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W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G


ALSO IN THIS What Bottlers Can Expect From Vending Machine Mandates

ISSUE How Bottled Water Can Help America’s Health Crisis

Why Choose Water Instead of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages


POWERED BY HEALTHY HYDRATION How Water Consumption Helps the Body Function

How to Help Drink Up #spreadthewater Understanding the Effects of Dehydration A PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER ASSOCIATION

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VOL. 55 • NO. 2


32 | Calorie Disclosure Mandates on Bottled Water in Vending Machines Coming Soon How will bottled water producers be affected? COMMUNICATIONS

34 | Bottled Water: Keeping Hydration Healthy How bottled water can help America curb its health crisis. TECHNICAL UPDATE

36 | Added Sugars Equal Added Health Issues The need for people to drink fewer sugar-sweetened beverages is evident. VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP

40 | Are You an Active Member or a Listener? Andy Eaton (Eurofins Eaton Analytical) shares with Bottled Water Reporter how members can get the most out of their IBWA memberships.



CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTARY................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.......................................4

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS 12 | Powered By Healthy Hydration We all say water is good for you, but are we actually aware of the numerous benefits water consumption offers the body? Find out exactly how proper hydration helps the body function at its best—and then share this information with your customers. By Jill Culora

WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CEU QUIZ..........................................................38 ADVERTISERS....................................................39 CALENDAR........................................................39


20 | Drink Up: The Unsung Hero of Water Consumption Using a simple message—“You are what you drink, and when you drink water, you drink up”—the Partnership for a Healthier America’s Drink Up Initiative has been actively encouraging water consumption since September 2013. Read about Drink Up’s success and find out how to get involved. By Bonnie McLaughlin

26 | Hydrate Your Life Learn from a registered dietitian about the benefits of healthy hydration, the effects of dehydration on the body, and why water is the best source for hydration. By Eve Pearson

BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 55, Number 2. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.


Due to an abundance of packaged beverages on the market, consumers can be forgiven if the health benefits of bottled water sometimes slip their minds. Packaged sports drinks, tea, coffee, juice, milk, something called kombucha—you can understand the temptation to try them all. But bottled water—the unsung hero of hydration—humbly sits alongside its competition on retail shelves. The fact that Beverage Marketing Corporation predicts bottled water will overtake carbonated soft drinks as the No. 1 packaged beverage by 2016 doesn’t alter the fact that the United States is experiencing a health crisis. An alarming number of Americans are overweight or obese. Research shows that 47 percent of added sugars in the American diet come from beverages (excluding milk and 100-percent fruit juice). So obviously, bottled water has a role to play in amending this situation. That’s why IBWA has been proactively advocating for water to be included in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. That publication, produced by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is updated every five years and has a positive impact on how Americans eat. We’ve provided numerous pro-water comments and scientific resources to the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, the group responsible for making recommendations to HHS and USDA. We’ve also met numerous times with health and nutrition experts at some of the nation’s top consumer and professional groups, most recently on January 21, 2015, to discuss American dietary and health trends related to water consumption. If water consumption is promoted as part of the Dietary Guidelines, it should also be included on the MyPlate food nutrition icon. MyPlate is part of a larger communications initiative based on the Dietary Guidelines to help consumers make better food choices. I can’t overstate the importance of this icon because it is aggressively promoted not only to college students, preschoolers, kids, dieters, and moms/moms-to-be but also to educators and healthcare professionals. (See for more.) So, the question for IBWA members is this: what can you do to promote water consumption? You can remind customers, employees, legislators, media, friends, and family about the health and convenience benefits of bottled water. Include these messages in your marketing materials and website content. Fortunately for you, if you are looking for some information to share, this issue of Bottled Water Reporter presents a lot of facts and figures to help you out. And don’t forget—as the slogan for the Partnership for a Healthier America’s Drink Up Initiative says, “You are what you drink—and when you drink water, you drink up!”


International Bottled Water Association OFFICERS Chairman Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Vice Chairman Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh Treasurer Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Immediate Past Chairman Breck Speed, Green System Distribution

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Dave Holdener, Nicolet Forest Bottling Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Heidi Paul, Nestlé Waters North America Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Breck Speed, Green System Distribution Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman, Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Tom Harrington, DS Services Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Heidi Paul, Nestlé Waters North America Breck Speed, Green System Distribution William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Damon Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Jane Lazgin, Nestlé Waters North America Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Jeff Davis, Blackhawk Molding Co. Government Relations Committee Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Services Gene Belcher, Grand Springs Distribution Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, DS Services State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Ross Rosette, H2Oregon Supplier and Convention Committee Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International

IBWA Chairman 2



Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America


When we say water is good for you, what do we mean? Are you really aware of how beneficial it is to be well hydrated? Some have become blasé about water consumption for healthy hydration—and it’s easy to be that way considering all the packaged beverage options on the shelves. But we shouldn’t be apathetic about our health, and the mission of this issue of Bottled Water Reporter is to educate you about the numerous benefits of water consumption. In “Powered By Healthy Hydration” (p.12), IBWA presents facts and figures that illustrate how being properly hydrated helps your body function at its best. But we don’t just tell you how water is good for you, we provide the scientific research supporting our statements. We also answer the perplexing question: what is “adequate hydration”? Bonnie McLaughlin, the director of the Partnership for a Healthier America’s Drink Up Initiative, updates us on how that effort continues to encourage water consumption in “Drink Up: The Unsung Hero of Water Consumption” (p.20). Since it launched in September 2013, Drink Up has used innovative marketing to encourage millions of Americans to drink more water more often. Find out how you can become a supporter of Drink Up by visiting In our last feature, Registered Dietitian Eve Pearson conveys how to “Hydrate Your Life” (p.26). She relays the benefits of healthy hydration, reviews the effects of dehydration, and explains why water is the best source for hydration She also offers a strategy on how to create a hydrated life. A lot of people get their bottled water from vending machines, and our Government Relations column (p.32) informs members about how new FDA regulations may affect bottled water bottlers. (Abridged version: you may have to update your product labels.) The Communications column (p.34) offers suggestions on how the bottled water industry can educate consumers about the benefits of water consumption—and thereby help stem the health crisis in America. This issue’s Technical Update column (p.36) discusses how research reviewed by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) supports IBWA’s pro-water messaging and our desire to have the importance of water consumption included in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans—and our request that water be included as part of the MyPlate nutrition icon. We encourage you to share the healthy hydration information presented in this issue with your customers, staff, legislators, media, family, and friends. Water—specifically bottled water—has an important role to play in helping us live healthier, happier lives. If we don’t spread the message of healthy hydration, who will?

IBWA President





International Bottled Water Association BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074

IBWA STAFF President Joseph K. Doss Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst Vice President of Communications Chris Hogan Vice President of Government Relations Kristin Pearson Wilcox Chief Financial Officer Michelle S. Tiller Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell Director of Science and Research Tamika Sims, PhD Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner Manager of Publications and Special Projects Sabrina E. Hicks Manager of Member Services Dennis Carpenter Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Claire Crane Executive Assistant Patrice Ward Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer

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EFSA Declares BPA Safe for Food Contact Products (Again) On January 21, 2015, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced that its comprehensive re-evaluation of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and toxicity concludes BPA in food contact products poses no health risk to consumers of any age group (including unborn children, infants, and adolescents) at current exposure levels. Exposure from the diet or from a combination of sources (diet, dust, cosmetics, and thermal paper) is considerably under the safe, tolerable daily intake (TDI) level. In its “Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in foodstuffs” article, the EFSA notes 6



that exposure “was assessed for various groups of the human population in three different ways: (1) external (by diet, drinking water, inhalation, and dermal contact to cosmetics and thermal paper); (2) internal exposure to total BPA (absorbed dose of BPA, sum of conjugated and unconjugated BPA); and (3) aggregated (from diet, dust, cosmetics and thermal paper), expressed as oral human equivalent dose (HED) referring to unconjugated BPA only.” Based on its evaluation of updated scientific research, EFSA has changed BPA’s TDI to 4 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day (µg/kg of bw/day)— the previously established TDI was 50 µg/kg of bw/

day. However, there is still no cause for concern. In its January 21 press release, EFSA notes, “the highest

estimates for dietary exposure and for exposure from a combination of sources (called ‘aggregated exposure’ in EFSA’s opinion) are three to five times lower than the new TDI.” However, that TDI is termed as temporary until EFSA has the opportunity to review the results of long-term research by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) on BPA exposure. The release of the NTP’s research is estimated to occur in the next two to three years. With this latest announcement, Europe joins the United States, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand in determining that BPA is safe for use in food containers. For more on BPA, visit IBWA’s BPA webpage ( or, a website produced by the Polycarbonate/BPA Global Group of the American Chemistry Council.

Share the Truth About BPA If you search the Internet for bisphenol A (BPA) articles, you’ll be inundated with negative stories. Yet, truthful, accurate, scientific articles do exist. Listed below are a few BPA reports you can share with anyone asking about BPA. • “BPA Is A-OK, Says FDA,” Henry I. Miller. Forbes, March 2014. • “BPA: The Scientists, The Scare, The 100-Million Dollar Surge,” Trevor Butterworth. Forbes, April 9, 2014. • “‘Majestically Scientific’ Federal Study on BPA Has Stunning Findings: So Why Is the Media Ignoring It?” Trevor Butterworth. Forbes, July 25, 2011. WhyMediaIgnoresBPAScience • “Score One for Science,” Sherzod Abdukadirov. The Hill, January 23, 2015. • “The Strange Case of Bisphenol-A,” Peter Roff. The Weekly Standard, January 27, 2015. StrangeCaseofBPA



First Lady and Dr. Seuss Encourage Children to Drink Water

On January 21, 2015, First Lady Michelle Obama invited a group of 30 Washington, DC, school children to the White House to listen as she read the Dr. Seuss book Oh, the Things You Can Do That Are Good For You:

All About Staying Healthy and talk about fitness. In the 19-minutes long event video posted on YouTube by the White House ( DrSeussWhiteHouse), Mrs. Obama is seen reading the entire book to the kids—and

interacting with Dr. Seuss characters The Cat in the Hat and Thing 1 and Thing 2. This event, which was organized in part by the Partnership for a Healthier America, its Honorary Chair First Lady Michelle Obama,

and its Drink Up Initiative, encouraged children to drink more water more often. Dr. Seuss’ book contains several passages that promote water as a healthy drink choice. In one example, Dr. Seuss prompts readers to choose water by writing, “When you’re thirsty just listen, your body says, ‘Think.’ I need to get water, please drink, drink, drink, drink.” First published in 2001, Oh, the Things You Can Do That Are Good For You is a book parents and educators have been using to teach children the importance of eating right, exercising, and having a positive body image. IBWA is an active supporter of the Drink Up Initiative. To find out how you can become a supporter of Drink Up, visit

IBWA Members Kick Off the 114th Congress With Capitol Hill Visit On January 28, 2015, IBWA staff and members Shayron Barnes-Selby (DS Services) and Joe Bell (Aqua Filter Fresh) met with several members of Congress and congressional staff on Capitol Hill. The meetings offered a great opportunity for IBWA member constituents to discuss important federal issues with congressional offices, with participation from IBWA staff. Topics discussed during these meetings included the Bottled Water Quality Information Act (H.R. 4978), the role of healthy hydration in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the impact of new FDA vending machine labeling regulations, and actions by the National Park Service to ban the sale of bottled water. IBWA schedules visits to Capitol Hill as a way to help members build relationships with legislators. These meetings offer members a chance to educate elected officials about the bottled water industry and their companies. Members can present information about any new products their

(From left) IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Kristin Wilcox, IBWA Board Member Joe Bell, IBWA Board Member Shayron Barnes-Selby, Senator Pat Toomey (R-PA), and IBWA President Joe Doss.

company has introduced, share how their company has contributed to local charities, and provide updates on recently opened bottled water plants or jobs they’ve brought to a congressional district. Economic messages such as those really resonate with legislators in Washington, DC. IBWA encourages all members to come to DC in 2015 to meet with members of Congress and congressional staff on Capitol Hill to educate them about the bottled water industry and our issues. Turn to page 33 to view a list of IBWA Hill Days scheduled for 2015. MAR/APR 2015




IBWA Survey Finds Consumers Want Convenient Access to Bottled Water And Americans Should Drink More Water The vast majority of consumers view water as a smart beverage choice and consider bottled water to be healthier than soft drinks, according to a recent IBWA online Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults, 18 years and older. The poll’s conclusions reflect the healthy hydration trends that are driving increases in bottled water sales and consumption—and validate Beverage Marketing Corporation’s (BMC) prediction that bottled water will become the No. 1 packaged beverage in America by 2016. According to survey results, 96 percent of respondents believe that people should be drinking more water—and 95 percent believe bottled water is a healthier beverage choice than soft drinks. Although a few anti-bottled water groups have attempted to restrict the availability of bottled water, 92 percent of survey respondents said bottled water should be available wherever other beverages are sold. Participants of this survey also identified bottled water as among their preferred beverages by 55 percent. In addition, 91 percent of respondents said that healthy considerations (e.g., calories and additives) are at least

somewhat important when deciding what beverage to consume. That high degree of health consciousness is consistent with the 7.4 percent increase in bottled water consumption last year, which reached 10.9 billion gallons. According to BMC, in 2014 every American drank, on average, a record 34.2 gallons of bottled water. The survey also showed that 86 percent of respondents already buy bottled water, most often from grocery stores (73 percent) or big box retailers like Walmart or Target (42 percent). These findings support BMC research that shows consumers tend to buy bottled water in bulk from supermarkets or large discount retailers because they prefer to purchase bottled water in cost-saving volume. The results of IBWA’s survey show that Americans are making their voices heard in the marketplace—and choosing bottled water more frequently is one way they are leading healthier lives and making smart diet decisions.


According to an IBWA Harris Poll,


of Americans believe people should drink more water.


Healthy Hydration Education Opportunities If you are looking for new opportunities to connect with consumers and share with them how drinking bottled water helps them achieve a healthier and more sustainable life, feel free to tweet out the following messages from your company’s Twitter accounts: • [On March 12] DYK water consumption can alleviate the incidence of kidney stones? #WorldKidneyDay • [On March 12] If you’ve already had a kidney stone, drink 2 to 3 liters of water daily to lessen the risk of forming a new stone. #WorldKidneyDay • [On March 22] DYK Bottled water has the lowest water and energy use ratios of all packaged beverages? #WorldWaterDay • [On April 22] Happy 45th Anniversary #EarthDay! After my toast to you, I’ll be sure to recycle my bottled water container!




• [On April 22] On #Earth Day and every day, remember to recycle your empty plastic bottles! RecycleYourEmpties • #HydrationTip Drink water before you get thirsty. U R 2% dehydrated by the time your body shows dehydration signs #URH2O • #HydrationTip In a bad mood? Drink some H2O. Even mild hydration can affect your mood H2Obrainpower #URH2O • Summer will be here b4 u know it! Start drinking bottled water now to get fit for summer events! SummerBodyDrinkWater


IBWA Members Bottle Excellence The IBWA Excellence in Manufacturing designation represents the highest standard in manufacturing quality for bottled water plants. This title recognizes whether a bottled water facility’s HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plans and GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) are in compliance with the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. The following guidelines have been established: • If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and three or fewer minor nonconformances, the plant is awarded a certificate for Excellence in Manufacturing. • If a facility’s mandatory annual audit findings exhibit no major nonconformances and from four to 10 minor

nonconformances, the plant is awarded a Certificate of Compliance. The certificate acknowledges that the plant is in compliance with its HACCP plan and GMPs. • Plants that are cited by the auditor for one or more major nonconformances and/or more than 10 minor nonconformances do not pass the annual audit. Those plants are required by IBWA to provide a plan for returning to compliance with their HACCP plan and all applicable GMP requirements. IBWA would like to congratulate the following facilities for achieving Excellence in Manufacturing (listed below) or earning a Certificate of Compliance (listed on pages 10-11) in 2014.

2014 IBWA Excellence in Manufacturing Awards

Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Ft. Wayne, IN Fort Wayne, IN

A Better Water, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Production of North Central Indiana Monticello, IN Absopure Water Company O’Fallon, IL Plymouth, MI Adobe Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Magic Valley Twin Falls, ID Alaska Glacier Products Anchorage, AK Aqua Falls Fairborn, OH Aqua Filter Fresh dba Tyler Mountain Water Pittsburgh, PA Aqua Solutions, LLC dba Culligan of Ottawa, IL Ottawa, IL Aqua Systems Avon, IN Aquarius Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan of Tulsa Tulsa, OK Arctic Glacier dba Koldkist Bottled Water Portland, OR Aspen Water Technologies, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Cheyenne, WY Cheyenne, WY C & S Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Columbia, MO Columbia, MO Canadian Valley Water, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water El Reno, OK

CG Roxane Norman, AR Salem, SC Chameleon Beverage Company Commerce, CA Chemung Spring Water Company Chemung, NY Creekside Springs Ambridge, PA Salineville, OH Crossroads Beverage Group Reading, PA Crystal Clear Bottled Water Des Moines, IA Culligan of NWA Lowell, AR Culligan San Paso Company dba Culligan Santa Maria Santa Maria, CA Culligan Soft Water Service Company dba Culligan Bottled Water of Minneapolis, MN Brooklyn Park, MN Culligan Water Conditioning of San Antonio, Inc. dba Culligan of San Antonio San Antonio, TX Culligan Water Moscow, LLC dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Coeur D’Alene, ID Coeur D’Alene, ID DAKS Enterprises, Ltd. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Boone, IA Boone, IA Danville Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Danville, IL Danville, IL Diamond Springs Water Charlotte, NC

Driessen Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Waseca, MN Waseca, MN DS Services Carnegie, PA Denver, CO East Peoria, IL El Paso, TX Elgin, IL Ephrata, PA Fresno, CA Ft. Lauderdale, FL Grand Prairie, TX Kansas City, KS Katy, TX Kent, WA Kentwood, LA Lakeside, CA Las Vegas, NV Lindenhurst, NY Los Angeles, CA Mableton, GA Midland, TX Milpitas, CA Orlando, FL Phoenix, AZ Portland, OR Sacramento, CA Santa Ana, CA Famous Ramona Water Ramona, CA Firmage Bottled Water Corporation dba Culligan Bottled Water of Utah Salt Lake City, UT Genco Marketing Springfield, MO Grand Springs Distribution Alton, VA H2O Conditioning of Cameron County, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of The Rio Grande Valley San Benito, TX

H2Oregon The Dalles, OR Idaho Water Technologies, Inc. dba Culligan of Southwest Idaho Boise, ID Ideal Pure Water Omaha, NE Kenneth L. Myers and Thomas Baker III dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Havre, Montana Havre, MT Keppler Water Treatment, Inc. dba Keppler Culligan Water Treatment Akron, NY Kroger Company dba Crossroad Farms Dairy Indianapolis, IN Looking Glass dba Idaho Ice Moscow, ID Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water Service Napoleon, OH Mayer Bros Apple Products, Inc. West Seneca, NY McCollum Bottled Water, LLC dba Culligan Bottling of the Tri Cities, TN Blountville, TN Melwood Springs Water Company Blue Ridge, GA Milbert Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of South St. Paul, MN Inver Grove Heights, MN Mississippi Valley Water Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Perryville, MO Perryville, MO MAR/APR 2015




Misty Mountain Spring Water Abingdon, VA Moon Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kingman, AZ Kingman, AZ Nestlé Waters North America dba Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water Cabazon, CA Livermore, CA Los Angeles, CA Ontario, CA Phoenix, AZ Nestlé Waters North America dba Deer Park 405 Nestlé Way - Breingisville, PA Jersey City, NJ Lorton, VA Nestlé Waters North America dba Ice Mountain Spring Water Stanwood, MI Woodridge, IL Nestlé Waters North America dba Nestlé Pure Life 7712 Penn Drive - Breinigsville, PA Dallas, TX Denver, CO Greenwood, IN Lee, FL Red Boiling Springs, TN Sacramento, CA Nestlé Waters North America dba Ozarka Hawkins, TX Houston, TX Pasadena, TX Nestlé Waters North America dba Poland Spring Water Company Framingham, MA Hollis Center, ME Kingfield, ME Nestlé Waters North America dba Zephyrhills Water Company Zephyrhills, FL Niagara Bottling 2560 E. Philadelphia Street - Ontario, CA 4800 Langdon Road - Dallas, TX 4851 Mountain Creek Pkwy - Dallas, TX 5675 E. Concours - Ontario, CA Allentown, PA Aurora, CO Burlington, WA Gahanna, OH Groveland, FL Hamburg, PA Missouri City, TX Mooresville, NC Plainfield, IN Puyallup, WA Stockton, CA West Valley City, UT Nicolet Forest Bottling Mountain, WI




North Carolina Bottled Water Company, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Goldsboro, NC Goldsboro, NC

Southeast Texas Water Conditioning dba Southeast Texas Water Beaumont, TX

Northeastern Water Services, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Binghamton, NY Endicott, NY

Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Tucson, AZ Tucson, AZ

Ozarka Water and Coffee Service dba Eureka Water Company Oklahoma City, OK Premium Waters Chippewa Falls, WI Douglas, GA Fargo, ND Fort Worth, TX Greeneville, TN Quincy, IL Riverside, MO Willmar, MN Publix Super Markets, Inc. Dacula, GA Deerfield Beach, FL Lakeland, FL

Sterling Water, Inc. dba Sterling Water Culligan of Central Wisconsin Rothschild, WI T & B Enterprises, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Carroll, IA Carroll, IA The Water House Blue Ridge, GA Vetter’s, Inc. dba Culligan of the Quad Cities, Inc. Davenport, IA

Pure Flo Water Company Santee, CA

Walter C. Voigt, Inc. dba Central Valley Culligan Fresno, CA

Quality Water Services Ponca City, OK

Water Boy Bradenton, FL

Readington Farms Whitehouse Station, NJ

Water Conditioning of Mankato, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Madelia, MN Madelia, MN

Roaring Spring Water Roaring Spring, PA Robert N. Garner dba Culligan Water Treatment of Brazos County, TX College Station, TX RS Water Holdings, LLC dba Culligan of Houston, TX Houston, TX RTD Beverages Covington, LA Sam H. Jones Furniture & Appliances, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Pocatello, ID Pocatello, ID Schuler Water Treatment dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Hutchinson, KS Hutchinson, KS Shinn Spring Water Company dba The Water Guy Birdsboro, PA Silver Creek Bottling Streamwood, IL Silver Springs Bottled Water Company Silver Springs, FL

Water Conditioning of the Tri Cities, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of the Tri Cities, WA Kennewick, WA Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Spokane, WA Spokane, WA Waterco of the Pacific North West, Inc. dba Culligan of Tukwila, WA Tukwila,WA Waterco of the Pacific North West dba Culligan of Yakima, WA Yakima, WA Wheatland Waters, Inc. dba Culligan of Greater Kansas City Olathe, KS Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of Denver Englewood, CO Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan of La Vista, NE La Vista, NE Wichita Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Hall’s Culligan of Wichita, KS Wichita, KS Wisconsin Glacier Springs Bottling New Berlin, WI

Certificate of Compliance IBWA would also like to congratulate the following facilities for earning a Certificate of Compliance in 2014: Berkeley Club Beverages Berkeley Springs, WV Berkshire Springs Southfield, MA Cascade Bottled Water Farmington, NM Central Nebraska Water Conditioning, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Grand Island, NE Grand Island, NE CG Roxane Benton, TN Weed, CA Crystal Springs Bottled Water Albuquerque, NM Culligan Water Conditioning of West Texas, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of West Texas Midland, TX

D.T. Water Corporation dba Mast Family Culligan Fort Myers, FL Dakota Splash Sioux Falls, SD Dawson Ice and Water Company, Inc. dba Culligan Bottled Water of Albuquerque, NM Albuquerque, NM Delta American, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Baton Rouge, LA Baton Rouge, LA Drink More Water Gaithersburg, MD DS Services 6055 S. Harlem Ave.-Chicago, IL 6155 S. Harlem Ave.- Chicago, IL Salt Lake City, UT Earl Ising, Inc. dba Culligan Soft Water Service of Livermore, CA Livermore, CA


Eastern Wisconsin Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan of Burlington, WI Burlington, WI Keith McCardel, Inc. dba McCardel Culligan Water Conditioning Traverse City, MI Misty Mountain Spring Water Cashiers, NC Motsch Water Treatment, Inc. dba Culligan Water Systems of Clute, TX Clute, TX Mountain Brook Water Kentwood, LA

Mountain Valley Spring Company Hot Springs, AR Nestlé Waters North America dba Ice Mountain Spring Water Hilliard, OH Nestlé Waters North America dba Poland Spring Water Poland Spring, ME Plooster Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Chadron, NE Chadron, NE

Quality Water “Works”, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Kalispell, MT Kalispell, MT R G & Associates, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning Victoria, TX RS Water Holdings LLC dba Culligan of DFW Irving, TX Shenandoah Corporation Staunton, VA

Puritan Springs Water Lincoln, IL

Southwest Water Conditioning Company dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Phoenix, AZ Phoenix, AZ Sweet Springs Valley Water Company Gap Mills, WV Trumbull Bottled Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Conditioning of Dothan, AL and Jackson County, FL Panama City, FL Windover Water, Inc. dba Culligan Water Services Kingsland, GA


A Trained Workforce: CPO Excellence IBWA would like to congratulate the following bottled water professionals who successfully passed IBWA’s certified plant operator (CPO) exam in 2014. We hope you wear your CPO patch with pride! Absopure Water Company Plymouth, MI Jessica Hester Matthew March

Culligan of Dallas Fort Worth Irving, TX Rick Keck

Alaska Glacier Products Anchorage, AK Dan Glatz

Culligan of Fresno Fresno, CA Juan Aguayo

Aqua Systems Avon, IN Marcus Negron

Culligan of Perryville Perryville, MO Tyson Valleroy

Army & Air Force Exchange Service Gruenstadt, Germany Lucia Diller Thuy Huynh Zeljka Jolic Christian Marietta Constance Schulz

Culligan of West Texas Midland, TX Steve Hughins

Crossroad Farms Dairy Indianapolis, IN Amanda Hayden

DS Services Ephrata, PA Meghann Clark Joseph Gonzalez Robert Strause Daryl Weaver

Crystal Clear Bottled Water Des Moines, IA Ryan Heiken Culligan Davenport, IA Josh Schlemme Culligan Olathe, KS Michael Burns Culligan Waseca, MN Elias Naatz

Diamond Springs Water Charlotte, NC Michael Harrison John Hoffer

Isings Culligan Livermore, CA Richard Cardoza McCollum Bottled Water Blountville, TN Drew Kiser Nestlé Waters North America Stanwood, MI Cameron Lorrain Alyssa Marotta Richard McConnell John Mill Mitchell Plosz Christie Verus Niagara Bottling Allentown, PA Tara Willingham Niagara Bottling Aurora, CO Nic Griess Stephanie Pistone

DS Services Lakeside, CA Randall Navarrette

Niagara Bottling Dallas, TX Brian Haley Yurixsa Martinez Marc Parks Priscilla Walker

DS Services Portland, OR Matthew McDowell

Niagara Bottling Gahanna, OH Andrew Lacy

Euro Fusion Water Panama, Panama Eduardo Jimenez

Niagara Bottling Groveland, FL Todd Schuck

Niagara Bottling Hamburg, PA Earl Amey Steve Menches Niagara Bottling Mooresville, NC Drew Helms Rolando Llanos Niagara Bottling Plainfield, IN Chuck Williamson Niagara Bottling Puyallup, WA Chris Hirsch Frank Johnson Niagara Bottling Stockton, CA Jeffrey Daniel Maria De Arcos Niagara Bottling West Valley City, UT Valeria Taylor Premium Waters Douglas, GA Michael Reaves Kim Studstill RTD Beverages Covington, LA Harold Hermann Chris Melton Wichita Water Conditioning La Vista, NE Raymond Weidner

MAR/APR 2015







POWERED BY HEALTHY HYDRATION How Water Consumption Helps the Body Function

By Jill Culora

Adequate hydration is something most people don’t think much about until they start experiencing the ill effects of dehydration: extreme thirst, dry mouth, and headaches are the most common symptoms. But if our customers better understood how being well hydrated helps our bodies function properly, they would probably be more mindful about establishing healthy water drinking habits.

MAR/APR 2015



Source: “Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate” (2005),

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports “that water consumption rates among many adults is below recommended levels—at least 50 percent of the U.S. adult population is under-consuming liquids, which may be a cause for concern, especially for the elderly. A common misperception is that people ingest a lot of their daily water intake from food. But scientists disagree, stating food accounts for only about 20 percent of our water intake.” Thus, it’s obvious that bottled water has an important role to play in helping our busy, on-the-go customers meet their daily hydration needs. Below are just a few of the reasons why we need to stay healthfully hydrated.

It’s Not All in Your Head Our brains are 83 percent water, and numerous studies have demonstrated the positive benefits of adequate water consumption and the negative impacts of dehydration. Your brain’s hydration status can affect all of the following: • • • •

Source: “Even Mild Dehydration Can Alter Mood,” UCONN Health Today, H2Obrainpower

Source: “Effects of fluid ingestion on cognitive function after heat stress or exercise-induced dehydration,” International Journal of Psychophysiology (Nov. 2001)

Source: “Assessment of hydration biomarkers including salivary osmolality during passive and active dehydration,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Dec. 2013)

Source: “Influence of hydration on physiological function and performance during trail running in the heat,” Journal of Athletic Training (Mar.-Apr. 2010)





cognitive function mood motor function short- and long-term memory attention span.

According to Lawrence Armstrong, PhD, a hydration expert, University of Connecticut professor, and Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) trustee, “Our thirst sensation doesn’t really appear until we are 1 [percent] or 2 percent dehydrated. By then dehydration is already setting in and starting to impact how our mind and body perform.” The effects can be gender specific: women tend to get moody and have headaches; men can experience mental cognitive shifts. According to Armstrong, “Dehydration affects all people, and staying properly hydrated is just as important for those who work all day at a computer as it is for marathon runners, who can lose up to 8 percent of their body weight as water when they compete.” Corinne Cian, PhD, a researcher from the Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute in France, found that dehydration of 2.8 percent caused impaired performance on tasks including examining visual perception, short-term memory, and psychomotor ability. So, the next time you are feeling cranky, have a hard time focusing, or can’t think properly, perhaps you should reach for some bottled water—because you may simply be dehydrated.

Runs on Hydration Low hydration levels obviously affect the mind, but they can also impact a person’s physical performance. Armstrong’s research has shown that passive dehydration can impair performance, not just in sports but also during daily exercise and by lessening stamina during work and school days. People lose body water during physical activity because the human body, in order to help regulate core temperature, creates sweat that is evaporated from the skin’s surface, cooling the body down. The rate of water loss depends on the “exercise intensity, individual differences, environmental conditions, acclimatization state, clothing, and baseline hydration status,” according to a report by Armstrong and his colleagues. “Studies have shown that when people are dehydrated to approximately 2 percent of their body mass and they are asked to perform exercise, performance has been shown to be impaired between 7 and 29 percent,” according to a University of Connecticut “Preventing Sudden Death in Sport” factsheet. That’s why the American College of Sports Medicine and the National Athletic Trainers Association “recommend that


7 TIPS FOR STAYING HYDRATED • Drink half your body weight in ounces of water daily. If you weigh 200 lbs., then drink 100 ounces of water each day. • Sip water slowly, 2 to 3 ounces at a time, throughout the day. If you drink too fast, you risk diluting your blood, which may cause faster excretion of water by the kidneys. • Drink only 2 to 4 ounces of water with meals, or you may dilute the gastric juices that digest your food. • Hours before intense exercise, be sure to drink about two glasses of water and then a few sips every 20 minutes or so while exercising. • After you exercise, make sure you replace lost fluids with water. • Make your own flavored water with lemon or lime juice. • Be sure to drink before you get thirsty. By the time your body shows signs of dehydration, you’ll already be 2 percent dehydrated. Sources:,

minimizing fluid losses (<2 percent body mass loss) will assist in decreasing the endurance performance decrements associated with increasing levels of exercise-induced dehydration.” While water loss degrades many physiological functions, one of the most obvious is diminished muscle performance. “Muscles need water to be able to expand and contract quickly in response to instructions from the nervous system. Muscle strength is also affected by hydration: Thirsty muscles move slowly and can’t bear as much weight, which leads to sluggish performance. This effect is present in any dehydrated person—not just elite athletes,” says Georgie Adams, PT, A Fine Balance. Proper hydration is also critical for healthy joints. “Water acts as a lubricant for your joints, making sure they can move efficiently and painlessly. Many joints have little fluid-filled sacs called bursae in them. These cushion the joint and allow it to move freely and bear weight. Poor hydration can mean these little sacs become thinner and more rigid which makes them unable to provide proper joint support,” says Adams.

Source: “The Power of Hydration,” A Fine Balance blog,

The Body Parts Water is essential for life. It supports metabolic reactions—such as the formation of urine (approximately 95 percent water), sweat (approximately 99 percent water), and blood plasma (about 92 percent water)—and helps our brains and muscles function at optimum levels. Other parts of the body function best when adequately hydrated. Here are a few examples. Gastrointestinal functions. Properly hydrating the colon will promote regular peristalsis (the natural muscle contractions that move food through the intestines) and help ease elimination. Try to drink at least half your body weight in ounces of water each day, says gastroenterologist Leonard Smith, MD, of Gainesville, Florida.

Source: “You May Be Dehydrated Even If You Drink Lots of Water: Dehydration Risks & Solutions,” BodyWeightOunces

Kidney functions. Ten percent of the U.S. population is affected by kidney stones—and that figure is growing. Researchers, such as Jessica Sontrop, PhD, from Western University in Canada, have found increased water consumption can alleviate the incidence of kidney stones because water helps decrease the MAR/APR 2015



Source: “Association between water intake, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis of HANES data,” American Journal of Nephrology (2013)

concentrations of substances involved in stone formation. In addition, Sontrop has found the prevalence of stage III chronic kidney disease was highest among those with the lowest water intake. Her study concluded there is “evidence suggesting a potentially protective effect of higher total water intake, particularly plain water, on the kidney.”

Source: “Staying Hydrated, Staying Healthy,” American Heart Association website article, StayHealthy

Heart functions. Keeping the body hydrated helps the heart more easily pump blood through the blood vessels to the muscles. And, according to the American Heart Association, it helps the muscles work efficiently. “If you’re well hydrated, your heart doesn’t have to work as hard,” says John Batson, MD, a sports medicine physician with Lowcountry Spine & Sport in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and American Heart Association volunteer.

Source: “Water, Hydration and Health,” Nutrition Reviews (2010)

Regulation of blood volume. Decreases in blood volume can occur through blood loss or via loss of body water from sweating, which can lead to increased heart rate, a drop in blood pressure, or fainting. Drinking water will reduce heart rate and increase blood pressure in normal healthy people, says Barry Popkin, PhD.

Source:“Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate” (2005),

Gallbladder functions. Studies have found that a high daily water intake and consumption of water at regular intervals can help with the function of emptying the gallbladder and preventing gallstones from forming, according to research by Mahantayya V. Math.

Source:“Family history and behavioral abnormalities in girls with recurrent urinary tract infections: a controlled study,” Journal of Urology (Apr. 2004)

Urinary tract. Numerous studies have found that drinking plenty of water can help “flush out” bacteria from the urinary tract. One such study by Christine Stauffer, MD, of University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, found girls with poor fluid intake were three times more likely to have recurring urinary tract infections compared to better-hydrated girls. That research is significant because urinary tract infections are the second most common reason antibiotics are prescribed (respiratory infections are No.1), coupled with a general growing concern over implications connected to the “over use of antibiotics” among the population.

Source: “Effects of fluid intake on skin physiology: distinct differences between drinking mineral water and tap water,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2007)

Skin elasticity and resilience. Water makes up 30 percent of our skin, so it makes sense that water contributes to our skin’s plumpness, elasticity, and resiliency. While maintaining adequate hydration cannot stop wrinkles, Professor Martina Kerscher, MD, Division of Cosmetic Sciences, University of Hamburg, found that water helped with skin thickness and density among people who had low water intake.

Sips of Prevention It is often said that people who want to lose weight should drink water instead of sugarsweetened beverages. In addition to helping lower the amount of calories consumed, drinking water has been shown to also alter metabolism, as discussed below. Source: “Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and exercise,” Obesity (Nov. 2008)




Controlling and losing weight. Drinking water in place of caloric beverages will reduce a person’s energy intake, which helps better control daily calorie intake. For people who are overweight and trying to lose pounds, there is evidence that drinking water will also alter metabolism. Jodi Stookey, PhD, of Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) in California, found that increases in water consumption were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat in overweight dieting women, regardless of diet and activity. More recently, Stookey has pointed out that studies examining how athletes improved athletic performance by burning more carbohydrates and less fat to delay fatigue during intense physical activity could reveal information about weight loss and water. According to Stookey, “When the


same studies are looked at from a weight-loss perspective instead, we’re left with only one question, What are we waiting for? We should absolutely be telling people to drink water as part of losing weight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism are linked like a see-saw. If you prioritize one, you suppress the other.”

Source: “This Just In: Drinking Water Helps You Lose Weight,” CHORI website article, WaterHelpsWeightLoss

Situations That Require Special Consideration Knowing that water consumption is necessary for a healthy body is one thing, but it’s also important to be aware that situations exist when it is particularly important to have access to water. Patients, physically impaired, and the elderly. A variety of physiological conditions can affect patients, physically impaired persons, and the elderly that don’t bother a healthy middle-aged person—such as a reduced sense of thirst, decreased total body water content, and decreased kidney function—which makes them more susceptible to becoming dehydrated. But oftentimes, a decrease in mobility causes that group to purposely put off drinking fluids, so they don’t have to go to the bathroom as often, as getting up and down is difficult and they feel they could risk injury. However, studies show patients with high water intake are less likely to have a fatal heart attack. In addition, research by Professor Luca Masotti, MD, at the School in Geriatrics, University of Siena, Italy, shows well-hydrated patients recover quicker. And a study by Mathilde Ferry, at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in France, shows patients with high water intake have lower rates of infections. Air travel. Aircraft cabin air lacks humidity, which can cause moisture in our bodies to evaporate more quickly than normal, causing us to become dehydrated. Research by Wolfgang Schobersberger, of the Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT) in Austria, has shown that dehydration increases systolic blood viscosity, which is associated with blood clots. The advice is to drink plenty of water before your flight, and sip regularly during a flight to prevent dehydration.


Source: “Water, other fluids, and fatal coronary Heart Disease,” by Jacqueline Chan, PhD, American Journal of Epidemiology (2002) Source: “Length of hospitalization in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia,” Aging (Feb. 2000) Source: “Strategies for ensuring good hydration in the elderly,” Nutrition Reviews (Jun. 2005) Source: “Travel-related thromboembolism: mechanisms and avoidance,” Expert Reviews of Cardiovascular Therapy (Dec. 2009)

IBWA has been advocating for the inclusion of water on the MyPlate food nutrition icon with the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), the group responsible for providing recommendations to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for the 2015 Dietary Guidelines. In its communications, IBWA highlighted the following points: • One of the simplest changes you can make to lead a healthier life is to drink water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages. • Adding water to MyPlate is a great idea that clearly communicates the importance of making water part of your daily diet—whether from the tap, a filter, or in a bottle. Including water on MyPlate is the perfect opportunity to state clearly and without question that water is a vital component of a healthy life. • Encouraging people—especially kids—to drink more water instead of sugary drinks is regularly cited as a key component of a more healthful lifestyle. According to the Institute of Medicine and the American Journal of Preventative Medicine, one-third of American adults are overweight and another one-third is obese. And, during the last 30 years, children’s obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent. We have to do better, and making the simple switch to drinking water is an important step in a healthier direction. • Promoting regular consumption of water in such a clear and official way will support the efforts of communities striving to encourage healthier lifestyles.

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Source: “Cold Weather Increases Risk of Dehydration,” UNH press release, ColdWeatherDehydration

Source: Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety, CDC webpage, H2OandExtremeHeatPrevention

Source: “Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women,” JAMA (Aug. 2004)

Source: “Prevalence of high body mass index in US Children and adolescents, 2007-2008,” JAMA (Jan. 2010)

Source: “Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults,” JAMA Internal Medicine (Apr. 2014)

Source:“Staying Hydrated, Staying Healthy,” American Heart Association website article, StayHydratedStayHealthy




Cold weather. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) used “cold chambers” to study the effects of cold on the human body. According to Robert Kenefick, PhD, UNH associate professor, cold temperatures actually alter thirst sensation. By measuring blood volume and flow, he discovered the brain focuses more on body core temperature over fluid balance. “If humans don’t naturally hydrate themselves properly, they can become very dehydrated in cold weather because there is little physiological stimulus to drink,” says Kenefick. Coupled with this loss of thirst sensation, cold weather causes decreased body water due to respiratory fluid loss through breathing, greater effort during physical activity because of the weight of extra clothing, and sweat evaporating more quickly due to the cold air. Extreme heat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that during hot weather people need to increase their fluid intake, regardless of activity level. And people shouldn’t wait until they feel thirsty before they consume fluids. During heavy exercise in a hot environment, the CDC says a person should drink two to four glasses (16-32 ounces) of cool fluids each hour. Also avoid very cold drinks because they can cause stomach cramps.

Why “Just Water” to Hydrate? Drinking water instead of caloric drinks can help you cut calories. As we all know, cutting calories is recommended to avoid weight gain. Studies, including one by Matthias Schulze, PhD, at the Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, have suggested that excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Schulze’s research studied the consumption patterns among 91,249 women who were free of diabetes in 1991. The results showed women consuming one or more sugar-sweetened beverage per day had a greater magnitude of weight gain and increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. That’s a significant discovery, especially considering a third of American adults are overweight and another third are considered obese, according to IOM. Shockingly, the obesity rate for children has increased from 5 to 17 percent in the past 30 years, which is a 340 percent increase. That’s according to research by Cynthia Ogden, PhD, at the CDC, who studied 3,281 children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years of age and 719 infants and toddlers aged from birth to two. Studies have also shown a relationship between added sugar in diet and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. One such study by Quanhe Yang, MD, at the CDC’s Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, concluded that most U.S. adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. Yang’s study also noted that the major sources of added sugar in the American adults’ diet included sugar-sweetened beverages. Researchers observed a significant relationship between added sugar consumption (seven or more servings per week) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. According to the American Heart Association, water is the best fluid choice. “It’s healthier to drink water while you’re exercising, and then when you’re done, eat a healthy snack like orange slices, bananas or a small handful of unsalted nuts,” says Batson.

Health experts have found that fluid requirements vary from person to person, so there’s no “one size fits all” rule. The IOM suggests that “the vast majority of healthy people adequately meet their daily hydration needs by letting thirst be their guide.” While the IOM does not specify exact requirements for water, it sets “general recommendations for women at approximately 2.7 liters (91 ounces) of total water—from all beverages and foods—each day, and men an average of approximately 3.7 liters (125 ounces daily) of total water. The panel did not set an upper level for water.” The IOM also states that “about 80 percent of people’s total water intake comes from drinking water and beverages—including caffeinated beverages—and the other 20 percent is derived from food.”


What Is “Adequate Hydration”?

Source: “Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate,” IOM report (Feb. 2014)

The best way to keep on top of your hydration is to keep an eye on the color of your urine. Armstrong has provided a urine color chart on his website (, which can help people tell their level of hydration. The palest yellow indicates “adequate hydration,” says Armstrong. On average, men urinate 1.4 liters per day, and women urinate 1.1 liters per day, so it’s important to consume at least that much and then more to compensate for other body water lost through normal sweating and breathing. While the text above presents a lot of scientific information to digest, there’s one clear, simple conclusion: we should be drinking more water more often. The health benefits are indisputable. As bottled water professionals, we are aware of those benefits. The challenge is to make sure that we are actively and aggressively sharing the facts about healthy hydration with our customers, friends, family, legislators, and the media. Marketing for our products can evolve into more than just finding and keeping customers. Our marketing efforts can be a way to educate consumers, inspire them to establish healthy water drinking habits—and thereby help create a healthier population. Jill Culora is an experienced business journalist who frequently contributes to Bottled Water Reporter;

MAR/APR 2015







DRINK UP: The Unsung Hero of Water Consumption How the Partnership for a Healthier America’s industry-wide effort is actively boosting water consumption By Bonnie McLaughlin

Last year saw more water in grocery carts and on restaurant and home dinner tables than in previous years, thanks in part to Drink Up, an effort lead by the Partnership for a Healthier America and its Honorary Chair First Lady Michelle Obama. Since it launched with a splash in September 2013, Drink Up has encouraged millions of Americans to drink more water more often. Drink Up focuses on a very simple, positive message: you are what you drink, and when you drink water,

you drink up. Born out of a desire to encourage people to take an action— instead of telling them what not to do—Drink Up is promoting one simple, healthy behavior in a new way. That strategy has paid off: America’s water consumption increased by more than 68 million servings in the first half of 2014, and a 3 percent lift in incremental sales of bottled water was reported in 2013 among those exposed to Drink Up’s first online ad campaign. “The research indicates that consumer trends around

MAR/APR 2015



“If we were going to take just one step to make ourselves and our families healthier, probably the single best thing we could do is to simply drink more water.” First Lady Michelle Obama

On September 12, 2013, First Lady Michelle Obama was joined by actress Eva Longoria and Watertown High School Principal Scott Mantei to launch Drink Up in Watertown, Wisconsin.

On July 22, 2014, First Lady Michelle Obama continued her efforts as PHA honorary chairperson to encourage Americans to drink more water by hosting a White House event, during which she announced the initiative had added seven new and renewed Drink Up supporters.




drinking more water are continuing to move in the right direction,” says PHA Chief Marketing Officer Drew Nannis. “New data has shown that the average number of daily servings of plain/ unflavored water consumed in the U.S. is also steadily growing. All of this continues to indicate that more and more often, consumers are choosing water.” Since Drink Up’s 2013 launch, supporters from all business sectors that promote water have continued to join the initiative. More than 60 supporters— including bottled, tap, reusable bottle, and filtered water companies; the fashion industry; and even specific cities—are sharing Drink Up’s message. Other early supporters included the Let’s Move! effort and First Lady Michelle Obama. On September 12, 2013, when Mrs. Obama joined PHA and Drink Up supporters in Watertown, Wisconsin, to announce the initiative, she said: Since we started the Let’s Move! initiative, I’ve been looking for as many ways as possible to help families and kids lead healthier lives. And I’ve come to realize that if we were going to take just one step to make ourselves and our families


Show full support for #DrinkUp at #IBWA2014 @urh20 @PHAnews @ BottledWaterOrg #water #bottledwater


BottledWater Babe

FOLLOW DRINK UP In 2015, the Drink Up initiative will continue to push its pro-water messaging through its social media platforms: Facebook ( Twitter (@URH2O) Instagram ( In 2014, Drink Up averaged close to 2 million impressions each month.

healthier, probably the single best thing we could do is to simply drink more water.”


Through social media, advertising, promotional events, celebrity ambassadors, and initiative supporters (including IBWA), Drink Up’s healthy hydration message has reached millions of people.

Drink Up has reached millions of people since its inception through social media, advertising, events, and celebrity ambassadors. Before the effort’s sixmonth mark, its iconic droplet logo was featured in-market on more than a billion products—everything from packaging, bottles, truck backs, taps, and fountains, to a J.Crew t-shirt and even a special edition beach towel by designer Rebecca Minkoff. The effort has been promoted on beverage coolers in Walmart stores; at bodegas in Philadelphia; on billboards; on screens in elevators, gyms, and gas stations— even on a talking fountain. In addition, Drink Up has been all over television, from The TODAY Show to Late Night With Jimmy Fallon, Good Morning America to The Colbert Report, and in print and online publications ranging from AdAge to the Associated Press. Celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres, James Franco, Eva Longoria, Curtis Granderson, John Legend, and Chrissy Tiegen have supported the effort on MAR/APR 2015



Hepburn’s iconic style, and Albert Einstein’s intellect. These three icons and the #spreadthewater messaging have been seen coast-to-coast in fitness centers, subways, buses, and online, reaching more than 100 million consumers.

Drink Up’s #spreadthewater campaign employs innovative marketing (and some familiar faces) to encourage water consumption.

social media. Summer 2014 saw a Drink Up presence at every Dave Matthews Band concert and even in Major League Baseball’s Fan Cave. A Drink Up glass has been in the hands of everyone from Chris Bosch of the Miami Heat to Sesame Street’s Elmo to President and Mrs. Obama. More than 50 companies and organizations from every corner of the water industry—including tap, filtered, 24



bottled water, and beyond—have joined to support Drink Up’s message. Here are some highlights of the work: •

The #spreadthewater campaign was created to highlight how water is always in the background, enabling everyday milestones. Campaign ads used some of the 20th century’s most well-known icons to show us all how water was there, supporting Muhammad Ali’s victories, Audrey

In an effort to make water a little more fun, on August 28, 2014, PHA unveiled the talking Drink Up fountain. (See photos on p.25.) When a drinker’s lips touch the water, they complete a circuit and activate the fountain’s speakers, which then deliver quirky messages about drinking water. When the drinker pulls his or her head away, the voice stops. With hidden cameras set up, Drink Up caught unsuspecting individuals using the fountain in New York City’s Brooklyn Bridge Park—and then more than a million people saw the video online. (View the video here:

On July 22, 2014, First Lady Michelle Obama joined PHA at an event on the White House South Lawn to announce that seven new and renewed supporters—Brita®, FIRST 5 Santa Clara County, Haws Corporation™, Nalgene® Outdoor Products, S’well Bottle, Santa Clara Valley Water District and The California Endowment—joined Drink Up. The First Lady also noted the increase in sales for bottled water as a result of the Drink Up initiative (more on those numbers below).

WAT-AAH!, one of Drink Up’s first supporters, hosted a free art exhibition at the Moonlight Studios gallery in Chicago in July 2014. As a part of the Taking Back the Streets traveling art campaign, WAT-AAH! brought the art, which incorporates the Drink Up droplet, to New York; Washington, DC; and Chicago. Events included such artists as Shepard Fairey, Kenny Scarf, Eric Haze, Lady Aiko, and many more.


“Refreshing isn’t it?”

“You’re feeding one trillion thirsty cells right now!” On August 28, 2014, PHA unveiled the talking Drink Up water fountain. View a video of the reactions from unsuspecting drinkers at DrinkUpFountain. •

As part of the #spreadthewater advertising campaign, Drink Up’s imagery was prominently displayed within the Charity Miles fitness application for six weeks. Charity Miles members shared the campaign nearly 22,000 times on Facebook and 6,000 times on Twitter, generating more than 5 million impressions. Philadelphia joined Drink Up as the first location to engage in a citywide activation. Throughout 2015, Drink Up Philly will share Drink Up messages at corner stores, schools, farmers’ markets, and more.

Increasing Consumption and Sales Data shows these efforts are contributing to a shift in consumer behavior, as water consumption and purchasing are on the rise. Nielsen Catalina Solutions (NCS) released a study in July 2014 that found that the first online ad campaign for Drink Up fueled a 3 percent lift in incremental sales of bottled water among those exposed to the campaign. For every million households exposed to Drink Up ads, those households purchased $1 million more in bottled water. Also in 2014, the Natural Marketing Institute (NMI) released research showing that American adult consumption of water increased by more than 68 million 8-ounce servings, from the end of 2013 to the second quarter of 2014. Similarly, the same study found that

the average number of daily servings of plain/unflavored water (including bottled, tap and filtered water) consumed in the United States is steadily growing. Between the end of 2013 and the summer of 2014, most demographic groups analyzed saw their average daily consumption increase, jumping from 4.43 to 4.72 servings. Hispanics saw one of the largest increases, with a 0.37-serving jump, while White/Caucasians and African Americans saw a rise of 0.26 and 0.22, respectfully. The first quarter of 2014 also saw a 2.7 percent increase of daily 8-ounce servings, versus the third quarter of 2013. The NPD Group also released data showing a 17 percent increase in bottled water consumption and a 3 percent increase in tap-water servings at restaurants in the final quarter of 2013, which were enough to power 1 percent growth for that entire year. Consumer trends are clearly continuing to move in the right direction. In an April 2014 article, Forbes noted, “Following a campaign that featured two public service announcements seen 700 million times over a 15week period throughout the U.S.—in 15,000 stores, doctor’s offices, gas stations, malls and other highly trafficked places—newly released data demonstrates that Drink Up is encouraging consumers to embrace water’s benefits.”

Spreading the Water The collective efforts of Drink Up’s supporters have helped #spreadthewater encourage people across the country to drink more water more often. The companies involved have committed time, resources, and creativity that are helping to share this brand, its messages, and the Drink Up logo as a reminder to consumers everywhere that when you drink water, you Drink Up. In 2015, PHA is bringing the Drink Up brand into new venues and more businesses that offer products promoting water consumption. Its network of support will continue to grow, using unexpected moments and exciting new activations to encourage consumers to drink more water. Thirsty for more? To get involved, visit Bonnie McLaughlin is the director of the Drink Up Initiative. She encourages IBWA members, of any size, to get involved with Drink Up. For more, visit or email

MAR/APR 2015








A registered dietitian shares tips on how water can help ensure a more healthful, hydrated life By Eve Pearson

Imagine this scenario: It’s 6 a.m. and you’re doing what most people do at this time of the day—sleep. At 6:15 a.m., your eyes open. You’re a little confused. You ask yourself, “Did the alarm clock go off?” You think, “Wait, I feel really good and rested. Not groggy. What’s going on?” You reach over to grab your phone and check the time: it’s 6:15 a.m. and the alarm isn’t supposed to go off until 6:30 a.m. Definitely strange, but you get out of the bed with a pep in your step. You can’t remember the last time you felt this good. You even trade your daily coffee for green tea because you don’t feel like you need the caffeine. There’s traffic on your 30-minute commute to work, but it doesn’t faze you; you just enjoy listening to the news.

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ADVANCED SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEHYDRATION • Dry mouth/bad breath • Eyes stop making tears • Sweating may stop • Muscle cramps • Nausea and vomiting • Heart palpitations • Lightheaded • Weakness • Decreased urine output Source:

As you move effortlessly through your workday, every project you have your hand in seems to be a success. You give valuable input at every meeting because you are able to present your ideas in a thoughtful and focused manner. You breeze right through the 100 emails waiting in your inbox. Because you’ve been so productive, you have time to get lunch with a friend. When the workday is over at 5 p.m., you wonder how it could be that you didn’t lose energy throughout the day— or get a headache. There was no need at 3 p.m. for your daily search of the break room, desperate for caffeine or sugar to provide you an energy boost for the rest of the afternoon. Instead, you’re off to the gym after work to have what you afterward describe as the best workout you’ve ever had. You walked faster on the treadmill than you did last week,



for good.

and your nagging hip ache seems to have miraculously disappeared. When you get home, your mood seems to influence everyone. Although your spouse asked why you didn’t clean the dishes, you don’t get defensive. Instead, you quickly suggest that you complete the task together to get the job done quickly, so you can spend some quality time together. When was the last time you had a day like that? Has it been so long ago that you can’t even remember? Has your day never unfurled with such ease? Does the description above sound more like a dream than a reality? Now guess what one common denominator you have to have in your life to experience this kind of day: water.

Why Hydrate? It’s estimated that 75 percent of Americans don’t drink enough water. If you could increase productivity by 10 percent, would you consider drinking more water? What if you could get rid of 95 percent of your headaches—or half of any muscle and joint aches and pains? What if you could help reduce your weight by just being properly hydrated? Would you do it? The sidebar at left presents the advanced signs and symptoms of dehydration. Unfortunately, when most people experience one or more of those symptoms, the first question they ask themselves isn’t, Am I properly hydrated?

How Can I Create a Hydrated Life?

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What people need to understand is that being hydrated is a lifestyle habit. You have to establish new habits that encourage the consumption of water. But that’s easier said than done. Rather than creating a habit from scratch, some experts suggest the easiest way to form a new habit is to replace a



The following chart summarizes how mild dehydration could potentially affect different areas of your life. • Water losses greater than 2 percent of body weight significantly reduce aerobic performance. Athletic Performance

• Impairment of strength and power. • Worst case scenario: death can occur. • May lead to constipation.

Gut and Colon Health

• Body water is necessary for absorption and usage of many nutrients. • Triggers migraines or tension-type headaches in some.



• A risk factor associated with higher mortality in elderly. Possible increased stroke risk.

• Cramping is advanced sign of dehydration. Muscle Aches

• Affects fluid and electrolyte balance and sweating. • Possibly affects joint pain. • Decreased alertness and working memory.


• Increased sleepiness, fatigue, confusion, and tension/anxiety. • Makes skin appear more wrinkled and dry.


Weight Management

• Proper hydration is important for weight loss. • When not consuming water, calorie-containing replacement beverages have contributed to the obesity epidemic.

Sources: “Effects of hydration status on cognitive performance and mood,” British Journal of Nutrition, May 2014; “Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots,” Military Medicine, July 2013; “Influence of progressive fluid restriction on mood and physiological markers of dehydration in women,” British Journal of Nutrition, Jan. 2013; “Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men,” British Journal of Nutrition, Nov. 2011; “Hydration and obesity prevention,” Obesity Facts, 2014; “Triggers of migraine and tension-type headache,” Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 97, 2010; “Physical activity, hydration and health,” Nutrición Hospitalaria, Jun 2014; Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Nutrition Care Manual (; “Nutrition and Athletic Performance,” J. ADA, March 2009; “Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Exercise and Fluid Replacement,” Special Communications: Position Stand, Feb. 2007; “Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects,” Comprehensive Physiology, Jan. 2014; “Morbidity and mortality among the hospitalized aged: Identification of prognostic factors,” Anales de Medicina Interna, Sep. 1995; “Water deprivation induces neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through vasopressin-induced oxidative stress,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, May 2014.

MAR/APR 2015






COFFEE 16 OZ different, existing habit with the new habit. For example, if you order tea every time you go to a restaurant, next time order tea and water. Drink the tea as you normally would, then after the first glass of tea switch to water. Rather than allowing the waiter to continuously refill your tea glass, ask him or her to take it away. Eventually, you may decide just to order water and let the waiter continue to refill it. Here’s another example: Typically, people don’t carry water bottles around 30



with them all day or have a bottled water sitting on their desks. For most, it would be a new habit to keep a water bottle handy on their desks. However, you can establish this new habit by setting a goal for yourself: every time you get up from your chair (e.g., to talk with a coworker, use the restroom, visit the break room, etc.) make a point of taking five sips of water. That effort ties drinking more water to an activity you already do (i.e., get up from your desk). Such strategies increase the likelihood that you’ll form the habit of drinking more water.

How Much Water Is Enough? You’ll hear different recommendations concerning how much fluid is appropriate to consume. Older recommendations suggest half your body weight in fluid or 8 cups per day. While those recommendations may be appropriate for some individuals, they certainly don’t calculate well for everyone. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends women consume 91 ounces of fluid per day and men consume 125 ounces of fluid per day. The important thing to remember here is that IOM is discussing “fluid,” which means “total fluid,” not just water. For example, let’s assume you are a man who drinks 16 ounces of coffee in the morning, 32 ounces of tea at lunch, and 16 ounces of milk at dinner with no other liquids in between. It’s estimated we receive about 10-20 percent of our fluids from food; thus, for the man in this example, that equates to 12-24 ounces. Rough calculations would indicate this particular man would need to consume 25-37 additional ounces from water. After you’ve figured out the amount of fluid missing from your daily diet, you’ll need to decide how you’re going to drink the additional water. In our example, the man could drink approximately two or three 16.9 ounce bottled water bottles and meet his hydration needs as set by the IOM.

Color of Health Once you’ve established a habit of drinking water, the best way to know if you’re hydrated is to use the Dehydration Urine Color Chart found at (Lawrence Armstrong, PhD, a Drinking Water Research Foundation trustee also provides a urine color chart on his website: This chart represents different possible urine colors you may have throughout

Water, of course, is the best hydrator, but that doesn’t mean the other items we choose to drink and eat don’t count. Do you like watermelon? What about oranges and apples? Those fruits are great examples of hydration sources. Soups and stews also count and are especially nice in the colder months; smoothies can be a great summertime hydrator. However, one reason why water is the best source for hydration is because it has zero calories. Not only is water calorie free, it’s also free of other additives and artificial ingredients that are often found in other beverage choices.

the day. When viewing the chart, this is what you should take away: if your urine is the color of apple juice, you’re severely dehydrated; if your urine is the color of lemonade, give yourself a pat on the back because you’re properly hydrated. Because water is the best hydrator, one goal you should consider when making these changes (or encouraging others to) is drink at least half of your fluids from water.

Do Your Customers Know? As a bottled water professional, perhaps you were already aware of the facts and tips provided above. So, the question becomes, Do your customers know the vital role water plays in their health? Think of innovative ways to share this information with them. Perhaps you can post weekly hydration facts on your website or Facebook page. On



your electronic or paper-based invoices, design a “Did You Know?” section to present a monthly fact about how water helps our bodies function properly. Or maybe create a bottleneck marketing piece that contains the first signs and symptoms of dehydration. Taking little steps such as these to educate consumers will help us all realize the dream of a healthy life with proper hydration.

Eve Pearson, MBA, RD, CSSD, LD, is a wellness expert; founder of Nutriworks, a nationally recognized sports nutrition practice; and adjunct professor at Southern Methodist University.

MAR/APR 2015




On December 1, 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued two final regulations requiring that calorie information be listed for foods sold in vending machines operated by businesses that own or operate 20 or more locations, and on menus and menu boards at covered establishments (such as chain restaurants, grocery store take-out counters, convenience stores, theaters, and amusement parks). IBWA wants to help you understand how the vending machine rules apply to bottled water products, when those new requirements will take effect, and how IBWA will initiate advocacy efforts with FDA to eliminate any unnecessary and costly burdens on bottlers and distributors.

No Exceptions

Calorie Disclosure Mandates on Bottled Water in Vending Machines Coming Soon How will this impact bottled water producers? By Kristin Pearson Wilcox, IBWA Vice President of Government Relations




Required under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, these rules were delayed for the last five years due to stakeholder concerns, including those expressed by numerous members of Congress. While the restaurant menu labeling rules take effect in 2015, the vending machine labeling rules will take effect December 1, 2016. Efficient implementation of these requirements will likely mean that bottled water producers will need to work with vending machine operators. In developing the rules, FDA received more than 1,100 comments. In IBWA’s comments (submitted July 2011), we encouraged FDA to exempt bottled water products from the proposed rule because they typically contain insignificant quantities of all nutrients; thus, they are generally not required to bear nutrition information under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA) and FDA’s implementing regulations. However, the final rule provides no exemptions—for either bottled water or other food or beverage products with zero calories (e.g., diet soda) sold in covered vending machines. In order to comply, vending machine owners will likely seek to require their food,

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS beverage, and bottled water providers to list calories on their labels in a size that satisfies the rule. That way, vending machine owners do not have to post the information. If you sell bottled water to a vending machine operator or if your company operates vending machines that sell bottled water, you need to know that the rules allow vending machine operators to disclose calories using any one of the following options: • On the Nutrition Facts Panel: Required information must include the calories, serving size, and servings per container. That information must be visible to the prospective purchaser in a size that he or she can easily read. The rule specifies that the current smaller Nutrition Facts Panel formats are not sufficiently prominent. • On a reproduction of the Nutrition Facts Panel (i.e., not on the packaged food itself ): The required information must include the calories, serving size, and servings per container and must be a reproduction of an actual Nutrition Facts Panel that complies with 21 CFR 101.9. The information must be visible to the prospective purchaser in a size that he or she can easily read. While FDA does not specify where the information is to be placed, two options are on the vending machine or on a sign next to the vending machine (assuming the prominence requirements are satisfied). • On a calorie disclosure statement that appears on the packaged food label itself: The required information must be visible to the prospective purchaser, in a type size at least 50 percent of the size of the largest printed matter on the label and with sufficient color and contrasting background to other print on the label to permit the purchaser to clearly distinguish the information (and, under FDA’s existing nutrient content claim regulations, such calorie disclosure on front-of-pack would trigger the need for a Nutrition Facts Panel on the side or back panel).


On a calorie disclosure statement that appears on a sign in close proximity to the article of food or selection button: The required information must be in, on, or adjacent to the vending machine, but it does not necessarily have to be attached to the vending machine—as long as the calorie declaration is visible at the same time as the food, its name, price, selection button, or selection number is visible.

The new rules only apply to the vending machine operator and not to the producer of bottled water sold in a vending machine. However, as a practical matter, vending machine operators may seek to have their suppliers provide the calorie information on the packaged food label itself. Operators could seek to amend supply contracts to mandate that this information be provided by the manufacturer.

IBWA Urges FDA to Use Enforcement Discretion The final chapter may not yet have been written on this issue. Congress has urged FDA to provide more guidance to those industries impacted by the restaurant menu labeling regulation and expressed concern about the vending proposal. IBWA is also urging FDA to use its enforcement discretion when applying certain provisions of the vending machine labeling rule to bottled water products. IBWA has sent a letter to FDA encouraging the agency to recognize that if bottled water manufacturers provide a visible calorie declaration on the front of the bottled water label in compliance with the new vending machine labeling final rule, then FDA should not enforce the existing

requirement that such a declaration would trigger the need to include a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label.That makes sense because bottled water is otherwise exempt from nutrition labeling under the NLEA (unless specific product claims are made) in that it typically contains insignificant amounts of all nutrients required to be declared. More information on the rules can be found on FDA’s website: bit. ly/FDAVendingLabels. If you have specific questions about these rules, email them to FDA at

Scheduled IBWA Hill Days for 2015 IBWA encourages all members— small, medium, and large—to come to DC in 2015 to meet with their members of Congress and congressional staff to educate them about the bottled water industry and our issues. For more information, contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Kristin Wilcox: • Tuesday, March 17 • Tuesday, April 28 • Wednesday, May 20 • June Hill Day – June 1-4 (During IBWA Board and Committee Meetings) • Wednesday, July 22 • Tuesday, September 29 • Tuesday, October 20 • Wednesday, December 2

MAR/APR 2015



Bottled Water: Keeping Hydration Healthy By Chris Hogan, IBWA Vice President of Communications

Making time to fit healthy food choices into your life is never easy. Our days are hectic enough without having to think about meal planning and calorie counting. Yet, one choice is easy: choosing water over less-healthy, sugar-sweetened beverages. It seems more Americans are making bottled water their packaged beverage of choice, as Beverage Marketing Corporation predicts bottled water will become the No. 1 packaged beverage by 2016, surpassing for the first-time ever carbonated soft drinks. Still, America is having a health crisis. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the American Journal of Preventative Medicine report that one-third of American adults are overweight and another one-third is 34



obese. Perhaps more concerning is the fact that during the last 30 years children’s obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent. IOM also suggests that by 2030 obesity could affect 42 percent of Americans. How can professionals in the bottled water industry have a positive impact on this crisis? Perhaps the answer lies in communicating more often—with our customers, legislators, and media—the healthy benefits of water.

Become More Self-Aware We live in an on-the-go society. Most of what we drink comes in a package—and consumers are increasingly choosing

bottled water. In fact, between 1976 and 2013, bottled water grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 9.5 percent, outpacing every other beverage category. In other words, in 1976 every American drank 1.6 gallons of bottled water; in 2014 that figure reached a record 34.2 gallons. Conversely, “Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008,” a study led by Barry Popkin, PhD, shows that from 1989 to 2008 calories consumed in the form of sugary beverages increased by 60 percent in children ages 6 to 11, and the percentage of children consuming them rose from 79 to 91 percent. Why is it that the consumption rate of sugary beverages increased with such

COMMUNICATIONS tenacity? Is it because of marketing budgets? Have we as an industry not successfully publicized the health benefits of drinking water? Did we assume consumers would just inherently “know” that water is good for them? If so, thanks to social media, we’ve got more, cost-efficient ways than ever to spread the good news about bottled water.

Promote Healthy Hydration Drinking zero-calorie beverages, such as water, instead of sugary drinks is regularly cited as a key component of a more healthful diet. Promoting greater consumption of water from all sources— tap, filtered, and bottled—can only help to curb the current health crisis in America. This issue’s cover story provides an extensive review of the benefits of drinking water. (See p.12 for more.) I encourage all IBWA members to find a way to share those healthy hydration facts with your current and prospective customers, staff, friends, family, legislators, and the media.

Support Drink Up On page 20, you’ll find, “Drink Up: The Unsung Hero of Water Consumption,” an article by Bonnie McLaughlin, the director of the Partnership for a Healthier America’s (PHA) Drink Up Initiative. Drink Up and its Honorary Chair First Lady Michelle Obama have been encouraging Americans to drink more water more often–whether from the tap, a filter, or a bottle–since September 2013. IBWA, an active supporter of Drink Up since it launched, continues to regularly promote Drink Up messages and events across our social media and publication platforms. Many IBWA members have already become supporters of Drink Up, and we encourage all member companies interested, no matter your size—small, medium, or large—to connect with Drink Up to inquire about the various ways you can support its efforts to en-

AMERICA IS HAVING A HEALTH CRISIS. BOTTLED WATER CAN HELP. courage water consumption. Visit www. for more.

Get a Seat at the Table IBWA regularly communicates with members, the public, and legislators the important role drinking water plays in helping Americans live healthier lives. But we don’t just push out content; we actively work for change. IBWA staff has been advocating for the inclusion of water on the MyPlate nutrition icon. Any changes to MyPlate come at the direction of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the regulatory bodies responsible for issuing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (The next edition is slated to be published in 2015.) USDA and HHS are relying on the recommendations of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) to direct their guideline revisions. IBWA has submitted comments to the DGAC supporting the health ben-

efits of water consumption. We’ve also provided a list of pertinent scientific and market research supporting our healthy hydration messages and a letter from the University of California’s Nutrition Policy Institute, which was signed by 14 renowned health and science experts, advocating for water consumption language in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines. IBWA staff has also continued to meet with influential health and nutrition experts to highlight the important role water plays in good health.

Take Action You can help make water the first choice for more Americans. On www., you’ll find resources you can use to educate and inform your customers, friends, family, legislators, and the media about water’s vital role in healthy hydration. For even more inspiration, follow IBWA’s Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest accounts.

Connect With IBWA When looking for positive hydration messages to share on your marketing materials or social media accounts, feel free to use the information you find on IBWA’s platforms to educate your customers. Visit IBWA sites daily to make sure you don’t miss an opportunity to share important healthy hydration updates! bottledwatermatters BottledWaterOrg bottledwatermatters BottledH2OBabe luvbottledwater BottledWaterMatters

MAR/APR 2015



Added Sugars Equal Added Health Issues According to a subcommittee making recommendations for the Dietary Guidelines By Tamika Sims, IBWA Director of Science and Research




The Dietary Guidelines for Americans can positively affect the way the country’s citizens eat, exercise, and live. As stated on the website, “The Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to eat a healthful diet—one that focuses on foods and beverages that help achieve and maintain a healthy weight, promote health, and prevent disease. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have jointly published the Dietary Guidelines every 5 years since 1980.” The process to develop the guidelines every five years begins with the formation of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). The DGAC works to develop its recommendation report, which is provided to HHS and USDA. After approximately 18 months, the 2015 DGAC completes its scientific evaluation of the American diet and health status, and, as of January 2015, it has finalized its recommendations. (At press time, the recommendation report was scheduled to be available to the public in February 2015.) The HHS and USDA will use that report to formulate the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The DGAC is made up of five subcommittees: • Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends • Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes • Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change • Food and Physical Activity Environments • Food Sustainability and Safety. Unlike other DGACs, the 2015 committee saw the need to develop four Cross-Cutting Working Groups: • Sodium Working Group • Added Sugars Working Group • Saturated Fat Working Group • Physical Activity Working Group.

TECHNICAL UPDATE Those groups consist of subject matter experts who strategically addressed their assigned topics to help improve the health and diets of all Americans. From the Added Sugars Working Group, IBWA and the Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) gleaned talking points for encouraging Americans not only to drink fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) but also to drink more water. According to a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 47 percent of added sugars in the American diet come from beverages (excluding milk and 100-percent fruit juice); thus, the need for people to consume fewer SSBs is evident ( WhatAmericansEat20092010). This working group focused on issues related to added sugars consumption and the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dental caries. Obesity. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), one-third of American adults are overweight and another one-third is obese. And, during the last 30 years, children’s obesity rates have climbed from 5 percent to 17 percent ( Drinking zero-calorie beverages, such as water, instead of sugary drinks is regularly cited by health professionals as a key component of a more healthy diet. The group concluded that strong and consistent evidence exists to indicate that the intake of added sugars from food or SSBs is associated with unfavorable body weight in children and adults. Diabetes. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that “Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2010” ( DiabetesKills). Type 2 diabetes (adultonset diabetes) accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of

WATER DESERVES A PLACE ON THE MYPLATE NUTRITION ICON. diabetes. The group found increased consumption of SSBs is consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes among adults. Heart Disease. The CDC states that approximately 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s equivalent to 25 percent of deaths ( The majority of studies used for the group’s research evaluation provided evidence supporting a link between higher intake of added sugars, especially in the form of SSBs, and a higher risk of CVD. The group concluded that the consumption of added sugars, especially from SSBs, is consistently associated with hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and serum triglycerides (i.e., a type of fat in the blood). Dental Caries. The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research reports that 92 percent of adults 20 to 64 have had dental caries in their permanent teeth; thus, the DGAC was also interested in dental health (bit. ly/AdultDentalCaries). The working group found consistent evidence between sugars intake and the development of dental caries across all age groups.

Pro-Water Recommendations After examining the relationship between the intake of added sugars and health, the Added Sugars Working Group provided the following recommendation to HHS and USDA: The Committee recommends limiting added sugars to no more than 10% of total daily calorie intake. The scientific evidence on added sugars and chronic disease risk coupled with the food pattern modeling

supports this limit. Given that the current average intake of the U.S. population is 13.4%, this 10% upper limit is a reasonable goal…. In addition, during the 2015 DGAC’s final meeting, the Added Sugars Working Group gave its first direct recommendation concerning water consumption. The experts suggested that “water is the preferred beverage of choice” when discussing policies and programs at the local, state, and national level, in both private and public sectors, that are necessary to support efforts to lower added sugars in foods and beverages and to limit the availability of SSBs and snacks. The conclusions of the Added Sugars Working Group bolster the pro-water messaging IBWA and DWRF have already provided to the DGAC. IBWA and DWRF have been advocating for the inclusion of water in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines and as part of the MyPlate food nutrition icon, submitting comments to the DGAC that highlight the valuable role water plays in weight management. We have also met with nutrition experts at some of the nation’s top consumer groups to discuss American dietary and health trends related to water consumption. As we continue to advocate for the inclusion of water in the Dietary Guidelines and on the MyPlate icon, we encourage all IBWA members to promote water’s important role in healthy hydration in their marketing materials and education efforts.

MAR/APR 2015





certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Claire Crane, IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22134. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________

Company_ _________________________________________________



State/Province_ _____________________________________________

ZIP/Postal Code_ ___________________________________________

Check your selection for each question


According to the CDC, approximately _____% of deaths in the U.S. every year is caused by heart disease.


50 15 25 35


The document that includes procedures for determining the disposition of finished product in the marketplace and possible retrieval of the product is a _____.


HACCP Plan Recall Plan SSOP Food Defense Plan


This level of recall generally involves recall to the wholesale level, no public notification, and no effectiveness checks.

OO Class I OO Class II OO Class III


Which of the following has not been linked to consumption of sugar?


cardiovascular disease ALS type 2 diabetes dental caries


Which of the following is required currently in a bottled water facility by FDA?




a HACCP Plan annual testing of all finished product waters a recall plan annual testing of all finished product waters and a recall plan



The SOQ for total trihalomethanes in bottled water is the same as the MCL for public drinking water. That SOQ/MCL is _____.


80 mg/l 100 ug/l 200 ppm 80 ppb


To earn an Excellence in Manufacturing Award in IBWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tier 1 Annual Audit Program, a facility must have no major nonconformities and no more than _____ minor nonconformities.


3 1 5 10


A natural water source must be tested for radiological contaminants _____.


annually every 9 years every 4 years every 3 years


Which of the following is not consistent with the other items?


adulterated spoiled fresh contaminated


Which of the following is not a commonly used disinfectant?


chlorine sodium hydroxide chlorine dioxide sodium hypochlorite



Analytical Technology Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Blackhawk Molding Co.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Chemetrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover

Crystal Mountain Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Edge Analytical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

National Coffee Service & Vending . . . . . . . . Back Cover

Pacific Ozone Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Phone Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Front Cover

MARCH 4 - 6

Mid America Bottled Water Association Annual Convention & Trade Show Wyndham Garden San Antonio River Walk San Antonio, TX

MARCH 11 - 13

Central States Bottled Water Association Spring Education Conference St. Louis, MO

MARCH 18 - 20

Southeastern Bottled Water Association Annual Convention & Trade Show Young Harris, GA

MARCH 27 - 28

Northeast Bottled Water Association Spring Conference Mystic Hilton Mystic, CT

APRIL 16 - 18

South Atlantic Bottled Water Association Spring Event Pawleys Island, SC

MAY 6 - 8

Upper Midwest Bottled Water Association Annual Meeting Plymouth, MN

MAY 13 - 16

Northwest Bottled Water Associatoin Convention Hotel Murano Tacoma, WA

MAY 18 - 21

California Bottled Water Association Annual Educational Convention and Trade Show Sacramento, CA

JUNE 1 - 4

IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA


JUNE 6 - 9

IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Old Town Alexandria, VA

MAR/APR 2015



VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP ANDY EATON TECHNICAL DIRECTOR & VICE PRESIDENT EUROFINS EATON ANALYTICAL MONROVIA | CA ALL ABOUT ANDY Prior to working at MWH Labs, Andy was a research scientist at John Hopkins University. Every Halloween, Andy hands out bottled water to trick-or-treaters, passing out 2,000 bottles last year. With his little free time, Andy enjoys playing with his grandchildren, reading, or exercising his dogs.

Andy Eaton is a household name within the bottled water industry, so much so that when the company he was with for 35 years, MWH Labs, became Eurofins Eaton Analytical, “Eaton” was included in the new company’s name to retain brand recognition. But still, he credits his IBWA membership with helping him establish strong relationships with industry decision makers and acquire new contracts. “I don’t think we would have the business that we have if it weren’t for the fact that we’re not just members of IBWA, but we are active members—meaning we’re actively involved on committees and, now for me, on the IBWA board,” says Eaton. IBWA members can gain a lot from the association, explains Eaton, by participating during the various meetings and activities IBWA holds throughout the year. “It’s engaging in conversations at meetings and informally sharing ideas and solutions—that’s how you establish and retain relationships within the industry.” Eaton has seen and met a lot of IBWA members, and, from what he has observed, some members belong to IBWA to “get information” while others “get involved.” “I think the ones coming to get information are missing a lot,” he says. “Sure, they have access to resources like the plant technical manual, and they can call upon staff when they have a problem, but they’re not getting the benefit of informally interacting with people at meetings, where they can say, ‘Hey, I’ve got this particular problem. Have you ever dealt with this?’ And then have supportive members offer solutions to help solve their particular issue.” Eaton also values being an active IBWA member for personal reasons: “It’s nice to be able to say, ‘I am doing something that actually has the potential to impact regulations and affect peoples’ perception of an entire industry.” As a trade association that represents a large portion of the bottled water industry, active IBWA members have the ability to try and frame the debate, says Eaton, which he finds incredibly rewarding. As part of an organization with more than 16,000 employees at 200 testing labs worldwide, Eurofins Eaton Analytical is the largest potable water testing company in the United States. The company provides one-stop shopping to help companies and utilities stay in compliance and also prepare for the future by looking at emerging contaminant issues.





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Bottled Water Reporter  

Healthy Hydration March/April 2015

Bottled Water Reporter  

Healthy Hydration March/April 2015