W W W. B O T T L E D W AT E R . O R G
ALSO IN THIS Battle at America’s National Parks
ISSUE An IBWA Member Value of IBWA Environmental Membership Success Story
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER | JUNE / JULY 2013
BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY GATHERING
2012 Statistics Reveal Bottled Water’s U.S. and International Growth
Home and Office Delivery Highlights BPA Facts to Share With Customers Fleet Trends Mobile Technology and the Small Business Owner Occupational Hearing Loss: The Silent Epidemic A PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER ASSOCIATION
VOL. 53 • NO. 4
COLUMNS GOVERNMENT RELATIONS
24 | Now Is the Time A call to action for water cooler manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers COMMUNICATIONS
26 | The Next Battleground: America’s National Parks Working to keep U.S. National Parks visitors healthfully hydrated TECHNICAL UPDATE
28 | Environmental Success Story The impressive steps taken by IBWA member Portola Packaging for energy conservation VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP
32 | Greater Awareness Through IBWA Walter Hitchcock (Laurel Mountain Natural Spring Water) tells Bottled Water Reporter how IBWA helps his company stay informed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 12 | Bottled Water Industry Gathering Strength:
CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTARY................................2 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.......................................4 WATER NOTES.....................................................6 CEU QUIZ..........................................................30 ADVERTISERS.COM............................................31
2012 Statistics Reveal U.S. and International Growth
The growth of the bottled water industry in 2012 was the strongest it had been in five years. While the carbonated soft drink category suffered its eighth consecutive year of volume reduction, bottled water volume achieved an unprecedented high, spurred by consumers continuing to embrace it as a healthful alternative to other beverages. By John G. Rodwan, Jr.
CONNECT WITH IBWA
21 | What’s All the Noise Over Hearing Protection? Occupational hearing loss has become a silent epidemic in the United States, and its impact on employees’ quality of life—and on employers’ workers’ compensation claim costs—cannot be ignored. By Adele L. Abrams, Esq.
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER, Volume 53, Number 4. Published six times a year by The Goetz Printing Company, 7939 Angus Court, Springfield, VA, 22153, for the International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213, Fax: 703.683.4074, www.bottledwaterreporter.org. Subscription rate for members is $25 per year, which is included in the dues. U.S. and Canadian subscription rate to nonmembers is $50 per year. International subscription rate is $100 per year. Single copies are $7. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottled Water Reporter, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22314-2973.
International Bottled Water Association
CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTARY HELPFUL, HEALTHFUL HOD
In our feature story “Bottled Water Industry Gathering Strength,” Beverage Marketing Corporation (BMC) research shows a 2.5 percent growth in volume for the home and office delivery (HOD) segment of the bottled water industry in 2012. That measured growth was despite, as the author notes, “intramural competition from handy, portable PET bottles.” HOD businesses are proud to continue the centuries-old service of ensuring that safe, convenient bottled water is delivered directly to the doorsteps and workplaces of the consumers who choose it. While we now rely on high-efficiency vehicles and not horsedrawn carriages to deliver products, our mission remains the same: provide consumers with safe and convenient bottled water products to help them stay hydrated and healthy. As we move forward in 2013 to grow our businesses, it’s a good time for IBWA members to pause and examine if we are doing everything we can to help educate consumers, the media, and legislators about HOD. We have a good story to tell. For example, in your messaging to customers, remind them of the vital role HOD plays in helping them live a healthy and well-hydrated life. Studies have shown that a water cooler in the home and office can encourage people to drink more water. Customers also like to hear about our “use, return, clean, reuse, recycle” environmentally friendly HOD process. With the media, we can emphasize the ongoing confirmation of the safety of bisphenol-A (BPA) by regulatory agencies around the world—including the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. And in discussions with legislators, it might be helpful to remind them that, although the bottled water industry originated out of necessity because public water systems (PWSs) weren’t yet available, tap water is not bottled water’s competition: other packaged beverages are. So, legislators and their staffs might find it interesting to read research showing that bottled water has the smallest carbon footprint of all packaged beverages. It is also helpful to share with legislators the bottled water economic impact within their districts. As members of IBWA, we are our best allies. We best know the efforts our companies go through to provide a safe, quality bottled water product that is environmentally sustainable. Our continuing education of consumers, the media, and legislators will help create a more balanced view of bottled water. William Patrick Young IBWA Chairman
OFFICERS Chairman William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Vice Chairman Breck Speed, Mountain Valley Spring Company, LLC Treasurer Dave Muscato, Nestlé Waters North America Immediate Past Chairman Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America
BOARD OF DIRECTORS Joe Bell, Bell Sales, Inc. Page Beykpour, CG Roxane Dan Bush, IGO Direct Premium Water Coolers Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Marty Conte, Diamond Springs Water Tom Harrington, DS Waters Doug Hidding, Blackhawk Molding Co. Dave Holdener, Nicolet Forest Bottling Co. Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Dave Muscato, Nestlé Waters North America Greg Nemec, Premium Waters, Inc. Steve Raupe, Ozarka Water and Coffee Service Chris Saxman, Shenandoah Valley Water Co. Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Robert Smith, Grand Springs Distribution Breck Speed, Mountain Valley Spring Company, LLC Jeffrey Vinyard, Crystal Springs Bottled Water Co. Lynn Wachtmann, Maumee Valley Bottlers, Inc. William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc.
IBWA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman, William Patrick Young, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Stewart Allen, DS Waters Joe Bell, Bell Sales, Inc. Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Marty Conte, Diamond Springs Water Henry R. Hidell, III, Hidell International Scott Hoover, Roaring Spring Bottling Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Dave Muscato, Nestlé Waters North America Chris Saxman, Shenandoah Valley Water Co. Breck Speed, Mountain Valley Spring Company, LLC
COMMITTEE CHAIRS Communications Committee Jane Lazgin, Nestlé Waters North America Stephen Tischler, National Testing Laboratories Education Committee Glen Davis, Absopure Water Co., Inc. Bryan Shinn, Shinn Spring Water Company Environmental Sustainability Committee Philippe Caradec, Danone Waters of America Breck Speed, Mountain Valley Spring Company Government Relations Committee Shayron Barnes-Selby, DS Waters Robert Smith, Grand Springs, Inc. Membership Committee Allen French, Edge Analytical Kelley Goshay, DS Waters State and Regional Associations Committee Joe Cimino, ChoiceH2O Ross Rosette, H2Oregon Supplier and Convention Committee Brian Grant, Pure Flo Water, Inc. Dan Kelly, Polymer Solutions International Technical Committee Andy Eaton, Eurofins Eaton Analytical Kevin Mathews, Nestlé Waters North America
is the voice of the bottled water industry The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) is the authoritative source of information a bo ut a ll ty p es of b ot tl ed wa te r s . I B WA m em b e r sh i p p rov i d es bo tt l e r s , d i s t r i b u t o r s , a n d su pp li e r s— sm a l l , m e d i u m , a n d l a r g e — w it h s e r v i c e s t ha t save you ti me a n d m o ney. I B WA p ro t e c t s y o u r c o m p a -
n y ’ s b o t t o m l i n e by op po si ng a l l l eg is l a ti o n a n d re g u la ti o n th a t c o u l d re d u c e yo ur p rof i ts or i m po se u nn ec e ss a r y re g u l a t o r y bur d en s o n yo ur bu si n e s s o p er a ti o n s . I B WA d e f e n d s y o u r i n t e re s t s by wor ki n g d i re c t ly w it h l eg i sl a t or s a n d r eg ul a t or s on is s u e s ( s uc h a s p rop os ed ta xes a n d g ro u n d w a t er re st r ic t io n s ) a f f ec ti n g t he b ot tl e d w a t er i nd u st r y. I B WA p ro v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l
re s o u rc e s t h ro u g h m em b er s - on ly p u b l i c a ti o n s o n s u c h to pi c s a s b ro m a t e / D B P s , t a s t e / o d o r, a nd p a t ho g e ns / c on ta mi na nt s. I B WA e d u -
c a t e s m e m b e r s o n s e c u ri t y ri s k a s s e s s m e n t a n d p re v e n t i o n by prov i d i ng th e l a t es t d evel o pm en ts i n f oo d se c u r i ty a n d s a f e t y, a n d r e q u i rem e n ts fo r t h e b o tt l e d w a t e r in d u st r y f ro m th e D e p a r t me n t o f H om e la nd S ec u r i ty, t he U. S . D e p a r t me nt o f A g r i c u l t u re , a n d t h e U. S . Fo od a nd Dr u g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I B WA p ro v i d e s n e t -
w o r k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s th a t a l lo w yo u t o di s c us s p ro b l e m s , g e t a n swer s to yo u r b u s in es s q u e st io n s a n d s h a r e so l u t io n s du r i ng th e a n nua l c o nven ti on a n d ot he r m ee ti n g s . I B WA m e m b e r s h i p s e t s y o u
a p a r t f ro m t h e c o m p e t i t i o n b y h e l p i n g you r b u si n e ss m a i nt a i n h ig h qu a l it y st a n d a rd s t h ro u g h it s a n n u a l , u n a n n o u n c e d f a c il i ty in s pec t io n a nd co m p l i a n c e w it h th e I B WA B o tt le d Wa te r C o d e of Pr a c ti c e .
Join IBWA today! For more info r m a t i o n , visit at www. b o t t l e d w a t e r. o r g .
International Bottled Water Association
PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE SUCCESS BY THE NUMBERS
BOTTLED WATER REPORTER is published for: International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314-2973. Tel: 703.683.5213 Fax: 703.683.4074 www.bottledwater.org
This issue of Bottled Water Reporter is special because in it we present a 2012 bottled water industry statistics article from Beverage Marketing Corporation (BMC) and spotlight the home and office delivery (HOD) segment of our industry. After experiencing slight losses during the recessionary times of 2008 and 2009, bottled water sales and volume returned to growth in 2010 and showed renewed strength in 2011. And as we learn in “Bottled Water Industry Gathering Strength,” an article authored by BMC’s John Rodwan, Jr., industry growth in 2012 was the strongest is had been in five years, with volume production increasing by 6.2 percent. We also learn that carbonated soft drinks, while remaining the largest beverage type in the United States, experienced another reduction in volume—for the eighth consecutive year. According to Rodwan, “Changes in per capita consumption indicate persistent interest in a product that consumers embrace as a healthful alternative to other beverages.” In addition, BMC forecasts that the U.S. consumers’ already displayed thirst for bottled water will continue in the years ahead. IBWA’s HOD members play a major role in meeting that proven consumer demand for bottled water. Thus, in this issue we also focus on topics of interest to the HOD segment of the bottled water industry: bisphenol-A (BPA) facts (worth sharing with your customers), fleet trends, and small business technology tips. In addition, this issue’s Government Relations column, “Now Is the Time,” presents a “call to action” for members who are water cooler manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers to help IBWA staff educate legislators about industry concerns with the scheduled ENERGY STAR standby energy consumption standard. Our other columns highlight industry challenges and successes. In the Communications column, we provide an update on the attempt by some anti-bottled water groups to ban bottled water from the U.S. National Park System; and in Technical Update, we showcase the admirable environmental sustainability efforts of IBWA member Portola Packaging. As always, I hope you find the articles and information provided in this issue of Bottled Water Reporter enlightening and helpful. Please let us know if you have any article suggestions or would like to contribute text to an upcoming issue.
President Joseph K. Doss email@example.com Vice President of Education, Science, and Technical Relations Robert R. Hirst firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President of Government Relations Daniel Felton email@example.com Vice President of Communications Christopher S. Hogan firstname.lastname@example.org Chief Financial Officer Michelle S. Tiller email@example.com Director of Conventions, Trade Shows, and Meetings Michele Campbell firstname.lastname@example.org Director of Science and Research Tamika Sims email@example.com Director of Government Relations J.P. Toner firstname.lastname@example.org Manager of Publications and Special Projects Sabrina E. Hicks email@example.com Manager of Member Services Dennis Carpenter firstname.lastname@example.org Education and Technical Programs Coordinator Claire Crane email@example.com Executive Assistant Patrice Ward firstname.lastname@example.org Bottled Water Reporter Layout and Design Rose McLeod email@example.com Tel: 315.447.4385 Editor Sabrina E. Hicks firstname.lastname@example.org Graphic Designer Rose McLeod email@example.com
Joe Doss IBWA President
Advertising Sales Stephanie Schaefer firstname.lastname@example.org
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WATER NOTES: ALL THINGS HOD
assessment is that BPA is safe at the very low levels that occur in some foods. This assessment is based on review by FDA scientists of hundreds of studies including the latest findings from new studies initiated by the agency.” For more, visit http://www.fda.gov/ NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ ucm064437.htm. In 2012, FDA rejected a citizen petition from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) seeking to ban BPA from all food and drink packaging, including plastic bottles and canned food. FDA stated that its “assessment is that the scientific evidence at this time does not suggest that the very low levels of human exposure to BPA through the diet are unsafe.”
BPA is Proven to Be Safe: So why are customers still confused?
Due to the misinformation often published about bisphenol-A (BPA), a chemical compound used in polycarbonate plastic bottles, it’s no wonder that consumers have questions. Some home and office delivery (HOD) bottled water businesses elect to use PET beverage containers (which do not contain BPA); still others opt to use 3- and 5-gallon polycarbonate plastic bottles as their container-of-choice to hold up against the wear-and-tear expected from a business that centers around returnable, reusable containers. For bottled water bottlers, when communicating with customers about the polycarbonate plastic bottles in your float, here are a few facts you’ll want to make sure to share: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the use of polycarbonate plastic containers for food contact. Because the FDA comprehensively regulates bottled water as a food product, the agency approves all food-contact plastics for their intended use based on migration and safety data. Plastic food and beverage containers, including polycarbonate plastic bottles made with BPA, must meet or exceed all FDA requirements. 6
Polycarbonate plastic has been the material of choice for many food and beverage product containers for more than 50 years. Bottled water bottlers like it because it is lightweight, highly shatter-resistant, and transparent. As recently as March 2013, FDA reconfirmed its opinion that BPA is safe for food contact. Issuing what it calls a BPA consumer update, the agency stated, “FDA’s current
FDA isn’t the only regulatory agency confirming the safety of BPA. Others include Health Canada; the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Japan’s Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability (RISS), a division of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR); and Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). BPA does not pose a risk to pregnant mothers or fetuses. In April 2013, FDA and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) studying the metabolic pathways of BPA published a study that found BPA does not cause harm to pregnant mothers or their unborn fetuses. For more, visit www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/23261975. For more information about BPA, visit IBWA’s website (www.bottledwater.org) and the American Chemistry Council’s website (http://factsaboutbpa.org).
WATER NOTES: ALL THINGS HOD
Products Made With BPA
When educating consumers, the media, and legislators about BPA, sometimes it’s a good idea to let them know that BPA is a key component used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins that are found in products we use each day. Food Packaging and Storage. Polycarbonate plastic is strong, lightweight, and shatter-resistant, which makes it an excellent choice for water bottles and food storage containers. Safety. Automobile bumpers, protective gear used by police and military personnel, and bicycle and motorcycle helmets are examples of products made with polycarbonate plastic. Even protective eyewear worn by athletes and scientists is made from polycarbonate plastic. Environment. Plastics and resins made with BPA have environmental benefits. Durable and lightweight polycarbonate auto components help to decrease vehicle weight and increase fuel efficiency, thereby reducing carbon emissions. Medical equipment made with polycarbonate components can withstand repeated sterilization, which enables the reuse of devices. Coatings made from epoxy resins help make flooring and other materials durable and long-lasting, requiring less frequent repair and replacement. Medical Applications. Polycarbonate plastic is used in eyeglass lenses because it is shatter and scratch resistant. The highperformance, optical clarity and heat resistant qualities of polycarbonate make it a plastic of choice for many vital medical devices. Kidney dialyzers, heartlung machines, and incubators all contain components made of polycarbonate. Source: http://factsaboutbpa. org/how-is-bpa-used/products
LIFE ON THE HIGHWAY According to the 2013 BeverageWorld fleet report, the fleet managers surveyed, which included those who work for bottled water producers and distributors, are equally split between the type of vehicle configuration they prefer. Slightly more than half of the respondents say their fleet consists of conventional trucks with a side-load body; 46 percent use a tractor with a 48-foot dry van trailer. Always concerned about the bottom line and ways to increase fleet efficiencies, these fleet managers say they will be looking to replace older, less-efficient vehicles in the next 12 months. Respondents show an interest in adopting some type of fuel management system or even giving natural gas vehicles a trial run during the next 12 months. The expressed interest in natural gas stems from the fact that it is sourced domestically; thus, its price is more stable. In addition, it is a clean-burning fuel that has reduced emissions. One negative: because this technology is in its infancy, the infrastructure to make it readily available is still being developed. California is one state that has a more established natural gas infrastructure. As the volatility of the fuel market is a major concern, 50 percent of respondents plan to purchase or lease alternative fuel vehicles during the next year. And the “lease or buy debate” continues, as 44.4 percent of beverage producers indicate they lease their vehicles. Of those that lease vehicles, 71.4 percent have a full-service vehicle lease agreement, but, of their entire fleets, only 20-49 percent are under those full-service lease agreements.
Many fleet managers praise the advantages of remote vehicle/tracking systems. According to the BeverageWorld report, more than 42 percent of survey respondents are using that technology. Beverage producers also seem to be more willing to spend money to prevent back-up/blind spot accidents, with 47 percent purchasing avoidance-related technology (24 percent of distributors invested in that type of on-board technology). Vehicle safety continues to be a main concern, with almost 85 percent of responding fleet managers citing it as a problem. Fuel price volatility was obviously another big concern. Respondents said that their route delivery vehicles have a lifecycle of between five and nine years. Obviously, weather, terrain, street conditions, and geography all have an effect on the wear and tear of a vehicle. Tires, brakes, and engines, as one would expect, were indicated as the leading areas for maintenance costs. Respondents also note that more than 50 percent of unscheduled repairs were in the area of starting and charting (including alternator and battery starter)—57 percent—as well as engine repairs—53.6 percent. Collision damage was third on the list at 46.4 percent, followed by drivetrain at 36 percent and brakes at 32 percent. Preventive maintenance, however, remains a big function performed by operators with more than 95 percent saying that preventive measures are taken in-house to ensure minimal damage to vehicles. Source: www.beverageworld.com/ articles/full/15604/rolling-forward
WATER NOTES: ALL THINGS HOD
Mobile Technology and the Small Business Owner Results from a March 2013 Constant Contact survey show that 66 percent of small business owners use mobile devices or solutions (e.g., social media marketing, apps) as part of their operations. Mostly, they use smartphones or tablets to conduct social media marketing (73 percent) or to conduct email marketing (71 percent).
If you are a small business owner wondering what type of mobile or social advertising your competition is currently using, you’ll be interested to learn that 97 percent of survey respondents said they employ platforms like YouTube, Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. (Notably, according to a
recent report from Simply Measured, a group of self-described “data geeks,” Instagram is considered more effective than Pinterest.) More than ever, consumers depend upon their smartphones and other mobile devices to find information, look for deals, and make purchases—and small business
How are small businesses using mobile technology? 80%
70% 60% 50%
la al P
M s to
Source: Constant Contact Mobile
owners recognize that, says Joel Hughes, Constant Contact’s senior vice president of strategy and corporate development. The survey results also show that 70 percent of small businesses have websites that are social-media optimized. Other findings: • 44 percent contain a menu. • 40 percent contain individual product listings. • 39 percent contain videos. Wonder who is winning the iOS vs. Android battle? For small business owners, the clear winner is the iPhone, which garnered a 66 percent to 39 percent advantage in Constant Contact’s survey. (The iPad trumps Android tablets, 49 percent to 15 percent). In addition, small business owners are using those devices for point-of-sale (POS) functions, with 71 percent using mobile technology to accept payments and 52 percent using a mobile-/ tablet-based POS system. READ MORE: • http://www.marketingprofs. com/charts/2013/10791/ how-small-businessowners-are-usingmobile-technology • http://news. constantcontact.com/ research/5713-sixtysix-percent-smallbusiness-owners-usemobile-technology • http://simplymeasured.com/
WATER NOTES: ALL THINGS HOD
DID YOU KNOW?
Content Needs to Be Shareable
Brands have become publishers, and social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are slowly overtaking email as the most popular way to share content. 0.5%
Sharing by platform 3.4%
Email Facebook Twitter
Instagram, Pinterest, Keep, and Vine are among the social networks whose popularity is rapidly increasing. Source: www.uberflip.com
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Get to Know NWBWA
In this new, reoccurring series, you’ll learn more about the individual state and regional bottled water associations. For this issue, Bottled Water Reporter (BWR) interviewed Tim Dougherty, the executive director of the Northwest Bottled Water Association (NWBWA). BWR: Tell us a little bit about NWBWA. Tim Dougherty: NWBWA is approximately 110 members strong with an almost even split among bottlers and suppliers. While our members mainly come from Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, we’ve had members from several other states who are searching for the best fit in a state and regional association. We have had some members from northern California and as far away as Texas. BWR: It seems that NWBW has a large amount of members involved in home and office delivery (HOD). Why do you think this is so? TD: Most of NWBWA members are HOD. While some will dabble in both HOD and small pack, there are only a few NWBWA members who only do packaged product. Since NWBWA members tend to be smaller, family-owned and operated companies, those tend to be more in the business of HOD. And with the love of coffee in this part of the country, now some of our members are starting to include coffee and tea services along with their HOD services. BWR: What are the biggest challenges you see for NWBWA?
TD: Distribution is always an issue for our members. While you have a handful of major markets, getting products out to more rural areas is definitely challenging for NWBWA members. As with most of us in the industry, keeping the business growing is always a concern and then being able to keep up with that growth while still providing the best service possible.One thing we don’t lack in the Northwest is good water! Efforts to keep the water clean and sustainable can often lead to issues with government oversight that are prevalent in Oregon and Washington. But NWBWA keeps on top of that and has had several opportunities to meet with key decision makers to voice our concerns and thoughts. BWR: What does the future hold for NWBWA and the bottled water industry in the Northwest? TD: While water is an age-old business, it has only really developed in the Northwest over the last 15 years. At NWBWA, we strive to provide our members with the best access to information and education on the bottled water industry. We also are a very involved association with members who are acutely aware of industry issues and how to ensure that they are doing all they can to make a difference. The partnership between NWBWA and IBWA is a key component in making this a reality.
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E S T O TA L M A R
2012 STATISTICS REVEAL BOTTLED WATER’S U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL GROWTH
BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY
By John G. Rodwan, Jr.
BOTTLED WATER ATTAINED A PROMINENT POSITION IN THE U.S. BEVERAGE MARKETPLACE AS A RESULT OF MANY YEARS OF VIGOROUS GROWTH, AND, WITH ANOTHER FORCEFUL ASCENT IN 2012, IT ONCE AGAIN FLASHED ITS PENCHANT FOR UPWARD MOVEMENT. As with many other beverage categories in the United States during the depths of the economic recession, bottled water suffered reversals in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, bottled water volume and sales returned to growth, and the category showed renewed strength by both measures in 2011. Growth in 2012 was the strongest it had been in five years. Moreover, preliminary data indicates that the category could cross another noteworthy threshold by exceeding 10 billion gallons for the first time in 2013. Further still, ongoing enlargement should continue going forward as economic conditions grow increasingly favorable and the characteristics that made bottled water the second-largest beverage category by volume unambiguously reassert themselves. Bottled water enjoyed a unique position within the overall liquid refreshment beverage marketplace, as the performance of other categories makes vividly evident. Though carbonated soft drinks remain by far the largest beverage type in the United States, their volume shrank again in 2012, as it has done every year since the mid-2000s. Fruit beverages
have similarly been beset with long-term erosion, withering from having volume comparable to bottled water in the late 1990s to having volume only slightly more than one-third the size by 2012. Like bottled water, other, friskier liquid refreshment beverages—such as ready-to-drink tea and sports beverages—rebounded from back-to-back off years to grow in 2010, 2011, and 2012, but they remained much, much smaller than bottled water. Although sports beverages (like Gatorade) may actively compete for consumers seeking hydration, their volume was about one-sixth that of bottled water in 2012. Before the economic challenges at the end of the century’s first decade, bottled water experienced a remarkable streak of speedy volume growth, as documented in the latest edition of Bottled Water in the U.S., Beverage Marketing Corporation’s
In 2012, the bottled water industry experienced its strongest growth in five years. U.S. BOTTLED WATER MARKET Volume and Producer Revenues 2010 – 2012 Year
Millions of Gallons
Annual % Change
Millions of Dollars
Annual % Change
Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation Copyright © 2013 by Beverage Marketing Corporation
annual analysis of the market. During the 2000s, bottled water volume achieved double-digit percentage growth rates in two years and advanced at rates close to that level in several others. Bottled water volume grew by close to 12 percent in 2002, and after growing by 10.8 percent in 2005, it enlarged by 9.5 percent in 2006. Departing from the pattern of preceding years, bottled water volume declined by 1.0 percent in 2008 and then by 2.5 percent in 2009. Unlike carbonated soft drinks, which followed several years of slow growth with multiple volume reductions, bottled water demonstrated that two consecutive declines were aberrations, mere blips, not the start of a protracted losing streak. When bottled water growth resumed in 2010, it restored volume to where it had been prior to the declines. Growth accelerated in each of the two following years. By 2012, volume achieved an unprecedented high—more than 920 million gallons above where it had been in 2007. In contrast, the soft drink category suffered its eighth consecutive year of volume reduction in 2012. Bottled water producers’ revenues also declined in both 2008 and 2009 as well, and did so more precipitously than volume, but enjoyed revitalization thereafter. Bottled water wholesale dollar sales first exceeded $6 billion in 2000. By 2007, they topped $11.5 billion. Category sales declined by more than 3 percent to $11.2 billion the following year and 14
then by more than 5 percent to $10.6 billion in 2009. They inched upward in 2010 and climbed back above $11 billion in 2011. Wholesale dollars scaled new heights in 2012, when they topped $11.8 billion. All signs point to U.S. consumers’ already displayed thirst for bottled water continuing in the years ahead. Changes in per capita consumption indicate persistent interest in a product that consumers embrace as a healthful alternative to other beverages. Americans upped their annual consumption by almost 11 gallons from 20.1 gallons per person in 2002 to 30.8 gallons ten years later. During the same period, per capita consumption of carbonated soft drinks dropped by more than 10 gallons. Per capita consumption of other major beverage categories, like milk and fruit beverages, also declined. Other types, including coffee and tea, were characterized by stability, though the ready-to-drink versions of both categories made gains. Indeed, those beverages associated with beneficial properties and functional benefits—a subset that includes packaged water as well as energy drinks, sports beverages, and ready-to-drink tea—were the most resilient elements of the beverage market in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Even so, average intake of beverages within bottled water’s competitive set, such as ready-to-drink tea and sports beverages, remained fractions of bottled water’s per capita
2012 STATISTICS consumption level. Indeed, bottled water added more gallons to its per-person consumption rate in ten years than either ready-to-drink tea or sports beverages reached by the end of that period. In fact, neither even reached 5 gallons per U.S. consumer by 2012. Bottled water proved itself to be not only a key component of the liquid refreshment beverage market but also poised for future increases in per capita consumption. Several reasons exist to explain U.S. consumers’ sustained enthusiasm for bottled water. Those include its associations with healthfulness, convenience, safety, and value. Bottled water’s versatility makes it suitable for consumption at any time of day and in practically any setting or situation. It doesn’t need to be kept cold (like soft drinks or juice) or warm (like conventional coffee or tea). Various packaging types, ranging from bulk to single-serve, facilitate a variety of uses. Among ready-to-drink commercial beverages in its competitive set, bottled water is relatively inexpensive. Further, due to aggressive pricing, especially in the retail PET segment, it has become more and more affordable for consumers. Consumers’ interest in beverages that deliver benefits above and beyond simple refreshment also contributes to the quintessential hydrating beverage’s ascension in the beverage rankings. In the midst of pervasive worries about obesity and other health matters, bottled water’s lack of calories and artificial ingredients attracts conscientious consumers. Even where tap water may
U.S. BOTTLED WATER MARKET Per Capita Consumption 2002 – 2012
Gallons Per Capita
Annual % Change
Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation Copyright © 2013 by Beverage Marketing Corporation
Bottled water competes for market share with other packaged beverages— not tap water. be safely potable, many people prefer bottled water, which they regard as superior in taste. The ready availability of packaged water wherever beverages are sold also crucially differentiates bottled water from tap. Even though it has sometimes been compared with tap water, bottled water actually achieved its market stature by enticing consumers away from other packaged beverages perceived as less wholesome than bottled water. While some consumers may have turned away from regular, fullcalorie sodas in favor of their diet versions, many others moved over to bottled water instead. Challenges to beverage market growth appear to have eased somewhat since the late 2000s. Energy, commodity, and other input costs contributed to higher prices for consumers. That drove them to seek savings by opting for smaller, more affordable unit sizes, eschewing pricier imports, or occasionally foregoing packaged beverages altogether, which largely explains what happened in 2008 and 2009. The situation has now changed, and favorably so, from bottled water marketers’ perspectives.
Category Developments Domestic non-sparkling water regularly reigns as the largest segment of the U.S. packaged water industry. Domestic non-sparkling water’s 9.3 billion gallons represented 96 percent of total volume in 2012. As a whole, domestic nonsparkling saw slower volume reductions than the overall market in 2008 and 2009 and then outperformed it again in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The non-sparkling category includes various components that typically follow divergent trajectories. In 2012, for the second year in a row, all four segments registered growth. Although each advanced at very different rates, every one of them grew faster than they had in the previous year. Throughout most of the 1990s and 2000s, the retail premium segment—consisting of still water in single-serve polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles—drove the overall category’s development. Indeed, the PET component enlarged by a double-digit percentage rate 16 consecutive JUNE/JULY 2013
Domestic non-sparkling water accounted for almost all per capita bottled water consumption in 2012.
of competition from PET. After multiple declines, the segment did grow in 2011 and 2012. Even so, retail bulk’s 1.8 percent uptick was the slightest of any domestic still water segment in 2012. Direct delivery also confronted intramural competition from handy, portable PET bottles. The segment, which comprised the largest of them all as recently as the mid-1990s, accounted for 12.4 percent of total volume by 2012. U.S. home and office delivery (HOD) volume slipped from close to 1.4 billion gallons in the early 2000s to 1.2 billion gallons in 2012, when volume moved up by 2.5 percent. The relatively small, essentially regional vending segment involving refillable jug containers achieved growth even in the years when total bottled water volume declined. Its low cost during economic hard times undoubtedly had something to do with vending’s positive results. It continued to grow in 2012, albeit at a far slower rate than either the domestic still water market or the bottled water market as a whole.
times through 2007. Growth slowed markedly in 2008 before it disappeared in 2009. Yet, PET’s 0.9 percent reduction was far less than the 2.5 percent loss measured for bottled water in general. Besides, PET volume in 2009 of almost 5.2 billion gallons stood more than 4.1 billion gallons higher than it had in 1999, and its share of total bottled water swelled from 24 percent to more than 61 percent during that ten-year period. In 2010, PET experienced the strongest growth of any bottled water segment, advancing by 6.8 percent to 5.5 billion gallons, which boosted its share above 63 percent. Growth slowed in 2011 but remained well in advance of the total market: volume greater than 5.8 billion gallons flowed from growth of 5.4 percent, which pushed PET’s share to 64 percent. In 2012, the segment saw its strongest showing since 2007, increasing by more than 8 percent to 6.3 billion gallons, which represented 65 percent of the overall market.
One of the two segments outside the domestic nonsparkling realm showed renewed vigor in 2012; the other, to put it mildly, did not. The imported water segment, the smallest of them all, is prone to fluctuations. In the 2000s, it registered double-digit percentage growth in some years, and equally sizeable contractions in others. After one of those up years in 2007, imported water’s volume fell sharply in 2008 and then plummeted precipitously in 2009. It continued to shrink in 2010 before inching up by a modest clip in 2011. Volume dropped dramatically again in 2012. Sparkling water held a small share of bottled water volume but grew at a rate faster than any other type, including retail PET, in 2012.
Retail bulk volume experienced some setbacks as more and more consumers selected convenient PET multipacks in large format retail channels instead of larger (1 to 2.5 gallon) sizes. Its share eroded from nearly one-quarter of the category volume at the beginning of the century to slightly more than 10 percent by 2012, largely as a result
As usual, domestic non-sparkling water accounted for almost all per capita bottled water consumption in 2012. Sparkling water and imports each represented less than one gallon per person. (With imports, the figure actually worked
U.S. BOTTLED WATER MARKET Volume and Growth by Segment 2010 – 2012
* Millions of gallons Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation Copyright © 2013 by Beverage Marketing Corporation
2012 STATISTICS out to about one-third of a gallon per U.S. resident.) In the key PET portion, average intake moved from less than 8 gallons in 2002 to more than 20 gallons ten years later.
International Developments Bottled water emerged as a beverage industry phenomenon not only in the United States—the current No. 1 market in terms of volume—but also in virtually every major geographical region of the world. Bottled water first became a large, mainstream commercial beverage category in Western Europe, where, consumption of it has long been part of many residents’ daily routine. It is now a truly global beverage, found even in some of the more remote corners of the globe. Several Asian markets achieved strong growth to become major bottled water markets during the 2000s. In fact, Asia itself became the largest regional market in 2011, edging out North America and easily besting Europe; China claimed the No. 2 position, ahead of Mexico, which long held the spot. While China remained in second place in 2012, it looked poised to take the lead, which it in all likelihood will do during 2013. Global bottled water consumption is estimated to have neared 65.8 billion gallons in 2012, according to data from the latest edition of Beverage Marketing’s The Global Bottled Water Market. Total consumption swelled by almost 7 percent in 2012. Per capita consumption of 9.2 gallons represented a gain of 1.6 gallons over the course of five years. Clearly, per capita consumption by individual region or country can diverge significantly from the global average. For instance, several Western European countries have per capita consumption levels far above 25 gallons, and the No. 1 market exceeded 68 gallons per person in 2012. At the same time, however, much of the developing world, where the bulk of the world’s population resides, finds its per capita consumption figures still in the single-digit range. Although the global per capita consumption figure obscures pronounced regional disparities, bottled water’s global growth points to demand for it in diverse markets. Consumers have demonstrated a thirst for it in highly developed markets, in less developed ones, and in economies in transition. Bottled water tapped into some different consumer trends around the globe. In developed countries such as the United States and Canada, bottled water became a particularly dynamic major commercial beverage category by registering as an appealing option for health-conscious consumers. Marketers positioned bottled water as a virtuous alternative to carbonated soft drinks and fruit juice drinks (some of which comprise sizeable portions of their own product portfolios). The developed world came to see bottled water as not only a way of
Bottled water is now a truly global beverage, found even in some of the more remote corners of the globe. achieving hydration but also as a functional beverage. At the same time, bottled water serves at least a partial solution to the problem of often-unsafe water found in many economically developing countries. Much of the world’s bottled water market is still highly fragmented and controlled by local brands, but consolidation is definitely taking place, as four companies have come to dominate much of the market. Swiss food and beverage giant Nestlé and France’s Danone are the traditional leaders of the bottled water pack. Both companies initially centered their operations around the core markets of Western Europe and the United States. However, as water growth is increasingly coming from the developing world, Nestlé and Danone have expanded their initiatives to the competitive fields of Asia, Latin America, and other areas. In fact, Danone stepped back from the U.S. market to concentrate on some of those other markets. Soft drink industry leaders Coca-Cola and PepsiCo also entered the bottled water arena. After achieving solid positions in the United States, both companies increasingly devoted resources and energy to developing their global bottled water businesses. North America boasts two of the three largest individual bottled water markets—the United States and Mexico— which together accounted for 26.6 percent of the world’s packaged water market in 2012. Although the U.S. bottled water market had been a catalyst for much of the global expansion up until the mid-2000s, its compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.0 percent for the five-year period ending with 2012 was noticeably slower than the 5.7 percent CAGR achieved by the growth of the global market during the same period. Mexico alone accounted for 11.9 percent of the global volume with 7.8 billion gallons in 2012 and a market-beating CAGR of 5.9 percent. China was the only other country that could claim a doubledigit share of global volume with 9.6 billion gallons, or 14.6 percent of the total (or just one-tenth of a share point JUNE/JULY 2013
GLOBAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET
Leading Countries’ Consumption and Compound Annual Growth Rates 2007 – 2012 2012
Millions of Gallons
Top 10 Subtotal
Compound annual growth rate Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation Copyright © 2013 by Beverage Marketing Corporation *
behind the United States). Chinese bottled water volume enjoyed double-digit percentage growth rates for several consecutive years, registering a 14.9 percent CAGR for the period from 2007 to 2012—the highest rate among the five biggest bottled water markets and sufficiently muscular to vault it over Mexico and put it on the path to surpassing the United States in stature. Fourth-place Brazil’s CAGR lagged the international market, but fifth-place Indonesia moved well ahead of it. Sixth-place Thailand, the No. 3 Asian market, grew faster still. Europe may not boast any of the biggest bottled water markets, but it does have several major ones, including three of the ten biggest. Because those markets are firmly established, however, their growth tends to be slower than those where bottled water has a less deeply 18
entrenched tradition. Some of the most prominent continental countries experienced contraction or only very slight growth. For instance, during the five-year period ending with 2012, Italy’s volume declined by 1.4 percent. Germany, the eighth-largest bottled water market in the world, had a CAGR of just 0.6 percent, and ninth-place France moved even slower. As a group, the trio of leading European bottled water markets accounted for 12.3 percent of the world’s total volume in 2012. (A fourth European market, Spain, ranked among the top ten until 2012, when rapidly rising India supplanted it.) Still water accounts for the majority of bottled water sales in much of the world. Sparkling water sales are strong in a
2012 STATISTICS minority of countries—such as Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, the Netherlands, and Germany—where sparkling water is often tied to meal-consumption practices. On a global level, sparkling water accounts for an estimated 10 percent of the total volume, with still water accounting for the remaining 90 percent. Plastic packaging is preferred over glass in almost every country, with the exception of Germany where recycling laws make a determinative impact on packaging trends. Even in Germany and other countries where glass has a strong presence, such as the United Kingdom, PET is the most dynamic and rapidly growing segment. At about onethird of global volume, HOD still accounts for a minority of
The United States and Mexico accounted for 26.6 percent of the world’s packaged water market in 2012.
GLOBAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET
Per Capita Consumption by Leading Countries 2007 – 2012 2012
Gallons Per Capita
United Arab Emirates
China, Hong Kong SAR
Includes the Caroline Islands (Micronesia excluding Palau), the Marshall Islands and the Northern Marianas (excluding Guam). Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation Copyright © 2013 by Beverage Marketing Corporationn
HOD is a vital segment in Mexico, where it accounts for more than two-thirds of the volume.
global bottled water sales. Yet it is a vital segment in many countries, such as Mexico, where it accounts for more than two-thirds of the volume. Year after year, Mexico leads the world in bottled water per capita consumption, and that didn’t change even after China surpassed it in absolute volume. Average intake in Mexico jumped from 54.1 gallons in 2007 to 68.4 gallons five years later. Per capita consumption in China stood almost ten times lower, at approximately 7 gallons, in 2012. The not-long-ago leader in average intake, Italy, consumed the equivalent of 47.4 gallons per person in 2012. Several Middle Eastern markets rank very highly in per capita bottled water consumption. With the equivalent of more than 35 gallons for each resident in 2012, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the fifth-highest level of bottled water consumption in the world. In addition to the UAE, the Middle East region has Lebanon and Saudi Arabia in the top 20 in per capita bottled water consumption. At 20.9 gallons per resident, Israel also consumes bottled water at a rate greater than the global average, though it didn’t make it onto the top-20 list. Although Europe no longer held the top spot in volume per capita, 11 of the top 20 bottled water consumers on a per person basis were European countries as of 2012. The consumers of the combined market of BelgiumLuxembourg imbibed almost 38 gallons each, a rate that declined very slightly over the years. France, Germany, Spain, and Italy were the other European countries with per capita consumption greater than 30 gallons. French consumers quaffed 0.8 gallons less of bottled water in 2012 than they had five years earlier. In 2012, Germany and Spain had per capita consumption rates of 34.3 and 31.2 gallons respectively, putting them in seventh and ninth place in terms of average bottled water intake. Unlike France and Spain, Germany consumed more bottled water per person in 2012 than it had five years 20
before. Hungary, which ranked eleventh, also increased its bottled water consumption. While markets in the West hold the highest numbers, Eastern Europe can claim several spots among the top 20 in per capita bottled water consumption, although Bulgaria fell off the bottom of the list in 2009, when China’s special administrative region of Hong Kong displaced it. Croatia and Slovenia both consumed the equivalent of about 28 gallons per resident. Austria held the No. 18 spot in 2012, just ahead of Poland. While Asian nations attained prominence among the world’s bottled water markets when measured in total volume, the most populous countries generally do not have high per-person intake levels. Thailand stood among the top 20 in terms of per capita bottled water consumption with 50 gallons in 2012. Hong Kong made the list for the first time as its average intake approached 22 gallons in 2009 and continued to increase per capita consumption subsequently, hitting 27.9 gallons in 2012. Despite its status as the second-largest market, mainland China had a per capita consumption number well below the global norm even though intake swelled by more than 3 gallons per person—nearly doubling from 2007 to 2012. Americans’ 2012 per capita bottled water consumption put the United States in the No. 10 position among the countries of the world, between Lebanon and Hungary.
Into the Future Beverage Marketing expects bottled water, having put the weaknesses of the late 2000s behind it, to continue enlivening the U.S. multiple beverage marketplace during the second decade of the 21st century much as it did previously. The total amount of liquid Americans annually consume will remain stable, resulting in overall volume growth in line with population increases. Bottled water is likely to grow noticeably faster, unlike carbonated soft drinks, which will stay stagnant. Most other major beverage categories, including coffee, milk, and tea, are likely to grow much more slowly than bottled water, which is poised to achieve still another high in per capita consumption in the years ahead.
John G. Rodwan, Jr., is editorial director at Beverage Marketing Corporation, a New York-based research, consulting, and financial services firm dedicated to the global beverage industry. Beverage Marketing publishes numerous market reports on bottled water and other beverages. For more information, visit www. beveragemarketing.com and www.beverageforum.com.
T A H W
E H T L S AL
E S I NO G N I R A E H R E OV ? N O I T C E T O R P
By Adele L. Abrams, Esq., CMSP
Occupational hearing loss has become a silent epidemic in the United States, and its impact on workers’ quality of life (and on employers’ workers’ compensation claim costs) cannot be ignored. Losing one’s hearing due to occupational exposure is certainly not something to be viewed as a “cost of doing business.” According to the American Academy of Audiology, the average, otherwise healthy, person will have essentially normal hearing at least up to age 60 if his or her unprotected ears are not exposed to high noise levels—i.e., levels above 85 decibels (dB) on the “A” scale, which is the human hearing range. The American National Standards Institute reports that the median material hearing
impairment is only 17 dB and 12 dB for males and females, respectively. Aging alone should not prevent the average person from enjoying normal hearing throughout all or most of his or her working career. Unfortunately, that is not the case for those who are occupationally exposed to high noise levels. Estimates suggest that there are upwards of 5 million, perhaps as many as 30 million, Americans occupationally exposed to noise levels greater than 85 dBA— the “action limit” for the Occupational Safety JUNE/JULY 2013
“ ” THE TERM 85-3 REPRESENTS
THE USE OF AN EIGHT-HOUR EXPOSURE OF NOISE AT 85 DECIBELS ON THE A-SCALE EXPOSURE LIMIT AND A 3 DECIBEL DOUBLING RATE TO DETERMINE NOISE DOSE. and Health Administration (OSHA). At the current OSHA exposure limits, one in four of these workers will develop a permanent hearing loss. Many of these workers, perhaps a majority, will also develop tinnitus in addition to a hearing loss. There can be ancillary issues as well; some research suggests that sensory impairment, such as hearing loss, can place workers at greater risk for other occupational injuries. To address this hearing loss epidemic, there is an ongoing “85-3” campaign being promoted by the National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA), along with such safety and health organizations as the American Society of Safety Engineers, the National Safety Council, and the American Industrial Hygiene Association. It is also backed by a number of academic institutions as well as the Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North America and the Center for Protection of Workers Rights. This is part of a grassroots effort to prevent noiseinduced hearing loss in the workplace.
Healthy Ear Regulations The term “85-3” represents two numbers that form the basis for noise exposure limits for preventing hearing loss. Because hearing loss is always a potential issue for bottled water industry employers and their workers, 22
given the loud noises made by powered industrial trucks and other machinery in the work environment, employers would be well-served to become familiar with the 85-3 approach. In the 85-3 campaign, the “85” represents the use of an eight-hour exposure of noise at 85 decibels on the A-scale (dBA) exposure limit, at which point hearing loss prevention efforts are required under occupational health best practices. The “3” stands for a 3 dB time-intensity exchange rate. As NHCA describes it: “for every 3 dB increase in average noise exposure level, the allowable exposure duration is halved.” Put another way, an exposure of 88 dBA for 4 hours would be equivalent to the same eight-hour exposure at 85 dBA. Federal OSHA currently uses a 90-5 criterion, but that does not appear sufficiently protective of workers’ hearing in work environments with pervasive exposure to noise. Even absent the 85-3 campaign, however, OSHA has become more aggressive in enforcement of its noise standard (29 CFR 1910.95), and the agency is assessing higher penalties against employers who overexpose workers above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA in an eight-hour period or who fail to enroll workers in a Hearing Conservation
Program (HCP) if they are exposed at the action level of 85 dBA. The penalties for such infractions, if deemed “willful,” can reach $70,000 per affected employee. The eight components of a successful hearing loss prevention program include: noise exposure monitoring, engineering and administrative controls, audiometric evaluation, use of hearing protection devices, education and motivation, record keeping, program evaluation, and program audit. That is what OSHA will look for if its representatives visit your workplace for a routine inspection or as a result of an employee complaint. The 85-3 campaign is not a unique concept: many countries around the world use this system for worker protection, including most of the Canadian provinces, the European Union, Australia, the United Kingdom, Mexico, China, Japan, and multiple countries in South America. In fact, up until now, the United States has been unique among industrialized nations in using a “90-5” approach for OSHA compliance. However, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has advocated an 85-3 recommended exposure limit since 1998. NIOSH reports the following interesting workplace noise statistics: •
Four million workers go to work each day in damaging noise.
Ten million people in the United States have a noise-related hearing loss.
Twenty-two million workers are exposed to potentially damaging noise each year.
Each year, nearly 25,000 cases are reported of occupational hearing loss great enough to cause hearing impairment.
Reported cases of hearing loss accounted for approximately 14 percent of occupational illnesses.
Approximately 82 percent of the cases involving occupational hearing loss are reported among workers in the manufacturing sector.
NIOSH has found that with a 40-year lifetime exposure at the 85-dBA exposure limit, the excess risk of developing occupational noise-induced hearing loss is 8 percent—considerably lower than the 25 percent excess risk at the 90-dBA PEL currently enforced by OSHA. (For more information, read NIOSH’s “Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure” at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ docs/98-126/pdfs/98-126.pdf.) When appropriate hearing protection is not made available and used by employees, material impairment can result due to excessive exposure to noise and the failure to utilize appropriate hearing protection equipment (such as properly rated ear plugs, ear muffs etc.). In addition, too many employers fail to have new employees tested to establish a “baseline” audiometric examination. Thus, when an employee is later tested and found to have hearing impairment, there will be a presumption for worker’s compensation purposes that it is occupationally induced if the worker has been exposed to high noise levels in the workplace. Regular audiometric testing, after the initial baseline is established, can help to promptly identify individuals whose hearing may be affected as well as job positions that are at greater risk. Such testing can help protect workers from further diminution of their hearing, and engineering or administrative changes can be made in the workplace to limit the amount of noise—or at least the periods of noise exposure—and prevent further hearing loss. If the employer lacks in-house expertise on this issue, a qualified safety professional or audiologist can assist in many ways, including the following: conducting sampling and workplace audits to identify problem
sources of noise, training workers and management on noise issues, making recommendations on appropriate hearing protection for various tasks, and assisting in developing hearing conservation and worksite safety and health programs that can identify and ameliorate the noise-hazardous conditions. OSHA has not yet tightened its noise PEL through formal rulemaking, but there have been suggestions that the rule should be modified to either lower the exposure limit or mandate the use of engineering controls and administrative controls (e.g., job rotation) to abate violations, rather than allowing companies to rely upon personal protective equipment. In 2010, OSHA issued a policy that would have imposed this requirement and redefined what it considered to be “economically feasible” for abatement of excessive noise [“Interpretation of Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise,” (OSHA-2010-0032; 75 FR 69472)] but that policy was later rescinded after objections by those who noted that there were due process issues with doing so via policy instead of formal notice-and-comment rulemaking.
Clearly though, the issue has OSHA’s attention and, by getting on board with the 85-3 campaign early, companies will be well positioned to comply with lower exposure limits in the future. Companies can show their support for the 85-3 campaign by linking to the campaign website, and sharing information with your employees, contractors, and colleagues. For more information on the campaign, link to http://www. hearingconservation.org/displaycommon. cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=142. Companies interested in becoming part of this project should send a letter on its letterhead, signed by an authorized representative of the company, to email@example.com. They should be willing to have the company name listed on the 85-3 website and must include relevant excerpts from the company noise policy that demonstrates the use of 85-3.
Adele L. Abrams is the president of The Law Office of Adele L. Abrams PC, a full-service law firm, focusing on occupational and mine safety and health, employment, and environmental law. For more, contact Abrams (safetylawyer@aol. com) or visit www.safety-law.com. JUNE/JULY 2013
A Call to Action for Water Cooler Manufacturers, Distributors, and Suppliers By Daniel Felton, IBWA Vice President of Government Relations
We talk often in government relations about building and maintaining relationships with legislators and regulators. Why? Most obviously because we need those decision makers to know more about you, your companies, and the bottled water industry. That knowledge will hopefully guide them toward a better understanding of how the laws and regulations they have to consider will impact you—their constituents— and the bottled water market. Without knowing the facts about our industry, legislators and regulators may be guided by assumptions or, worse, misinformation provided to them by our adversaries. IBWA members are to be commended for the fantastic job they have done in recent years to build and maintain relationships with local, state, and federal legislators and regulators. While establishing those relationships is important, it’s just as important to know if and when to call on those same 24
decision makers to assist you with a particular industry issue. Starting up those (sometimes hard) discussions will be far easier if you’ve already created solid working relationships—you’ll be able to get right to the heart of the issue at hand. Because you’ve already invested time and energy getting to know and support the decision makers, that effort will not be lost on them when the time comes for you to knock on their door with a specific “ask.” And that time is now.
ENERGY STAR’s New Requirements As you are probably aware, IBWA staff has been working for nearly two years with many water cooler manufacturer and distributor members to provide comments and feedback to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on new energy specification and testing requirements for ENERGY STAR certified water coolers. While IBWA has been
able to secure a satisfactory outcome on some aspects of the new specification and testing requirements, the standby energy consumption value within the “Final ENERGY STAR Version 2.0 Water Cooler Specification” released last May is unacceptable to IBWA members. In fact, meeting that new standard, which is scheduled to go into effect February 2014, may be next to impossible for water cooler manufacturers to meet in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The standby energy consumption value under the current specification is 1.2 kilowatt hours per day (kwh/ day), while the value under the new specification will be nearly 30 percent lower at 0.87 kwh/day. Furthermore, under the new ENERGY STAR specification, EPA is insisting that bottled water companies can no longer retrieve a previously certified water cooler unit from a customer and then clean, sanitize, or refurbish that unit
GOVERNMENT RELATIONS and put it back out in the marketplace with any customer unless it meets the new specification. That is inconsistent with how EPA has allowed previously certified units to be “grandfathered” under existing specifications. If you manufacturer, sell, or distribute bottle or point-of-use (POU) water coolers to your customers—or act as a supplier in some capacity for water coolers and related products—you should care about this issue. If the home and delivery (HOD) segment of the bottled water industry is not able to cost-effectively and efficiently offer its customers the water cooler products they are used to receiving, sales may drop. That would of course be a negative result for the entire bottled water industry. Although ENERGY STAR is a voluntary program, there are some states (e.g., California and Oregon) that already have laws requiring water coolers sold in those states to mirror ENERGY STAR standby energy consumption standards. Those states may very likely update their laws in the near future to reflect the new ENERGY STAR standard, thereby making a voluntary requirement at the federal level a legal requirement at the state level.
HELP EDUCATE EPA AND CONGRESS ABOUT THIS WATER COOLER ISSUE. with you, as well as review the specific “asks.” We need you to capitalize on the relationships you have built with your legislators and regulators during the last several years to make sure they understand the industry’s perspective. Our message will be far more powerful if it comes from you—the constituent—rather than IBWA staff. If you have not yet established strong working relationships with your legislators and regulators, it’s certainly not too late to introduce yourself. IBWA has many tools and resources available to assist you as you set out to introduce yourself and the bottled water industry’s issues to decision makers. The more legislators and regulators who hear your voice on
our current ENERGY STAR standby energy consumption concern, the more effective your efforts could be. We have a real opportunity here to effect and change a regulation that could impose a drastic and onerous requirement on your company and the bottled water industry as a whole. It will take a concentrated effort with a strong and unified industry voice to be successful. But still, there is a sense of achievement in knowing that all the time and energy you’ve invested in getting to know your legislators and regulators could have a major influence on the final outcome. That is significant. The time is here and the time is now. We hope you will join this call to action.
OzOne IntegratIOn FOr BOttLeD Water
How to Take Action IBWA staff is currently working with members, federal counsel, and thirdparty allies to develop and implement strategies to seek legislative and/ or regulatory relief from the new ENERGY STAR standby energy consumption requirement before it goes into effect next year. IBWA invites all members to accept this “call to action” and assist us by reaching out to your federal legislators and regulators in the near future to explain our concerns and tell them how they can help. IBWA staff has prepared all the background information and talking points you’ll need, so if you want assistance let us know and we’ll share those documents
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The Next Battleground:
America’s National Parks By Chris Hogan, IBWA Vice President of Communications
As spring’s flowers give way to summer’s heat, Americans and travelers from around the world are visiting our country’s amazing network of historic national parks. Whether hiking along soaring peaks or taking photos of deep ravines, guests will find that the National Park System (NPS) is the custodian of some of greatest terrestrial treasures in the United States. When park visitors arrive at any destination administered by the NPS, they might also notice a lack of bottled water products available to meet their hydration needs.
Packaging a Message Some activist groups are determined to see bottled water completely banned from America’s national parks. In fact, a few “national park units”—the term 26
used to describe the various types of sites NPS manages, historic sites as well as nature parks—have already restricted or banned consumer access to bottled water. An odd choice given that the NPS has implemented a healthy foods strategy as part of its “Healthy Parks Healthy People” program. One would think that, rather than limiting consumer access to bottled water—the healthiest packaged beverage on the shelf—the NPS would propose more ways to increase the availability of clean, safe drinking water in national parks, especially if other packaged beverages are sold on site. Such efforts would complement campaigns to promote healthy hydration, which might include bottle refilling stations and water fountains located throughout the parks. Access to bottled water is a key component
of healthy hydration for “healthy people,” so it should not be discouraged, prohibited, or overlooked when discussing water’s role in a healthier lifestyle. To ban or restrict access to bottled water in the U.S. national parks robs consumers of the right to purchase healthy, reliable, zero-calorie, caffeine-free, additive-free bottled water where other packaged beverages are sold. In fact, it forces consumers to choose less-healthy drink options that are proven to have more packaging, more additives (e.g., sugar, caffeine), and greater environmental impact than bottled water. Industry research shows that when bottled water isn’t available, 63 percent of people will choose soda or another sugary drink—not tap water. It is logical to expect the same consumer response if access to bottled water is restricted in the NPS. And I haven’t seen any research that shows restricting the sale of bottled water will reduce the presence of plastic bottles within the recycling streams of our national parks—a concern voiced by anti-bottled water groups. It would seem those anti-bottled water groups are using the NPS to further their attacks on bottled water—rather than allowing national parks to continue providing guests with a variety of convenient, plastic-packaged beverages —including bottled water—to quench their thirst. Opponents of bottled water remain vehement in their attacks on our products and in their inaccurate claims designed to scare and mislead consumers. (As an example, one recent campaign promoted messaging such as “10 Reasons Why National Parks Should Buck the Bottle,” a webpage that presents numerous false and misleading claims about bottled water.)
Truthful Dialogue To correct the misinformation distributed by those groups, IBWA issued a press release detailing the importance of keeping bottled water
COMMUNICATIONS available to all consumers and countering inaccurate statements. (Visit http://bit. ly/USparksBW to read that release.) IBWA has also participated in several interviews for national stories on the NPS and bottled water debate. When talking with reporters, we make sure to present the facts about the bottled water industry’s continued strong support of our environment and natural resources. (Some audiences are surprised to learn that bottled water’s environmental footprint is the lowest of any packaged beverage according to a life cycle assessment conducted by Quantis in 2010. In the 2009 Life Cycle Inventory report conducted by Franklin Associates to determine the environmental footprint of the U.S. bottled water industry, IBWA found similar results.) In addition, IBWA has proactively responded to anti-bottled water comments on a camping and recreation news website whose members are active national parks users. (To join that online conversation, visit http://bit.ly/bwtraveler.) As a result of IBWA’s efforts, the National Park Hospitality Association (NPHA)—which represents concessionaires who provide lodging, food services, gifts and souvenirs, equipment rentals, transportation, and other visitor services in the NPS—contacted IBWA about working together. NPHA members have a combined workforce of nearly 25,000—mostly frontline, visitor-contact jobs—and provide in excess of $1.1 billion in goods and services to visitors annually. NPHA members operate in more than 100 park units and generate more than $100 million annually for the National Park Service budget. In IBWA’s discussions with NPHA staff, we’re reviewing ways our organizations can work together to support the continued availability of bottled water within the NPS. Although we’re still in the early stages, the brainstorming has resulted in some inspiring plans for possible future
BANNING BOTTLED WATER FORCES CONSUMERS TO CHOOSE LESS-HEALTHY DRINK OPTIONS PROVEN TO HAVE MORE PACKAGING, MORE ADDITIVES, AND GREATER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. collaborations. IBWA is looking forward to discovering with NPHA new ways we can work together to try to ensure bottled water remains available at all national park units. IBWA is also working closely with its federal lobbying counsel to develop and implement a strategy to confirm anecdotal information IBWA has received indicating that plastic waste reduction in parks that have implemented bans has been minimal
and soda sales have actually increased. If verifiable data can be obtained, IBWA may then be able to work with some members of Congress to request the NPS to provide the results of any implemented bottled water bans in terms of plastic waste reduction, soda and bottled water consumption changes, etc., and then also perhaps encourage the NPS to rethink the policy it has in place that allows parks to implement bottled water sales restrictions.
Environmental Success Story: Portola Packaging By Tamika Sims, IBWA Director of Science and Research 28
During the past severeal years, IBWA members have worked hard to strengthen their environmental sustainability efforts, and IBWA has tried to highlight the small environmental footprint of the bottled water industry. IBWA gained momentum in these efforts with the publication of our 2009 Life Cycle Inventory report, multiple light-weighting studies, production of IBWA’s 2020 Sustainability Goals document, and the work the Environmental Sustainability Committee has done to highlight and support the environmental best practices of the industry. However, IBWA also knows that the bottled water industry must stay forever vigilant in its efforts to enhance the industry’s sustainability practices. Oftentimes, the best way to encourage sustainable practices is to promote examples from the IBWA membership; such examples can aid in “relate-ability” and also inspire innovation within other companies. With that in mind, IBWA has solicited “environmental success stories” from members, and this coverage of Portola Packaging, Inc. is the second in the series. (Danone Waters was the first, featured in the Dec 2012/Jan 2013 issue of Bottled Water Reporter.) Portola Packaging is one of the largest manufacturers of tamper-evident plastic closures and plastic containers for the dairy, juice, bottled water, and food industries. Portola is a leading manufacturer of tamper-evident closures for 5-gallon water bottles, which include its standard Snap-On caps and also its patented Non-Spill caps, with or without foam liners. In addition, Portola Packaging Mexico offers a snap-screw and screw caps for 5-gallon bottles.
Reduce, Recycle, Rethink In a May 2013 press release, Portola Packaging, Inc.’s North American
facilities announced that they reduced energy usage by approximately 30 percent and recycled nearly 9 million pounds of material during the past three years. Portola reported that it was able to measure a 9 percent reduction in kilowatt hour usage in 2012—that was in addition to an 8 percent reduction in 2011 and a 10.5 percent decrease in 2010. Behind those energy reduction achievements were more than 20 different initiatives across all eight Portola North American plants (participating in the 2012 initiatives were four U.S. facilities plus three Canadian plants and one in Mexico). Those accomplishments included combined efforts to locate and reduce heat and air losses, corrugated case redesign, installing higher efficiency compressors, and removal of equipment functioning at a lower efficiency but requiring more energy input. In 2012, Portola also evaluated its production floor layout. Production footprints that were found to be inefficient from a material delivery or energy utilization perspective were modified. Production from older, lower-efficiency equipment was moved to newer, highercavitation machines. Modification of some employee shift schedules also helped reduce energy utilization and improve efficiency. In addition to energy reduction, Portola plants recycled in excess of 3.4 million pounds of scrap resin in 2012. Portola’s material recycling efforts also extended to hydraulic oil waste, scrap metal, aluminum cans, office paper, and corrugated boxes. Portola also is factoring source-reduction initiatives into its closure development. For example, last fall the company launched its GreenLyte one-piece, highperformance closure for hot-fill beverage products. The new one-piece closure line replaces two-piece structures.
PORTOLA PACKAGING PARTNERS WITH CUSTOMERS TO DRIVE DOWN THE COMPANY’S ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT.
Commenting on those notable achievements, Kevin Kwilinski, president and chief executive officer at Portola Packaging says, “Ultimately, our objective is to create upstream processes which utilize material in the most efficient way possible. By doing so, there is less need to recycle on the back end. We also believe in partnering with our customers and communities to help make that happen.” Partnering with customers to drive down the company’s environmental footprint and ultimately to yield better business practices and smarter business operations is a great way to advance company sustainability and support customer initiatives. Portola continues to work with customers on an individual basis to convert shipments from corrugated boxes to Gaylord bulk packaging, which typically enables 30 to 35 percent more closures per truckload. The “Sustainability Advantages Through Working With You” page of the Portola website (www.portpack.com) explains that using the Gaylords saves about 400 cases for every 3 million closures and all the materials and carbon emissions related to their manufacture, shipping, and disposal. Kwilinski also mentioned in the Portola press release, “At Portola, we believe that good environmental stewardship is an ongoing process. As such, we have engaged all of our employees in the process to reuse,
YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS STORY HERE IBWA applauds Portola Packaging’s environmental efforts and invites all IBWA members to submit their companies’ environmental success story (via press release or by answering a simple questionnaire) for the opportunity to be featured in the Bottled Water Reporter to IBWA Director of Science and Research Tamika Sims, PhD: firstname.lastname@example.org.
reduce, and recycle. We encourage all of our team members to generate new, environmentally-sound ideas so that we can continue on this path.” In addition to Portola’s North American efforts, the company’s three international manufacturing plants (United Kingdom, Czech Republic, and Russia) are also working on a parallel environmental stewardship path. To read more about the sustainable activity at Portola, be sure to visit its website: www.portpack.com/ sustainability-main.html.
certified plant operators (CPOs) are encouraged to complete the following quiz for Â˝ IBWA continuing education unit (CEU). The questions are derived from material presented in this issue of the Bottled Water Reporter, the IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, and the IBWA Bottled Water Code of Practice. Submit this quiz to Claire Crane, IBWA Education and Technical Program Coordinator, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 650, Alexandria, VA 22134. Look for additional quizzes in future issues and earn additional IBWA CEUs! Name______________________________________________________
ZIP/Postal Code_ ___________________________________________
Check your selection for each question
Bottled water from well tapping a confined aquifer in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer is called _____.
OO OO OO OO
artesian water purified water ground water purified water
Water defined in the 23rd revision of the U.S. Pharmacopeia is called _____.
OO OO OO OO
spring water dialysis water purified water water beverage
The presence of Cryptosporidium parvum in water is an indicator of possible _____.
OO OO OO OO
inadequate plant sanitation surface water intrusion at the source contaminated containers or closures contagious disease spread by employees
The Food Safety Modernization Act includes revisions to this existing rule:
OO OO OO OO
21 CFR 110, General CGMPs 21 CFR 165.110, Bottled water standards 21 CFR 129, Bottled water CGMPs 21 CFR 120, Juice HACCP
Finished product is required by FDA to be tested at least monthly for coliform bacteria.
OO true OO false
On a bottled water label, the product identity statement must be included on the _____.
OO OO OO OO
information panel principal display panel closure accompanying flyer
Hazardous waste generators are regulated by _____.
OO OO OO OO
the U.S. Food and Drug Administration the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the U.S. Department of Commerce the U.S. Department of Labor
The OSHA exposure limit for ozone is _____.
OO OO OO OO
0.05 ppb 0.1 ppm 10 ppm 120 mg/l
A document with information on the health effects and exposure treatment for a chemical is called a _____.
OO OO OO OO
0.05 ppb 0.1 ppm 10 ppm 120 mg/l
Which of the following is an example of an environmental pathogen that is monitored in bottled water?
OO OO OO OO
Clostridium botulinum Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacillus subtilus Eschericia coli
NEW MEMBERS CANDIDATE BOTTLER
NEW DUTCH WATER 6 Westchester Plaza Elmsford, NY 10523 Telephone: 914.909.6343 Fax: 914.909.6344 Primary Representative: Steve Keim
SEMOPAC 2270 De La Province Quebec, Canada J4G 1G1 Telephone: 450.655.2999 Fax: 450.655.2620 Primary Representative: Richard Rouillard MIDWEST PLASTICS & DECORATING 9543 Watson Industrial Park Crestwood, MO 63126 Telephone: 972.989.0764 Primary Representative: Robert Wagner
ADVERTISERS Allied Purchasing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.alliedpurchasing.com . . . . . . . . . . 27 Analytical Technology, Inc.. . . . . . . . . www.analyticaltechnology.com . . . . . . . C3 Beverage Marketing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.beveragemarketing.com . . . . . . . 10 Blackhawk Molding Co.. . . . . . . . . . . www.blackhawkmolding.com . . . . . . . C2 IDEXX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idexx.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC Pacific Ozone Technology . . . . . . . . . www.pacificozone.com . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Polymer Solutions International . . . . . www.prostack.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Quality Truck Company . . . . . . . . . . . www.qualitytruckcompany.com . . . . . . 31
CALENDAR 2013 JUNE 17 - 20 IBWA June Board of Directors and Committee Meetings Hilton Alexandria Old Town Alexandria, Virginia
SEPTEMBER 26 - 28
Northeast Bottled Water Association Fall Convention Sarasota Springs, New York
NOVEMBER 11 - 15 IBWA Annual Business Meeting and Vendor Showcase Gaylord Opryland Resort and Convention Center Nashville, Tennessee co-location with the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA) CoffeeTea&Water event
VALUE OF IBWA MEMBERSHIP WALTER HITCHCOCK GENERAL MANAGER LAUREL MOUNTAIN NATURAL SPRING WATER CHATTANOOGA | TN ALL ABOUT WALTER Walter has spent most of his career in the beverage industry, but he is also a proud Naval Veteran. When not working, he likes to bass fish, serves on community boards, and is active with his church. Walter loves to have a laugh and has an unassuming sense of humor that won him the “most witty” title back in high school.
When it comes to the bottled water industry trends in his town of Chattanooga, Tennessee, Laurel Mountain National Spring Water’s General Manager Walter Hitchcock has noticed a definite uptick in the number of people choosing HOD for their homes. Hitchcock attributes that development to two factors: 1) people are more health conscious and thus are choosing water over other beverages, and 2) HOD offers bottled water packaged in convenient, eco-friendly, returnable, recyclable, 5-gallon bottles. As a former route salesman and route manager for Coca-Cola, Hitchcock says his company’s IBWA membership gives him and his customers the assurance that every aspect of his products and services is about quality: “IBWA is a guiding force in all things quality. And we tout our IBWA membership in our advertisements and brochures.” Hitchcock says that when he is sourcing new equipment for his plant, he always looks to the Buyers’ Guide edition of IBWA’s Bottled Water Reporter magazine. “The Buyers’ Guide has always helped me when I want to purchase equipment, such as coolers, accessories, such as stands, etc. It has always been a tremendous help,” he says. Also helpful is the association’s weekly e-newsletter, IBWA News Splash, which Hitchcock reads and takes note of not only issues affecting him directly in Tennessee but also what is happening in other states. “What happens in another state may be coming to your state soon: issues, taxes on bottled water—there’s always something. When you are up-to-date on what is going on in Minnesota, then you realize that could happen in your state too. It just gives you a greater awareness and an opportunity to be proactive about what might be coming down the pipe.” Hitchcock says, “The information that IBWA provides totally gives a company the opportunity to stay informed and know what is happening in the industry on a weekly basis. IBWA advocates on our behalf, not only in the state seats but also in Congress and the Senate, because they are the decision makers setting legislation that will affect our industry.” Laurel Mountain Natural Spring Water, a premium award-winning bottled water distributor owned by Chattanooga Coco-Cola Bottling Company, distributes both HOD (50 percent) and single-serve PET (50 percent) bottled water. Its water source is a spring owned by J & J Waterworks, LLC.
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5/17/13 1:49 PM
Mark Your Calendars Now! | November 11-15, 2013 Join us in Nashville, TN for the
2013 IBWA ANNUAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE AND VENDOR SHOWCASE at the Gaylord Opryland Resort and Convention Center / co-location with NAMA’s CoffeeTea&Water event
WWW.BOTTLEDWATER.ORG/CONVENTION To advertise in the Pre-Conference Issue of Bottled Water Reporter, contact Stephanie: email@example.com.