Bottled Water Reporter (Fall 2023)

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W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G


IN THIS ISSUE Empower Your Schedule and Employees With a Take IBWA's “Get Out the Vote” CPO Exam Program


SHATTERING ENVIRONMENTAL MYTHS ABOUT PLASTIC How Science Debunks the Negative Press About Bottled Water Packaged in Plastic

ALSO INSIDE: 2023 IBWA Conference Highlights


Want More Sales? Use This Pitch

VOL. 63 • NO. 3


24 | GOTV for Business: Tools for Success Learn how your company can implement a “Get Out the Vote” program. COMMUNICATIONS

26 | The Best Sales Pitch You’ve Never Given—But Should Use these five steps to make more sales by emphasizing how bottled water solves everyday problems. TECHNICAL UPDATE

28 | Interested in Taking IBWA’s CPO Exam? Here’s everything you need to know to schedule and take the exam online. BY THE NUMBERS

32 | PFAS and the Environmental Impact of Beverage Packaging PFAS and plastic facts to have handy when you talk with customers about these important industry issues.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 | PFAS Sources and Solutions As people become more aware of the pervasiveness of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in our environment, they are going to have questions. Be prepared to answer those questions by reading this article to learn the facts about these chemical compounds. Customers will find it a comfort to learn that IBWA bottlers are held to a higher standard, using filtration requirements that are better than what municipalities can reasonably install. By Caron Koll

17 | Shattering Environmental Myths About Plastic How science debunks the negative press about bottled water packaged in plastic

Much of the negative press surrounding plastic as a beverage packaging choice is based on misconceptions. Learn the truth, based on science, from Chris DeArmitt, PhD, a researcher dedicated to letting people know that, contrary to public perception, plastic packaging is currently the greenest material available for packaging. His No.1 fear: that industries will continue to use alternative packaging over plastic and thus cause more harm to the environment. By Christine Umbrell

CHAIR'S COMMENTARY ......................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE ......................................4 WATER NOTES ....................................................6 CPO QUIZ .........................................................30 ADVERTISERS ...................................................31 CALENDAR .......................................................31


BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 63, Number 3. Published four times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $10. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.





I am grateful for the opportunity to serve as your IBWA chair, supporting an industry that provides consumers with the best beverage anyone can drink— delicious, safe, quality water from reliable, trustworthy sources. It’s a great honor and responsibility to step into the role most recently held by industry stalwarts Bob Hidell and CR Hall. There’s no easy time to be the chair of a trade association. Given the frequent and sensational headlines that often misleadingly associate the bottled water industry with many climate change and sustainability concerns, I expect an especially challenging tenure. It’s also an inspiring time for our industry. Bottled water is the No.1 beverage (by volume) in the United States for the eighth year in a row. More people are turning to water to quench their thirst, which is great for their health, the vitality of our businesses, and the jobs that are generated in the communities where we live and work. I’m eager to build on the work that IBWA has done. Together, we have the opportunity to: Build on a proud tradition. Whether you’ve been in the bottled water industry for years or are new to the Association, we all share one passion: to provide safe, quality water that's delivered consistently and reliably. Build on our history of making the healthy choice of water easy and convenient. Through our safe, consistent, and reliable delivery methods, we provide water that satisfies the consumer, is good for the consumer, and is necessary for life. We must continue to be part of the national conversation about healthy living by promoting bottled water’s role in advancing health and well-being. We must work to change the oft-repeated false and misinformed narratives about bottled water packaging. Build on decades of environmental awareness and responsible stewardship. It’s important that we educate the public and legislators about our legacy as leaders in conservation and water stewardship. We must elevate awareness of our commitment to protecting water sources, decreasing our impact on the planet, and advocating for a circular economy. I believe that our legacy gives us the license, the opportunity, and the responsibility to lead. We face urgent and vexing issues—concerns about water quality and access, the use of plastic and America’s recycling infrastructure, and sustainability of water sources. Critical policy conversations around those issues are happening every day in Washington, DC; state capitals; and city halls across America. The outcomes of those conversations will shape our industry for decades to come. As your chair, I’m eager to ensure IBWA is part of those conversations and continues to build on the work this Association has done.


International Bottled Water Association

Chair Hih Song Kim, BlueTriton Brands Vice Chair Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Treasurer Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Immediate Past Chair Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Eric Devanie, Primo Water CR Hall, Hall's Culligan Water Tanner Hanstein, Ozarka Water and Coffee Ryan Heiken, Crystal Clear Water Co. Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Lynette MacFee, Oasis/Waterways Jillian Olsen, Cherry Ridge Consulting LLC David Redick, Steelhead, Inc. Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Brad Wester, Premium Waters, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chair Hih Song Kim, BlueTriton Brands Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Eric Devanie, Primo Water CR Hall, Hall's Culligan Brian Hess, Niagara Bottling LLC Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.

COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Julia Buchanan, Niagara Bottling, LLC Maureen Hendrix, Primo Water Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Douglas R. Hupe, Aqua Filter Fresh Environmental Sustainability Committee John Cook, Niagara Bottling LLC Jillian Olsen, Cherry Ridge Consulting LLC Government Relations Committee Viola Johnson Jacobs, Primo Water Derieth Sutton, Niagara Bottling LLC. Membership Committee Marge Eggie, Polymer Solutions International Kelley Goshay, Primo Water State and Regional Associations Committee Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Supplier and Convention Committee Joe Bell, Aqua Filter Fresh, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Technical Committee Valerie Bradley, BlueTriton Brands Ryan Schwaner, Niagara Bottling, LLC



The Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) would like to thank all of our sponsors for playing a pivotal role in the success of this year's fundraiser. The event, held at Topgolf Las Vegas on September 11, was made possible by the generous support of our sponsors and guests. All money raised from the 2023 DWRF fundraiser will help fund vital research impacting the bottled water industry.



International Bottled Water Association


BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600, PMB #1125 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074

If you find yourself answering consumer questions about per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) or the industry’s use of plastics, you will want to read this issue of Bottled Water Reporter cover to cover.


We’ve partnered with two subject matter experts to provide IBWA members with science-based facts that you can use to educate not only your customers but also legislators and local media.

Vice President of Communications Jill Culora

Our cover story, “PFAS Sources and Solutions” (p.10), provides an education on these pervasive chemical compounds, which have been used in numerous consumer and industrial products for more than 70 years. Caron Koll, a PFAS expert, defines what PFAS are and explains why we should care about them. Her article reviews how PFAS regulations differ not only from country to country but also from state to state within the United States and reveals some of the unintentional sources of PFAS. Koll also states that IBWA bottlers are self-regulating for PFAS better than any other country or municipality in the world. In “Shattering Environmental Myths About Plastic” (p.17), we interview Chris DeArmitt, PhD, a leading, independent expert on plastics and the environment, who dispels common myths about plastic that are often perpetuated by critics of bottled water. DeArmitt states he has reviewed “what is probably the world’s largest collection of science” on plastics and has discovered that the stories perpetuated online about the harm plastics are doing to the environment are “simply untrue” and not based on science. He encourages IBWA members to continue pushing to correct the false narratives about plastic and suggests it is dangerous to “allow green groups to mislead public” because it could lead to worse outcomes for the environment. We turn our attention inward with the columns in this issue, discussing programs and sales techniques that can help your business. The Government Relations column (p.24) reviews strategies you can use to implement a successful “Get Out the Vote” program within your company. In Communications (p.26), we introduce a sales technique that can help route salespeople elevate their everyday conversations with customers and show how bottled water products can make their lives easier and healthier. And our Technical Update column (p.28) provides everything you need to know about how to schedule and take IBWA’s certified plant operator (CPO) exam. I hope you take the time to review this issue of Bottled Water Reporter thoroughly. No other publication is created solely for bottled water professionals—and no other publication I’ve seen has covered PFAS and plastics issues with such clarity and irrefutable facts.


President Joe Doss

Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Al Lear Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner Director of Communications Sabrina E. Hicks Director of Member Services Cheryl Bass Manager of Conferences, Meetings, and Programs Claire Crane Communications Coordinator Courtney Miller Coordinator of Database Systems, Membership, and Technical Services Vacant Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose Connelly Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks Advertising Sales Stephanie Reyna

CONGRATULATIONS 2023 Kristin Safran College Scholarship Recipients

The Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) has proudly awarded two $4,000 scholarships (funds awarded $1,000 per year for four years) after a blind review of applications from children or grandchildren of IBWA members for its Kristin Safran College Scholarship.

Isabella Lohr

Isabella Tangley

Isabella Lohr, a freshman at Texas A & M University, plans to earn a bachelor’s degree in economics before attending law school. Her long-term goal is to use her law degree to serve her community. Isabella graduated with a grade point average of 4.75 and was active in the Latin Club and National Honor Society, and she was a four-year varsity golf athlete. While excelling academically, Isabella was also active with the Girl Scouts, volunteering over 300 hours, and the #runforDylan Foundation, raising $25,000 for its cause to provide young people with screenings for undetected heart conditions. In 2023, she earned the Betty Jay Award for exemplary community service. Isabella’s father is Michael Lohr who works at Niagara Bottling.

Isabella Tangley is a freshman at Iowa State University and is studying kinesiology pre-medical with plans to continue on to medical school after earning her degree. Her career aspiration is to become a pediatrician and positively impact the lives of children and their families in her community. During high school, Isabella maintained a 4.0 grade point average and was an AP scholar, member of the National Honors Society, and the Class of 2023's valedictorian. Beyond her academic achievements, Isabella played basketball all four years of high school and was captain of the varsity team. She also volunteered in her community and worked as a babysitter. Her father is Bret Tangley, who works at Sterling Culligan Water.

Texas A&M University

Iowa State University

DWRF created the Kristin Safran College Scholarship Fund in February 2010 in honor of former IBWA Board of Directors member Kristin Safran (ARK Specialty Services), who passed away in 2009. The scholarship was established to help high school seniors pursue their college studies.




NATIONAL PARKS RELEASE PLAN TO ELIMINATE PLASTIC The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) issued a Secretarial Order (#3407) in June 2022, requiring all DOI agencies to reduce and eliminate single-use plastic by 2032. In response to that order, the National Park Service (NPS) published its Plastics Elimination and Reduction Plan in June 2023, which outlines the implementation principles and strategies that national parks will use to phase out the procurement, sale, and distribution of single-use plastics. The plan identifies four implementation principles to inform decisions as the NPS pursues its plastic reduction goals: 1. Foster a sustainability ethic and empower employees and partners, in alignment with the Green Parks Plan. 6 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

2. Work with partners, internal and external to DOI, to achieve the Secretarial goal. 3. Prioritize source reduction when developing and implementing the phaseout policy. 4. Apply systems-based and life-cycle approaches informed by data and science. Regarding principle No.3, while NPS will consider alternatives that are compostable, biodegradable, 100% recyclable, or made with 100% recycled materials (and include a circular economy plan), NPS will prioritize source reduction over all alternatives. That being said, NPS will analyze alternatives from a life-cycle perspective (principle No.4), using existing science and

data to support policy implementation. IBWA will continue to work with NPS as it implements its plan. Due to data showing that alternative packaging options for bottled water (e.g., cartons, aluminum, and glass) have higher greenhouse gas emissions, IBWA’s goal is for bottled water in plastic packaging to remain available for sale in national parks throughout the implementation of the NPS plan. However, to sell bottled water in parks, those providing products may have to also provide certainty that the packaging is collected after use, recycled, and reused as post-consumer recycled content. The current NPS plan sets out the following timeframe for implementation:

• Years 1-2 (2023-2024): Collect Information, Set a Baseline, Analyze Alternatives, Determine Schedules and Initial Targets, Begin to Update Policies, and Begin to Initiate Implementation • Years 3-4 (2025-2026): Expand Implementation • Years 5-9 (2027-2031): Full-Scale Deployment • No Later Than Year 10 (2032): Achieve 100% Phase-Out (Elimination) of Single-Use Plastics. NPS will develop a decision matrix to determine which products to target for reduction and elimination first. For example, the decision matrix may consider criteria that target: • products that are most impactful to climate change and the environment • products with toxic chemicals • products that hinder or disrupt the recyclability or compostability of other items • products with the highest likelihood of litter or ending up in the environment • products that have established or ongoing promising practices at a park or parks • products that have sustainable alternatives that are readily available and are price competitive. To read NPS’ Plastics Elimination and Reduction Plan, visit EliminatePlasticsPlan.



CPOs: Earn CEUs By Watching Educational Videos Online

Select education sessions from the 2023 IBWA Annual Business Conference are now available to IBWA members online. Providing these recorded education sessions online offers the Association's certified plant operators (CPOs) another way to earn continuing education unit (CEU) credits. To view IBWA’s educational videos, log on to the IBWA website (; under “Membership” on the navigation bar, click “Member Dashboard”; and then click the “Education & Training” icon. After watching the videos, email IBWA Manager of Conferences, Meetings, and Programs Claire Crane ( to notify her of the sessions viewed. She will contact you if more information is needed before allocating CEU credits. If you do not know your member login information for IBWA’s website, please try using your email address with the “password recovery” option. If that doesn’t work, contact Claire, and she will provide further instructions. Reminder: CPOs are required to earn 21 CEUs for recertification. Of the 21 required CEUs, up to 6 CEUs can be from non-technical topics. CPOs have the option to earn all 21 CEUs in technical and regulatory topics, but they can earn up to 6 CEUs by attending non-technical education sessions. The education sessions listed in the next column have been added to the IBWA website and are worth 1 CEU each:

• Bottled Water Sales Trends* • Emerging Contaminants • Energy Efficiency Incentives and the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act • How to Prepare for an OSHA Inspection • The New IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual and CPO Program • PFAS Sources and Solutions • Presidential Election Politics Impacting Public Policy* • Sales and Growing Revenue in 2023* • Six Easy Ways to Improve Your Labor Hiring Tomorrow* • Water Rights and Regulatory Risks • What to Expect With Evolving State and Federal Minimum Recycled Content Mandates (*Indicates non-technical education sessions that may be applied to the 6 non-technical CEU category.) Since 2014, IBWA has been offering this membership benefit, which enables members who weren’t able to attend the annual IBWA conference the opportunity to sample the education sessions available. In addition, the videos serve as a refresher course for conference attendees. Providing these videos also offers the membership another way to stay up to date on important industry topics.


Shayron Barnes-Selby Named Honorary Life Member of IBWA The IBWA Board of Directors has named Shayron Barnes-Selby an Honorary Life Member of IBWA. The Honorary Life Membership is given to individuals as special recognition for their meritorious service to the association or to the bottled water industry. Shayron, who plans to retire from Primo Water this December, has been advocating for the advancement of IBWA and the bottled water industry for nearly 40 years. Shayron has earned almost every award that IBWA has to offer. In 2006, she received the IBWA Board of Directors' Award, an honor that recognizes IBWA members whose advocacy, commitment, or actions on behalf of the association and the bottled water industry have achieved clear and measurable results for IBWA and the bottled water industry as a whole. In 2014, she was the first person to receive the IBWA Advocacy Award, which recognizes the exemplary advocacy by an IBWA member or nonmember whose advocacy efforts have had a positive impact on the national/global conversation about, and larger public policy issues important to, the bottled water industry. The association immediately renamed this award the Shayron Barnes-Selby Advocacy Award in her honor, which is affectionately known as “The Selby.” In 2018, Shay was inducted into the IBWA Bottled Water Hall of Fame, which is the association’s highest honor. While Shayron’s list of accomplishments is long and impressive, IBWA is most grateful to her for the time and dedication she has given to this association. Shayron has served on numerous IBWA committees (as a chair or cochair for many of them, most notably her long term as chair of the Government Relations Committee). She has also been a valuable member of the Executive Committee and Board of Directors, serving as IBWA chair in 2017. IBWA congratulates Shayron on her well-deserved retirement, but the association will greatly miss her wise advice and counsel. FALL 2023 • BWR • 7



IBWA Wins Big in Vegas: Annual Conference and Trade Show a Success The 2023 IBWA Annual Business Conference and Trade Show, held September 11-14 in Las Vegas, was nothing short of spectacular, bringing together 300+ attendees, 20 educational speakers, and 33 trade show exhibitors for an event that was a resounding success. The festivities kicked off with a delightful Welcome Reception, offering attendees an excellent opportunity to network and catch up with their peers. Industry experts and thought leaders lead the stellar educational program, providing fresh perspectives on hot industry topics, including PFAS, market trends, fleet management, water rights, and more. Many productive conversations were held during the well-attended trade show, which gave IBWA’s supplier members a chance to showcase their latest products and services. IBWA looks forward to building upon the success of this event when we gather in Chicago, November 4-7, for the 2024 conference.

Chair Hih Song Kim (BlueTriton Brands) addressed the membership during the General Session.

Keynote Speaker Jim Karrh introduced a strategy to help “Manage Your Message to Grow Your Business.”

With her retirement from Primo Water pending, Shayron Barnes-Selby (center) was honored for her 40+ years working in, and advocating for, the bottled water industry.


IBWA's Trade Show offered a non-compete time for suppliers to discuss with bottlers how their latest offerings can help their companies be more successful.


IBWA's Trade Show Hall Chair Hih Song Kim gifts Past Chair Henry R. Hidell, III, a token of IBWA's appreciation for his leadership during 2023.

During the General Session, President Joe Doss reviewed IBWA's 2023 achievements and challenges.

IBWA's educational program included timely topics, like the DEI session shown here, hosted by Jamie Whitaker-Campbell (Primo Water).

IBWA's conference was a success only because of the active participation of members like Bob Riefer (Maumee Valley Bottlers) and Premium Waters' Claudia Danner and Mark Lindblom . . . . . . and Niagara Bottling's Steve Toeniskoetter, Renee White, Terri Bui, Tiffany Moseley, and Janica Jesson.



Before any discussion on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)—their sources, regulations, and management—a brief overview is needed to define these chemical compounds. First, PFAS are a family of fluorocarbons, which are really strong carbon-fluorine bonds. They are stable in the environment and have properties that resist heat, oil, and water, which is why PFAS are found in countless consumer and industrial products like cleaning supplies, grease-resistant paper, stain-resistant fabric coatings, and nonstick cookware throughout the United States and world. PFAS makes those products last longer, thus improving performance and lowering maintenance costs. But because of their durability, they don’t break down and also last a long time in the environment (e.g., water, air, and soil). That’s why PFAS are called “forever chemicals.”

Why Care About PFAS? For more than 70 years, PFAS has been used globally in countless consumer and industrial products. You can find PFAS in everything from fire retardants, cleaners, and insecticides to textiles in furniture, food containers, and paints. PFAS were initially thought to be inert; thus, they were not regulated for many years. But during the last 10 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

two decades, manufactures of PFAS began a voluntary phaseout of certain long chain PFAS because of adverse health effects. However, there are still many essential uses for those long chain PFAS, so they are going to continue to be in the supply chain. Consisting of millions of carbon-fluorine bond synthetic chemicals, the PFAS family tree includes two sections: polymers and nonpolymers. Polymers are the lower risk PFAS. They’re stable, not bioavailable, and not soluble. Nonpolymers are higher risk; they are typically bioavailable and soluble. While nonpolymers do not make up the majority of PFAS, you can still find them in your supply chain. Two of the most familiar PFAS are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), but they are just two of the millions of chemical compounds that belong in the PFAS family, and manufacturing of those two PFAS has been phased out in the United States.

Regulations PFAS regulations differ from state to state and country to country. Mexico and Brazil recently proposed PFAS regulations over imports and exports. With respect to

environmental regulations, Australia and New Zealand have the most prescriptive regulations. The most progressive PFAS regulations are in the European Union (EU). Five member countries of the EU are proposing to restrict the entire class of PFAS over a scheduled period. In the United States, some states are also as progressive, proposing the same kind of environmental regulations as seen in Australia and the EU. However, as a country, the United States is not as progressive as the EU.

detectable levels of PFAS—the agency responded that “establishing an SOQ for PFAS in bottled water at this time would not significantly enhance FDA’s mission of public health protection.” Currently, the EPA doesn’t have a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for PFAS. A proposal has been made to go from a health advisory level of 70 ppt to an MCL of 4 ppt for six PFAS substances in tap water. Yet, such a huge decrease will likely receive pushback due to the associated costs.

PFAS is ubiquitous in the EU; you can’t go anywhere without finding it in the soil. That undoubtedly affected its decision to use a front-end approach: manage PFAS by striving to prevent introducing it into the environment. EU drinking water standards, which aren’t as stringent as U.S. standards, are at 100 parts per trillion (ppt) right now—and a suggestion has been made to raise it to 100 ppt for individual compounds and 500 ppt for the sum up of PFAS compounds. Canada, which often mirrors what the EU is doing, has a limit of 600 ppt. China has drinking water standards for PFOS and PFOA compounds, 40 and 80 ppt respectively.

However, IBWA requires its member to test for 18 PFAS substances in all the bottled water products they sell. For industry, that’s considered progressive. IBWA also holds its members to a higher standard, with water quality standards of 5 ppt for one PFAS and 10 ppt for more than one. Basically, IBWA members are doing better self-regulating than any other country or municipality in the world. Remember: just 1 ppt is like one second in 36,000 years.

U.S. regulators are currently taking a more back-end approach by treating water that’s already impacted. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the bottled water industry, and, by law, FDA bottled water regulations must be as strict as the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) regulations for tap water. In November 2019, IBWA asked FDA to establish a standard of quality (SOQ) for PFAS in bottled water. Because FDA had recently tested 30 different brands of bottled water products—and none showed any

Complexity of PFAS The definition of “PFAS” depends on whom you ask. It could be any chemical with a carbon fluorine bond [as defined by the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)]; fluorinated substances that contain at least one fully fluorinated methyl (methyl just means carbon) [like CF3, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)]; and a nonpolymer PFAS containing at least two fully fluorinated methyl (CF3), excluding gases and volatile liquids (as defined by Delaware and West Virginia).



PFAS are a family of millions of carbon-flourine bond synthetic chemicals. PFOS is just one of the PFAS that was phased out in the United States beginning in 2003. Phaseout of PFOA followed later.



Per-fluoroalkyl substances

Poly-fluoroalkyl substances



Fluorotelomer-based substances

Perfluoropolyethers (PFPE)

Perfluoroalkane sulfonamido substances

Side-chain fluorinated polymers


Polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids

Source: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council,

FALL 2023 • BWR • 11

The variety of definitions means that you must be specific when you ask manufacturers if their products contain PFAS. Because a manufacturer might only be required to report for PFOA and PFOS, you will want to define what you mean when you say “PFAS.” If you want to cover everything, then be as prescriptive as “anything with a chlorine fluorine bond.” FYI: The definition of PFAS under the Toxics Substances Control Act (TSCA) includes roughly 1,640 different compounds.

Unintentional Sources When looking for PFAS in your supply chain, expect the unexpected. For example, did you know that some (not all) hand sanitizers have PFAS in them? Some contain DEA-C8-18 perfluoroalkylethyl phosphate, a PFAS on EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) list. So, if you were to throw enough hand sanitizer away, it should be reportable under TRI. Other items that contain PFAS that your employees could bring into your facilities include personal care products like cosmetics or garments and shoes treated with fabric protection products. Some plant-based and petroleum-based oil products or chemicals may be corrosive to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) containers and require those containers to be fluorine gas treated, and that treatment process can generate PFAS. If the manufacturer prepared that container in the presence of oxygen, then PFAS can be generated; when the fluorine gas treatment process is done in the presence of nitrogen, no PFAS is generated, according to EPA.

HOW MANY PFAS ARE THERE? Scientists used to debate whether there were 9,000 or 12,000 or 47,000 PFAS compounds. Now, the actual count is over 21 million. The count is so high because there’s all kinds of isomers and salts and different kinds of chemistries that can make up that possible 21 million. Focus on the regulated PFAS compounds, which number around 27,000. In the European Union, PFAS are regulated as a full class of compounds; however, in the United States, they are regulated on a compoundby-compound basis. So, the U.S. regulation process is going to be a lot slower.

But that fluorine gas treatment is necessary to keep that product from leaching out of the HDPE container and deforming the plastic. So, you have to ask your suppliers if their HDPE containers are fluorine gas treated, and, if so, does the process use or introduce oxygen. Gaskets, o-rings, PTFE (Teflon) parts, lubricants, electronic parts, cleaners—all of these FDA-authorized items are needed on the production floor, and keeping any PFAS out of your product is a management issue. Lubricants can have Teflon microplastics in them, and, according to the EU, they can be high in PFOS and PFOA. That’s because during the manufacture of Teflon, there's reported unintentional PFOA introduction—so there could be some PFOA residuals in your lubricants. Even electronic parts like printed

PFAS REGULATIONS AROUND THE WORLD US FDA: No PFAS monitoring required. US EPA: 4 parts per trillion (ppt) Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) proposed. EU: Sum of 20 PFAS at 100 ppt; proposed 100 ppt for individual and 500 ppt for sum. Canada: 600 ppt PFOS, 200 ppt PFOA; proposed 30 ppt sum. China: PFOS and PFOA standards in drinking water are 40 and 80 ppt, respectively.

   

IBWA has a standard of quality (SOQ) for bottled water of 5 ppt for detection of a single PFAS compound and 10 ppt for two or more compounds; members test using EPA Method 537.1. 12 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG


circuit boards that are required for all production operations require PFOA. In addition, the cleaners used on those electronics—and everyday cleaners and waxes used on facility floors—contain PFAS. Alternatively, silicone, which can be a replacement for Teflon, does not contain PFAS. While silicone may contain some fluorine silicate, it isn’t a PFAS because a PFAS can only be a PFAS when it has the fluorine carbon bond.

How Widespread Is PFAS in the United States? Since 2020, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been conducting a study of PFAS in groundwater and surface water authorized by the NDAA. After testing for 40 different compounds, it published a report in July 2023 stating the presence of PFAS is widespread across the United States. In August 2023, under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5), the EPA reported it found 20% of the drinking water systems in

America contain PFAS, and that number is expected to grow, as that report only represented 7% of the UCMR 5 testing. Just six years ago, in 2016, when EPA reported the UCMR 3 monitoring, it tested for six PFAS compounds and found only 3% in the water supply. The Department of Defense also notified more than 360 agricultural operations in August 2023 that the groundwater they use for their crops may contain PFAS. Because PFAS sticks around, if farmers use PFAS-contaminated water on their plants, or augment their soils with biosolids, the foods they produce may not be suitable for consumption.

Cost of Maintaining PFAS to MCL Municipal Drinking Water IBWA members are held to higher PFAS standards than municipal drinking water, and they are meeting those requirements better than anybody else in the world. So, what would be the cost for municipalities to get their systems not to produce water that contains PFAS and


When looking for PFAS in your supply chain, take out your safety data sheets (SDSs) and review both the composition and compliance sections. Look for the four indicators of PFAS listed below. • Anything with fluoro, such as “fluorochemical” and “fluoroelastomers.” In fact, when you develop search terms to find PFAS indicators in your SDSs, “fluoro” should be one of them. Include “PTFE micro-powders” as a search term as well. • Product identified as “fabric protector.” If a product label notes that it repels water, stain or soils, oil or grease, and is resistant to chemicals, it probably contains PFAS. Refer to the list on page 14 for other products you need to be mindful of when searching for unintentional PFAS. • Note what manufacturer made the product. The nonprofit ChemSec—the International Chemical Secretariat—has identified 12 brands as responsible for the majority of PFAS in the world. (You can Google them.) If a product used in your facility is manufactured by one of those companies, investigate further to discover if it contains PFAS. • Ingredients listed as “trade secret.” It could be that the trade secret is a short chain replacement for PFAS. So, the short chain of PFAS is present, even if the long chain most tested for is not.




C.A.S. No.

% by Wt



37-41 Trade Secret*

Isopropyl Alcohol


31-35 Trade Secret*

Light Alkylate Petroleum Naptha


17-21 Trade Secret*

Carbon Dioxide



Fluorochemical Urethane

Trade Secret*


*The specific chemical indentity and/or exact percentage (concentration) of this composition has been withheld as a trade secret. FALL 2023 • BWR • 13


• Acetone

• Kerosene

• Charcoal lighter

• Lubricants

• Cleaners

• Paint thinners

Opinions on treatment costs for public water systems to achieve PFAS MCLs vary. For example, the American Water Works Association came up with $3.8 billion dollars, 3M Settlement projects $10.3 billion dollars, and the EPA has a rather conservative estimate of $722 million for treatment upgrades for all the public water supply systems in the United States. However, in September 2023, North Carolina senators reported that treatment upgrades to the state’s 43 different treatment systems would cost between $15 - $30 million dollars per system in that one state alone.

• Degreasers

• Plant growth products

Strategies to Apply

The products below are commonly packaged in fluorine gas treated HDPE containers. If the manufacturer prepared a container in the presence of oxygen, then PFAS can be generated.

• D-Limonene • Electronics chemicals

• Surfactants

• Essential oils

• Terpenes

• Flavors

• Trichloroethylene

• Fragrances

• Toluene

• Gasoline

• Wax or polish

• Herbicides

• Wood preservatives

• Insecticides

• Solvents

make that water available to U.S. citizens? Referring to several sources, I first investigated what the costs would be to maintain the public water systems, using projected labor costs provided by the Safe Drinking Water Association. It projects $60 million dollars for the first year just in maintenance, and then $20 million dollars annually after that. Those costs do not include the carbon replacements and don’t account for the treatment upgrades.

What are a few strategies you can apply to help ensure PFAS isn’t found in bottled water? Monitor for PFAS. IBWA requires its bottler members to test for 18 PFAS compounds using EPA Method 537.1, which tests for long chain PFAS compounds. To remove PFAS, some bottlers making purified bottled water use reverse osmosis (RO) and/or granular activated carbon (GAC), while those bottling spring water may use GAC. IBWA bottlers’ existing filtration systems likely eliminate both long and short chain PFAS compounds. Bottlers may consider adding EPA Method 533 for detection of short chain PFAS compounds. Audit. Manufacturing regulatory agents in the United State, Canada, and the EU suggest that you use a desktop PFAS screening tool to look for PFAS in your supply chain. To do that, you need to look at your safety data sheets (SDSs) and the specifications for the products used in your facilities. Ask your suppliers


Specify the Absense of PFAS in Contracts


(manufacturing formulations, engineering specificatianos, and safety data sheets)

Ask Suppliers for Certification (include imports)

Periodically Test (products and wastewater)

Maintain Records

Verify With Suppliers Whether the Presence Is Incidental or Unintentional


ASK YOUR SUPPLIERS FOR CERTIFICATIONS SHOWING THAT THEIR PRODUCTS DO NOT CONTAIN PFAS—AND DEFINE WHAT YOU MEAN BY "PFAS." When looking for PFAS, you have to remember there are complexities: multiple PFAS definitions, existing essential uses of PFAS (so you have to understand which PFAS are associated with higher and lower risk), inconsistent regulations (particularly with imports and exports), too many PFAS to regulate individually, and PFAS compounds are an incomplete science—a lot of unknowns exist.

for certifications showing that their products don’t contain PFAS. Make sure you define what you mean by “PFAS,” and then verify with suppliers that there’s no potential for unintentional PFAS to be in their products. For instance, if you use municipal water as a source, investigate the source of water they use in production. Although unintentional, use of a soap that contains PFAS could contaminate your product. If a floor wax is contained in an HDPE container that’s lined with and leaching PFAS, that’s another possible source of unintentional PFAS. It’s a good idea to review your contracts when they are up for renewal and request that no PFAS products be included in any products used within the facility. And if a replacement product does not exist, review how that product is managed. Discover alternatives to PFAS containing products by visiting ChemSec:

A five-step process (located below) shows the steps you should take when looking for PFAS. First, identify the regulatory obligations. Second, using a short questionnaire, ask your plant managers, What kinds of products do they use in their facilities? Have they had a fire? What kind of equipment is used at the plant? Third, review your SDSs. Next, research to see if what you find is considered a polymer or a nonpolymer, and see if it’s on a regulatory list; review its toxicological properties. If necessary, you can report it. Lastly, think about using a heat map divided into



Identify • Regulatory obligations • Industry/activity source





Supplemental Questionnaire

Review SDSs/ Supply Chain

Desktop Web Searches

Actionable Deliverable

• Products used?

• Segregate typical PFAS products

• EPA PFAS site lists

• PFAS products

• PFAS search terms

• TRI PFAS list

• Special conditions?

• EU Reach • OEDC PFAS list • State PFAS databases • PubChem

• Risk profile • Heat map • Conclusions • Recommendations • Dashboard • Citations

• EPA PFAS analytical tool

FALL 2023 • BWR • 15



Waste Management 17,754 Textiles and Leather 2,943 Printing 4,897 Plastics and Resins 8,111 Petroleum 2,845 Glass Products 745 Paints and Coatings 2,932

Airports 3,212 Airports (Part 139) 531 Consumer Products 473 Cement Mfg 360 Paper Mills and Products 2,315 Chemical Mfg 10,202 Cleaning Product Mfg 2,093 Electronics Industry 7,736 Furniture and Carpet 449 Fire Training 429 National Defense 1,886 Metal Coating 10,833

Metal Machinery Mfg 5,151 Oil and Gas 35,223

the activities (e.g., product coatings, raw materials, interior maintenance products, stormwater, etc.) to determine risk to the product, operations, brand, and legacy liability. If found, get rid of it. For the bottled water industry, you will be disposing of routine items, so you won’t have an issue. But for PFAS manufacturing industries, they have to think about what landfill they’re using. If they have large quantities to dispose of, they need to ensure they are using a lined landfill. If a manufacturer ever found AFFF (pronounced “A triple F,” meaning aqueous film forming foam), their insurance may require them to get rid of it—and that may require a special disposal plan. The EPA suggests four ways to dispose: landfill, incineration, sequestration, and storage (because there’s not a lot of options for getting rid of it). Identify external sources of PFAS. EPA has an incomplete map of the known sources of PFAS, which you can review at PFAS_Tools/PFAS_Tools.html (although a lot of states have yet to incorporate their information). But you should also consider what are the potential sources of PFAS. The chart above shows most of the potential sources of PFAS in the United States. The majority are found in oil and gas because that category is associated with AFFF. Yet, other industries—e.g., metal coating, electronics industry, chemical manufacturing, and waste management (landfills 16 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

Mining and Refining 6,402 Industrial Gas 1,047

and wastewater treatment plants)—are sources of PFAS. (And, as long as that wastewater meets certain pathogens requirements, that wastewater sludge is typically put on agricultural fields.) If you find an external source of PFAS, what’s your risk? What’s the radius of influence? Predominate PFAS impacts within a six-mile radius of air emissions—and air emissions can be further distributed for 30 miles (e.g., North Carolina’s Cape Fear Watershed). Via river transport? USGS reports that rivers are big transport systems. In addition, groundwater plumes are generally one mile but can be longer. The EU has suggested that if it doesn't ban PFAS there will be 4.4 million tons more PFAS in the environment after 30 years. PFAS is not an issue that will go away. Some PFAS exist that are essential; some PFAS should be eliminated. The key is to manage all PFAS correctly. BWR Caron Koll is a consultant in the PFAS Service Line Lead with Antea Group USA. She has more than 39 years of experience in the environmental consulting business, serving the food and beverage industry. Koll leads Antea’s PFAS service offering and provides consulting on PFAS business risk management.

SHATTERING ENVIRONMENTAL MYTHS ABOUT PLASTIC How Science Debunks the Negative Press About Bottled Water Packaged in Plastic By Christine Umbrell

Bottled water is a critical consumer good that most Americans drink and appreciate. In fact, preliminary numbers for 2023 show that consumers have made bottled water the No.1 packaged beverage in the United States (by volume) for the eighth consecutive year. But detractors are on a mission to remove bottled water from store shelves by pushing out false narratives about the products, and, primarily, they focus on the plastic container. They criticize plastic bottles as “forever” materials that harm the environment, contributing to waste, litter, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). The statements made by bottled water critics regarding plastics are so pervasive that it’s hard to convince people that they are false and scientifically inaccurate. But they are.

FALL 2023 • BWR • 17

CONTRARY TO PUBLIC PERCEPTION, SCIENCE SHOWS THAT PLASTIC IS THE “GREENEST” RECYCLABLE MATERIAL FOR BOTTLED WATER. To educate consumers, legislators, policy makers, and others about the realities of plastic, it’s important to identify the common plastic myths, understand why those myths persist, and learn what’s actually true, based on the science.

Public Perception The good news is that, by and large, public perception of the liquid inside the bottled water container is positive. A study published this year in the American Journal of Health Promotion found that while 15% of adults did not think their tap water was safe and 26% did not think their tap water tasted good, 39% thought bottled water was safer than tap water. The same study found that 50% of adults drink more than 1 cup of bottled water per day. What’s more, in a 2022 survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of IBWA, 88% of Americans said they have a positive opinion of bottled water as a beverage choice, and 91% said bottled water should be available wherever other drinks are sold. But negative perceptions persist regarding the plastic containers used to package water—particularly the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that make up 71.2% of the category. Error-riddled, negative opinions of plastic are embraced by environmental groups and echoed by some media outlets, according to Chris DeArmitt, 18 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

PhD, FRSC, FIMMM, president of Phantom Plastics® in Cincinnati, Ohio. A leading independent expert on plastics and the environment, DeArmitt has spent thousands of non-funded hours reading scientific studies and peer-reviewed articles and books, and he has concluded that plastic—contrary to public perception—is the “greenest” recyclable material for bottled water. From his research, DeArmitt has ascertained that negative opinions about plastics originate from untrustworthy sources and are not based on science. “Much of what we believe about plastics and the environment comes from internet gossip, which is notoriously unreliable,” he says. Three in four Americans overestimate their ability to identify fake news, explains DeArmitt, which aids in the quick spread of this misinformation in our social mediadriven society. “Studies have shown that falsehoods are 70% more likely to be retweeted than the truth,” he says. When consumers are bombarded with misinformation, they start to accept it as the truth. DeArmitt encourages Americans to look at peer-reviewed articles and evidence-based studies before forming their opinions. “By reviewing what is probably the world’s largest collection of science,” he says, “I discovered that almost everything we’ve been told [about plastics] is simply untrue.”

Below, Dr. DeArmitt shares some of the common myths and explains the scientific facts regarding plastics.

Myth #1: Plastic never disintegrates. Perhaps the biggest criticism regarding plastic is that it doesn’t disintegrate or decompose over time, which some environmentalists state makes it the “worst” material for the environment. That simply isn’t true, states DeArmitt. He believes this misconception originated from a book published in 1993 by Martha Gorman, Environmental Hazards: Marine Pollution, where Gorman put forth that myth without providing any evidence. In fact, says DeArmitt, “there’s been no scientific paper” proving that plastics don’t disintegrate over time; on the contrary, “there’s a $5 billion global market seeking to keep plastics from disintegrating,” he says. Unfortunately, some nongovernmental environmental organizations (NGOs) perpetuate the myth in alignment with their business goals to drive up donations, proposes DeArmitt. He says those NGOs make false claims about plastics on their websites without any scientific evidence to back it up. “Thousands of scientific publications demonstrate plastic does disintegrate over time,” pronounces DeArmitt. Some degradation should be obvious: For ex-

Myth #2: Manufacturers select plastics over “greener” materials. NGOs often spread the message that plastics are a poor material choice when designing containers, which is not true given the evidence, says DeArmitt. He also points out that plastics comprise just a small percentage of materials in use today. Dr. DeArmitt's source for that fact is the book Materials and the Environment: Eco Informed Material Choice by Michael Ashby, which reports that plastics account for only 1% of materials in use. “This was shocking, because we’re told that plastics are taking over the world,” DeArmitt says. Other materials, which are much less biodegradable, comprise the bulk of materials in use, including ceramics (mainly concrete) at 84%, natural materials (mainly wood) at 9%, and metals (mainly steel) at 6%.

Additional studies have found that plastics actually represent less than 1% of current materials circulating globally, by weight or by volume. “Global consumption of materials is 90 billion metric tons per year,” explains DeArmitt, but “global plastics consumption is 370 million metric tons per year.” So “plastics represent approximately 0.4% of the materials we use.” Those factbased numbers come from two reports: “Assessing Global Resource Use” and “Global Plastic Production, 1950-2019.” Looking specifically at plastics used for manufacturing containers for water, PET makes up just 0.05% of materials, while HDPE comprises 0.003% of materials in use, states DeArmitt. “We’re obsessing, while steadfastly ignoring 99.5% of the problem,” DeArmitt explains. “I’m not saying plastics aren’t part of the problem, but I’m saying it’s insane to spend all of your money and efforts on 0.5% of the problem.” Consumers should also understand that much less total material is needed when

Global Consumption of Materials Metals (mainly steel) 6%

Plastics (mainly PE, PP, PVC, PET) 1%

Natural (mainly wood) 9%

Ceramics (mainly concrete) 84%

Sources: Materials and the Environment: Eco-Informed Material Choice, Michael F. Ashby, ButterworthHeinemann/Elsevier, Oxford, page 18, UK 2009; Assessing Global Resource Use: A systems approach to resource efficiency and pollution reduction, Stefan Bringezu et al., UNEP 2017; Global plastic production 1950-2019, Published by M. Garside, Statista, Dec 11, 2020.

making bottles out of plastic. According to research conducted for IBWA by a third-party sustainability consulting firm, Trayak, published in 2021, when compared to containers made from other materials “the PET water bottle shows lower environmental impact than the other containers across each of the considered indicators” (i.e., fossil fuel use, water use, mineral resource use, greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and human impact). That is because PET requires lower material usage compared to other container types, “with the average PET water bottle considered using less than half of the material weight of the other container types.” Less material per container means “less impact from material extraction, manufacturing, and ultimately results in less material entering landfills or needing to be recycled.” Glass bottles, which can weigh up to 10 times as much as PET bottles, “had higher impact in nearly every category than the other container types.” (See the chart on p.20 to view all indicators studied. For this chart, the wider the web, the wider the impact on the environment.)

Myth #3: Plastics release too many greenhouse emissions. The debate over climate change has heated up and that has meant increased scrutiny of greenhouse gas emissions. To get the facts, DeArmitt suggests looking at lifecycle analysis (LCA) studies, which are systematic analyses of the environmental impact over the course of the entire life cycle of a product—covering its materials, processes, and other measurable activities. LCA models the environmental implications of the many interacting systems that make up industrial production. Because they require fewer resources and burn less energy to create, plastics are cleaner than other materials. LCA studies show that “plastic containers made of HDPE or PET are the FALL 2023 • BWR • 19


ample, plastic grocery bags left outside “will degrade in less than one year,” he says. “We see it with our own eyes.”

greenest recyclable choice,” emphasizes DeArmitt. “Steel, aluminum, and glass are all far worse for the environment as they take far more energy, generate far more CO2, and also far more waste.” While he states that choosing not to consume prepackaged beverages is the “greenest” choice, “comprehensive studies find that plastics are responsible for 0.5% of carbon dioxide creation, and that they dramatically reduce carbon dioxide compared to alternative materials.” DeArmitt points to a study of drink container LCAs in Ashby’s Materials and the Environment, where research shows that cardboard laminates (500-ml cardboard PD AI PP) are one of the

greenest solutions—but they are not recyclable. The next-green solution is the HDPE bottle, then the PET bottle, both of which are recyclable. Steel, glass, and aluminum containers are the least “green” choices when considering the LCA: “They create more waste, produce greater amounts of carbon, and use more energy,” DeArmitt says. (Editor’s note: Ashby’s research was based on a popular bottled water brand in the United Kingdom sold in 1L virgin PET bottles that weigh 40g. Trayak’s research notes that U.S. bottled water bottles, sold in 500 mL virgin PET bottles, have an average weight of 8.3g. Thus, the "greenest" choice would be a 500mL

PET bottled water container that weighs 8.3g—and is recyclable.) Compared to other materials, “plastics actually reduce the amount of CO2 by about 5 to 15 times,” adds DeArmitt. “Substitution of plastic products by other materials will in most cases increase the consumption of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases,” he says. Plastics reduce energy, fossil fuel, and carbon dioxide, explains DeArmitt. Further countering any false greenhouse emissions storylines, a study by McKinsey & Company found that PET bottles have the lowest greenhouse-gas impact, rating

Environmental Impact of Beverage Packaging Systems Trayak, a sustainability consulting company, used the COMPASS® method to analyze beverage packaging systems. The Life Cycle Assessment results for seven indicators are shown in the spiderweb chart below. Each of the packaging systems is displayed as a different color and the value closest to the center represents the least impactful package option for that indicator. The research shows that the PET water bottle is the least impactful packaging system for water across all indicators researched.

Source: Life Cycle Assessment for IBWA, Trayak LLC, 2021


(Editor’s note: The McKinsey report compares PET soda bottles, rather than PET water bottles, with other packaging types. If McKinsey had included


PET water bottles in its report, it is highly likely that the report would have found an even greater disparity between greenhouse gas emissions when compared with aluminum cans and glass bottles because bottled water containers use significantly less plastic than soda.)

Myth #4: Plastics contribute to too much waste and litter. Many consumers mistakenly believe that plastics make up a large percentage of waste in landfills—a myth that is contradicted by science, says DeArmitt. “We’re told that we’re drowning in plastic waste,” he says, but “less than 0.5% of waste is plastic.” According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) statistics, plastics comprise approximately 13% of household waste— a relatively small, but significant, amount—and an amount much smaller than household waste attributed to food

Want a Beverage Container With the Least Environmental Impact? Choose PET Plastic Packaging and food service, preliminary estimates

Consumer perception of recyclability doesn’t always align with the actual carbon impact of packaging.

Greenhousegas impact,

Example applications

Beverage container (eg, soda)

Food-service cup (eg, cold drink)

Alternative materials

kg CO₂e¹ per functional unit

Global recycling rate, %




PET bottle (27 g)


Aluminum can (13 g)


Low 40–50

Key considerations Material production Material disposal


Recycling rate Transportation cost

Glass bottle (208 g)




PET cup (24 g)



Material production

Paper cup (18 g)



Lifetime estimate for glass cup

Glass cup (400 g, reused 1,000 times)



Cleaning cost for each use (including water, chemicals)

Material disposal

¹Carbon dioxide equivalent.

Source: “True packaging sustainability: Understanding the performance trade-off s.” McKinsey & Institute Company, 2021. Can Manufacturers Institute; EPA WARM; European PET Bottle Platform; Glass Packaging paper/our-insights/true-packaging-sustainability-understanding-the-performance-trade-offs FALL 2023 • BWR • 21


250-300 kg CO2e1 per unit, compared to 550-600 kg CO2e1 for aluminum cans and 1,650-1,700 kg CO2e1 for glass bottles. (See chart below.) The McKinsey team noted that consumers rank glass as among the most sustainable materials; however, “if we instead prioritize carbon impact, PET plastic bottles appear more favorable because aluminum cans and glass packaging have two to six times, respectively, the direct and indirect carbon footprint when compared with PET plastic bottles.” The McKinsey study attributes that finding to the more carbon-intensive production processes and transportation associated with glass and aluminum, “which are difficult to offset even with higher overall recycling rates.”

THE SCIENCE SHOWS THAT PLASTIC IS THE BEST OPTION FOR PACKAGING BOTTLED WATER. and other items. In addition, “plastics have been proven to dramatically reduce household waste,” explains DeArmitt— not only because they are used for storage of food and other items, but because other materials take up more space and are much heavier. “So, although they’re 13% of household waste, without plastics there would actually be much more household waste,” he says. “It takes about 3 or 4 pounds of other material to replace 1 pound of plastic.” It’s also important to recognize that household waste is just 3% of total waste: “The rest is industrial waste, which doesn’t contain much plastic,” DeArmitt says. “What we find is that plastics are about 0.3% of overall waste. If we’re worried about waste, we shouldn’t be focused just on plastics.” Dr. DeArmitt also thinks it is an error to say that plastic manufacturers are responsible for the litter problem in the United States. “Blaming companies or materials is untrue, unjust, and counterproductive,” DeArmitt says. He points to scientific studies of litter indicating that 81% of litter is dropped intentionally by consumers. On beaches, the “vast majority of litter is from people on the beach—not washed up from the ocean,” he says. Given consumer habits that contribute to litter, solutions to litter problems should focus on changing people’s behavior, rather than manufacturers’ practices, he says. DeArmitt suggests that states or regions enact beverage container deposit 22 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

and redemption systems, as studies have shown that financial incentives—even small ones—encourage consumers to collect and return bottles. “In Norway and Germany, they have a 97% return rate” on bottles, he says, because deposit systems are in place.

Myth #5: EPR is the answer. In recent years, the extended producer responsibility (EPR) movement has gained ground in the state legislatures. Several states, including California, Colorado, Maine, and Oregon, have embarked on or are considering implementing programs to extend producers’ responsibility for products, such as bottles and packaging, to the postconsumer stage. The aim is to encourage producers to take into account environmental considerations when designing products. Proposed EPR legislation typically gives producers an incentive to design products in a way that makes them easier to reuse or recycle. Here, the bottled water industry has an advantage, as all bottled water containers are 100% recyclable. So far in 2023, 36 EPR-related bills are being considered by the states. (In 2022, a total of 40 EPR-related bills were considered.) IBWA, when discussing such proposals, recommends that all EPR programs should be equitable, reasonable, and have specific goals. Those goals should seek strong environmental performance while being measurable, achievable, and cost-effective, and include an evalu-

ation process. For an EPR program to have the most impact, IBWA emphasizes that it should include all consumer goods packaging types—not just plastics. Despite the growing popularity of EPR programs, DeArmitt is not a fan. He does not believe it’s fair to blame beverage companies for the litter and waste created by product consumers; he believes consumers should bear the responsibility of their behavior and should ensure products are recycled appropriately. DeArmitt’s concern is that the costs of EPR programs will result in manufacturers raising their prices, “so consumers who are already paying for trash and recycling costs” for disposal of their containers will end up paying even more on the front end for their products. DeArmitt states that EPR programs “penalize the consumers” who are already doing the right thing in disposing of containers in their recycling bins—the correct way.

Debunking the Myths All of the above myths mislead the public and misinform consumers about plastic bottled water containers. But DeArmitt is also concerned that they will lead to worse outcomes for the environment. Because plastic is viewed by many in a negative light and is mistakenly blamed for environmental issues, “retailers are bringing in even more damaging [non-plastic] packaging in a rush to ditch plastic, which is

Many organizations and individuals who are anti-plastic are “virtue signaling,” explains DeArmitt, as plastic actually causes less harm than alternative packaging and materials. “But many people don’t want to do the three things that will actually make an impact and improve the environment: Drive less, take fewer flights, and eat less meat,” he says. Given the abundance of misinformation about bottled water packaging, what can bottled water company executives and employees do to educate consumers, legislators, and the media about the reality of PET plastics? How can they share the message that plastic is the greenest choice for bottled water? DeArmitt has some suggestions: • Contact legislators. “Senators and

politicians don’t know” that plastics are more environmentally friendly than other materials, and many believe the misinformation that is being promoted online. Providing evidence-based information and educating lawmakers can help them make better legislative decisions, says DeArmitt. • Share accurate information with

consumers. While some people “dig in” to their beliefs and can’t be dissuaded with facts, bottled water companies should nevertheless try to educate consumers to help them understand plastic is an environmentally friendly container compared to other materials, says DeArmitt. • Share messaging in marketing

materials. DeArmitt suggests posting on social media and purchasing

advertising to share the truth about plastics. He notes that his most popular social media posting was a graphic showing how much less fossil fuels plastics consume, compared to glass and metal. “Plastic requires so much less energy” and fossil fuel to make— and it’s important for consumers to receive that message. • Educate employees. Better informed

employees can promote brand buy-in among staff and inspire employees to spread your message. One study of Fortune 100 companies found that employees were “ashamed” to work for companies associated with plastics. So, it’s important to deliver fact-based information to employees, so they understand bottled water products

are environmentally friendly, notes DeArmitt. Arming routes salespeople with facts about plastics can lead to more sales, he suggests. Route drivers should also understand that 5-gallon jugs are particularly green, compared to other materials. “Everyone blames plastics for problems,” concludes Dr. DeArmitt, “but the science says that other materials are bigger culprits,” and that plastic is the best option for packaging bottled water. BWR Christine Umbrell is a freelance writer based in Herndon, Virginia. Email her at


(IN ORDER AS IDENTIFIED IN ARTICLE) • Park, S., Onufrak, S.J., Cradock, A.L., Patel. A., Hecht, C., Blanck, H.M. “Perceptions of Water Safety and Tap Water Taste and Their Associations With Beverage Intake Among U.S. Adults.” American Journal of Health Promotion. June 2023. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/36609168 • The Harris Poll. 2022. • Ashby, M. Materials and the Environment: Eco Informed Material Choice, 2021. • Life Cycle Assessment for the IBWA. Trayak LLC. 2021 • Hatfield-Dodds, S., Schandl, H., Newth, D., Obersteiner, M., Cai, Y., Baynes, T., Havlik, P. 2017. Assessing global resource use and greenhouse emissions to 2050, with ambitious resource efficiency and climate mitigation policies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 144, 403–414. • Tiseo, I. “Global Plastic Production 1950-2019.” 27 Jan. 2021, • McKinsey and Company. “True Packaging Sustainability: Understanding the Performance Trade-offs.” 28 July 2021. true-packaging-sustainability-understanding-the-performancetrade-offs • Selig, K. and Guskin, E. “You’re doing it wrong: Recycling and other myths about tackling climate change.” The Washington Post. 28 Aug. 2023. climate-action-poll

FALL 2023 • BWR • 23


actually causing rises in items creating more greenhouse gases,” DeArmitt says. Companies feel compelled to consider alternative materials because misinformed consumers “demand” it, he says. “It’s dangerous for us to allow green groups to mislead public.”

GOTV for Business: Tools That Encourage Voting By J.P. Toner, IBWA Director of Government Relations

During the 2023 IBWA Annual Business Meeting in Las Vegas, Cory Martin and I ran a session on the upcoming presidential and state elections. While we had fun looking at odds and predictions, discussing the important issues for voters, and 24 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

reviewing how results could impact the bottled water industry, we did not address the tools businesses can use to motivate your employees to vote. “Get Out the Vote” (GOTV) programs for businesses encourage employees (and sometimes customers)

to participate in elections, especially when the outcome may have an impact on the business or its stakeholders. Below are twelve strategies and ideas for implementing successful GOTV programs within your company: 1. Internal Communication. Start by informing employees about the importance of civic engagement and the upcoming election. Use internal communication channels (such as email, newsletters, and intranet platforms) to share information about voter registration deadlines, polling locations, and the significance of their vote. 2. Voter Registration Assistance. Offer voter registration assistance within the workplace. Provide resources and materials to help employees register to vote or update their voter registration information. 3. Paid Time Off. Consider offering employees paid time off (PTO) or flexible scheduling options on Election Day to make it easier for them to get to their polling places and vote. Some companies have even implemented a “no meetings” policy on Election Day to ensure that employees get to the polls. 4. Education and Information. Host informational sessions or webinars that explain the candidates and issues at stake in the upcoming election. Invite

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS experts or guest speakers to provide balanced perspectives on the election. This is also a great opportunity to highlight those issues that directly impact the bottled water industry—recycling, water management, safety, etc. 5. Voter Guides. Create voter guides that summarize the candidates’ positions on key issues or ballot measures. Ensure that those guides are nonpartisan and focus on informing employees rather than advocating for a specific candidate or party. 6. Employee Engagement. Encourage employees to become engaged in the GOTV effort. Consider forming a volunteer committee or task force responsible for organizing and promoting voter participation initiatives. 7. Employee Networks. Leverage employee resource groups, affinity groups, or diversity and inclusion initiatives to promote GOTV efforts within specific communities or demographics in your workforce. 8. Recognition and Incentives. Recognize and reward employees who participate in the voting process. This could involve public recognition, small incentives (e.g., gift cards), or other forms of acknowledgment. 9. Partnerships. Collaborate with organizations that specialize in voter engagement or civic education to enhance your GOTV program’s impact. IBWA works with several groups that can provide materials and resources to help your efforts. 10. Customer Engagement. For businesses with a customer-facing component, consider engaging customers in your GOTV efforts. That might involve sharing information about the importance

GIVE YOUR EMPLOYEES THE TOOLS TO MAKE THEM WELL-INFORMED VOTERS. of voting through your marketing channels or offering incentives to customers who demonstrate that they’ve voted. 11. Follow-Up and Feedback. After the election, follow up with employees to gather feedback on the effectiveness of the program and to thank them for their participation. Use their feedback to improve future GOTV initiatives. 12. Nonpartisan Approach. Emphasize a nonpartisan approach to ensure that all employees feel comfortable participating, regardless of their political affiliations. Remember that successful GOTV programs for businesses should respect employees’ individual choices and political beliefs. Be aware of, and comply with, any legal regulations and requirements related to corporate involvement in political activities and campaign finance laws. The primary goal is to

encourage civic participation and ensure that employees have the information and support they need to exercise their right to vote. Throughout next year, we’ll undoubtedly hear numerous times that the 2024 election is “the most important ever.” That has become the mantra of politicos and parties alike. But every election is important. In every single election, the individual voter has the ability to make history. By giving your employees the tools to make them well-informed voters, you are giving them the confidence to step into a voting booth and make an educated choice. If you need assistance with putting together a GOTV program at your company or have additional questions, don’t hesitate to contact IBWA’s Government Relations team. We can help you implement a successful GOTV plan that encourages employees to vote in a positive way and conveys the importance of the electoral process. BWR

JOIN IBWA'S PAC IBWA’s Political Action Committee (PAC) is a vital tool we use to educate members of Congress and build champions for the bottled water industry. Your PAC contributions make it possible for IBWA to support political candidates who support the bottled water industry. Due to the generosity of our members, IBWA has been able to support several key members of Congress in their reelection efforts for 2023. We thank our members for your continued support of the PAC. If you are not receiving information about the IBWA PAC, it’s because we don’t have an Authorization to Solicit form for your company. Under federal law, IBWA can’t contact you about PAC issues unless we have that form. Note: Submitting this form does not obligate you to contribute to the PAC. It just gives IBWA permission to let you know about PAC activities and events. To receive information about the IBWA PAC, please contact IBWA Vice President of Government Relations Cory Martin:

FALL 2023 • BWR • 25

The Best Sales Pitch You've Never Given—But Should By Sabrina E. Hicks, IBWA Director of Communications

The resurgence of a popular social media post on Indeed has given new life to “The Greatest Sales Deck I’ve Ever Seen,” an article by Andy Raskin, a marketer who promotes the power of the “strategic narrative.” If you haven’t read Raskin’s article, it introduces the five elements he recommends for a brilliant sales narrative ( RaskinSalesDeck). Reading this article got me thinking about the bottled 26 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

water industry’s biggest hurdle— the prevalence of a false product narrative—and how our home and office delivery (HOD) sales representatives can help rewrite it with their face-to-face interactions with consumers. There’s one caveat: Your HOD staff have to consider themselves to be salespeople—not employees who drop bottled water off on porches. They need

to be comfortable engaging with current and prospective customers one-on-one. If they are, the five steps from Raskin below will help them make more sales by emphasizing the problems bottled water solves—and communicating the true, positive bottled water story consumers need to know. Step 1: Name a big, relevant change in the world. As a conversation starter, identifying an “undeniable shift in

COMMUNICATIONS the world” positions your customer in a situation that is full of risks and demands swift decision-making. HOD sales reps could talk about the US Geological Survey’s recent study (bit. ly/USGS_2023PFASstudy) that noted “at least 45% of the nation’s tap water is estimated to have one or more types of chemicals known as per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances” (PFAS) or the birth of the “subscription economy”: services that deliver time-saving conveniences to consumers (e.g., Netflix, Hello Fresh, and Stitch Fix). Step 2: Show there will be winners and losers. Most people are risk averse. So, it’s up to your salespeople to describe how the consumer will lose out if they don’t sign up for your product. For example, as pointed out in this issue’s PFAS article (see p.10), upgrading the U.S. tap water systems to achieve Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for PFAS range from $772 million to $103 billion dollars. Thus, we can reasonably assume those updates will take a while (if they happen at all). Currently, IBWA bottler members are required to test for 18 PFAS compounds and have filtration requirements that are better than what municipalities have the budgets to install. Step 3: Tease the Promised Land. In this step, your salespeople get the opportunity to describe a new, better, future. They won’t yet talk about your product offerings that help consumers achieve a better life (even though that urge will be very tempting at this stage of the conversation). Raskin says the future you’re describing must be “both desirable (obviously) and difficult for the prospect to achieve without outside help.” Focusing on the benefits of subscription services, for example, sales personnel can review how time consuming it can be to do the weekly shop at the grocery store or how people are more likely to make unhealthy

HOW TO OFFER THE PROMISED LAND AND THEN DELIVER ON THAT PROMISE. food decisions when they haven’t planned ahead. With meal kit delivery services like Hello Fresh or Home Chef, a more healthy, organized life is possible. That “healthy, organized life” is the common thread sales reps will now sew into the conversation as they move forward with discussing bottled water. Step 4: Introduce features as “Magic Gifts” for overcoming obstacles to the Promised Land. Now, finally, your sales reps can talk about your products. Raskin provides a great example of how the structure for your sales narrative is similar to an epic film. Your company, he says, is Obi Wan Kenobi offering Luke, your customer, a powerful lightsaber to defeat the Evil Empire. Your bottled water and services are “Magic Gifts” that will help your customers reach the Promised Land, a life where they make healthier choices and are more organized and less stressed. Step 5: Present evidence that your product can make this story come true. By far, the best way to show prospective customers that you can come through on your promises is to give concrete examples of how you’ve helped make the lives of current customers easier. Your salespeople likely have an archive of stories from their routes illustrating how having bottled water delivered to homes or offices was a convenience customers didn’t know they needed until they signed up for your service. When introducing this sales concept, reminisce during the morning meetings before the fleet hits the road about experiences your

team members have had making a customer’s life a little bit easier. The discussion will not only remind them of the influential details of their stories but also offer new hires stories they can also share on their routes.

Elevated Sales Pitch According to Raskin, for this sales tactic to work “your entire organization must align around the narrative of change, Promised Land, and Magic Gifts.” That should not be an issue for IBWA bottlers. Our world is currently undergoing any number of shifts your team can introduce to start up conversations with customers. The benefits of bottled water consumption lend themselves to many characteristics of the Promised Land (e.g., safe, quality water; better health; low environmental footprint; etc.), and your company’s mission statement— which probably reads something like “provide low-cost, healthy hydration in environmentally responsible packaging”—offers numerous “Magic Gifts” from which your consumers can choose. While your sales team can relate those positive bottled water stories through conversations with your customers, their discussions could be elevated if you ask a staff member to create a sales deck that sales reps can share with customers on their phones or tablets. BWR

FALL 2023 • BWR • 27

Interested in Taking IBWA’s CPO Exam? Here’s everything you need to know to schedule and take the exam online By Al Lear, Vice President of Science, Education, and Technical Relations

The Plant Technical Reference Manual (PTRM), along with the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice, serve as the primary study materials and basis for the IBWA certified plant operator (CPO) examination. The PTRM is designed to educate your plant operators in every phase of bottled water processing—from source 28 • BWR • WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG

to finished product. To help your employees prepare to take the CPO examination, the PTRM includes information on water chemistry, plant sanitation, federal regulations, and other topics to facilitate passing the exam. An updated version of the PTRM was released to the membership in January 2023, and

that new version contains several improvements since the 2005 edition, including the following: • information on IBWA’s CPO program • updates to regulatory issues, including details about the Food Safety Modernization Act and its rules • an enhanced chapter on security programs


The 2023 PTRM has study questions at the end of each chapter to assist members in preparing to take the CPO exam. In addition, IBWA’s CPO exam has been revised to reflect the content in the new PTRM. IBWA members who want to take the CPO exam now have two options: 1) take the three-hour exam in one sitting (as has been offered in the past) or 2) take the exam in three separate, one-hour modules. The design of the three, one-hour modules includes 50 questions for each module and covers the following chapters from the 2023 PTRM: • Module #1: Chapters 1-4 and IBWA Code of Practice • Module #2: Chapters 5-6 and IBWA Code of Practice • Module #3: Chapters 7-12 Participants can take the modules in any order. To receive a CPO certificate, all three modules must be completed with a passing score of 70% or higher for each module. Also, all three CPO exam modules must be completed within six months of passing the first CPO exam module. The revised CPO exam is also offered as a single test. The single test covers Chapters 1 to 12 of the 2023 Plant Technical Reference Manual and the IBWA Code of Practice. The single test must be completed with a passing score of 70% or higher to receive a CPO certificate. When an IBWA member is interested in taking the exam, it is recommended that they take at least 30 days to study and prepare for the exam. The study materials for the updated CPO exam are the 2023 Plant Technical Reference Manual and the IBWA Code of Practice. The reference materials for the exam can be found on IBWA’s website: www.bottledwater. org. After logging on to the website, place your cursor over the Membership

tab on the navigation bar, then select “Member Dashboard.” Find the study materials by clicking on the Member Resources icon.

How to Register for the CPO Exam In June of 2023, IBWA completed a transition to a virtual, third-party proctor platform, ProctorU. This new system allows CPO exam candidates to register and schedule the exam at their convenience. Complete the following steps to register and take the CPO exam: 1. Register for the exam at https:// Select how you would like to sit for the exam: 1) one of three CPO exam modules or 2) the complete CPO exam. 2. After you complete registration, you will receive an email confirmation from IBWA. You will also receive registration and confirmation emails from ProctorU (the third-party proctor system). Messages from ProctorU will provide instructions on how to create an account, what to expect on exam day, and how to schedule your exam. If you do not see those emails in your inbox, do not forget to check your email’s junk/clutter folders. 3. Register and schedule your exam through ProctorU. Once you register, you will be able to schedule your exam 72 hours following the date of registration. 4. Prepare for exam. Here are a few tips to help CPO candidates prepare for the exam: • Use the 2023 Plant Technical Reference Manual and October 2022 IBWA Code of Practice to study for the CPO exam. • Review video on what to expect on test day: https://meazurelearning.


5. Test equipment prior to exam day. Please note that dual monitors are not allowed. • Test in a quiet, private, well-lit location away from others, and test on a hard surface. • The launch process can range between 5-15 minutes, but it does not take away from exam time. • For additional information from ProctorU, visit https://www. 6. Take the exam on the scheduled day and time. Please note that results are contingent on final review by IBWA. When an exam taker has passed all three CPO exam modules or the complete CPO exam, candidates can expect certificates within three to four business days following the exam date. The complete, three-hour CPO exam, along with a CPO study session, are offered annually during the IBWA Annual Business Conference. If you have questions regarding these updates or the CPO program, please email BWR

FALL 2023 • BWR • 29



certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for ½ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz as a PDF to IBWA Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Al Lear: Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________





ZIP/Postal Code____________________________________________

Check your selection for each question


21 CFR Part 129 covers _____ for bottled water operations.


Good Manufacturing Practices Standards of Quality Standard of Identity Operational requirements


The 2023 PTRM along with the IBWA Code of Practice are the current reference materials to prepare for the CPO exam.


True False


OSHA exposure limits are often established as time-weighted averages for 8-hour days.


True False


How many one-hour modules are available for the 2023 CPO Exam?


Two Three Four One


Documents that are provided by chemical suppliers that contain information regarding the product’s hazardous components, exposure limits, and first aid are called _____.


Material Safety Data Sheets Community Right-to-Know Forms Manufacturer Product Fact Sheets Chemical Ingredient Labels



In June of 2023, IBWA completed a transition for its CPO exam to a virtual, third-party proctor platform, Proctor U. True False



Which of the following is NOT a common mineral found in natural waters? Potassium Calcium Selenium Magnesium



The 2023 Plant Technical Reference Manual has ___ chapters. 10 11 12 20



The treatment process by which soluble iron and manganese can be sequestered, or held in solution, is _____. Complexation Granulated carbon filtration Ozone oxidation Coagulation



IBWA members have the option to take the complete _____ hour CPO exam or take the exam in three separate, one-hour modules.


Two Four One Three



Blackhawk Molding Co. . . . . . . Inside Front Cover

27-29 • FEBRUARY IBWA Virtual Winter

Board of Directors and Committee Meetings

Brio Water Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .Outside Back Cover

7-10 • APRIL Affiliated States

Bottled Water Association Convention and Product Fair Lanier Islands - Legacy Lodge Buford, GA

Polymer Solutions Int'l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover

15-18 • MAY Northwest Bottled Water


Association Annual Convention and Trade Show The Hotel Murano Tacoma, WA

Want to Advertise in IBWA Media? If you are interested in advertising in IBWA's Bottled Water Reporter magazine, Splash weekly e-newsletter, or the recently updated website——contact Stephanie Reyna: or 817.719.6197.

ADVERTISE WITH US IN 2024 For more information, email

3-6 • JUNE IBWA Summer Board of

Directors and Committee Meetings and Capitol Hill Visits Hilton Old Town Alexandria, Virginia

4-7 • NOVEMBER IBWA Annual Business

Conference and Trade Show (in conjunction with PACK EXPO) Chicago, Illinois Hotel TBD


FALL 2023 • BWR • 31

BOTTLED WATER: BY THE NUMBERS Environmental Impact of Beverage Packaging: Data Two Ways

Lifecycle analysis (LCA) studies are systematic analyses of the environmental impact of a product over the course of its entire life cycle—covering its materials, processes, and other measurable activities. Because they require fewer resources and burn less energy to create, PET plastic water bottles are cleaner than the drink packaging alternatives of aluminum, cartons, glass, and even the PET soda bottle of the same size; glass bottles have the most impact on the environment. When sharing this information, use the graphic that best resonates with your audience. For more details about the web chart, refer to p.20. Resources Used to Make Packaging

PET Water Bottle

Aluminum Can

Beverage Carton

Glass Bottle

PET Soda Bottle

Avg. Container Weight

8.3 grams

19.7 grams

21.8 grams

300.6 grams

22.2 grams

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

50 Ton CO2 eq.

155 Ton CO2 eq.

75 Ton CO2 eq.

383 Ton CO2 eq.

141 Ton CO2 eq.

Fossil Fuel Use

958 GJ Consumed

1342 GJ Consumed

1056 GJ Consumed

4320 GJ Consumed

2639 GJ Consumed

Water Use

4.6 Million Gallons

7.5 Million Gallons

13.7 Million Gallons

29.9 Million Gallons

12.5 Million Gallons

(Rose: source line for both images)Source: Life Cycle Assessment for IBWA, Trayak LLC, 2021 Source: Life Cycle Assessment for IBWA, Trayak LLC, 2021.

In August 2023, the EPA reported 20% of the drinking water systems in America contain PFAS, and that number is expected to grow. PFAS REGULATIONS AROUND THE WORLD US FDA: No PFAS monitoring required. US EPA: 4 parts per trillion (ppt) Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) proposed. EU: Sum of 20 PFAS at 100 ppt; proposed 100 ppt for individual and 500 ppt for sum. Canada: 600 ppt PFOS, 200 ppt PFOA; proposed 30 ppt sum. China: PFOS and PFOA standards in drinking water are 40 and 80 ppt, respectively.

   

IBWA has a standard of quality (SOQ) for bottled water of 5 ppt for detection of a single PFAS compound and 10 ppt for two or more compounds; members test using EPA Method 537.1.


Opinions vary on treatment costs for public water systems to achieve EPA's proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for PFAS:

$3.8 billion dollars

$10.3 billion dollars

$772 million

However, in September 2023, North Carolina senators reported that treatment upgrades to the state’s 43 different treatment systems would cost between $15 - $30 million dollars per system in that one state alone.

ADVERTISE WITH US IN 2024 For more information, email



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