuse Training and Education Supply Monitoring and Management.
Building the IBWA Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework IBWA developed the Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework by combining information from three resources: consolidated best practices from the member surveys, key recommendations based on the Ceres Aqua Gauge™ framework, and additional insight from key beverage industry subject matter experts provided by Antea® Group. The framework is designed to provide users a checklist to review the relevant aspects of each category, determine which items are active and already in progress at their operations, and then identify opportunities for future implementation. IBWA recognizes the diversity of its membership and understands that some facilities or companies may be further advanced in water stewardship practices when compared to others. Therefore, the framework is designed
BEST PRACTICES for any water bottler to use, regardless of production size, bottling type, location of operations, or maturity of their water stewardship program. To simplify this application, each best practice is organized into three categories: •
Initial Steps: for those companies that are just beginning to approach water stewardship—or are focused on “low hanging fruit.”
Advanced: for those companies that have launched some initiatives and have a more established water stewardship program—or consider their program to be at “management level.”
Leading: for those companies with a mature water stewardship program that are aiming to be “best in class.”
Putting Best Practices Into Action When using the framework, it is important to remember that completing each action and initiative listed for a specific category is not required before advancing to the next. Facility management may find themselves at different stages of approach within a given category, which is completely acceptable—for example, under the Equipment Checks and Process Controls category, a facility might already be completing daily equipment checks (Leading Practice), but it may not have formal standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place for its processes (Initial Steps). The end goal of the
The framework is designed for any water bottler to use—regardless of production size, bottling type, location of operations, or maturity of its water stewardship program. Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework is to provide IBWA members with a means to evaluate their current state and identify initiatives to continue to evolve their own unique water stewardship programs. The table below provides an overview of the five categories and “warm-up questions” users should ask themselves before reviewing each checklist, as well as examples of what progress might look like for each stage or organizational maturity. To review the full checklists, members can log on to the “Members Only” side of the IBWA website (www.bottledwater.org), then, under Member Resources, click on Environmental Sustainability to find the “IBWA Water Risk and Best Practices Report 2016.”
Table 1. Framework Categories and Warm-Up Questions INITIAL STEPS
Perform equipment checks and identify opportunities.
Take process improvement and water reduction measures.
Set equipment efficiency and key performance indicator targets.
METER USE AND WATER MAPPING
Has water use been mapped for all processes, in and out of the facility?
Record incoming water use.
Review and audit water use; map processes.
Perform detailed water mapping; identify opportunities to reduce water use.
WATER RECYCLING AND REUSE
Are water resource opportunities considered at all operation levels?
Identify water reuse opportunities.
Implement water reuse project(s).
Evaluate and improve water recycling processes.
TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Are water-efficiency topics a regular part of employee meetings?
Engage employees and customers.
CATEGORY EQUIPMENT CHECKS AND PROCESS CONTROLS
WARM-UP QUESTIONS Are there processes in place for tracking equipment use and efficiency? Are there SOPs that promote or improve water use efficiency?
Identify SUPPLY MONITORING Do you know your supplier sources facility’s water source(s)? AND MANAGEMENT and treatments.
Evaluate Understand and supplier sources act with suppliers. and treatments. MAR/APR 2017
CLEAN-IN-PLACE OPTIMIZATION OPPORTUNITIES
Reuse final CIP rinse as initial rinse on next CIP
Reduce rinse times based on quality measurements
Automate rinse steps based on pH and turbidity
Convert to water saving tank spray heads Eliminate tank pooling using level probes
To illustrate the kinds of best practices the framework provides, below we call out three of the categories and discuss specific improvement opportunities found in each. Equipment Checks and Process Controls. This topic led the way in best practice recommendations— from routine maintenance to implementing controls, survey participants provided numerous examples of how equipment checks and continuous improvement can lead to process efficiencies. The graphic above lists opportunities that are specific to clean-in-place (CIP) systems. Training and Education. Employee awareness programs were another popular suggestion from survey participants, and represented one of the more effective and lower-cost approaches to building a water stewardship culture at any facility. Awareness building must be frequent in order to maintain attention, and generate excitement and ownership for the water program and associated accountabilities. Common
DOWNLOAD THE FRAMEWORK IBWA members are encouraged to download the framework, work through the checklists, and provide feedback on opportunities for further development of best practices and collaboration. To download, members can log on to the “Members Only” side of the IBWA website (www.bottledwater.org), then, under Member Resources, click on Environmental Sustainability to find the “IBWA Water Risk and Best Practices Report 2016.” IBWA would love to hear from you! If you have any questions or suggestions, please contact IBWA Director of Science and Research Al Lear: email@example.com.
Manage production schedule to minimize changeovers
Conduct routine maintenance and leak prevention
attributes of successful employee awareness programs include the following: •
Using training and materials to build an understanding of the “what,” “why,” and “how” behind water stewardship programs at all levels of the organization.
Encouraging active involvement through regular communication, progress reporting, and contests/incentives. For example, a facility could run a “find the most leaks” challenge, or offer a prize for employee idea generation.
Establishing “green teams” or champions to lead environmental stewardship initiatives.
Providing educational materials or water-saving devices, so that employees can take the message home.
Touring the local water supplier to provide “beyond the tap” visibility.
Water Recycling and Reuse. Water reduction initiatives, such as low-flow installations and leak detection, are often among the first steps that a facility will take when launching a water stewardship program. Water reuse takes more effort and investment, and is typically implemented in the advanced or leading practice stage of a program. Common best practices in this category include the following: •
Implementing water reuse for non-contact rinsing and cleaning.
Forming a Continuous Improvement Team focused on wastewater reduction.
Utilizing high-efficiency or waterless fixtures.
BEST PRACTICES •
Optimizing washer nozzles.
Reducing water use within cooling towers.
Auditing cleaning processes and identifying opportunities to optimize.
Implementing condensate recovery from HVAC, dehumidifiers, and refrigeration.
Reducing or eliminating irrigation for landscaping.
A Proactive Approach to a Bright Future IBWA’s Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework and study provide valuable insight into the water management strategies and solutions that are being utilized across the North American bottled water industry. The goal in producing this framework is to encourage and enable bottlers to continue advancing their water stewardship programs via these shared learnings. IBWA also hopes that sharing these best practices publically will increase transparency with external stakeholders to demonstrate the proactive water management actions in place across the industry. Potential future plans include further development of specific best practice documents (e.g., technical and perspective documents prepared by bottlers for
FOR MORE INFORMATION • World Economic Forum Global Risks Report: www.wef.ch/risks2016 • IBWA’s Life-Cycle Assessment and Benchmarking Studies: www.bottledwater. org/education/environmental-impact
bottlers); collaboration with other trade associations and industry peers to continue information sharing and outreach; and facility-level engagement through distribution of the framework and other resources to bottlers that are seeking support in furthering their water stewardship programs.
Laura Nelson is a consultant with Antea® Group (us.anteagroup.com) and leads the company’s Corporate Reporting and Disclosure service offering. She has managed IBWA’s Water and Energy Use Benchmarking studies and currently manages the water, energy, and emissions benchmarking studies for the Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (www.bieroundtable.com).
DIGGING DEEPER WITH ADDITIONAL RESOURCES A thorough understanding of water stewardship begins at the source, and there are many tools available to help better understand source water vulnerabilities and opportunities for water conservation at bottling operations. Below are some examples, with additional tools listed in the the “IBWA Water Risk and Best Practices Report 2016”: • World Resources Institute (WRI) Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas. This web-based mapping tool consolidates information from global databases to provide 12 key indicators of water risks for any given location. Users must keep in mind that this tool offers a high-level overview of water vulnerabilities, and they should follow up with local resources to better understand and manage the outputs. www.wri.org/our-work/project/aqueduct • Ceres Aqua Gauge. The Aqua Gauge takes a step beyond water vulnerability assessment and provides a comprehensive overview of a corporate-wide management approach to physical, regulatory, and social or reputational risks. The tool also provides guidance on how to communicate and engage with stakeholders. www.ceres.org/issues/water/corporate-water-stewardship/aqua-gauge • Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (BIER). BIER has developed two resources that offer a beverage industry-focused approach to water management and opportunities—both are available to download from the BIER website (www.bieroundtable.com/water): • The BIER True Cost of Water Toolkit provides users with a facility-focused worksheet to calculate and estimate the true cost of water at defined “pinch points” within a typical beverage facility. • The BIER Practical Perspective on Managing Water-Related Business Risk and Opportunities in the Beverage Sector provides a collective overview of how beverage companies have proactively approached the business and technical aspects of water risks and opportunities, and worked with internal and external stakeholders to overcome challenges. • Water Research Foundation. The Water Research Foundation has published several case studies, webcasts, tools, guides, and project analyses to support the understanding and application of its work. www.waterrf.org/resources/Pages/default.aspx
PART II OF II
Low Water Intake Increases Your Risk of Illness and Disease By Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD
This article is Part II of a two-part series. It explores recent scientific studies that demonstrate the value of drinking water to reduce risk of chronic diseases and provides a simple method to assess your own hydration status each day. Part I—“Drink More Water Each Day to Optimize Mood and Mental Tasks”—appeared in the January/ February 2017 issue of Bottled Water Reporter (bit.ly/ BWR_Armstrong_WaterOptimizeMood).
Reduces Risk of Stroke
In occupations that require strenuous labor or exercise (e.g., construction workers, military personnel, endurance athletes), sweat losses are large, the daily water requirement is large, and moderate-to-severe dehydration may be encountered. Table 1 (on p.20) describes the effects of mild-to-severe dehydration on the human body during strenuous labor (Adolph, 1947). Although rare, death may occur when water losses exceed 15% of body weight (Ashcroft, 2002).
Aids Kidney Function
18 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG
OF WATER CONSUM S T I PTI EF ON BEN
Reduces Risk of Heart Disease
Reduces Risk of Diabetes
Reduces Risk of Obesity MAR/APR 2017
BWR â€¢ 19
In our technologically-advanced society, however, most adults never experience severe dehydration; rather, they reach a state of mild dehydration (1-2% body weight loss) several times each week. This occurs in sales personnel, secretaries, retail clerks, and computer programmers, to name a few. In most cases, they are not aware of this state because thirst and dry mouth (i.e., the primary signals of dehydration) do not appear until 1-2% of body weight is lost. At that level, mild dehydration degrades mood and reduces performance of mental tasks, as described in Part I of this two-part Bottled Water Reporter article series (Armstrong, 2016).
3.0 % (2.1 L)
Blood becomes thicker, dry mouth, reduced urine production.
Habitual Low Volume Drinkers
4.0 % (2.8 L)
Increased effort of physical labor, reduced exercise capacity, flushed skin, impatience, apathy. Urine color is yellow.
5.0 % (3.5 L)
Difficulty concentrating, headache, impatience.
TABLE 1. EFFECTS OF MILD-TO-SEVERE DEHYDRATION ON THE HUMAN BODY.1 BODY WEIGHT LOSS AS WATER (%, LITERS) IN A 150 LB (68 KG) PERSON2
PHYSICAL OUTCOMES AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS MILD DEHYDRATION
0.5 % (0.35 L)
1.0 % (0.7 L)
Thirst is sensed at 1.0 – 2.0% loss. Urine color is pale yellow or straw colored.
2.0 % (1.4 L)
Stronger thirst, vague discomfort, loss of appetite, impaired temperature regulation during exercise.
SEVERE DEHYDRATION 6.0 % (4.2 L)
Increased heart rate at rest and during exercise, severely impaired temperature regulation. Urine color is dark yellow. MEDICAL CARE REQUIRED
7.0 % (4.9 L)
Likely collapse during exercise in the heat.
8.0 % (5.6 L)
Dizziness, labored breathing, mental confusion.
10.0 % (7.0 L)
Inability to balance with eyes closed, spastic muscles, delirium, swollen tongue.
11.0 % (7.7 L)
Insufficient circulation, markedly reduced blood volume, swollen tongue, failing kidney function.
15 – 25% (10.5 – 17.5 L)
Death may occur.
1. Sources: Adolph EF, 1947; Ashcroft, 2002 2. A 1% body weight loss represents 1.5 pounds in a 150 lb person.
Unfortunately, some individuals habitually consume little water. That may be due to a minor thirst response, learned drinking patterns, cultural habits, or constraints in the workplace that limit water intake. For example, 25-33% of all adults in the United States and Europe consume less than 1.5 liters of water per day (i.e., total fluid intake = water in fluids plus water in solid foods) (Melander, 2016; Munoz, 2015; Perrier et al., 2013). These individuals consume considerably less than the Adequate Intakes for water recommended by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (2005), and the European Food Safety Authority (2010) for men (3.7, 2.5 L/day, respectively) and for women (2.7, 2.0 L/day, respectively). Thus, it is reasonable to ask, “What are the long-term effects of drinking a small volume of water each day?” Although we clearly understand the detrimental effects of moderate-tosevere dehydration (Table 1), we know little about individuals who habitually consume a small volume of water, across years and decades.
The number of subjects required for adequate/valid statistical analysis is large, and research is costly.
Lengthy controlled studies suffer from participant noncompliance and attrition because it is difficult for any person to maintain a constant hydration state across years of his or her life.
Multiple personal characteristics, dietary habits, or lifestyle behaviors may concurrently encourage disease development, with their interrelationships making interpretation of a single factor (e.g., low daily water intake) difficult.
To overcome those obstacles, clinicians and physiologists conduct epidemiological studies. Although epidemiological studies do not prove cause-and-effect, they employ statistical methods to determine the likelihood (i.e., probability) that a disease will occur, if a specific risk factor exists. Widely-recognized examples include the relationships between meat-borne carcinogens and cancer, or tobacco smoking and cardiovascular disease.
Recent Epidemiological Research Involving Water During the past six years, a research team led by Olle Melander, MD, PhD, has published several groundbreaking studies, involving more than 3,0004,000 Scandinavian adults (Melander, 2016). Specifically, their research implicates increased blood levels of
Research that focuses on low volume drinkers is important because it clarifies the relationship between chronic mild dehydration and the risk of serious diseases. However, controlled randomized studies spanning years or decades simply do not exist and are difficult to design, for the following reasons (Armstrong, 2012):
Are you a low volume drinker? Considering that 22% of your total daily water intake is consumed as water in solid food, you should drink a minimum of 1.6 L of fluid in the form of water and beverages each day. the fluid-regulatory hormone AVP, when daily water intake is low. AVP is produced in the brain and acts at the kidneys to retain water by reducing urine production. Melander proposes that frequent, chronic elevation of AVP concentration (i.e., during times of mild-to-moderate dehydration) is the mechanism underlying the increased risk of developing diabetes; the metabolic syndrome (which the American Heart Association defines as “a combination of disorders that multiply a person’s risk for heart disease, diabetes and stroke"); cardiovascular disease; and premature death. He has described these findings as “remarkable,” in that this risk is large and similar to the diabetes risk associated with obesity (Melander, 2016). Melander also believes that the most likely cause of this relationship is insufficient water consumption leading to elevated blood AVP levels; thus, increased daily water intake is a safe, cost-effective, simple primary preventive intervention (Melander, 2016). This latter point supports the increased water intake (2.5-3.0 L/day) that is prescribed by physicians (Turk et al, 2011) to prevent chronic kidney disease (Sontrop et al., 2013; Strippoli et al., 2011) and the recurrence of kidney stones (Finkielstein et al., 2006). Support for
Melander’s theory is growing (Guelinckx et al., 2016).
Evaluate Your Hydration Status Each Day Are you a low volume drinker? Considering that 22% of your total daily water intake is consumed as water in solid food, you should drink a minimum of 1.6 L of fluid in the form of water and beverages. Indeed, the average volume of fluids consumed by Americans (as plain water + moisture in beverages) is 2.7 L/day (men) and 2.2 L/day (women) (Yang & Chun, 2016). If you do not know how much you drink, you can evaluate your hydration status simply and inexpensively by considering three factors: thirst, urine color, and body weight change. Thirst. First, thirst suggests that you are dehydrated by 1-2% of body weight. The sensation of thirst becomes more severe as dehydration increases. Urine color. If your urine color is yellow or dark yellow, that suggests you are dehydrated. You are well hydrated when your urine color is pale yellow or the color of straw. Urine color is simple to measure, differs between low-volume and high-volume drinkers, and is responsive to changes of fluid intake MAR/APR 2017
(Perrier et al., 2015). A small eightcategory urine color chart is available at hydrationcheck.com. Body weight change. Drinking water and the action of your kidneys maintain body weight within 1 lb (0.7%) from one day to the next. Thus, if you weigh yourself upon waking in the morning, using an accurate digital floor scale, you can determine your stable, average body weight within a few days. On any given morning, a body weight decrease of 1 lb or more (i.e., less than your personal average weight) suggests that you are dehydrated. Remember that “a pint’s a pound, the world around.” For each 1 lb deficit, drink at least 1 additional pint of water that day, above your normal daily intake. Bottom line: when two of these factors are present, it is likely that you are dehydrated. When all three factors are present, it is very likely that you are dehydrated (Cheuvront & Kenefick, 2016). In summary, the water Adequate Intake recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine in the United States are 3.7 L/day for men and 2.7 L/day for women. Drinking an adequate amount of water each day will optimize your mood and mental task performance. Recent epidemiological studies also suggest that drinking an adequate volume of water will reduce your risk of kidney disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes across years and
decades. In this age of rising health-care costs, can you imagine a simpler, safer, more cost-effective behavioral change? Make drinking water a habit.
Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD, is a professor of Environmental & Exercise Physiology at the University of Connecticut and the director of the Human Performance Laboratory. He presently serves as a trustee of the Drinking Water Research Foundation and as a scientific advisory board member for Danone Waters, France.
References • Adolph, EF. 1947. Physiology of Man in the Desert. Physiology of Man in the Desert. • Armstrong, LE. 2012. The Challenges of Linking Chronic Dehydration and Fluid
Consumption to Health Outcomes. Nutrition Reviews, 70 (Suppl. 2): S121–S127.
• Armstrong, LE. 2017. Drink More Water Each Day to Optimize Mood and Mental Tasks.
Part I. Bottled Water Reporter, January-February: 20-23.
• Ashcroft, Frances M. 2002. Life at the Extremes. University of California Press. • Cheuvront, SN; Kenefick, RW. 2016. Am I Drinking Enough? Yes, No, and Maybe. Journal
of the American College of Nutrition, 35(2): 185-192.
• European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for
water. EFSA Journal, 8: 2-3.
• Finkielstein, VA; Goldfarb, DS. 2006. Strategies for preventing calcium oxalate stones.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(10): 1407-1409.
• Guelinckx, I; Vecchio, M; Perrier, ET; and Lemetais, G. 2016. Fluid intake and vasopressin:
Connecting the dots. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 68(Suppl. 2): 6-11.
• Institute of Medicine, USA. 2005. Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes,
and Water. DRI, dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. National Academy Press.
• Melander, O. 2016. Vasopressin, from regulator to disease predictor for diabetes and
cardiometabolic risk. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 68(Suppl. 2): 24-28.
• Muñoz, CX; Johnson, EC; McKenzie, AL; Guelinckx, I; Graverholt, G; Casa, DJ; Maresh,
CM; and Armstrong, LE. 2015. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women. Appetite, 92: 81-6.
• Perrier, ET; Johnson, EC; McKenzie, AL; Ellis, LA; and Armstrong, LE. 2015. Urine color
change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis. European Journal of Nutrition, published online Aug 19: 1-7.
• Perrier, E; Vergne, S; Klein, A; Poupin, M; Rondeau, P; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, LE;
Lang, F; Stookey, J; and Tack I. 2013. Hydration biomarkers in free-living adults with different levels of habitual fluid consumption. British Journal of Nutrition, 109(09): 1678-87.
• Strippoli, GFM; Craig, JC; Rochtchina, E; Flood, VM; Wang, JJ; and Mitchell, P. 2011.
Fluid and nutrient intake and risk of chronic kidney disease. Nephrology, 16(3): 326-334.
• Sontrop, JM; Dixon, SN; Garg, AX; Buendia-Jimenez, I; Dohein, O; Huang, SS; and
Clark, WF. 2013. Association between Water Intake, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES Data. American Journal of Nephrology, 37: 434–442.
• Turk, C; Knoll, T; Petrik, A; Sarica, K; Straub, CM; and Seitz, C. 2011. Guidelines
on urolithiasis. European Association of Urology accessed online: http://uroweb.org/ guideline/urolithiasis.
Can you imagine a simpler, safer, more cost-effective behavioral change than making drinking water a habit?
Promoting Recycling Through Partnerships By J.P. Toner, IBWA Director of Government Relations
Because IBWA does not have a large staff or big budget, we look to expand our reach through partnerships. Working with other organizations is one way we can have a positive and amplified impact on shared goals, such as increasing recycling. These collaborations, especially concerning environmental sustainability issues, are important because the bottled water industry is often falsely labeled as not environmentally friendly. To help educate consumers about the industry’s reputation as a good steward of the environment and the benefits of recycling, the association works with several organizations that promote sustainable materials management. Typically, members of these partnerships are businesses and associations that share a concern for improving recycling rates. They work to build community awareness about how recycling not only improves the environ24
ment but also produces material that fills a gap in the production of rPET products. Currently, IBWA is a member of The Recycling Partnership (TRP), the Florida Recycling Partnership (FRP), the Michigan Recycling Partnership (MRP), and the Northeast Recycling Council (NERC).
The Recycling Partnership: Flint and Beyond In 2016, IBWA joined TRP (recyclingpartnership.org) as a funding partner. TRP is an innovative industry collaboration that focuses on systematically and measurably improving curbside recycling in the United States. Working with community and industry partners nationwide, TRP identifies best-in-class operational and technical support and proven community outreach approaches to improve curbside recycling rates.
Notably, TRP managed the recycling efforts necessary after bottled water products were donated to make drinking water available during Flint, Michigan’s lead-contaminated public water system crisis in 2016. To teach members about TRP’s mission, IBWA invited Jeff Meyers, the organization’s director of corporate partnerships, to lead an education session during the 2016 IBWA Annual Business Conference. He provided an overview of TRP’s recent successful projects and discussed how TRP is focused on increasing new PET packaging recovery. TRP continues to support efforts in cities and towns across the nation, big (Chicago and Atlanta) and small (Athens, Ohio, and West Brandywine, Pennsylvania). As a funding member of TRP, IBWA and its members are encouraged to promote curbside recycling by participating in TRP events in their area.
GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Florida Recycling Partnership: Recycling Thought Leader For several years, I have served as an FRP board member. This coalition of businesses and associations (www. flrecycling.org) is focused on developing real solutions to improve recycling rates in Florida. Founded by just five members in 2013, the FRP now has 20 members promoting its mission and having a positive impact on how businesses and citizens learn about and participate in recycling. The FRP has been recognized as a thought leader in moving the needle on recycling. When it began, the FRP served mostly as an information resource for those looking to improve their waste management and recycling efforts. In 2016, the coalition participated in 14 different events focusing on recycling, waste management, water use, permitting, and other topics that raised the FRP’s profile. At those events, coalition members helped to promote not only the work of the organization but also how their individual companies or associations were making a difference on recycling issues. State leaders have noticed the FRP’s impressive work and have officially recognized its efforts to promote recycling. As Florida considers conducting a state-wide waste and recycling study, the FRP is prepared to work with government. When large states struggle with recycling numbers, some consider alternatives that could be detrimental to industry (bottle deposit programs come to mind). Having an industry-driven organization that garners solid support from state officials, like the FRP, is a huge benefit.
Michigan Recycling Partnership: Ready to Help Similar to the FRP, the MRP (www. michiganrecyclingpartnership.com) is a coalition of Michigan businesses and organizations concerned about
Last January, the Florida Recycling Partnership Board met to discuss increasing its membership. Attendees included (from left) Past Chair Chuck Dees (Waste Management), Board Member Steve Lezman (PepsiCo), Secretary/Treasurer Dawn McCormick (Waste Management), Chair Kim Brunson (Publix Super Markets), Board Member Samantha Hunter Padgett (Florida Retail Association), Board Member J.P. Toner (IBWA), and Executive Director Keyna Cory. Missing from picture Chair Elect Liz Castro Dewitt (Florida Beverage Association).
the lack of a comprehensive recycling policy in the state. Formed in 1989, the organization is committed to helping the state create a program that maximizes opportunities for recycling and minimizes waste for both consumers and businesses. The MRP has been a strong ally, helping IBWA on recycling issues in the state and providing access to local officials and businesses. As an MRP member, IBWA helps the partnership move comprehensive recycling forward in Michigan. In the MRP, IBWA has an organization that is “at the ready” to assist us with important state recycling issues.
Northeast Recycling Council: Educating the Masses The NERC (www.nerc.org) is a multi-state, non-profit organization that is committed to environmental and economic sustainability through responsible solid waste management. Its programs emphasize various recycling and waste management solutions in the 11-state region comprised of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Serving on the NERC Advisory Committee, IBWA helps support NERC’s mission to promote sustainability practices across the country. The NERC also reaches out to IBWA when developing its conferences and webinars, workshops, and events, and invites staff to participate in discussions with the NERC board. IBWA also has the opportunity to submit materials to NERC publications (e.g., newsletters and website). Through the NERC, IBWA has a great ally with existing relationships with state officials that handle recycling.
Partnerships Prepare Us In 2017, we’ve witnessed the political landscape changing. IBWA needs to be prepared to promote and defend issues important to the bottled water industry at the federal and state levels. To do that successfully, it is advantageous for IBWA to look for opportunities to amplify our efforts through partnerships with government and industry groups. MAR/APR 2017
Explaining Industry Management of Water Sources Rumors abound, but these facts illustrate how bottlers are truly good stewards of the environment Jill Culora, IBWA Vice President of Communications
More and more, traditional and social media news outlets falsely report that the bottled water industry is using up available water supplies and selling products for big profits. Of course, industry professionals know that is indisputably not true. However, we can agree that thereâ€™s a lot of misinformation available about how the bottled water industry manages water. Ultimately, it falls to us in the bottled water industry to ensure people know the facts. 26
How can industry clear the air? We can continue to promote an educational campaign of transparency. In the online and print articles that perpetuate false rumors about water supply mismanagement, there are several recurring themes. Below, we review the top five themes and encourage IBWA members to share the facts presented with their customers, employees, and elected officials.
False claim: Bottled water companies drain aquifers to unhealthy levels. Fact: The bottled water industry doesnâ€™t deplete its resources. Setting up a bottled water production facility is a costly endeavor, and it is a business decision made only after extensive analysis of source water sustainability and plant impact. Depleting the resource
BOTTLERS ARE EXTREMELY CONCERNED ABOUT THE VIABILITY OF THEIR WATER RESOURCES. is never part of the business model. Think about it: why spend millions of dollars building a bottling facility and then have no water available for production or the ability to sell the facility due to lack of resources? In fact, the opposite is true. Businesses that set up bottling facilities are extremely concerned about ensuring the viability of their water resources. That includes protecting the environment surrounding the facility, monitoring and measuring water use and withdrawals, and reducing water used in production. In most cases, states set limitations on water withdrawals from springs to protect local aquifers. Compared to other industries, bottled water uses an insignificant amount of water—just 0.011 percent of all groundwater in the United States.
False claim: Bottled water companies that use municipal water sources have low costs but big profits. Fact: Municipal water purchased for bottling is similar to other food or industry use. Bottled water companies that use municipal water sources pay for the water they use—just like any other commercial customer (e.g., soft drink and beer manufacturers and the food canning industry). While it’s true that
sometimes bottled water companies are offered reduced pricing for their water, that practice is common for all high-volume business customers. When municipal water providers offer that pricing structure, it is because they are looking to sell more water in an effort to generate revenue, which helps to pay for the many services a city provides its residents. It’s important to note that the bottled water industry is an efficient user of water in production—so much so that bottled water has the lowest water footprint of all packaged beverages.
distances is expensive and isn’t part of most bottled water companies’ business models. Bottled water is a highly competitive business, and the reason there are hundreds of bottling plants throughout the United States is because most bottled water is consumed in the state in which it is produced.
False claim: Bottled water companies cause droughts.
As mentioned above, bottled water production facilities are very expensive to build, and those costs need to be offset with the business’ longevity over time. Some people have complained about 10-, 20-, or 25-year water use permits and contracts, saying they are too long, especially with the uncertainty surrounding climate change. The fact remains that bottled water companies are also concerned about water supplies. That is why they choose plant locations very carefully and then continually monitor source levels and usage. When supplies lessen, production is reduced. It’s that simple.
Fact: Bottled water companies abide by restrictions in times of drought. Part of protecting water sources means cutting back when supply availability lessens. Hydrologists working with bottled water companies recommend setting water use volumes at “drought rate,” which is 60 percent of the average recharge rate. People often don’t realize that water is a renewable resource. Groundwater is recharged from precipitation, and volumes vary from state to state. When using municipal source water in times of drought, bottled water companies—like all other commercial users—follow water use restrictions. When levels drop for spring water sources, bottling companies reduce withdrawals. Setting up bottling facilities is a costly endeavor, and companies need to ensure they protect their water sources for the long term.
False claim: A majority of bottled water companies ship water long distances. Fact: Most water is bottled— and consumed—locally.
False claim: Time limits on water use permits are too long. Fact: Bottling companies set up production for the long term to the benefit of the community.
Good Stewardship Fits The bottled water industry truly cares about protecting its water sources— both municipal and groundwater. To further demonstrate this point, IBWA recently published a “Water Stewardship Best Practices Framework” document to assist members with their water management practices. This document will help members and the industry be more transparent about water use issues. To learn more about the framework, read "Water Stewardship: Framework for Success" on page 12.
Trucking and shipping water great MAR/APR 2017
EPA Reports on How Fracking Activities Could Affect Drinking Water By Al Lear, IBWA Director of Science and Research
On December 13, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its scientific report on the impacts of fracking activities on drinking water resources: “Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts From the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States” (www.epa.gov/ hfstudy). The report, done at the request of Congress, states that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact U.S. drinking water resources under some circumstances and describes conditions under which impacts from those activities can be more frequent or severe. The report also identifies uncertainties and data gaps that limit EPA’s ability to fully assess impacts to drinking water resources, both locally and nationally. The EPA’s conclusions are based upon review of more than 1,200 cited scientific sources, feedback from an independent peer review conducted by EPA’s Science Advisory Board, input from engaged stakeholders, and new research conducted as part of the study. In a press release announcing the report, Thomas A. Burke, PhD, EPA’s Science Advisor and Deputy Assistant Administrator of EPA’s Office of Research and Development, was quoted as stating, “ The value of high quality science has never been more important in helping to guide decisions around our nation’s fragile water resources. EPA’s assessment provides the scientific foundation for local decision makers, industry, and communities that are looking to protect public health and drinking water resources and make more informed decisions about hydraulic fracturing activities. This assessment is the most complete compilation to date of national scientific data on the relationship of drinking water resources and hydraulic fracturing.”
TECHNICAL UPDATE What Is Fracking? Hydraulic fracturing is not a new technique; it dates back to the 1940s, although its use has evolved over time. In hydraulic fracturing, a production well is injected with hydraulic fracturing fluids with enough pressure to fracture the rock. The fractures remain open due to the pressurized fluid once the injection is completed. The result is enhanced flow of oil and gas from the reservoir into the production well. Although water makes up most of the injected hydraulic fracturing fluid, the fluid also contains chemical additives that serve a variety of purposes, such as increasing fluid viscosity. The EPA’s report breaks down the hydraulic fracturing water cycle into the following stages: • Water acquisition • Chemical mixing • Well injection • Produced water handling • Wastewater disposal and reuse. Water acquisition involves obtaining ground and/or surface water in sufficient quantities to produce hydraulic fracturing fluid. In general, arid areas of the western United Sates tend to use groundwater or surface water, while the humid eastern U.S. states use more surface water for hydraulic fracturing operations. Despite the small percentage of water used for hydraulic fracturing (when compared to all water used on a large geographical scale), there’s still a potential to impact the quality and quantity of drinking water at the local level. The impacts can be mitigated through water management strategies, such as using alternative water sources. Chemical mixing is used at the well site to create the hydraulic fracturing fluids. Those fluids are comprised of a base fluid, proppant (solid material, such as sand), and additives (single chemicals or mixtures of chemicals). The base fluid makes up the majority of
IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING, A PRODUCTION WELL IS INJECTED WITH HYDRAULIC FRACTURING FLUIDS WITH ENOUGH PRESSURE TO FRACTURE THE ROCK. the hydraulic fracturing fluid, followed by the proppant with the additive comprising the smallest portion. The base fluid can be water (typically 90-97 percent) or water and another substance (such as nitrogen). Even though the chemicals in the additive make up the smallest portion of the hydraulic fracturing fluid, it has the potential to effect water quality. Spill prevention and response programs are important in the management of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemicals to help ensure concentrations of chemicals will not reach ground or surface water resources. Well injection refers to moving hydraulic fracturing fluids through the well and into the formation of interest that contains the gas and oil. During that process, it is important to avoid well integrity breakdown, such as a casing and tubing leak into the surrounding rock that could affect the drinking water resources. Also, possible effects to water resource quality can be prevented by maximizing the separation between the hydraulic fracturing formation and the nearby formation, which can supply drinking water. Produced water handling is the return of water to the surface following hydraulic fracturing and the transporting for reuse and disposal. The potential at this stage is a spill that could affect ground or surface water sources, resulting in a rise in the salinity of the
drinking water source. As in the case of the chemical mixing, stage spill prevention and response programs can reduce or prevent drinking water resource contamination. Wastewater disposal and reuse practices are necessary to prevent partially treated or untreated wastewater from the hydraulic fracturing process from entering groundwater and surface water resources. Some of the disposal methods used include injection in Class II wells (which are regulated under the Underground Injection Control Program of the Safe Drinking Water Act), reuse in other hydraulic fracturing operations, and above-ground disposal practices. On-site treatment of the wastewater may also occur. An example of a potential groundwater quality issue would be the use of unlined pits for wastewater, which have the potential to allow contaminants to reach the groundwater below.
Knowledge Is Power The EPA report provides a foundation to assess existing and future planning of drinking water resources in areas of the United States where hydraulic fracturing occurs. Through awareness of hydraulic fracturing activities potential impacts, vulnerabilities to drinking water resources can be identified and addressed.
certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Claire Crane (firstname.lastname@example.org / Fax: 703.683.4074), IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________
ZIP/Postal Code_ ___________________________________________
Check your selection for each question
With respect to “fracking,” _____ involves obtaining ground and/or surface water in sufficient quantities to produce hydraulic fracturing fluid.
OO OO OO OO
Boreholing Produced water handling Water acquisition Compression drilling
FDA’s nutrition labeling regulations include a current standard serving size for beverages of _____.
OO OO OO OO
20 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. Full container contents
Which of the following is not a nutrient that FDA lists for nutrition labeling?
OO OO OO OO
Calcium Sodium Total carbohydrates Silica
Wastewater from hydraulic fracturing can be treated and disposed of by _____:
OO OO OO OO
Groundwater injection Reuse in fracturing operations Discharge to a local stream Groundwater injection and reuse in fracturing operations
Does FDA require that a 0.5 liter bottle of spring water containing 48 mg/l of sodium be labeled as containing at least 2% of the daily reference value of sodium?
OO Yes OO No
The most recent recommendation from CDC and the American Dental Association for the optimal amount of added fluoride in drinking water is _____.
OO OO OO OO
1.0 mg/l 0.7 mg/l 0.5 ug/l 1.4 mg/l
If bottled water contained more than _____ of calcium, it could be considered by FDA rule to have nutritional value.
OO OO OO OO
5 mg/serving 20 mg/serving 1000 mg/serving 150 g/serving
Which of the following is not a trace mineral typically found in spring water or artesian water?
OO OO OO OO
Calcium Potassium Zinc Magnesium
According to FDA, a 500 ml bottled of spring water containing 8 mg/l of sodium may be labeled as _____.
OO OO OO OO
“sodium free” “low sodium” “very low sodium” “almost no sodium”
The base fluid used in fracturing contains approximately _____ water.
OO OO OO OO
85-90% 40-50% 35-40% 90-97%
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BWR 2017 IBWA MEDIA
Support your industry while getting ahead of the competition! Place an ad in IBWA's Bottled Water Reporter magazine and News Splash e-newsletter. Contact Stephanie: 817.719.6197 / email@example.com.
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IBWA's 2017 PCQI Workshops IBWA continues to plan PCQI workshops for 2017. Current workshop locales include the following: Jacksonville, FL February 28 - March 2
Cleveland, TN March 21 - 23
Sacramento, CA April 25 - 27
If you have any questions about IBWA's PCQI workshop schedule, contact IBWA Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Bob Hirst: firstname.lastname@example.org.
FOR SALE Five gallon used steel bottled water racks. The racks are 3 wide and 4 high. Each rack holds 24 bottles per rack. Fork lift base on each rack. $125 each Contact: Scott McLauchlin 941.744.9249 Ext. 517
Convention & SEBWA Trade Show Chattanooga Marriott Downtown Chattanooga, TN MARCH 22-24
MABWA Convention & Trade Show Marriott Champions Circle Fort Worth, TX
SABWA Annual Spring Board Meeting Highland Lake Inn and Resort Flat Rock, NC
CBWA Convention La Quinta Inn and Suites Paso Robles, CA
MAY 17- 20
NWBWA 25th Anniversary Convention & Trade Show Hilton Portland & Executive Tower Portland, OR
IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA
NEBWA Annual Convention Saratoga Resort and Casino Saratoga Springs, NY
IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show Gaylord Texan Resort Grapevine, TX
ARE YOU AN IBWA PAC MEMBER? The IBWA Political Action Committee (PAC) is an important and vital component of IBWA’s political advocacy—both in Washington, DC, and in your backyard. Interested in learning more about the activities and work of the IBWA PAC and how you can support industry efforts? Contact IBWA Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner: 703.647.4616 or email@example.com. MAR/APR 2017
VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP GINA PARKER SALES MANAGER TAILOR MADE PRODUCTS, INC. ELROY | WI ALL ABOUT GINA A former paraeducator, Gina has been with Tailor Made Products for nearly three years. When not working, she is busy spending time with family, including her four children, ages 23, 21, 14, and 13. Gina is excited to take up turkey hunting this fall, an activity her children already enjoy.
Gina Parker knows a lot about custom injection mold manufacturing of versatile plastic products. As the sales manager at Tailor Made Products, Inc. (tmadeproducts.com), she deals in the kitchen tool and housewares market in addition to promoting the company’s Bottle Buddy line of rack products, which was first introduced 20 years ago. Gina explains that, as developing plastic products for other industries go, few are as complex as the bottled water industry: “I used to go to the store and get bottled water, and I’d think, ‘How much can really go into water?’ But then we became part of IBWA, and I was surprised how complex the industry is for such a simple product. A lot goes into being able to sell bottled water products. All the rules and regulations—it’s much more involved than I could have ever thought.” Tailor Made Products provides racking systems for the bottled water industry. As a new IBWA member, Gina says she’s impressed by the wide range of member benefits. Included in her list of offerings is IBWA efforts to help her stay informed about new and changing regulations and laws, the helpfulness of staff and members, and the networking opportunities, which she says has really helped Tailor Made obtain business. “The different vendor events at the trade shows enable you to meet other vendors and talk about what clients are looking for,” explains Gina. “IBWA gives us better business exposure and helps us get our information out to customers.” Gina describes IBWA trade shows as “a concentrated group in one spot” that are “important because you have a multitude of customers coming and looking for a specific thing. It cuts our time down on having to go out to each individual retailer to try and sell our product.” Tailor Made Products’ newest addition to the Bottle Buddy brand is a product called “Casada,” a store and pour system that’s designed to fit in smaller spaces, on countertops or in office settings, and is also suitable for parties, camping/RVs, and boating. Originally designed to meet the needs of Mexican workers, who prefer water at room temperature, the spout works on 3- and 5-gallon bottles and is made from the same sturdy plastic used in other Bottle Buddy products. The company prides itself on providing customers “Made in the USA" products and holds strong its commitment to business and professional excellence. “Being made in the USA allows us to be extremely creative and very flexible to meet our customers’ needs, which leads to quick turnaround time and helps our customers by letting them store less inventory in their stores,” says Gina.
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March/April 2017 Environmental Sustainability Issue