Issuu on Google+

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

1


2

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers


Women and Islamic Awakening

Selected Papers Volume 1 )

(

July 10 to 11, 2012

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

"Proceedings of the International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"

Permanent Secretariat of the Islamic Awakening Conference Tehran, Iran 3


4

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers


Women and Islamic Awakening (volume1) "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening" Selected Papers

Chairman of the Academic Board Dr. Abdollah Mobini Members of the Editorial Team (Academic Board and Jury Panel) Dr. Mohsen Esmaeili, Dr. Asqar Eftekhari, Dr. Elham Aminzadeh, Dr. Barkhordari, Dr.Hadi Jamshidian, Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini, Ali Hamzehpour, Dr. Hossein Rajabi, Dr. Rostampour, Dr. Nabiollah Rouhi, Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Raeiszadeh, Dr. Mojgan Sakha'ie, Dr. Alireza Soleimani, Dr. Touba Shakeri, Dr. Mehrshad Shababi, Farzan Shahidi, Abolfazl Sedghi, Dr. Soussan Safaverdi, Dr. Hossein Sharifi Tarazkouhi, Dr. Faezeh Azimzadeh, Dr. Fariba Alasvand, Dr. Hassan Ali-Akbari, Dr. Abbas Alipour, Dr. Esmat Fazeli, Dr. Farahani, Dr. Nafiseh Fayyazbakhsh, Dr. Asqar Qaedan, Dr. Nayereh Ghavi, Salman Karamian, Dr. Ebrahim Motaqi, Dr. Manouchehr Mohammadi, Dr. Mostafa Malakootian, Dr. Mehdi Nazemi Ardakani, Esmail Hemmatia

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Secretary General of the International Conference on Woman and Islamic Awakening Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati

5


6

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers


Women and Islamic Awakening "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening" Selected Papers

Proofreaders: Tahereh Zare-Zavardehi, Masoumeh Hossein-Khani Layout: Jawad Hossein-Khani Cover Designer: Jawad Hossein-Khani Publisher: Abna-e-Rouhollah Cultural Institute First published in July 2012 Circulation: 3000 copies Typesetting and sample reading: Jawad Hossein-Khani Postal Address: Permanent secretariat of Islamic Awakening, Khorsand St. Valie-Asr (AJ) St., Tehran, Iran All rights reserved Quoting the content allowed, but citation needed

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Collected and organized by the Academic Board of the International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening

7


8

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers


Table of Contents The Public Diplomacy of the United States of America and the Strategic Role of the Women from Islamic World...................................................................1 Bint Al-Huda; Her Behavior, Method, and Impact on the Islamic Awakening of Iraqi Women ............................................................................................... 22 The Position and Role of Women in Realization of an International-Islamic Culture ........................................................................................................ 36 Effective and Efficient Plans for Strengthening the Role of Women in the Movement of Islamic Awakening with the Purpose of Confronting the .......... 58 Deviant Western Ideas and Thoughts.......................................................... 58 Reviewing the theological and legal aspects of women’s participation and its effect on the Islamic Awakening movements ............................................... 79 Veiled Women’s Contribution to Islamic Awakening................................... 112 Islamic Call in the Awakening of the 21st Century: Imam Khomeini (May His Soul Rest in Peace), Women, and the Islamic Awakening ......................... 134 Strategies for Stabilizing the Role of Muslims in Religious Awakening in West. 152 The positive and negative position of social networks in the Islamic Awakening Women’s Contribution to Islamic Awakening with an Emphasis on the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model .................................................................... 174 Women’s political participation in the wave of the Islamic Awakening: right or obligation? ................................................................................................ 198 Deficits and the Threats Which Women Are Facing in the Islamic Awakening Movement................................................................................................. 228 Encouraging girls and boys to stay single ............................................. 236 Examining the role of creativity on the degree of Moslem women’s participation in the political activities .............................................................................. 238

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

................................................................................................................. 162

12.Rhimi. Hamid, Arbabisarjou, Allameh, and Aghababaei, Relationship between Knowledge Management Process and Creativity among Faculty Members in the University,2011 ................................................................. 253 Examining the Reasons for Muslim Women Backwardness in Islamic Societies and the Ways to Retrieval of Their Lost Identity ......................................... 254 Islamic Awakening and the Role of Young Egyptian Women in the Tahrir Intifada...................................................................................................... 276

9


Islamic Awakening in Bahrain: Government Instability and Women’s Political Functions .................................................................................................. 308 The Islamic Awakening, the Task of the Women, and the Principles and Basics of Dynamism and Durability............................................................ 336 Jurisprudential Fundamentals of Women’s Presence in Social, Political, and Executive Positions, and Their Role in the Achievements of Popular

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Revolutions ............................................................................................... 370

10


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

11


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction Islamic Awakening is a novel, regenerative, and impressive

12

phenomena in the twentieth century’s post-transition era. Acknowledged by scholars, this Awakening has been consisted of three major waves. The first wave could be attributed to Sayed Jamal idin Assad Abadi’s efforts, the great reformer who traveled through Islamic countries and invited Muslims to return to their Islamic identities. Sayed Jamal’s reformist ideas immediately impressed the Islamic scholars and elites. The Islamic Awakening Movement, based on Sayed Jamal’s socio-Islamic thoughts, could in some way establish Islamic Awakening’s intellectual, cognitional, and conceptual foundations. But the movement did not manage to run into operation to give social and conducting outcomes. That is why Imam Khomeini, having a great knowledge of blind spots, fortes, threats and challenges of the first wave of the Islamic Awakening, presented a paradigm of Islamic thought in the social arena, paved the way for the Islamic Awakening, and reestablished such a thought based on Islamic original values. In addition to reproducing Islamic Government ideology, he directed enormous effort to functionalize the Islamic Government ideology the fruit of which is Iran’s Islamic


Revolution with huge effects on the Islamic world and the international relations. Many experts have dubbed Iran’s Islamic Revolution as the second wave of Islamic Awakening due to its effects and teachings that it presented to the world during the cold war era and concurrent with the dominance of balance of terror strategy at the international level. Among such effects, one could mention operational invitation of Muslims into the Islamic identity, independence and freedom seeking, rehabilitation of

The repercussions of Iran’s Islamic Revolution on regional transitions soared after the Zionist Regime’s 33-day war with Lebanon and their 22-day war with Palestine which eradicated their delusive grandeur. This impression increased the self-esteem among Muslims and in a short time Muslims created the third wave of the Islamic Awakening. Praise be upon God, this Awakening is increasingly developing in countries such as Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and other countries; with resplendent achievements. This Awakening will undoubtedly evolve in the future, and God willing the result of such evolutions and reforms will change the power balance in favor of the Muslim world in the region and throughout the international arena.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Muslims’ dignity and grandeur, reliance on Islamic civilization and culture, etc. which altogether subjected international relations’ equations to a dramatic transformation. The collapse of Marxist ideology and downfall of Communist system in the east, and a global ideological void, together with a lack of response by other human-made claiming ideologies; caused the vast distribution of Islamic Awakening wave throughout the Islamic world, and turned it to a paradigm for all the liberals and leftist revolutionary ideologists in international relations.

13


Islamic Awakening Summit was held in September 2011 and consequently, the World Assembly of Islamic Awakening was established. In January 2012, the Conference on Islamic Awakening and Youth was held with spectacular results which are impressive in awakening path of the Muslims. The third conference, Women and Islamic Awakening is currently being held in July 2012, with participants from more than 84 countries.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Women’s role and status, as half of the effective population in Islamic Awakening transitions, have caused the two-day conference to deal with issues as diverse as opportunities, threats, and solutions ahead; Islamic thought, female capacity, and revolutionary action; experiences, achievements, and demands by women; quality of women and families’ interactions and international relationships and developing new capacities for revolutionary forces; women’s perspective and future reforms in Islamic Awakening; and other related issues. Despite the short deadline for paper submission for the Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening, the conference was well received internationally, so that in addition to a sharp increase in the number of articles, the content and quality have also risen compared to the previous conferences. Now the Islamic Awakening permanent secretariat of the international Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening seeks to describe the nature of women’s roles in different political, social, and cultural arenas in order to achieve the following destinations:  Restoring the principles and implementing the values and Islamic goals based on the Qur’an and the Islamic Sharia, 14

 Restoring Islamic and national grandeur and magnitude in Muslim countries,


 Forming an international Islamic power, and creating a new Islamic civilization based on religion, intellect, science, and ethics,  Establishing an interactive space between the movements and personalities, and sharing experiences between them,  Confronting the interference and influence of the global arrogance in the structure of the modern political system,  Providing an Islamic-democratic pattern instead of the western democracy,  Confronting oppression, and imperialists’ unilateralism, the global arrogance, and the international Zionism, and

 The Muslim woman’s intellectual, subjective, jurisprudential, and legal foundations in Islamic Awakening wave,  Dynamic, Islamic, and revolutionary components and values in Islamic Awakening,  Women’s political, social, cultural, and revolutionary roles in Islamic Awakening,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

 Boosting self-esteem and national self confidence in confronting imperialists’ propaganda and psychological invasions. Inspired by the viewpoints of academic and political experts, the conference looks upon the women’s role in this major incident through these 5 general axes:

 Muslim women’s pathology (weaknesses and threats) in Islamic Awakening Movement, and  Islamic revolution, paradigms, experiences, achievements of women in Islamic Awakening wave.

and

15


In order to achieve these goals, after the submission of scholars’ articles, over 400 viewpoints were received through scientific articles from different countries and evaluated by the members of scientific committee and the jury, the result of which is a collection of Selected papars presented in different languages for scholars and intellectuals. Under the God’s benignity, we hope that this conference, according to its mission, can open new horizons ahead of the players of Islamic Awakening arena, especially the Muslim women and boost the development of Islamic Awakening. The academic board of the conference hopes that such gatherings and scientific moves get richer by the guidance of the intellectuals and elites. God willing!

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Dr. Abdollah Mobini Academic Secretary of the Conference on Women and

16

Islamic Awakening


The Public Diplomacy of the United States of America and the Strategic Role of the Women from Islamic World 

Shahla Bagheri1

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to understand the mechanism of the Public diplomacy system of the United States of America in the women-related areas, while addressing women’s role in deterring

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and neutralizing their plans. First, the definition of “diplomacy” “public diplomacy” is studied, and then, the “public diplomacy of the United States of America” has been explained. Especially since the September 11th in 2001, the public diplomacy system of the United States of America has followed five goals, taking advantage of cultural diplomacy and media diplomacy: 1. Introducing and inducing American life style as the one and only life style for the human being of this age. 2. Identifying a new enemy for the United States of America 3. Islamophobia and promoting Islamic terrorism 4. Introducing civil conflicts, specifying historical roots of them. 5. Confronting religion and the metaphysical world by imposition of superstitions and magic. Among the five major goal of the United States of America's public diplomacy system, the most obvious and most explicit goal that requires women's role and their influence is “Introducing and inducing American life style”. Addressing the issues of beauty and makeup, cosmetic surgery, fashion orientation, obsession with luxury and absurd modern communications, has had the most evident influence and demonstration female sex due to their elegance

1

1.Scientific board member of Kharazmi University and head of the sociology department


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and specific to physical and sexual potentials. Companies in North America and Western Europe hold about 86 percent of cosmetics sales, and among the cosmetic products, those associated with facemake up are best-sellers with $ 7.9 billion. Women and their status is an important issue, addressed repeatedly in Hollywood as well. Portrayed in an exaggerated manner, Women in historical movies act merely as toys whose only job is to satisfy the lechery of kings and the royal court. It is necessary to take advantage of the potential to

2

define and develop a "public diplomacy for Muslim women from Islam World" for the sake of capacity building and political and cultural surveys of Islamic nations. Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) can be a appropriate environment for introducing and pondering on this issue. Other strategic proposals presented in this article include a variety of factors. They are: developing "strategies and policies of the Islamic life style" in the Islamic awakening summit; Organization of the Islamic Conference or Organization of the International Parliamentary Union; "Establishment of peace and friendship in social networks for women" whether in the level of Islamic world or in the global level of interaction with the all the women around the world. Keywords Public Diplomacy of the United Stated of America, Muslim women, Islamic awakening, cultural diplomacy


Introduction Considering women as “target group” and special addressee in America’s public diplomacy system is not separated from America’s public diplomacy goals. Supporting the national interest and national security of America is the goal of diplomacy system of this country, and it has paid special attention to the target group through two subjective and objective approaches . Selecting women, whether as America’s public diplomacy system

the importance of this “target group .” Charlotte Beers, who ran an ad agency in the past and had an experience of 40 years in trade and marketing affairs, was appointed to the position of America’s Under Secretory of public diplomacy one month after 11th Septembers attacks. She comes to Washington to do marketing and trade. She was formerly chief executive officer of J. Walter Thompson and Ogilvy, two greatest companies among America’s ten major marketing and advertising companies. The major activities of Ms. Charlotte Beers’ ad companies have been advertisement on “cooked rice” and “hair-washing shampoo” and “comb” (Snow, 2004). It seems that one of the goals of America diplomacy system is that to present this country, which claims to

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

administrators or as addressee in this system, indicates the important and central role of this group in meeting America’s goals and greed. International information agency of America considers public diplomacy as America’s foreign policy voice. With this view in mind, one should say that it was the women of America who as administrators of this country voiced its foreign policy. Both Democrats and Republicans pay specific attention to the issue of selecting women as secretary of State. And selecting Ms. Condoleezza Rice and Mrs. Hillary Clinton can be an example of this issue. Selecting Charlotte Beers, as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of America, also indicates

3


handle international scenes, as a commercial product for sales and distribution in public. And it seems that it is America which writes the plot and “America’s brand and viewpoint” is to be transferred and transformed to the world of politics as a metaphor of world buying and selling goods and world of marketing.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Ms. Margaret Tutwiler, the former ambassador of United States in Macedonia and experienced employee of Bush’s executive system, was replaced for Charlotte Beers. She in her affidavit in

4

congress of February 2004 said that returning America to its previous position in the world requires years of hard work and concentration (Milson, 138, p. 291) In “subjective approach”, it is women of United States who are concentrated on as executives of public diplomacy system and public opinion in different levels and in “objective approach” it is the women of other countries who are concentrated on. In other words, in objective approach America’s public diplomacy system transfers American’s thoughts and values in order to affect and control women in other countries. The importance of central and focal role of women in the family and society makes a good media out of this “target group” for transferring American values to the other segments of society. It seems that soft power and soft war need “soft gender” for its ascendency. It seems that they believe that soft gender is more suitable for international soft war and in the form of a public diplomacy system. Anyway, understanding the nature and mechanism and America’s public diplomacy system operation process enables us to understand the objective approach towards women better and deeper, and clarify the importance of cultural processes in America’s public diplomacy system for attracting addressee in general and specifically women society. Women of Islamic world are not separated from specific addressee group. Through understanding functional


processes of America’s public diplomacy system one will be able to promote the importance of these women groups’ effectiveness in international transactions and relations. In this paper, after defining new public diplomacy and the historical experiences in international arena, the nature and typical operation of USA public diplomacy are explained. After explaining the processes and cultural and public mechanisms, the role of cultural diplomacy tools and media diplomacy tools in changing

equivalent of “foreign policy and relations” cannot be used anymore. And nowadays through transition from traditional diplomacy to new diplomacy, we can see the change in nature of diplomacy in international and political scene handling. Therefore, the most practical definition for diplomacy should be “Endeavour to utilize peaceful means for management of foreign relations” (Ashoori, 1366:170) . After 1918, it was new diplomacy which was considered in terms of concept and expression. This kind of diplomacy is result of important events in international arena, including Russian Revolution of 1917, America entry into international relations arena and playing the role of superpower in part of this country, and appearance of international organization for managing world society

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

lifestyle of women is dealt with and some strategies are presented . New Public Diplomacy: backgrounds and concepts Handling international scene needs to be investigated more carefully after cold war due to many changes and evolutions it experienced. These changes in foreign policy and patterns and fundamentals axes cause some modifications in rules and even organizations responsible for policy implementation; these changes can be explained in details through concepts of “diplomacy” and “public diplomacy”. With a relative separation of borders of various political areas, the vast definition of diplomacy which is assumed an

5


affairs. Though, the title of “new diplomacy” has been maintained and applied during a long period from 1918 to 2006, it seems that the “nature of diplomacy” has not been fixed. And one can claim that collapse of Soviet Union and what happened in 11th September have affected the type of diplomacy implementation pattern (Milson, 1388: 14-16 quoted from Iftekhari) . Apart from different patterns of new diplomacy, it seems that common characteristic of new diplomacies can be explained with

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

idiomatic concept of “public diplomacy”; besides, it is more suitable for the purposes of this study. Public Diplomacy Definition: “ “Public diplomacy” means a government’s attempt to affect public thoughts and elites’ opinions of other nations so that it can determine or change the policy of target country. Besides, it is affective in becoming successful and attaining the countries’ goals. According to public diplomacy, national goals and interests are in relation with foreign policy in different ways: broadcast, culture making in media, journalists, and foreign academics, cultural activities and exchanges, scheduled and targeted appointments, speeches, conferences and international publications . One should pay attention that this road is not one-sided. In order to affect people, elites, and culture of targeted country, one should acquire a true and exact understanding of motivations, culture, history, psychology, and certainly the language of the country which is to be affected” (Mlaone, 1988:12). Joseph Nye believes that public diplomacy has three dimensions : 1st dimension_ it is daily relations which explains framework and field of foreign and domestic policy decisions. Governments

6

should be aware of the effect of their measures and these measures’ influences on international prestige of their own countries .


2nd dimension_ relations are strategies that are very similar to political and advertising campaigns. In these campaigns, symbolic events and relations are designed to advance governments’ policies . 3rd dimension_ developing stable relations with key individuals is through granting scholarship, academic and cultural exchanges, education, holding conferences, and access to communication channels. According to Nye, the importance of America’s cultural and practical exchanges is because it trains many important leaders

atmosphere has increased the necessity of utilization of public diplomacy. USA Public Diplomacy: United Sates public diplomacy includes distribution of American values and beliefs, nowadays internationally, is one of the two major centers of USA Foreign Ministry strategic design… years of transferring international information and cultural exchanges through publications and advertisement turns into an “essential and vital target” for USA Ministry of Foreign Affairs (USA Ministry of Foreign Affairs: 2001, p: 5-38). Strategic communication plans that are designed and distributed specifically for addressee outside USA,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of the world. Joseph Nye believes that public diplomacy is a two-sided road, which requires listening and yet speaking. Therefore, effectiveness of soft power is dependent on this fact that how others hear our messages and based on this fact we should adjust and arrange messages. The fundamental issue in this field is recognition of desired addressee. Because information passes through cultural filter, thus addressee rarely listens to complicated speeches and the effects of measures are more than statements (Nye, 20o4, p: 32) Anyway, one can easily receive this message that new diplomatic

7


through utilization of huge technologic facilities such as internet, printed publications, electronic transfer and information services, has significantly increased the US cultural diplomacy capability (international office of USA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2001, p: 48). John Galvin, commander of NATO forces in1992, said: we won

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the Cold War with Russia, the Communist. Now, after a deviation of 70 years, we can return to our real battle that has an antiquity of 1400 years and it is confrontation with Islam (Golvin, 1373, P: 120). America that knows itself as the sole winner and conqueror of Cold War and the only superpower of the world, claimed to establish the new world order. After the collapse of Soviet Union and East Block, various books were written by American experts that named America as the only superpower of the world (Ikenberry, 1382)

8

The most important priority of NATO Contract in Washington Heads Conference in 1999 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of signing the treaty, with the concept of “new strategy”, war against Terrorism was replaced for war against Communism, and Islamic World specifically Middle East was introduced as the center of Terrorism . The event of 11th September became a new excuse for war against terrorism which is above NATO’s all priorities, regardless of the land territories. In this regard, Daniel Pipes, one of America’s new conservative strategists believed that Islamic World should be modernized. He believed that the final goal of war against Terrorism should be modernization of Islam or in other words, religionization. (Diplomatic Hamshahri, 2004) Modernization of Islam is other side of the coin of America’s public diplomacy system, which Ms. Charlotte Beers, Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs of America and the Under Secretary of public diplomacy and America’s public thoughts, explains. She names four major strategic goals for America’s public diplomacy, these are as below: • Introduction of America’s values and beliefs


• Introduction, survey and providing opportunities for democracy, dominance and free labor market • Supporting youths education and transferring America’s worries to them • Familiarizing the Middle East and Islamic countries public thoughts with content of America’s foreign policy. America’s Foreign Affairs Ministry draws 12 major strategic goals for itself in 2004, which one of them is “public diplomacy and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

public relations” that is implemented in three areas: • Cultural and educational exchanges • Public relations • International information programs and report of Brooking Institution in www. Fars agency.ir As it was mentioned before, it is planned to use cultural diplomacy (art, educational and cultural tools and equipment) and “Media diplomacy” as important tools for public diplomacy system and attraction of minds and hearts and the art of attraction and influence in the best way. As Schneider, former ambassador of the United States to Netherlands, says ,“because of cultural diplomacy success during cold war, USA is expected to turn to cultural diplomacy during the period after 11th of September in order to increase the international understanding of people of America and world of Arab and Islam.” (Milson, 1388: 269). He adds: “a powerful cultural diplomacy can support the value and ideals which are characteristics of America. Powerful cultural diplomacy implementation not only needs leadership and guidance from White House and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but also needs guidance from private sectors and allocation of appropriate budget; furthermore, “a proper balance between “market” and private sectors powers in using culture should be considered to form world public thoughts... strategic investment in

9


folklore with the aim of desired product distribution will bring benefits in the court of world public thoughts” (ibid, pp 296-297) .

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

In this regard, one of the western experts says: one of the most important national interests, which is achieved from among beneficial interest resulted from cultural diplomacy utilization, is an increase in ideological influence. And this ideological influence is enforced through cultural export and by political institutions. While it is not possible to impose democracy through putting a bullet in

10

people’s brain, one can transfer, domesticate and promulgate it intelligently through cultural diplomacy, and diffusion range beyond borders (Doyle, 1999, pp : 45-53). Since 11th September, America’s public diplomacy system has followed five goals using cultural diplomacy tools and media diplomacy. These goals are: 1. Introducing America’s new enemy. This period called “war against Islam” is based on this assumption that making enemies for America requires identification and clarification of an ideology which is named Islam . 2. Islamophobia and Islamic terrorism propaganda. In this goal, showing a fearful face out of Islam and creating terrorism with Islamic origin and essence is on the agenda; furthermore, this doubt is induced that though all Muslims are not terrorists, all terrorists are Muslim . 3.Introduction of civilizational confrontation along with mentioning historical origins of this confrontation. In this goal Arab World, Iran and Pakistan are introduced as Land of Danger, and basically Muslims are targeted. 4. Confrontation with religion and metaphysics through inducing superstition and magic specifically in serials and movies like Harry Potter.


5. Introduction and induction of American lifestyle, as the only lifestyle of today’s human beings. (Bernard, 2003& www.state.gov) According to Schneider, former ambassador of United States in Netherland, “while folklore partakes in communicating America’s ideas and values, the most impressive common aspect of cultural diplomacy, which is financially supported by government, and the free flow of folklore must be determined, or even analyzed. The recent innovations by “United States Managers Council” indicated

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the attempts made in order to combine “cultural diplomacy” and “folklore”. (Milson, 1388, p: 292) Women in America public diplomacy system agenda “Introduction and induction of American lifestyle” is the clearest and most explicit goals from among the five major goals of America’s public diplomacy, which requires women roles and their effectiveness. The concept of “lifestyle” and its well-known indices such as “body management”, and “consumerism”, and “the type of social relationship”, exposes the distinct manifestation of oneself among women. The most frequent manifestation and exposure among female gender, due to her elegances and physical and sexual capabilities, is of dealing with the issue of beauty and makeup, cosmetic surgery, Fashionism and seeking luxury, and modern communication style. Therefore, gentle sex and misuse of her physical and sexual characteristics has been helpful mostly in American lifestyle promulgation and Western culture promotion as the only lifestyle for today’s human being. The evidences show that “the expanded beauty ideals are influenced by westerns. Since America’s colonization, it was Western Europe that influenced society’s understanding of beauty. In other words, who is beautiful and who defined beauty.” Aurjina Caw

11


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

considers cosmetic surgery a tool for Westernization (Song, 2003, p: 4). There are historical processes which make “beauty culture” universal and American companies are dominating universal “health and beauty industry” after World War ‖. (Camron, 2004, p: 80) Dealing with cosmetic surgery since manifestation of modern beauty, is not only as a way of promotion of appearance but also as a tool for enabling people to decrease or omit “undesirable” symptom, which they believe, makes “other”, “other” which is distinct from

12

dominant or more desired tribal or racial group of the society. In Europe of 19th century, “other” was Jews. Stereotype images of them present their bodies deformed and ugly, different and vulnerable. These racial symptoms were related to parasites and social labels such as weakness and sickness, which itself brought about an obstacle on their way of getting similar with the Arian Society. The first surgeons and founders of Rhinoplasty such as Jacaues-Josef, was himself a Jew who was acculturated. They in a way imparted those surgical procedures that make Jewish patients “invisible” racially. (Davis, 2003, Pp.: 73-76) According to statistics and figures, several great companies from different countries in the world have the most important portion in cosmetic product sale. From among these companies, North America’s basic companies and Western Europe have 86% of sale in this field (Hoon and Rugman, 2006, p: 164) The following table shows number and amount of sale, average of sale of 100 world great companies in details:


Table1: table of sale of 100 world great companies (2003) (million dollar of America) Percentage of World total sale

Word Total sale

Number of companies

Company’s country

1.336 59 147 1.269 1.567 166 733 2.709 117 720 91 696 206 738 960 1631 374 1148 1098

42.56 0.05 0.13 42.75 22.83 1.51 6.01 9.86 0.32 1.31 0.16 0.63 0.19 0.67 43.67 11.88 1.70 31.58 100

46753 59 147 46959 25082 1843 6599 10835 352 1440 181 696 206 738 47977 13051 1870 14921 109857

35 1 1 37 16 10 9 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 50 8 5 13 100

America Canada Brazil Sum France Italy Germany England Switzerland Spain Russia Netherlands Ireland Sweden Sum Japan South Korea Sum Total Sum

America

Europe

Asia

Source: Hoon and Rugman, 2006 Also, according to the report of Table 3, the most sold products in the world in 2001 are the product for skin care. The product of hair care has the second rank. Among cosmetic product, cosmetics related to makeup with 7.9 billion dollars have the first rank.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

World sale average

13


Table 2: amount and kind of cosmetic products sold in the world market in 2001

Cosmetic product

7.9 billions 6.6 billions 5.4 billions 2.5 billions

Makeup Lipstick Eye makeup Nail makeup

The sale amount of kinds of products 277 billions 313 billions

Skin care Hair care

225 billions

cosmetic

224 billions

Perfumes Personal health

20 billions

Kind of product

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Source: Kumar, 2005, p: 1264)

14

On the other hand and regarding the five goals after 11th September, one should pay attention to the role played by pioneers of plan of the foundation of new civilized society namely artists in cinema. Though a serious rival named computer games challenges it, in a determined future the influence of serials, and in the second level movies is very important for civilization. American lifestyle is a preposition that its content is presented in comedy movies series of American Pie. Though it has been started a long time a ago, it had been embedded in the atmosphere governing after 11th September and was emphasized as the major materials of American life to be studied. Nowadays, in all serials and in satellite channels, one can see Farsi1. This channel attempts to create an atmosphere among satellite audiences in Persian-language society through broadcasting foreign routine serials and mostly American and Korean serials dubbed in Persian. “Farsi1� channel is in Hong Kong and its founder is Star institute belonging to News Corporation, whose real owner is Rupert Murdoch, with American Jewish descent. He owns many


great channels of the world. Those serials and movies broadcasted in this channel concentrate on several major issues: 1. Couples betraying each other, specifically in “Victoria” serial. 2. Free and illegitimate relationships of boys and girls. 3. Use of erotic scenes. Farsi1 channel uses new ways particularly “induction” in field of media’s psychology, furthermore, regular serials are broadcasted in one specific and determined time .

increasingly. This fact makes difficult audiences’ anti-hegemonic reactions, though this can be always possible . Anyway, women and their condition is of important issues which are dealt with frequently in Hollywood cinemas. Women in historical movies like “Alexander” and “300” are seen in kings’ harems, and have been presented as tools for satisfying kings’ and courtiers’ sexual drives. Therefore, in these movies and the like, based on function of “stereotypes” which is to increase differences and present these judgements as being something inherent, and also through using function of Fetishism, exaggerated look at king’s harem represented. King\s harems are a substitution for all Iranian women. Another aspect of using women in America’s cultural diplomacy system is introduction of religion and metaphysics especially

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Among available media products, “Hollywood Cinema” has a singular and unique position in presenting representations of media from outside world. Hollywood cinema takes part in social reproduction of America public diplomacy system concepts, and in favour of hegemonic bloc . “Islamic World” is a major subject in Hollywood cinema and Hollywood practices hegemonic actions in order to satisfy its audience and impose its viewpoints on them under the title of civilization of cinema. False representation of Iran and Iranian woman in these movies through using advanced techniques and studios are getting believable

15


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 16

through induction, superstition, and magic. Transmodern movies and movies like these are works which follow serious purpose significantly. This purpose is confrontation with religion, creation of a fake metaphysic and creation of a desired influence. “Harry Potter”, “Narnia”, “Constantine”, “Ninth Gate” (Polansky), and “Devil’s Advocate” are typical examples of these types of movies . In July 1386, Roman Catholic Church has held a three-day conference in Mexico City in which cardinals, bishops, catholic primates from around the world took part. In this conference they investigated the reasons and backgrounds behind prevalence of Satanism in the world. The gist of Catholic Church formal statement was that the major factor in expanding Satanism in the last decade was Harry Potter. In fact, Harry Potter has a great influence in expanding fake unseen and originality of superstition and magic. This statement was reflected in all world media while it was reading by a priest. Nowadays, in America’s education it is Harry Potter which is selected by Republicans and democrats prefer “Narnia.” Narnia’s series as a strategic literature has a Satanist nature. Satanists also have a promised Satan which comes and is promising. “Lucifer” in these movies is a symbol of promised Satan which will come in the future. Lucifer, in “Constantine”, comes downward and after that, time stops. He is a symbol of Satan of the time. In Polanski’s “Ninth Gate”, Ms Lucifer is a devil that guides that person. But in Narnia Series, the little girl, who is named Lucy and opens the road to ice land, is Lucifer and she guides others. The woman, who plays the role of Queen of the ices, is the one who plays the role of Gabriel in “Constantine”. The face we see of Hazrat Jibrail under the name of Gabriel in “Constantine”, and his two wings, are allegory of a heavenly angel. In the last scene, when Lucifer comes down and time stops, Jibrail’s wings burn. Basically, those who have dead and soulless face and there is nothing in their face, are considered for negative roles. This woman in Narnia is the Queen of the Iceland, and in Constantine, is Hazrat Jibrail. The


created atmosphere is completely antireligious and is a rejection of metaphysics and has the originality of superstition and magic. Results and suggestions Understanding the nature and function of America’s public diplomacy system, one can claim that what can be and what will be the role of women of the world and women of Islamic world and Islamic Republic of Iran in general after 11th September, and in Islamic awakening period in specific. Women of the Islamic World

retrieve and recognize their position and role, and through using God’s present blessings bring about more attention to God and His recognition. It is clear that the present diplomatic and political frames and capacities should be used in the best way in order to provide necessary opportunities for introduction of Islamic culture, value and lifestyle to the world. Therefore this study suggests that: • In addition to utilizing the understanding of nature and function of public diplomacy in general and America’s public

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

including women inhabiting in Geographical, ideological and intellectual boundaries of Islamic Republic of Iran, are responsible for promotion of “Islamic lifestyle” as their first duty in opposing the goals of America’s public diplomacy system. Nowadays, the concept of lifestyle is solely indicative of effective, efficient cultural components. The important duty and mission of the society of women is understanding the rich and deep culture of Islam and extracting lifestyles out of religious teachings. Those religious teachings aim at worshiping God and closeness to God and could bring about improvement of the earth. Especially, women should

17


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

diplomacy in specific, one should use in the best way definition and codification capacities of “public diplomacy of women of Islamic world” in the direction of capacity development and Islamic countries’ cultural and political survey. Islamic awakening conference and organization of Islamic conference can be a good litter for detailed design and process of this issue. In this regard, it seems that conference of Islamic world thoughtful women or similar gathering such as conference of Islamic countries’ women Ministers, could be the best field for introduction of the issue and its tracking in the future. And it also in addition to a total introduction of the issue, could prove the importance of cultural convergence of the Islamic world along with cultural varieties and utilization of specific capacities of native and local culture.

18

• Popularity of diplomacy and popular and diplomatic institutionalization is an important point in explanation of “public diplomacy of Islamic World Women”. Using the capacity of grassroots organizations requires a specific planning and policy . • Vision document of Islamic Republic of Iran in 1404 Hegira, which is among the state’s fundamental and strategic documents, has the necessary capability for codification of “active public diplomacy” and women’s public diplomacy institutionalization in Islamic Republic of Iran in order to defend. Public diplomacy as an important channel for planning soft power production program and reproduction of other components of cultural diplomacy and media diplomacy is also components of national power. Litter of paragraph 9 and 10 of policies of fourth and fifth development program of laws of Islamic Republic of Iran is also based on active and efficient defensive diplomacy planning that, in addition to coordination with principles of state foreign policy, help the fulfillment of important values in the area of defensive power of the country and consolidate holistic deterrence. “Active diplomacy” is not limited to formal diplomacy in two-sided or three-sided levels and it also oversees


public diplomacy. Especially that according to act of Islamic Republic of Iran’s macro-economy policies, “modification of wrong insights and beliefs in international arena and guidance of world society’s policies to woman position based on Islamic culture is one of the important duties of Islamic Republic of Iran in international arena”. (Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution’s Act, Women International Policies in Islamic Republic of Iran) • The capability of functional and strategic planning has not been possible up to now because of lack of official and modern policy of

blessing to them. In this regard, “social network formation of women’s peace and friendship” whether in Islamic world or in their interactions with world women are suggested. Reinforcement and national and international institutionalization of social, cultural, and educational networks of Islamic world’s women are inevitable necessity and it puts emphasis on the capacity of making network and efficient and purposeful media communications. 6. )Basis of legitimacy is partly the utilization of “seduction and deception”,as the basis for America’s public diplomacy in capturing intellects and hearts in liberalist culture and ideology, is based on collective interest. Nowadays, expansion of public space, media, and party competition has caused seduction and deception to be more

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islamic lifestyle. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the codification of “strategies and policies of Islamic lifestyle” in Islamic awakening conference or organization of Islamic conference or Islamic Inter-parliamentary Union. Islamic convergence, more than other international cooperation categorization is dependent on the power of satisfaction and subsequently increases national and international utilizations capacity . • Women are considered as ambassador of peace and carriers of peace and friendship culture. Their instinct characteristics and psychological capabilities and even physical ones have granted this

19


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 20

difficult and costly on the inner surface in comparison with the past. But this element can be used for advancing policy on the external and international surface. This attitude is in contradiction with Islamic attitude - opposing each kind of seduction and deception - fundamentally and ontologically. Concept of “inspiration”, in contradiction with the concept of seduction, has more capacity for transferring Islam’s And Islamic Republic of Iran’s message in analogy with soft power. Inspiration pays more attention to hearts, rather than intellects; it speaks with hearts and tries to do according to the principle “what comes from the heart touches the heart”. Perhaps, culture, value, and policy of a country are different from other countries. But message of a country may touch heart of another country’s people; similarly that message of Islamic Republic of Iran has touched the heart of many people in different lands, whether Shiite or Sunni. In Islam, truthfulness and honesty in affairs are fundamental values. Missionaries and commansments know truthfulness one of their important missions; furthermore, they know decamping of truthfulness from society an introduction to corruption. Perhaps, Muslims have the authorization to conduct psychological operations in the exceptional circumstances of the war; but it is clear that authorization does not mean prescription for utilizing deception in normal circumstances. In Holy Quran, it is emphasized on methods such as transfer, propaganda and promotion, warning, annunciation, argument and reasoning, preach and admonish, controversy and debate, speech and sermon and Mobahele, as various tools for effectiveness and propaganda.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Refrences -Ikenberry, G. John (1382). Only Superpower: America’s Hegemony in 21st century. Tran. Azim Fazlipoor. Tehran: Abrar-e-Moaser institute publication. -Ashoori, Draioosh (1366). Political Encyclopaedia, tehran: Sohrevardi and Morvarid. -Galvin, John (1373). Goftegoo Magazine, No. 7, Spring 1373. -Milson, John et al (1388). New Public Diplomacy, tran. Reza Kalhor and Mohammad Mohsen Roohani, Tehran: Imam Sadiq University and psychological operations conference secretariat, 2nd edition . -Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution’s Acts, “Policies of Women’s International Activities in Republic Islamic of Iran”, meeting 516, date 6/12/1382. -Diplomatic Hamshahri (1383), “Targeting the Roots” No,10, 2nd half of Farvardin (quoted from Daniel Pipes .) -Darvish, Rezadad (1384). America’s Book (6). Specific to America’s Public Diplomacy, Tehran: Abrar-e-Moaser institute publication. -Bernard,chery(2003).”civil democratic Islam :partner ,resources ,and strategies” santa monica , ca, Rand corporations ,Rand occasional papers. -Camron, Michael Amin, (2004) Importing "beauty culture" into Iran in the 1920sand 1930s : Mass Marketing individualism in the age of anti-imperialism sacrifice; comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and Middle East,24:1 -Kumar, samir (2005) Exploratory analysis of global cosmetic industry: major players, technology and market trends,Technovation,25. -Davis, Kathy (2003) Surgical Passing: Or Why Michael Jackson”s Nose Makes us Uneasy, Feminist Theory,n.4 -Doyle, Michael .w.( 1999) "A liberal view: preserving and expending the liberal pacific union”, in John A.Hall and t.v. paul, eds.”International order and the future of world politics”, Cambridge, university press. -Hoon,Ch. O & Rugman, A (2006). "The Regional Sales of Multinationals in the World Cosmetics Industry," Working Papers 2006-20, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy. -Snow, Nancy” (2004).” A Tale of Two Jumped Ship at state” .Foreign policy in focus may 27/2004. -Song, Julie(2003) Saving Face: Asian American Women and the Politics of Cosmetic Surgery" Paper Presented at the Annual meeting of the American Sociological Association , Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16,online at : http://WWW.allacademic. com/meta/P107479_index.html - Malone, Gifford. D.( 1988)"political Advocacy and cultural communication: organizing the Nation's public diplomacy" Lanheim , Md: university press of America. -Nye,Joseph 2004b,’the benefits of soft power”HBS Working Knowledge:32 & www.hbswk.hbs.edu - U.S. State Department(2001) ,” About the office of international information program's 2001 , office of international information programs, avalible @ http://usinfo. State. Gov/about/intex.htm .(www.state.gov) Brookings Agency Report with title of “America Sound, America’s Public Diplomacy for 21st century” in (www.fars agency.ir)

21


Bint Al-Huda; Her Behavior, Method, and Impact on the Islamic Awakening of Iraqi Women 

Kawkab al-Attar1

Abstract Although the global arrogance chants the slogan of human rights and freedom, it does not recognize the Muslim Arab people to have human dignity and value. America, Israel, and their hired laborers, i.e. the kings of some countries, are instances of such arrogance. The

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

global arrogance dictates its domination to the society by the means of weaponry and imprisonment. It represses the people and deprives them from their lawful rights. The people, who were respected and

22

dignified in the just religion of Islam, and were honored with being the successors of the Most Worshiped Allah, were repressed by the global arrogance. The Holy Qur’an says “And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority."” (Al-Baqara: 30). According to this view, no one is allowed to abuse other people, to oppress them, to steal their properties, and to ridicule others since the ultimate goal of the mission of the prophets and angels is to educate the humans, train their minds, and guide them. The Most High God has indicated in the Holy Qur’an: “It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom - although they were before in clear error” (Al-Jumu’ah: 2). After the prophets, they are Imams who take up the role of continuing the mission to preserve and maintain the beliefs and to 1. Former Member of Parliament - Iraq


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

observe the correct implementation of the divine orders. After them, scholars are their successors. They guide the people; depict a vivid picture of the revolutionary Islam; and confront the tyranny, oppression, and deviation with force. They even sacrifice their lives for achieving their sacred goals. There are many contemporary instances of such self-giving scholars. Being related to them makes us proud. Indeed, it is a reason for our dignity and honor. There are many instances including Shahid Sadra, Shahid Bint al-Huda (Amana al-Sadr), Abdul-Aziz al-Badri, and Nazim al-Asi in Iraq; Imam Khomeini and Sheikh Murtaza Mutahari (may Allah grant both them peace) in Iran; Seyyed Qutb, Hassan al-Bana, and Amana Qutb in Egypt; Sheikh Qassam and al-Fada’iyat in Palestine; Seyyed Abbas Musavi, Sheikh Raqib Harb, and the religious missioner Fathi Yakan in Lebonan. In addition, there are hundreds of other people, who sacrificed their lives for the sake of Islam and humanity. They were the peak of guidance, invitation, observation, and activity for alleviating the pains and sufferings of the nations. They did everything to promote the lives of people. Thus, leaders and authorities who are doing their jobs in good conditions, should base their practices on high values and concepts. They should perform in accordance with the Islamic views, follow the great models of the recent past, and direct themselves based on the attitude and behavior of those models. Indeed, their behaviors and attitudes were indicative of their generosity, wakefulness, and purity. Such characteristics were influential in the social and political arenas among the Ummah.

Keywords Behavior and Attitude, Bind al-Huda, Islamic Awakening, Iraqi Women

23


Introduction Although there are many slogans in the West regarding the human rights and his freedom as well as a decent life for him, there is no room whatsoever in the logic of the global arrogance for Arab Muslim's dignity. Meanwhile, the arrogant powers continue to impose their despotic domination over other nations and speak to them with the language of fire and bullet. They do not allow any human being to claim his or her legitimate rights, the human being who under a just Islamic

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

system enjoys respect and dignity and has been appointed by God as his righteous caliph or representative on earth. As God

24

says in His book, [the Holy Quran]: " Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: 'I will create a vicegerent on earth'." Therefore, no one has the right to abuse others or oppress them or plunder their wealth and humiliate them. As we know, the prophethood of God's messengers was aimed at educating and guiding mankind. After the important role of the prophets in educating, the Imams are tasked with the role. These are to continue the prophets' mission so as to protect the divine beliefs and rules with any perversions. After the Imams, ulema, or scholars, are the inheritors of the prophets and are assigned the leadership functions. The ulema are an embodiment of the Islamic revolution and count as a force that opposes all forms of deviation and absolutism even if the price is their lives. We have witnessed many ideal and high role models of whom we have felt proud and we are also proud that we are among them. People like Sadr, Bin al-Huda (Ameneh Sadr), Abdol-Aziz alBadri, Nazem al-Assi, who are Iraqi martyrs, and the late Imam Khomeini, Ayatollah Morteza Motahari, Seyyed Qotb, Hassan


al-Bana and Ameneh Qotb, who are the EgptianEgyptian martyrs, Sheikh Ghassam and brave Palestinian women, Sayyed Abbas Musawi and Sheikh Ragheb Harb, as well as Fathi Bekan, the Msulim preacher, and dozens or hundreds of others who sacrificed their lives for humanity. These are the role models of inviting to Islam and guiding them for alleviating the sufferings of nations and realizing their wishes as well as making efforts to improve their lives. On this basis, the responsibility of the leaders who are still young is to act according to the high principles and concepts of Islam and model themselves the valued martyrs who lived close to them in time. The leaders should also seek assistance form the martyrs' ways, which are unique and different from those of other

want to take a good piece of advice from history, we will realize that the driving force behind the recent popular uprisings in the Arab world originate from the following: 1. Global traditions: God, the almighty, says in His Book [the Holy Quran]: " But no change wilt thou find in Allah.s way (of dealing): no turning off wilt thou find in Allah.s way (of dealing)" 2. History repeats itself for humans and their societies. God, the almighty, says in His Book [the Holy Quran]: " Say: "Go ye through the earth and see what has been the end of those guilty (of sin)." 3. An increase in the oppression and tyranny suffered by the Arab nations over the past decades. 4. An outbreak of contagious diseases, illiteracy, political instability and terrorism.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

people considering their awareness, generosity, purity and efforts. They have set such examples for today's leaders as presence in the social and political arena and among people's ranks. If we

25


5. Establishment of political systems that are based on corruption and making no efforts to implement reforms. These systems have paid not attention to the demands of their people and feel no responsibility in the face of their sufferings. 6. Hollow promises and failure to make good on their promises; this is while the rulers always claim they are planning to reform 7.The status quo of the international community no more allows arrogant powers particularly the US, Britain and France-

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

---who have founded dictatorships and have always supported the despotic regimes----to stand up against the will of the

26

nations. But these arrogant powers have no way but to give in to today's realities of the world. 8.The UN is aware of the fact that one of the main reasons why terrorism is rampant worldwide is the organization's support of the despotic regimes. 9.Gross double standards, that is, difference between foreign policies and the claims made by the arrogant powers. 10.Awareness of the fact that the international community has exchanged its slogans about democracy and human rights for the oil barrels of the Arab states. This is a clear example of double standards and contradictions. 11.The phenomenon of globalization and the development of the technology makes bilateral relations among nations easy. Perhaps, the ongoing relations among nations via Facebook are the best reason behind the claim. Such a relationship has replaced well-equipped political establishments and can mobilize people to have an active role in an event in the shortest possible time and with the minimum cost. Here we


and having a good temper 2-Doing righteous deeds for the hereafter 3-Actively pursuing the public and private affairs of women 4-Having very good verbal skills in order to teach all

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

should point out that the popular uprising of the Iraqi people back in 1991 resulted in the liberation of 14 out of 18 Iraqi cities despite the brutal crackdown and atrocities committed by the regime of former dictator Saddam Hussein. However, the international community was indulged in supporting that despotic regime at the time. Hence, if we look back, we see a list of female Iraqi martyrs who are great and matchless personalities. For example, we can refer to Ms. Saeedah Bint al-Huda. She was a very noble and eminent lady as though she was equal to an Ummah. Ms. Bin al-Huda was born in Baghdad in Baghdad in 1937. Her family was well known for their virtues and manners. However, they lived in very difficult social conditions. She began her cultural activities while she was only 8 years old. That was when she authored a magazine by herself and without help from anyone and she got it published in different forms. This blessed fate led her to write column for the magazines Iman (faith) and then Adhwa (Lights), which were published by the ulema of Nadjaf in 1966. In 1967, she was appointed as the manager of the Zahra Schools in Nadjaf and Baghdad. Her endeavors resulted in the education of a generation of informed, active and pious ladies who were scattered across the Arab and Islamic countries as well as to farther parts of the world in Asia, America, Australia and Europe. Meanwhile, the noble brother of Ms. Bint al-Huda, that is, ZSayyid Muhammad Bagher Sadr, was involved in a broad range of political, social and cultural activities. The main characteristics of Ms. Bin al-Huda were as follows: 1-Neatness

27


people using her unparalleled style and to invite people to God the almighty 5-She focused all her efforts on teaching at universities. This shows that she considered her working at university as a way to accomplish her mission. Thus, the revolution of hijab flourished. 6-The hijab, or Islamic dress code, was naturally voluntary and was a red line for the then oppressive regime. 7-Ms. Bin al-Huda had leadership charisma and a very strong will. All this resulted from her rock-hard belief in the sanctity of her goals, ideals, endeavors and sense

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of responsibility towards her duty at a time when the Muslim woman was absent from the Islam movement's arena. 8-She

28

also had good literary studies such that she considered her studies as the pioneer of the women's literature in Iraq. She made good use of her artistic talents and literary taste. Some of her stories in the form of debates over different subjects are so good that distracted minds are absorbed in them. 9-One can say that the literature of Ms. Bint al-Huda had nothing to do with the relaxation of mind and soul, but it was some type of real need that constituted a widespread culture resulting form her good knowledge of her society. She offered women a vast horizon so as to play her main role. 10-Ms. Bint al-Huda outlined the evolution of the Islamic system for women to the extent that in most of her books she referred to the fact. She dispelled doubts based on strong reasons from the Holy Quran and the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). She said on many occasions and with confidence that Islam is a religion that always brings prosperity for societies


teachings across the world along with a good piece of advice for the purpose of inviting [people] to Islam.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and also brings happiness and comfort for the women and the families. 11-Ms. Bint al-Huda assumed the political leadership of Iraqi women and mobilized them against the tyrannical regime. She also informed the Iraqi women of the plots hatched by the Ba'athist regime. Therefore, one can conclude that Ms. Bint al-Huda played a key role in establishing a link to institutions, circles and scattered groups of Iraqi women. 12.Leyla Khaled, one of the revolutionary Palestinian women, says of Ms. Bint al-Huda: "Previously, I though we the revolutionary Palestinian women, make sacrifices; but Ms. Bint al-Huda made me feel ashamed in front this solid mountain and noble role model who is equipped with faith, mission for the good deeds and reforms." Meanwhile, Abdulmajid, the Egyptian literary figure and critic, describes Ms. Bint al-Huda as such: "When the Ba'athist regime's guillotine shed the blood of Ms. Bint al-Huda in Baghdad, as though she had been born again. In addition to declaring her birthday and that of other Muslim Iraqi women, it heralded the end of the evil Ba'athist regime." Ms. Bint al-Huda has authored many books and essays, of which many are in the form of stories and anecdotes. They all invite people to stick to the teachings of Islam. She has written her books using a novel and attractive style that has appealed to many people and are usually reprinted many times. I have brought an instance of her writings and suggestions in which she says: "We deserve very much to have our beloved mission to be tested in different ways? However, we should first light the torch of Islamic invitation and spread our knowledge and

29


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

We should always remember that the Messenger of Allah (Peace Be Upon Him) recommend to go after knowledge all the times and called it the duty of all Muslim men and women so women would achieve a lasting and eternal source and system and so they could properly protect themselves against illwished people and also respond appropriately to the claims made by those who talk nonsense, not that swing to all sides like wind. Women should always go in the straight direction and stick to Islam and its principles system. They should also try to fully understand the religion to achieve all loft goals they have targeted. Therefore, they should avoid relying on foreign and imported ideologies." In fact, the noble martyr Ms. Bint al-Huda meant to teach

30

Muslim women how to get to know the essence of Islam. It's not useless to read some of her poems here: "I know that the road to righteousness is always full of weeds and devoid of any joy". "He disseminates his fragrance among the creeks and blocks; but I always follow in the footsteps of my predecessors. The mujahid has been alone among the big armies for a long period of time. God has assisted His few soldiers for a long time. Righteousness is always lasting eternal in the vastness of existence, but all that other than righteousness is doomed to perish. Therefore, I will always sing songs in the name of Islam and reject any falsehood." In April 1980, the Ba'athis regime of Iraq executed Ms. Bint al-Huda after savagely torturing her. This took a few days. During those days, Ms. Bint al-Huda was a paragon of resistance and perseverance as well as of refusing to given in to oppression. One can say that Ms. Bint la-Huda was somehow the Zeynab of her times and she deserves the title "Master of Poets". We should point out that


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Ms. Bint al-Huda had her unique patterns and ways. Therefore, it's always our duty to study the life of this poetess to realize what caused her to acquire such a great dignity. We should also learn from her deeds since she will remain a teacher forever: she taught more than her entire life. Ms. Bint al-Huda serves as a model for women and men. But what gives this noble lady a place higher than her peers is her absorption in the sea of resistance. She had set a record in all theoretical and practical areas. Ms. Bint al-Huda was an outstanding example for the faithful men, too, because she had a deep spiritual and intellectual insight to the extent that her characteristics clearly showed themselves in her position on the most brutal evil history has known. God , the Almighty, says in His book [the Holy Quran]: "God mentions Pharaoh's wife as an example for the believers ". Today, such a woman shined and climbed the ladder of positions in politics, the media, the artistic circles and society and awakened all the world--- while they were in the dark hitherto---- that a woman can carry out what she desires. In fact, the Iraqi woman is a noble example in this respect because she performs her duty in a properly way [what we witness today in different areas is the result of the endeavors of Ms. Bin al-Huda Sadr]. Today we are taking long strides with regard to culture, free-thinking and preparation. However, we have not reached our desired goals. Hence, we should be ware of the role women can play in the structure of a government so that we will establish an institute for promoting awareness among ladies at our home. In fact, we should know that even housewives who stay at home are no proof of backwardness and depression because Ms. Bint al-Huda Sadr made her home a big and powerful cultural institute where men and women both attended. She turned her home into a base for promoting

31


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 32

thinking and values as well as social and political awareness. This was such that she gave strong ideas from the world of reason to heart to mix it with emotion and compassion and completely enter the area of execution. Therefore, executive tools are responsible for constructing a society and heal the corrupt parts, promiscuousness and also perversions. God gave Bint al-Huda a good reward because this noble martyr cured in one way or another many of the pagan and materialistic conditions as well as weakness, backwardness, isolation and lack of self-confidence that have nothing to do with the divine religion. This she did with her attractive writing style, which matches the contemporary taste. She improved her ways by maintaining the principles and targeted and organized tenets. I dare say that Bint al-Huda's name was associated with the word hijab in the 1970s. In fact, observing the Islamic dress code was a symbolic struggle against the Ba'athist regime at that time and was a positive intellectual development for the Iraqi women. That is because hijab was considered as the full commitment of women to religious duties to the extent that more than 2000 Iraqi women were martyred over their hijab. On this occasion, I should say that the number of the noble martyrs reaches more than 1000. We have never seen a pious woman going to the gallows with enthusiasm as they did. The women rushed to visit their creator enthusiastically one after another while they were chanting the slogan There Is No God But Allah and shouting Allahu Akbar and hailed God the Almighty and asked for His blessing. Naturally, these martyrs drew inspiration from Ms. Bint al-Huda Sadr through attending her classes, meetings, letters and writings. We conclude that the thinking of Mohammad Bagher Sadr and Bint al-Huda Sadr and all the other martyrs of the Islamic movement [May God reward them


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

with His Gardens] is the most precious heritage of which we are proud. It is our duty to pass over such thinkigns and ideas to our next generation. It's evident o all people that the dynamic religious authority of Mohammad Bagher Sadr---Ms. Bint alHuda was his deputy in the women's affairs---- mostly tended to the affairs of the Ummah and taking care of those affairs. This requires fulfilling a key responsibility by an intellectual person in the world of marjaiyah [religious authority] because a Muslim intellectual cannot do this without the help of a marja nor can a marja convey his message to the Ummah without the help of intellectual people. Thus, we realize the obvious role of Ms. Bint al-Huda Sadr in giving form to the Islamic culture and studies whereas she encouraged women to make use of science and mysticism. She frequently hinted that the weapon of science is the most powerful and efficient of weapons and the Muslim woman should equip herself with the weapon so she can benefit herself and perform her duties towards the Ummah properly. It's relevant here to bring a speech made by Mohamamd Bagher Sadr among the crowds of women during his the funeral of his sister Ms. Bint al-Huda Sadr. Mohamamd Bagher Sadr was going through very difficult days as he, along with his father, was grappling with his deep grief over the loss of his sister. In the Name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful "O my daughters! The responsibility I at this age feel towards you in my heart is heavier than yours towards me. O the daughters of Fatima al-Zahra! You are great examples for today's woman. Today, you are an example above than merely a Muslim woman who with one hand carries her religion Islam, values, piety, hijab, loyalty to Islamic and true personality that

33


ahs been preserved by Islam for her; and with the other hand carries her grandeur and culture. But since they entered the Muslim world some 60 years ago, the colonialists has sought to convince our young men and women that culture is kind of drinking alcohol and going after sexual desires and staying away from Islam, mosques, marjaiyah and prayers. You are carrying the mission of Fatima al-Zahra. Your are the ones through whom the world will understand that since must be accompanied by faith. O the daughter of Fatima! You have a

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

responsibility to make the world understand that true culture and science will materialize alongside faith and faith also

34

comes with religion and the divine mission just as Fatima carried it with herself. Zahra (Peace Be Upon Her) is a high example of jihad and patience in the cause of Islam. She, along with her father, was partaking in all the sufferings and passions. She would go with her father to wars. She would treat his wounds and solaced his sorrows. She was constantly with the prophet during the war and difficult times. The prophet would get energy from her. In other words, she was a true Muslim woman. Zahra was a great example of knowledge and culture. When necessary, she would go to the mosque of her father and made a sermon which could not be made even by the greatest scholars of that time. She succeeded in convincing Islam that knowledge can only come with religion and culture is also always preserved with God and loyalty to religious rituals. A woman can also reach the highest degree of excellence and growth in all areas without losing an iota of her human values and even the heritage and mission assigned to her by her creator. Westerners constantly try and pervert you.


It's your duty to convince the whole world that this is a mistake and that you will remain on the straight path. I pray to God the Almighty to give you success and protect you." End of the speech of Mohammad Bagher Sadr Here I cut short my remarks and ask God to make us steadfast on the path of this martyr and not to deprive us of her intercession in the hereafter as He is all-hearing and responds to prayers.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 35


The Position and Role of Women in Realization of an International-Islamic Culture

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Ali Hamzeh Pour1



Abstract Forming an international Islamic culture as the preferred governing system of righteous people on the earth has been a common ideal and goal of all the humans throughout the history and especially in the Islamic societies. Therefore, it is an undeniable fact that all the people, including different sections of the society, ethnic communities and even different religions –especially the righteous and Muslims- should collaboratively attempt to realize such goals. Explaining the position of women, as an important section of human and Islamic societies which constitute half of the population living in these societies, and their role could lead to actively and efficiently developing the future and bring this tremendous section of society to the arenas related to the realization of an internationalIslamic culture. In the present paper we attempt to examine and analyze the role of Muslim women in the realization of international-Islamic culture. Doing so, we consider opportunities to promote Islamic Awakening movement, using theoretical framework of Islam and on the basis of Islamic sources with a descriptive-analytical methodology. Keywords Woman, International-Islamic Culture, Family, Hijab, Jihad, Participation

36

1. Doctorate candidate in politics, the institute of human sciences and cultural studies


Seyyed Jamal Al Din Asad Abadi (1217-1275 solar = 1838-1896), Seyyed Muhammad Abdeh (1228-1283 solar = 1849-1904), Rashid

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction The attempt to achieve perfection, desirable condition and prosperity has been the purpose of the creation of human being. Since the beginning of the history, all humans have been attempting to achieve to a high stance of prosperity and perfection. Although in some moments of history these instinct needs of human being have been manipulated by imposters, the Mission of divine prophets have led them to the prosperity and perfection. Finally, the Mission of Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and his family) has led to the enlightenment of Islamic world, and Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) and other Imams (Peace be upon them) have led to perfection of the religion, the blessing, the prophecy and Allah’s satisfaction of Islam. Ungrateful and worldly people and victims of neglect, lacking the commitment to the Supreme, have caused the blasphemy of God’s Blessings. These victims of neglect have led humans to darkness and obliquity except for those of true and real followers. After the years of neglect, from 1850 to 1950 for 100 years, some students of Islamic School in Iran, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Syria, and other Islamic countries embarked on a new movement against the 19th century Westernization which could be called the Return to Islamic Movement. Of course, at the same time of this movement other great reformers played a role in the world of Islam. The appearance of geniuses like Eghbal and Hassan-el-Bana led people to return to Islam and gradually wipe the westernization out of the academic and individual circles. The factor that led people to return to Islam was the inner dynamism of the Islamic School, which raised great thinkers. Among those thinkers, one can mention the following: Shah Vali-Allah Dehlavi (1081-1141 solar = 1702-1762), Haji Shariyat Allah, Sar Ahmad Khan and Seyyed Amir Ali in India;

37


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Reza (1244-1314 solar = 1865-1935), Hassan Al Bana (1284-1327 solar = 1905-1948) and Seyyed Ghotb (1284-1344 solar years = 1905-1965) in Egypt. Moreover, we can mention Abd al-Rahman Kawakebi (1228-1281 solar years = 1849-1902) in Syria; Muhammad Bin Ahmad Sanousi and Omer Mukhtar in Libya (12401309 solar years = 1861-1930); and even Osman Dan Fodiyo in northern Africa, Sharaf al-Din Ameli (1337 solar years = 1958) in Lebanon; Eghbal Lahouri (1256-1357 solar years = 1877-1978) and

38

Abol Ala Modudi (1282-1358 solar years = 1903-1979) in Pakistan. Additionally, one can mention Shahid Motahhari (1298-1358 solar years = 1919-1979) and Dr. Shariyati (1312-1356 solar years = 1933-1977) in Iran. This movement played a great role in society’s growth of knowledge and paved the way to the Islamic Revolution of Iran led by Imam Khomeini(May God bless him) (1281-1368 solar years = 1902-1989). The Revolution of Iran fulfilled the wishes and ideals of Muslims in the Islamic world. With the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the world’s dominant countries were challenged, especially in the world of Islamic countries, and an inspirational pattern of revolution has been prepared for other countries. From 1342 to 1357 (= 1963 to 1979), the preparation of the Islamic Revolution by the prophetic leadership of Imam Khomeini (Mercy of Allah be upon him) was embarked on, so that the accompaniment, insistence and sacrifices of Islamic nations and sacrifices of the martyrs of the Revolution paved the way of the Islamic enlightenment. The Islamic revolution of Iran helped people to achieve independence, dignity, honor, development and power against the arrogant authorities of the world. After the formation of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, humans’ enemies did all they could do to destroy this Islamic movement. When they found themselves incapable to harm this Islamic


Revolution, they fabricated some forms of Islam such as Islam of Taliban and Salafi and they also presented some false forms of American, liberal and secular Islam in some countries in order to deviate the main direction and message of this revolution in the world. Additionally, they propagandized against this Islamic Revolution and used the mass media to make an Islamophobia in non-Islamic countries. The question of the present research is to determine the main role

women within the given civilization, the possible roles of women in the substantiation of the international Islamic civilization are considered as the independent variables. Process of the Substantiation of the International Islamic Civilization Achieving the map of the path, the evolution of the Islamic government and the movement towards the righteous regime and the international Islamic civilization after the Islamic Revolution (in the light of Islamic awakening), the Islamic regime, the Islamic government, and the Islamic country is according to the following parts: 1. Outbreak of the Islamic Revolution The outbreak of the Islamic revolution is considered as the fundamental transformation in order to lead people to their religious

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of the women in the formation of the international Islamic civilization according to their status in this civilization. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the position and role of the women as an important part of the Islamic society in the formation of the international Islamic civilization. This will be studied according to the theoretical framework of the Islamic basics. The present study is descriptive. The research is limited to the women’s roles and position in the formation of the Islamic civilization. As the variable of this study is the substantiation of the international Islamic civilization, and according to the position of the

39


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

wishes and purposes. It is also meant as the advent of the spiritual regime and the formation of the Islamic regime, the first stage to achieve an Islamic government. This stage of transformation has happened in the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which is considered as the century’s miracle, and the inspirational revolution for all Islamic movements and even the liberalizing movements. In addition, this has been the pattern of awakening in the Islamic countries. Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade )says:

40

We want to create such a system, organization, and regime in which we can achieve Islamic purposes. This needs a long process and is hard to achieve, and the beginning for that is the Islamic Revolution‌ Revolution means a fundamental transformation. This transformation cannot be achieved unless we struggle for it. Nevertheless, it doesn’t mean that in a revolution there must be disturbances and riots; No, and not every disturbance and riot is considered as revolution, also not every transformation is considered as revolution. Revolution happens when the false foundations are demolished and the new ones are built. This is the first step. (1379/09/12 = 2000) The first step that is louder and more exciting than all the steps is the Islamic revolution. It was not an easy task, but it is the easiest way. (1380/09/21 = 2001) 2. Achieving the Islamic Regime After the Islamic revolution (in the light of the Islamic Awakening), achieving the Islamic regime , the completion of the structure and applying the patterns of the social engineering and setting the elements of Islamic basics, is the second step of the creating an Islamic government. Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) claims: What does the Islamic regime mean? It means legislation and the criterion for administration. It means that the executive, legislative, judiciary, and other compartments of the government are organized


and constitution has confirmed them; thus, the fundamentals have been carried out. (1384/06/08 = 2005) immediately after the Islamic revolution, the Islamic regime is going to be substantiated. The Islamic regime is the act of applying the Islamic form and engineering, like the thing that happened to our country; the royal, despotic, individual, and noble system was dethroned, and the religious, virtual, popular, and elective system was replaced. It exists according to the laws of constitution. The Islamic Society means the public geometry of society. Religion is the basic for codes in such a country. People move towards the religious purposes; and this is the meaning of the Islamic regime; this thing occurred, but it never suffices. (1384/8/25 = 2005) 3. Creation of the Islamic Government The realization of the Islamic government, the content completion and the movement towards the Islamic and ethical criteria, is included of two following basics:

Islamic criteria After the Islamic revolution and achieving the Islamic regime, the main aim is organizing the behavior and the inner and foreign relationships of the government. In addition, organizing the three branches of the government according to the Islamic realities and criteria is the main aim of the government. Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) says: After the Islamic revolution, it is the time of the formation of the real Islamic government, in other words, the formation of the nature and the manner of authorities according to the Islamic rules. Because this is impossible to happen in the first instance, it needs to be created gradually. The authorities should adjust their behaviors to that of an Islamic authority. If there are people with the mentioned

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

A. Matching the behavior of the authorities according to the

41


qualifications, they can be employed. This is the third step that we call it as creating the Islamic government. (1379/9/12 = 2000) the meaning of the Islamic government’s slogan is that we want to approximate the individual behavior, public manner, the inner behavior and the international behavior to those of the Islamic criteria.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

B. Efficiency of the Islamic Pattern: Demonstrating the

42

efficiency of the Islamic pattern and model has been the supreme goal of the Islamic government. The aim of this is to achieve the evolution and development of the efficiency of the Islamic pattern in order to avoid the worldly government and to lead the human being to the prosperity. Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) says: We are [in the Islamic Republic of Iran] in the phase of the Islamic government and the Islamic country, and we must create the Islamic government. Today, our government, the authorities of the Executive, Judiciary, and legislative Branches, which assemble the Islamic government, has a great share of Islamic realities and values; but this does not suffice, the first of which is I. We need to move more towards the Islam and faith. We must move towards the life of Imam Ali. It does not mean that we should have the same lifestyle of that time and put away the facilities. We must grasp the spirit of the life of Imam Ali- justice, faith, devoutness, virtue, braveness in the path of God and Jihad for God’s sake. We must move towards these criteria. This is the basic of our task, and let me tell you that in this case the efficiency of the Islamic Revolution will increase. The main challenge for the Islamic Revolution is its efficiency in the world’s eye. Tell me if they could do this. If we take our inner and gradual evolution seriously, move forward, and show our compliance to the values and Islamic basics, our efficiency and success will increase.


4. Creating the Islamic country Creating the Islamic country is the creating of the basics of the Islamic nation with realization of the social justice and Islamic criteria in the society. In addition, it is the creating of the pattern and ideal society as the shining stage of the Islamic regime and its sublime values. Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) says: The fourth step is the Islamic country. If the government really changed to an Islamic one, thus, the country has literally changed into the Islamic one. The justice will be carried out. The discrimination will be wiped out. Poverty will be eliminated gradually. Glory will be given to people. The country’s status in the world’s relations will increase. This can be called an Islamic country. (1379/09/12=2000)

Islamic country, is the creation of the Islamic world, global modeling, and pervasive Islamic culture in the world, which can lead to the sublime evolution of the human being. This is the sublime aim of the Islamic government as Grand Imam Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) says: The next step is to create the International Islamic government. (1383/8/6 = 2004) after the realization of the Islamic country, the Islamic civilization will appear. It is the time that the Islamic culture will cover the human beings (1384/05/28 = 2005). If we pass this phase [Islamic country], the world will turn to an Islamic one. We can create an Islamic world out of the Islamic country. When the pattern was created, the exemplars of that are going to be created.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

5. Creating the International Islamic civilization The creating of the international Islamic civilization which is created by the following quartet steps, which are namely; the Islamic revolution, the Islamic regime, the Islamic government, and the

43


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The position of the women in the international Islamic civilization The creation of the International Islamic civilization needs everyone to attempt to achieve it, especially women. The realization of the International Islamic civilization means the paving the way for revelation of Imam Zaman (God hasten his reappearance). In other words, the creation of such a civilization can be carried out only by him. Therefore, women have a great role in paving the way for revelation of Imam Zaman, and the have a great role in

44

administrating the global government of Imam Zaman. This is acknowledged in a narrative by Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and his family): In that time a refugee will seek refuge in God’s prepared shelter and people will invade from four sides to the one direction and will gather around him until three hundreds and fourteen persons will throng, among which, some women outfight any tyrant. (Glossary of words of the Imam Mahdi, volume 1, p. 500) In a narrative Imam Muhammad Bagher (Peace be upon him) emphasizes this by telling the number of the women among fellows of Imam Zaman (May God hasten his reappearance): Swear to God that three hundreds and thirteen men are going to come among which there are fifty women whom are going to gather without any appointment. This is the meaning of the verse; wherever you are, God will gather you together, because He is capable to do what He wants. (Bahar ol-Anwar, Volume 52, p.223) Also, according to a narrative by Imam Sadegh (Peace be upon him) it is emphasized that the thirteen persons of this people are the selected women return from the past. They are also determined by their names and occupations: Along with Imam Mahdi (May Allah hasten his appearance), there will be Thirteen women who will be paid to treat the wounded and take care of the patients, including Qnva the daughter of Rashid Hejri the mother of Iman Hobabav al-biye sommayeh, mother of


Ammar Yaser, Zobeyde, mother of khaledah Masiye, mother of Saied Hanafiyye siyaneh masshat, mother of khaled jahanniyeh (signs of Imamate p. 260) Status and role of women in the International Islamic civilization With regard to the international position of women in Islamic civilization, their role in creating this civilization is included as: 1. Self-Spiritual and Cultural Education in the Family

Men and women must view “family” as the priority of their life and they ought to play their role in this institution. The Utopia depicted by Islam and the civil society and all-round development that is the main purpose of the most civilizations cannot be possible without the “sacred institution of family” and cannot occur without making all the provisions and supplies for the formation and realization of the "ideal family" (Seyyed Ziya’ Mortazavi, p 90). Family as a social institution is considered as the initial cell and the origin of society, and its privileged position is not just according to the religious guideline. In addition to the religious values applied to it, and in addition to the all instructions that are applied in order to form it, and to assign the responsibilities, the value of the family is touchable and sensible to everyone. Imam Reza (Peace be upon him)

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The Prophet said (May Allah bless him and his family) In the eyes of God, no institution has been established more popular than family. Family as a basic institution in society is a considered as a fundamental institution and it needs to be considered as the fundamental factor in the study of the women’s role in the family. And everything in order to strengthen the foundation and deepening relations between its members, especially husband and wife as two main pillars of this institution, is recommended. And any recommendations and proposed programs and the criteria that lead to the weakening of this institution are put away.

45


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

says that, even if there weren’t any verses about the marriage, a wise man would tend to get married, because it creates a intimacy and affection (Bhar Al-Anwar, volume 103, p 264). Imam Sadegh (Peace be upon him) says that God Almighty loves the house in which a family lives, and He hates the house in which there exists divorce. (Kafi, Volume 6, p. 54) Imam Khomeini (May God bless him) compared the educational role of women in society with the prophets’ mission:

46

Mother’s services to the society are valued more than that of the teachers’, and it is valued more than anyone’s services. This is what the prophets wanted. They wanted women to be the class that teach the society and bring up brave men. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) also emphasizes the institution of the family and growing children and says that: The Muslim woman has duties in the family and that duty is the basic of the family, and upbringing the children, and supporting the husband… At the time of the War and the Revolution, mothers guided their children to devoutness and martyrdom for the sake of Islam. In addition, during the war and revolution, wives changed their husbands to brave and insistent men. This is the impact of the women on their children and husbands. This is the duty that woman can have in the family, and in my idea, this is the most important duty of the woman in the family. The most important duty of a woman is to bring up the children and support the men to achieve the great successes. (75/12/27 = 1996) Elsewhere he emphasizes on the role of the woman in the family and says: The most important matter for a woman is her “family”. In my opinion, among the duties of the woman in the society, supporting the family is the most important duty for a woman. Is it possible for


a woman to leave his duties and move towards the outside facilities? what about leaving her duties as a mother? what about leaving her duties as a wife? Is it possible? We emphasize on this duty… the most important duty of a woman, regardless of her academic, social and religious status is her duty as a mother and as a wife. This is more important than her duties. She should regard this as her major duty. The growth of humankind and the blossom of the talents highly depend on this duty. The health of the society depends on this duty.

chastity and tell them not to show off their ornaments. They must cover their hair and chest with scarf. She ought not to show off her ornaments except for her husband and father or her father-in-law or her sons or her brothers or her brothers’ sons or her sisters’ sons or women (like herself) or her bondwomen or her male servants [those that don’t need women] or kids that have not seen the female organs yet. Oh, those women and men of faith repent, hoping that you may prosper (Chapter Noor, verse 31). O Prophet, say to your wives and daughters and the believing women cover their body. They will be known and they will not be troubled. This is safer and Allah is forgiving and merciful. The Supreme Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) represents the role of the woman in society, and believes that the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

2. Promoting the culture of the veil, chastity and virtue in society Fatima (peace be upon her) is the greatest teacher of humanity, the honor of all women and men, and the pattern of the Innocence, chastity and decency. Those women, who accepted the order of God, will tend to the servitude of Him, instruct the lessons of dignity and humanity for the society, and they will revive the identity of women and men. God says: And tell to the women of faith to avoid passers and keep their

47


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

meaning of humanity in the society depends on the women of faith, chastity and virtue. A woman with her strong personality traits, which are the bounties of God and which are specific to her, can play a great role in the society and can possess the deepest faith in God, and can keep her chastity and virtue. No man can have such a duty. Firm like a mountain of faith, like boiling spring of affection and feeling, a woman can water those who need affection and feeling. Human

48

beings can grow in such a medium. If there were not such woman in the world, the humanity would fail. This is the meaning of woman. (1384/03/25=2005) Therefore, women can teach the society and teach chastity, affection, grace, joy, and honor. Islam introduces woman with veil and chastity as the teacher of affection and grace. The world today has stolen veil and chastity from women and has introduced them as sexual institutes. A woman of sexual affairs cannot teach affection but lust. Thus, Islam insists that women can be in the society, but they should wear veil. It insists that women can come to teach chastity and affection, not lust and sex. (Javadi Amoli, p.150) 3. The objective participation in jihad and fight against enemy The teachings of Fatima (peace be upon her) about the Jihad and Defense has instructed the way of public Jihad. The presence of her in the wars of Khandagh and Mecca, and her presence in the front and feeding the fighters, can be considered as her great role. The presence of women like Nasibeh, jaraheh, and Om Atiyyeh, in most wars of prophet (May God bless him and his family) and their helpings to the fighters indicated the path to the women of the Islamic world. They can work as nurses in the wars or, indirectly, encourage their husbands to fight against the enemies. Moreover, the presence of women in the Rebellion of Ashura can demonstrate the same duty for women, which is fighting against


enemies. Some examples are; Toah’s accompaniment with Mokhtar’s movement, the protestation and critics of some of the wives of the soldiers of Kufa, like Khuli, protests and criticis of Zeinab (Peace be upon her) to the crimes of Yazid, the supports of Zeinab about the movement of Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him), nursing the wounded and patients, leading the Caravans. Imam Khomeini (May God bless him) defines the role of women in the sacred defence of Islamic Revolution:

back lines of war and encourage people and discourage the ignorant people that are worse than enemies. Grand Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) declares the role of women in several fields of war: In the era of difficulty [war], women had a wonderful role. The role of Mothers of martyrs, the martyrs' wives, steward's role on the battlefield, their role in missions and military tasks were wonderful role. Also, women were active in the military tasks and mission‌ these valuable things cannot be compared by any standard or scale, they are invaluable. This mother will demonstrate a role with all her maternal affection so that the other mothers will imitate her and send their children to the battlefield. The patient wives of martyrs, the young wives, lost their young husbands and lost their wishes. They

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

At the time of Islam, women along with men participated in wars. We see and have seen that women along with men have been in the wars. They have lost their life and their children, but they resisted. We want women to achieve the sublime value of humanity (1357/12/15=1979). We are proud that old and young women along with men participate in the economic, military, cultural scenes. And those who can fight need to be trained. This military training has the purpose of defending the enemies and protecting the Islam. Muslims must fight against these enemies and defend Quran and Islam. Those who are incapable to fight against the enemies can participate in

49


should be satisfied with this, they should be proud of their husbands, their martyrs. These are the roles of women. Women married devotees. To voluntarily marry a handicapped and incapable and maybe a bad tempered man is the greatest dedication. They devoted themselves to men. No one can evaluate women’s role.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

4. Active presence in political and social spheres A study of the Holy Quran and the life of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and the Imams of the Shia reveals that women were

50

actively present in the society during their time. Women participated in some gatherings and asked questions from Muhammad and the Imams. This was quite natural. The apex of women’s presence in political and social spheres of life can be seen in the life of Muhammad’s daughter, Zahra (Peace be upon her). She helped Muhammad against conspiracies, reproached and cursed Abu Jahl and his followers publicly, and participated in political and social discussions. After Muhammad’s departure, Zahra also defended his father’s religious leadership, gave sermons in Al-Nabi mosque, etc. Since religion introduces man as a social being with a collective identity ––with or without the existence of a real physical community, it designates some social responsibilities for him and asks any Muslim to perform these duties. The Holy Quran introduces true Muslims as: “True Muslims are the ones who are present in social matters, and who do not abandon their leaders, and who do not leave the arena without a justified excuse, and who do not leave without informing [their leaders] even with a justified excuse.” Noor, Verse 6. Regarding the active presence of women in an Islamic society, albeit under the condition of regaining their moral position, Ayatollah Khomeini(May God bless him) says that:


“In an Islamic system, a woman can have active participation in construction of the Islamic society alongside men, but not as an object. She does not have the right to degrade herself to an object, nor do men have the right to think about her as such. About what has come to be known as pastime, Islam opposes whatever engenders vanity and self-alienation in human (Nov. 9, 1978). From Islam’s point of view, women have a very sensitive role in construction of an Islamic society. Islam honors a woman to the extent she can regain

However, women’s special responsibilities – the ones God has designated for women in accordance with their nature – are also important (July 4, 2007). Islam says that “Muslim men and women are each other’s support, who incite to what is good and forbid what is evil,” and it means that Muslim men and women share the responsibility of maintaining the social system, inciting to what is good and forbidding what is evil. [Islam] has not excluded women. We cannot exclude women either. The responsibility of maintaining and improving the Islamic society is upon everyone’s shoulders, both men and women as to their abilities (July 4, 2007). We approve of women working. I approve of various activities, including economic, political, social, community services, etc. These are good. Women constitute half the society, and it would be nice if this half performs such activities. However, we should

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

her moral place in the society and leave behind her identity as an object, and undertake responsibilities in the structure of an Islamic rule in tandem with such gradation.” (Nov. 10, 1978) Underlining stabilization of family foundations and the position of woman in family and society (Jan. 10. 2009), Ayatollah (May Allah spread his shade) states that: “The responsibility of participating in the society, understating the collective pains of the society and thriving to sooth them is not limited to men or women. Women cannot pass this responsibility [to men]. If women should take their role, then they have to – there is no limitation.

51


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

not forget about two things: one is that women’s social activities should not overshadow their roles as mothers and spouses, and their responsibilities at home. The other is the matter of Maharim.” (Jan. 5, 2012) Therefore, regarding women’s social role, and the necessity of avoiding social isolation of women, it can be inferred that true Muslims are the ones who believe in God and His messenger, understand social matters and collective concerns, are present in

52

social activities, and avoid isolation. Collective matters of a system are in fact the social matters of that system. Friday prayer, for example, is a collective matter. So are demonstration against hegemony, going to poles, supporting the religious leadership, Islamic officials and the true servants of Islam, as well as inciting to what is good and forbidding what is evil. These are the collective responsibilities of the members of a society, which the Holy Quran designates for mankind with no difference between men and women. Hence, (1) the presence of women in the society equals that of men, and (2) not only can women oppose the tyrants who have deprived them of their rights, and support other, but also they should know that defending other’s rights is inciting to what is good, and defending a person’s rights in isolation from society is evil. (Javadi Amoli 2011, pp. 110-106) 5. Women’s Role in Guiding the Society In the Holy Quran, God designates the spiritual position of men and women in faith, prayers, truthfulness, patience, humility, alms-giving, fasting, chastity and remembrance of God as equal, and promises forgiveness and great awards for them all (Al-Ahzab, verse 35). The Holy Quran recommends that everyone should follow the steps of faithful women such the wife of Pharaoh and the Virgin Mary: “And for the ones who believe, God gives the example of the wife of Pharaoh, who said O God, make a house near you in the heaven for me, and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds, and save


me from the wrongdoers, [and the example of] Mary, the daughter of Imran, the one who kept herself chaste; and I breathed into her from my Soul; and she believed in the words of her God and His sent books, and was among the obedient.” (Tahrim, verses 11 and 12) Ayatollah Khomeini (May God bless him) believes that the role of women in guiding the society is to bring up humans, and says that nations are doomed without this role of women: “Islam pays a specific attention to women. When Islam appeared in Arabia, women had lost their identity. Islam made them proud.

place where great men and women are raised (May 17, 1979). Women’s role in the world has specific properties. The virtue or corruption of a society depends on the virtue or corruption of the women of that society. A woman is the only being who can raise people from whose endeavors a society or even societies achieve moral values, and of course the opposite.” (Apr. 14, 1982) Ayatollah Khomeini (May God bless him) invites the women in other Islamic countries to follow the steps of Iranian women in guiding and correcting their societies: “We hope that women wake up from the sleep of negligence

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islam made them equal with men. Islam pays more attention to women than men. In the revolution, women have a greater role. Women bring up brave men. The Holy Quran brings up men and women bring up men as well. If brave women are detached from a society, nations would be doomed” (March 6, 1979) Regarding the idealistic and special role of women in the society, Ayatollah Khomeini (May God bless him) states that: “Women have a great role in the society. Through women, men’s ideals are realized. Women are up-bringers of great men and women. From woman’s skirt, man achieves greatness. Woman’s skirt is the

induced onto them by looters, and help the wronged altogether, 53


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 54

and guide other women toward their real high position. We hope that women in other Islamic countries take as example the great change in the position of Iranian women realized by the Islamic Revolution, and try to correct their own societies and drive their courtiers toward freedom and independence.” (Apr. 24, 1981) Regarding the role of Muslim mothers in transferring culture, wisdom, civilization, and morals to the next generations, Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) states that: “The role of a mother begins with pregnancy and continues until the time of death. A young or adult man is still influenced by the kindness and motherly methods of her mother. If the women of our society improve their wisdom and knowledge, this [achieved] role would be incomparable with any other role or cultural, moral, etc. factors… It is the mother who transfers culture, wisdom, civilization, and morals of a society to her children by her soul and body consciously or unconsciously.” (July 25, 2007) The pinnacle of mankind’s position which is recognized as universal man –either male or female– with the capacity of attaining Velayat (being appointed as ruler on Earth by God), is achieved through a travel with four phases in which God is ever present: (1) the travel from creatures to God, and from multiplicity to oneness; (2) the travel from God to God, and the voyage in the sea of oneness and gaining wisdom on the names and descriptions of God; (3) the travel from God to creatures, and from oneness to multiplicity events and effects; (4) the travel from creatures to creatures with God, and from multiplicity to multiplicity with oneness…These phases frame Velayat which can be achieved by either man or woman. There is no difference between a male and a female in this travel toward God. What is of import in the third and fourth phases in the different degrees of Velayat, is not subject to difference between man and woman. Achieving these degrees in not dependent on canonized leadership. In other words, the third and the fourth phases are


achievable without religious leadership…Being appointed a ruler by God is not limited to a specific person. Adam (Peace be upon him) as a person did not have Velayat, rather it was his human position which had. Therefore, God’s messengers and lovers, especially the Imams of Shia, have the full capacity of Velayat. And, this position is not limited to a person nor caste…as the appointer of leadership (God) is not subject to the matter of being preset or absent as He is omniscient, and is not subject to the matter of being absent and in need of being proved as He is the proof to everything, therefore only His greatest sign can be His ruler on Earth, and no one achieves this position except universal man. (Javadi Amoli 2011, pp. 67-68)

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 55


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 56

Conclusion Hegemonic powers have failed in their three decades of obstructing the Islamic Revolution and Ummah, and with the emergence of the Islamic Awakening, God gave them another taste of failure. Although they have been able to delay the transmission of this holy message to other Islamic nations by means of creating seditions and through pawn governments, eventually an expansive Islamic Reawakening has begun among the Justice-seeking and injusticefighting Muslims of the world against the post-modern hegemony in many countries. We hope this results in the awakening of all nations in such a way that it becomes manifest as Islamic movements against the tyrants of the time, and consequently justice-seeking movements in Europe and the U.S. and God willing, the situation is made ready for the final awakening by Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (May Allah hasten his appearance) ––the twelfth Shia Imam who Shia believe is the savior of mankind. This paper argued that the Islamic Awakening began with Muhammad the Messenger and will reach its apex with Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Mahdī (Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi). Then the role of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Muslim women was discussed in the realization of an International Islamic civilization respectively. Finally, in answer to the main question of the paper, the role of women in the realization of an International Islamic civilization was analyzed in the five areas of spiritual selfimprovement and cultural upbringing in families, propagating Hijab and chastity in societies, active participation in battling the enemy, active participation in political and social spheres, and participation in guiding societies. The development of the before-said areas with the presence and participation of Muslim women can lead to realization of an International Islamic civilization with leadership of Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (May Allah hasten his appearance).


References 1. The Holy Quran 2. Amoli, Sheikh Hor (2010). Vasayel al-Shia. The Instructors Society of the Islamic Seminary of Qom, Islamic Propagation Office of the Islamic Seminary of Qom. 3. Mehri, Seyyed Abbas (2008). Ma’jam Ahadith Al-Imam Al-Mahdi (1st Volume). Organization of Islamic Knowledge.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

4. Majlesi, Muhammad Bagher ebn Muhammad Taghi (2009). Behar Al-Anvar (52nd and 103th volumes). Dar Al-Koton Al-Islamia. 5. Tabari, Abo Jafar Muhammad ebn Jarir ebn Rostam (2004). Dalael Al-Imama. Dar Al-Zakha’er of Qom 6. Javadi Amoli, Abdollah (2011). Woman in mirror of God’s beauty and glory. Asra Press. 7. Mortazavi, Seyyed Zia (2002). An Introduction to Woman’s Issues. Bustan-e Ketab of Qom. 8. Ayatollah Khamenei’s website: www.khamenei.ir

57


Effective and Efficient Plans for Strengthening the Role of Women in the Movement of Islamic Awakening with the Purpose of Confronting the Deviant Western Ideas and Thoughts

Muna Aknan1

Abstract

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

“Nations should wake up and awaken their governments to confront this corrupt and blasphemous plan. America is prepared to dominate and conquer them… Then if the governments are coward, nations should become wakeful and brave” (Imam Khomeini – may Allah have mercy on him, 1981.11.17).

58

“My advice for you is that you should always be present in the scene… The victories should not lead to your arrogance and ignorance… My advice is that you should continuously re-read the principles and basics… Record your ideologies and beliefs… Do not let your Islamic principles be victimized in the slaughterhouse of the temporary interests… Deviations in the Revolution originate from the deviations in the slogans and goals” (Imam Seyyed Ali Khamenei – God may spread his shade. 2011.09.17). Between the two quoted statements, there are thirty intervening years. However, they are interchangeable due to the sameness regarding their common implication. The first statement is about the indexes of the awakening among the Arab and Islamic nations. The second statement is about the general policies concerning the awaking. The common concept between the two statements is the Islamic awakening. We cited them here to begin the discussion of the “effective and efficient plans for strengthening the role of women in the movement of Islamic awakening with the purpose of confronting the deviant western ideas and thoughts”. We 1. MA Holder – The Faculty of A’lam Tofiq, University of Al-Bana’iya – Beirut


found strong and deep foundations for this discussion in the ideas of Imam Khomeini – may Allah have mercy on him - and the Grand Leader of the Revolution. Perhaps, the notion of continuously rereading the principles and basics, which was mention by the Supreme Leader, is a key word for our point of discussion here. There are concepts and topics in the Islamic awakening to which the western thought has paid a considerable attention. Among such concepts are women, as individuals or groups – i. e. women in the society. The western thought towards the Arab and Islamic world is not consistent regarding its goals. There is a need to use scientific evidence to support and generalize our points of discussion. In this paper, an attempt is made at using such scientific evident to support and generalize a point according to which the correct western thoughts that are not deviant can be useful. Moreover, a set of recommendations are developed and presented here for the formation and building of substructures for confronting the deviant western thoughts and ideas. "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Keywords Women, Future, Islamic Awakening, Deviation, Political Participation

59


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction “Nations should wake up and awaken their governments for dealing with this program of infidel and tyrant America. Because America has shown her teeth so that it can force them to obey and submit to it….and if governments fear, nations should be adorned with awakening (Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) (17/11/1981))1 . My advice to you is that always see yourselves in the

60

scenes….and that your victories shouldn’t lead to arrogance and negligence…another advice is that read constantly the principles of this Revolution….write your own bases….don’t let your Islamic principles be the victim of transient interests…deviancy in revolutions emanates from deviancy in slogans and goals…” (Leader of Islamic Revolution, Seyyed Ali Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) (17/09/2011))2 For thirty years, there is distance between these two addresses. If they had changed, this gap would have been bridged without lack of any implication. The first address which contains indicators of awakening and alertness before Arabic and Islamic nations The second address which includes general policies of awakening If the common concept between these two addresses be the Islamic Awakening, the aim of this adaptation, the research introduction will be the investigation of effective and suitable programs for boosting women’s role for dealing with Western deviant thoughts, for which we found a very rich and deep matter in thought of Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) and the Leader of Islamic Republic. Perhaps his recent mentioning of the rereading constantly the principles of Revolution will be the prologue of 1. Imam’s Sahifeh, Vol. 15, PP 272-371 2. From Revolution’s Leader in the 1st Islamic Awakening Conference in Tehran, 2011


1. Here, it refers to the fact that woman is sometimes addressed with personal instinctive address and sometimes with collective address, each of which has the individual significance.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

analytical understandings for concepts of awakening which we will discuss and [prologue] of real contents which Western thought takes step to institutionalize and develop through various ways, particularly the contents that pay attention to woman as a personal element or to community of women as a collective element.1 We should here have a reference to this Western thought (especially the thought that is associated with the world of West and Islam) that it does not have a unit style in goals, and I consider as important this reference, because both generalization and nongeneralization of it need scientific symmetry. We tried to find it through some evidence coming in text; and we consider them as Western non-deviant thoughts and we can rely on those thoughts for separation of Western different concepts. In addition, we will try to finish this discussion with a set of recommendations in order for infrastructure establishment of the plan to fight against Western deviant thoughts. Introduction: Rapid political changes inside some of the Arabic countries constituted some indicators as follows: Time convergence: from the beginning of 2011, which took place in Tunisia in 17 January (Bahman in Solar) and in Egypt in 25 January. Spatial convergence, which did not lead to coordination: for example, after Tunisia, it was expected that what happened in Tunisia happen in Maghreb because of trigger of political changes in Tunisia. Among the causes of moves were oppression and social injustice‌

61


New propagandas created a common device among these movements Western pattern of developed countries dominates these (Arabic) governments. The young are the pioneers of these movements. Women were the integral components of these movements and were present in nearly all arenas. The majority of indicators make us answer these initial questions.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

What is the role of women in this movement of awakening? What are the actions preventing from Western deviant thoughts? What is the plan of fighting which women should adopt and should be adorned with? Is this plan effective and suitable, and does it lead to separation of Western deviant thoughts? Can Western experts be used in criticism of Imperialism?

62

Awakening and Women If nations are separated from brave and human-training women, these nations will soon collapse and fall1. Woman, like ma, is human and is the caliph of God on Earth “when your lord said to the angels: 'I am placing on the earth a caliph”2 who bears the Divine responsibility. God says: “we offered the trust to the heavens, and the earth, and the mountains, but they refused to bear it, and were afraid of it, and the human carried it”.3 Divine dignity promotes him, “we have honored the children of Adam, and carried them on both land and sea. We have provided them with good things and greatly preferred them above much of our creation”. Every human, whether man or woman, was distinguished by Taqva (piety). In this regard, God says “people, we have created you from a male and a female, 1. From speech for women of Qom in 6/03/1979 2. Baghareh (the Cow)/30 3. Ahzab (the Clans)/13


and made you into nations and tribes that you might know one another. The noblest of you before Allah is the most righteous of you. Allah is the knower, the aware.”1 Thus, what has been given to human is given to woman as well, because she is His successor, is revered and it is she who carries God’s trust and has been, like men, obliged to develop this world. Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) says that: “woman is human, a great human.” Yes, Imam calls for woman’s

in determining her destiny and actions. Woman is not a member outside of the society, but she is at its heart and has a principal and constructive role and Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) suggests this role; woman has a great role in society and is the manifestation of realizing human dreams; Islam has considered a role for women in all affairs like the role of men. Generally speaking, Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) suggests the nature of this role that woman can undertake. He says that: “we are proud that women and ladies, small and big, young and old, play their constructive role in cultural and economic and military arenas like men or better than them so that Islam and its aims are promoted. 1. Hojarat (the Private apartments)/13

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

human position to be paid attention to and be treated on this basis: We want that woman achieves her high human position”. These genuine Islamic thoughts constituted the basis of Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul)’s interpretation and emphasis in several cases: We want that woman, like others, be human and, like other free men, be free; What belongs to woman is that not only Islam is never against her freedom, but it is also in conflict with her conversion to a good. Islam restores to woman her esteem, honor and status and she is free

63


Allocating the role of woman to promotion and venerability of Islam is itself the biggest role of woman, which is the favorable responsibility for Islamic Awakening to the validity of awakenings opposite – negligence – that is Islam is collapsing. Woman’s strategic role in Imam Khomeini’s view (May Allah have mercy on his soul). It should be noted that this role has remained unchanged despite the changes of time and place, and is always a barrier to negligence

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and is considered as the main base of permanent awakening: 1- Participation in determining destiny - “as Holy Quran educates human, so does woman.” We can see that when Imam compares the role of woman and man in society, he explains that woman’s role is more important and momentous than man’s, in regard of which he says: “woman’s role in society is more important that man’s, because women and ladies, in addition to being an active group on all arenas, they can also educate and train other groups.1 - In addition, for this reason, we see that Islam has allocated a great reward in exchange of that. Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) says: “one night of mother’s wakefulness for her child is equal to faithful father’s years of life; kindness and mercy which are within mother’s luminous look are the manifestations of Divine Mercy. After that, education and training constitute a strong infrastructure for human’s personality with cultural, social, and psychological aspects, which manifests its role. Moreover, it has come in a narrative from the Commander of the Faithful that: a pure heart is like a uncultivated land which accepts whatsoever is thrown to it.

64

1. Kalamate Ghesar (Logion) p, 179


In addition, Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) suggests this truth in this way that: “majority of corruptions result from nodes that are made during childhood.”1 Parallel to the importance of this role is its being momentous, of which Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) was aware: but if this education is a bad one, it will corrupt society, God forbidden. Do not ever think that he/she is a child, because sometime this child grows in society, finds a key position and status, and then corrupts it.2 Generally speaking, this important role is of priority to all other roles and other roles that a woman can undertake should not affect it. That is why we can see that Imam opposes woman’s employment in a way that

difficulty,…take good care of your children… and bring up them well. Through this education, the prosperity in this word and in Hereafter will come true. Mother’s skirt is a cradle of all happiness and woman are deserved to be this cradle. 2. Woman’s activity in society Reform and corruption of society emanate from reform and corruption of women inside it. Woman is a very effective factor in society. If she is righteous, she will cause to society’s reform via spaces that dominates this society due to Hijab (veil) and virtue and obligation to its juridical rules; presence and manifestation of Mohajabeh (veiled) woman is

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

it prevents her from doing this fundamental role. He says: “Women! It was you who participated in this movement. God protects you, and you were asked to bring this movement ahead ;and your important responsibility is bringing up righteous children They have wanted to make these women distant from their children…some of those want women for working in offices don’t seek improvement and advancement of work, but they do this in order to corrupt offices, and try to separate children from their mother’s care, in which case they will face

65

1 .From Imam’s speech in a group of women of Ahvaz, 2/07/1979 2. From Imam’s Speech about Mothers 13/05/1979


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

invitation to God Sublime and Almighty, and she can create the spaces of this righteous society due to her God-given characteristics, and God-forbidden if she is corrupt, she will cause to corruption of society and will have an effect and space in society that not only help the corruption and deviancy in society, but they also invite explicitly to this corruption. Women must undertake this role and be in charge of it. It is incumbent on today’s women to play the social role of their religious

66

commitments with preserving public prudency, and do their social activities under public modesty. Despite corruption prevalent among societies due to encouragement of the greedy of world’s money and despite all the propaganda means and media that have gathered what they have in order to form a army which generally invites society and especially women to deviancy and obliquity, Imam believes that if women do well in this test, they not only can prevent them from their way in order to development of society, but they also become the example of a healthy and strong woman for the world, who plays a positive and effective role in society. 4- Woman’s activity in politics and establishment of government Imam has emphasized the necessity of woman’s effective participation in political affairs and establishment of system and its foundations in all arenas, among the most manifest of which we can mention these: a. Participation in referendum, elections, candidateship “Among the important issues to emphasize is the participation of sophisticated and brave women from different regions of Iran in referendum.”


b. Participation in political affairs “…women should also participate in society and protect it; women should participate in social and political activities as equal to men”. c. Construction of country “Today, women in Iran’s Islamic Republic operate alongside men in reconstructing themselves and in constructing country”. d. Administration of country’s affairs Who prevents these women from participating in

the

administration of country’s affairs?

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

e. Jihad In this regard, Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) says: “Jihad is not incumbent on women, but defense is incumbent on each person as much as they can” and he adds that: “if there is a time when an attach occurs on Islamic countries, all men and women must rise to defend it, because defense is not limited to man, but all men and women must move and defend countries.1 In one of his speeches, Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) points to Jihad and says: “If defense is incumbent on all, the preliminaries of defense should also be prepared, including the issue of military education and teaching of combating techniques for those who are unfamiliar with them. The problem is not that defense is incumbent of us but we don’t know how to defend, but it is the matter of how to learn defending.2 The Westernized couldn’t deceive millions of obliged women who constitute the basis and base of Muslim nation. If these roles are among the constructive programs of woman in public Islamic Awakening, then what are the plans of Estekbar (Arrogance) for penetrating into this previously mentioned set? Estekbar’s approach

67

1. Esteghtat, Vol. 1 2. From Imam’s speech for Woman’s Day, 10/02/1986


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

By studying this approach of Estekbar which seeks to weaken and intimidate nations, we can mention the following: 1- Transgressional dominance: through history, America was constantly at war with Arabs and Muslims. 2- Third World exploitation: exploiting and taking advantage of countries’ fortunes and using violence. 3- Triggering the fire of war: Ignition of war and creation of conflicts after their advancement in terms of waging war and

68

destroying humanity. 4- Materialism: This method emerges in marketing for material achievements of West, representing the 5- West as the superior example of development and hegemony. 6- Propaganda intimidation: Using press as soft war in order to intimidate people. 7- Analyzing the characteristics of nation: (the Westerners) ransacked orient and recorded and devise a plan for anything they found. What the West knows today about us does not emanate from this moment and this day, but it is the result of previous experiences.1 8- Phenomenon of American Islam in the region: 9- Through presenting the moderate and mild Islam in contrast to extreme Islam, Americanizing examples of moderate Islam, which begins from clothing, continues with cultural freedom and solving character of Islam with an American model and finishes with discourse of liberalistic Islam. 10- And also, we can add to this a numerous number before which think tanks are constantly trying to conquer the strong castles of nations, and besides which are the globalization of closed culture with a open space and civilizations’ dialogue and cultural variety and accepting other cultures, etc. 1. From Speech in female students, 12/04/1979


11- Due to the importance of this issue, Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) emphasized the origin of its separation which occured with the aim of marginalizing industrialized powers of Estekbar (Arrogance) and downgrading it against the faith and will and determination and purity [of heart] of society’s individuals especially Iranian women who became soon aware of and alertness against the World Arrogance. In the meanwhile, lessons and sermons of the departed Imam had a great effect on wakefulness of Leader. 12- Fighting against World Arrogance in Imam Khomeini’s view (May Allah have mercy on his soul):

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) opposes in principle this issue before and after Islamic Revolution a lot. For example, we can mention the following: 1- Prevention from development and growth: “Don’t think that they have planned a program for us and to our advantage. And anyone who thinks so is ignorant, and anyone who thinks that they direct oriental countries to the path of development is wrong”. 2- Political quarantine: America divided the world into two groups: the free group, and the other one, which is under a political quarantine. 3- Human rights: They do interesting and remarkable things and write many articles all of which are to human’s advantage, but they do not observe them themselves! In addition, this is ignoring nations and people and deceiving them (19/01/1978). 4- Human rights organization and Security Council and in addition all the institutions that powers have established to dominate the weak and destroy their magnificence, then they come with human rights to humiliate the weak and give the right to the powerful. (20/09/1979).

69


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Targeting woman By entering human rights, we have entered a circle which is so dangerous to woman, because the West has also understood woman not only constitutes a half of the society, but she is also the whole society and in the majority of aims of job creations in policies of the West in concerned governments, whether in Soft or Hard War, woman is the main purpose, who is targeted through Western attacks and from voluntary media which take steps to serve these policies: - Woman rights - Development of rural woman - Obedience of woman - Violence toward woman - Gender - Premature marriage According to Nietzsche, belief in equality of man and woman and observing women’s rights are wrong. The axiom is the man, it is only man who fights and woman should be the fun toy of this fighting and give birth to children for man The study by Arab researchers on several journalists and those having linked to Westerners showed that 85/7% of them believe that Arabs and Muslims are fundamentalist and 78/6% of them are enemies to the West and 69% of them oppose women and believe that 67/3% of them oppose human rights and 66/1% of them are terrorists and 50/9% of them are backward.1 This study adds that instinctive view on woman creates high violation towards her and as a result of strictness of society norms to which woman belongs and [as a result] of the image shown by various propaganda media and satellite networks, the severity if this violence increases, especially that, this image reflects a set of old and

70

1.www.iraggreen.net/modules.ph


regard, Quran says: “ »ُ‫«وأعدّوالهُم‬, Anfal/60. How can it be possible that West invites us to pay attention to woman on the one hand, and regards her as a commodity, on the other hand; and how can it take steps in support of plans of development and possession of woman, while it considers her as a meaningless thing? The ways of fighting which Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) determines: We see that the majority of Imam’s speeches were to men and women and his other speeches were only to woman. 1- Awareness and alertness My Muslim brothers and sisters, you know that powers in Orient and Occident want to usurp all the material and spiritual fortunes and leave us alone and want us to suffer from poverty and political,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

new precepts and ideas and effects, whether positive or negative, which individuals or society from another location capture. Here, it is possible that this broad opposition to communicative messages containing value of conflict and showing an ugly image of woman and disseminating it with the view that woman is a good seeking consumer, leads to encouraging this violent approach by man against woman, in home or on street or in terms of responsibility., and this approach may subject woman to sexual abuse and harassing her. In addition, in developing a fictional model, woman plays a role. A man whose characteristics are not consistent with those of his wife, increases his hostile behavior toward his wife under the pretext of untrue problems, so that he can prejudge through hidden sophistry and acceptable motivations from before, which exceeds from family violence level. Will Durant in his book, history of civilization Vol.11, says that: Except for Islam, no religion has ever been able to encourage people for their ability and power and the dignity the meaning of which is the high position of human, or able to resist against being subjugated or humiliated. Islam admires resistance against enemies. In this

71


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 72

economic, cultural, and military dependence. Retrieve your tranquility and follow your Islamic personality, don’t be silent toward oppression and expose with awareness the evil plans the greedy of the world and especially America design. (1979/29/9) If this nation (man and woman) doesn’t benefit from such an alertness and solidarity, know that it will be condemned to be under the dominance of different corrupt and American criminal governments and powers. (1982/6/13) 2- Unanimity Muslims and followers of Towhid (Monotheism)! Schism and non-correlation are the causes of many problems of the whole Islam world. As the code of victory is unanimity and correlation and union, God Almighty says that “‫ ”و اعتصمواا حبلما اج يواًمو و ف قوا ماا‬Resorting to divine string is the manifestation of the solidarity among Muslims, all Muslims should try for the sake of Islam and in the path of Islam and for the sake of Muslims’ interests and of avoidance from schism and separation and partisanship which is the basis of all miseries and the cause of backwardness, and I request from God the Gracious to practice graciousness towards Islam and great Muslims and the Muslims of the world with union and unanimity (1979/9/29) 3- Overcoming fear Nations should not fear America. Without doubt, America does not want to be a hollow drum to beat, America’s all threats are meaningless and have no effect. Nations should forget about this fear and follow their own path, because Islam is with them and God helps them. (1985/07/05) 4- Exploitation of abilities Undoubtedly, Estekbar (Arrogance) has attack us from every political, cultural and economic angles, and our Islamic Revolution has revealed till today the ambush of Satan and the Hunters’ traps for nations. Plunderers of the world and the capitalists expect us to just watching withering of [Islam] blooms and falling of the oppressed without supporting them, but our and Islamic Revolution’s responsibility today is to voice ourselves and say that:


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

O the slept, Awaken! And O the unaware, Be alert! Look around yourselves and see that you have established a home neighboring wolves’ den. Rise up! There is no time to sleep. We should shout and say “Rise up!” There is no respite from the scheming hunters. (1988/7/20) 5- University and scientific research and the importance of methods Women’s number in universities is growing which causes that the determined educational methods of this variable are considered like a goal for the events of this change of planning. Linking of this issue to woman’s wakefulness and awakening is of great importance to woman due to weakening of religious aspect of “Seeing is Believing”. For this reason, her rise is not against traditions and customs of society. Through formation of awareness type before woman in framework of experience and emotion and rapid point to scientific discussion and establishment of methods linking to positive results, woman often relies on empirical and field methods and finds results and generalizations through that and their importance, proportional to Western schools of thought, places a unity and order for scientific and destructive thinking and for everything, except for that. In addition, these schools consider doubt and certainty as the bases of this thinking which is done only through sense. This issue does not deny Western achievements and use and proliferation of them but warns about that. Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) interprets this issue in this way: “We welcome only the achievements the West has reached, not the corruption Westerners complain about”. In here, Imam mentions the true arenas of sciences, universities, due to the fact that universities are the places which embrace girls and boys. Islamic university should establish infrastructures to manage in professional level and should make some efforts to get rid of the framework of severe scientific dependence on contemporary and complicated network.

73


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

6- Arranging cadres and appropriate human force: This approach is related to the previous topic. Cadres and university competencies have suffered from intellectual colonialism and Westernization and from affectedness from scientific consumption over long years of dominance of West’s knowledge and civilization and colonialist dominance of West over our society, in a way that university in our society and the societies like it has become the consumer of specialized information which is produced by material system, and what’s surprising is that these societies are proud of imitating Westerners’ achievements and of efforts to translate them… .1 In any case, if society wants to introduce a new idea and a new definition of prosperity and scientific solutions in the style of producing new knowledge and infrastructures with reference to Divine bases, it has to take advantage of cadres and competencies which are adorned with the spirit of independence and selfsufficiency or as the way Hazrat Imam describes. Imam says: “Due to a new interpretation of life meaning and development and determination of proportion of those two to prosperity and spiritual values, these cadres become free of the dominance of the view that limits science to Orient and Occident” Completion of more effective and appropriate ways of those opposing Imperialism Talking about West and its plans does not suffice only with our knowledge of them. Rather, we should understand them well and separate them in order to create more effective and appropriate programs. Because it does not suffice to waste our time on these programs without considering their efficiency in appropriate time and place in a way that it is not put into practice. What is so important is that you should be aware of researches of the anti-imperial Westerners that perform their

74

1. Imam Khomeini, Sahifeye Noor, Vol. 13


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

studies and researches in the direction of revealing its plots and tactics. Here, I will look up to two persons who have a remarkable ability in this regard but I do not consider their comments as absolute basis. Chomsky: An American who tends to school of linguistic philosophical imitation Jßrgen Habermas: of Germany who tends to Frankfort’s critical school and is considered one the most important contemporary sociologists. Chomsky: determining 10 strategies for controlling nations (1928)1 1- The strategy of making busy: this strategy is the principal component in controlling societies which is embodied in shifting attention of public opinion from important problems and the changes that political and economic elites make, and is imposed through myriad of diversions and meaningless information. 2- Initiative of problems: even nation claims for security rules on account of its freedom. 3- Gradual strategy: to make, through this, accepted what is unacceptable, it is just sufficient for it adjustment to die down gradually. 4- Term strategy: In order for them to be able to make accepted the decisions that are not accepted, they resort to this type of strategy and even presenting it is performed like a bitter but necessary medicine. Addressing nation like a group of children: the majority of commercial advertisements which are for the common people use childlike reasons and personalities and voices, and in many cases, it address takes a level of mental retardation. 5- Inspiring emotion instead of reason: This is used for stopping the reasonable analysis.

75

1. http://sargincity.wordpress.com/2011/01/30


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 76

6- Keeping people in ignorance and stupidity: in a way through which people cannot know technologies and how to apply them, so that they can be controlled and managed. 7- Encouraging people to prescribe crime 8- Conversion of riot using feeling of guilty: It causes that individual feels that he, himself, is responsible for his misery and that the reason of this responsibility is defects of his mind and ability and efforts. 9- Knowing these persons more than their knowledge of themselves: thank to biological knowledge, biology of neurons and comparative psychology, (dictator) system finds a new knowledge of human being in two fields of physics and psychology, meaning that this system can dominate in many cases over people more than they can. Due to analyzing these 10 strategies, we can find in each one an implication that woman is targeted more that other members of the society, especially a woman that is related to new propaganda media which can be named the new media of bridling, and knowing these strategies is itself a kind of awakening so as to separate it and thwart its concerned aims. Jürgen Habermas (1929) who believes in intellectual criticism: Note: knowledge of his contemporary books and researches and the researches that are associates with such important issues, is helpful due to the fact that it’s the new ideology of colonialism, this technology has been combined with communicative means to form the most dangerous weapon against nations, especially women, due to the fact that woman is considered as a means to bring harm to all values of societies. On occasion of description of contemporary reality, Jürgen Habermas says: the superstition of Europe’s intellectualism should announce its defeat and throw the values (of freedom, democracy and equality) to its normal place – ash bin – after imperialism had changed it to the land of sins, this imperialism separates only the wars and suppression of communists and fascist and Nazist dictatorships and the dominance of colonialism, and its values are


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

successful only in committing sins and destroying human generation, and the result of it includes three kinds of violence: anti-woman violence, opposite violence, radical violence or ills having become accustomed to violence. Globalization of West and America’s capitalism was advantageous to West and inefficacious to world of Arab or Islam as a whole “because the West used the slogan of human rights only to exert pressure on others so that it can find markets all over the world for its commodities. Thus, anyone who did not accept its conditions was accused by him of being antihuman rights so that he fears, retreats, and submits to its wishes. In addition, the West destroyed traditional life framework (of family) in the world of West without any replacement and substitute. What is the solution according to Jurgen Habermas? This consistency of future Habermas is the only effect by which we can create again a link between unlinked plans of this world, a world that has lost all of its capabilities and strong points and in which the value of human is insignificant. Habermas emphasizes that the constant effect of democracy cannot obtain the true legitimacy which relies upon intellect’s dominance, unless it is in the frame work of critic address free of requirements and constrains of domination. There is no doubt that this awakening which is consistent with Habermas’ approach is useful for understanding events and this is the same thing that Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution, Seyyed Ali Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade)mentions: “If we want to be a developed, sophisticated and educated nation which takes shortcuts for passing all the affliction positions and if we claim that this nation has the capability in terms of human force, then studies, researches, general culture and the knowledge specific to the spectrum of elites in all fields should be doubled. Affidavit to comments of Imperialism opponents for events of awakening of a different kind before those who are debating on

77


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

rejecting Islamic issues and accusing it of distancing from knowledge and reason is necessary and important. Thus, the aftermaths of this awakening didn’t begin with Arabic Revolutions; rather it is current across the human history, and the Leader of Revolution best interprets it” Current growing truths in the world of Islam are not apart from its historical roots and social and intellectual grounds. For this reason, it is futile for enemies or for those who look at the surface to think that this has been a transient wave and a superficial event, and their attempts to extinguish the spark of hope in the heart of nations by means of misleading and biased analysis are futile as well.1 In the end, we should mention that fighting against dangers and plots begins with identifying them and properly planning to deal with them. Through history, woman had pioneering roles in consolidation and in operating as a barrier to plots due to the fact that she is the model of a perfect human who has been adorned with the highest capabilities. As Shahid (Martyr) Morteza Motahhari interprets: “Perfect human is one whose human values grow together with solidarity and relevance. None of them is lagging behind the other in terms of being complete and growth, even in the highest levels”.

78

1. From Speech of Revolution’s Leader in the first Conference of Islamic Awakening In Tehran, 2011


Reviewing the theological and legal aspects of women’s participation and its effect on the Islamic Awakening movements 

Abdolhossein Nour-e-Din1

Keywords Religious basics, legal basics, women’s contribution, Islamic awakening

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Abstract In the current situation that our Islamic nation is, facing several challenges, the “woman” issue, with its two theoretical and practical dimensions, is manifesting itself as an important and difficult combat, which people should comply with it. Woman is a partner of man. This partnership has started from the very beginning of human life and will last until God heirs the earth and what is on it and its range is from the skies to the earth. The nature of different views towards women and their rights is like a weapon in the hands of opponents of Islam and some of those who claim progress. They are targeting Islamic thought and experience. What helps them in achieving their purpose is a biased current under the name of Islam on one hand and public attitude on the other hand. They downgraded women in Islamic societies. The present paper attempts to discover the nature of Islamic point of view towards women and examine women’s contribution and their effects on the Islamic awakening movement. It introduces this contribution of women as a human, Islamic, and political essentiality.

79


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction The Islamic Ummah faces many threats in different processes and the issue of women, which has two practical and theological aspects, is on of such challenges which need to be discussed. Woman, from the very beginning of life, has been on the earth and this being will continue as long as God has decided. Regardless of the nature of Islam’s view towards women and their rights, this attitude has been used as a weapon by some enemies to under the Islamic thought and experience. Finding Islam’s attitude towards woman and her rights and her role in the contemporary Islamic uprising is necessary for humanity, Islam and politics, especially in present time. This article tries to find a solution to the issue.

80

Islamic Awakening: 1. Elements and fundaments a. Definition of Islamic Awakening A state of movement and awareness in the Islamic Ummah which leads to uprisings and revolutions and profound changes among regional nations. b. Elements and fundaments The most important element in these revolutions has been people’s real and all-out presence in these uprisings. Their presence should not be only with their hearts and faith but also with their bodies and steps.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

c. Foundations: There is no doubt that major social changes rely on a historical and cultural background. This has been proved through study and experience. 2. The great Islamic Revolution in Iran and the establishment of an authentic, powerful and modern government in the Islamic Republic, like the present Islamic Awakening, has opened up a new chapter in history which needs to be researched and discussed and will definitely have a major role in the handling of the current situation in the Islamic world. 3. The issue of Palestine and Islamic resistance in Lebanon against the Zionist regime has been turned into one of the bases of the Islamic Awakening and has played a significant role in the progress of this movement. So, if the Islamic Awakening is considered as a state of movement and awareness in an Ummah which gave rise to general revolutions and uprisings- regarding the presence of women, men and the youth- what have been the theological and legal principles in the participation of women in these revolutions? What has been their effect on the recent Islamic uprising? Before answering these questions, a number of Islamic attitudes in the past two decades need to be reviewed here. Worrying concept about woman: There has always been a conflict over the social role of women and this conflict has caused a sort of concern and anxiety in recent Islamic statements.

81


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 82

Allameh Sayyed Mohammad Fazlollah defines this anxiety as follows: “Speaking about woman and her affective role in various human aspects and situations needs dialogue and discussion about concerning definitions that people have about women, especially in the framework of the Islamic values, which result in her anxiety and lack of self confidence during interaction with the real life situations.” And Sheikh Mohammad Ghazali talks about this anxiety in his book “Prophet’s conduct among the experts of theology and Hadith.” He allocates one chapter of this book to women and the conflicts among Muslims over woman’s role and Sheikh Ghazali wrote this book because of the disagreement between expert of theology (Feqh) and Hadith. And when Sheikh Yousef Qazawi defines this anxiety he says: The issue of women in Islamic society is a prime example that shows anxiety and extremism. Sheikh Mohammad Reza’s views about women’s rights in Islam and their role in general reforms, were highlighted in his book. He says in his book that Islam calls for the participation of women and men in religious, social and political affairs and Sheikh Mohammad Nasser Al-Din Al-Bani after studying this book, wrote that such views are rejected due to their contradiction with the verse in the Quran that says “women sit down in their homes and be calm,” Because women in Prophet’s era participated in politics. But Sheikh Reza Firi believes that in the Quranic verse “male and female believers, some of them are the guardian of the others” God has fixed kind of absolute guardianship for women beside men and Velayat, brotherhood, friendship, as well as financial, social, and political rights can all be justified for women according to this verse. There is an exception here and that Islam has exempted women from fighting in the battlefield.


But after the Islamic Awakening broke out in Islamic and Arab society, it started reforming the social conditions. And the issue of women and their role in the society were brought to the spotlight. We are not after answering the questions about women. It is necessary to introduce the Islamic theology’s views on women both in theory and practice. Review of most important theological and legal issues regarding women in the Islamic establishment Islam has given much attention to women so that a long Surah with the name of “Nessa” or women has been revealed in the Quran

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Sheikh Rasheed Reza’s difference with Sheikh Abbani can be resolved through Sheikh Mohammad Ghazali’s method as their difference is because of the methods of theological experts and experts of Hadith. As Ghazali says in his above-mentioned book, he believes theologist are right. And while the woman herself expressed this issue: The chief of Al-janan organization Doctor Meni Yakon said in Tripoli that “Muslim women are still far away from their political and social rights and their concerns over lack of participation in activities have made the life difficult for her and disturbed her peace of mind and prevented her from movement and activity.” An admitting the efficiency of women’s role and not forcing them to be reliant on men, are among the most important concerns for women. Egyptian writer Safinaz Kazem says: “Women during the Islamic era have been deprived of their social rights and have been treated like the women in pre-Islamic era and there has been a wrong interpretation of this verse in Quran that say “sit down in your homes” and this has replace the position that Islam has considered for women. “ The present anxiety regarding the issue of women is made clear and the hub of the conflict-according to the interpretation of theologists-is women’s social roles and their participation in social life.

83


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 84

and this indicates the importance of women’s role in the human society. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei says: Imam Khomeini Revolution is the focal point of the Islamic Awakening in the world. He also says “if brave women who instruct men are excluded from the nations, such societies will be defeated soon and will be placed on the downward spiral of collapse.” And Imam Khomeini says: Woman is the symbol of the realization of human expectations, she nurtures great men and women, man ascends to the heaven (Meraj) through woman’s instruction, she is the instructor of great men and women. Imam Khomeini also says: “women nurture brave men,” woman like the Quran, nurtures human. So woman has an outstanding position in Imam Khomeini’s views and is given an instructional role like that of the Quran’s. This position was not a simple theory. Women during the 1979 revolution put this idea into practice. He became the starting point of the Islamic Awakening and this was achieved through attempts to restore women’s rights which promoted woman to her real high position that had been already determined for her. In a meeting back in 1978, Imam Khomeini was asked about the role of women in the Islamic establishment, he said: “Right now, women take part in the political combats and protests against Shah regime and as far as I know women have formed political parties in different cities in Iran. Woman will definitely be given the rights that a man has in the society, including education, job, possession, voting and being nominated. Women can have a role in the fields that men are active in. Except there are some works that can be dangerous for men and can throw them into corruption and such a case is also true for women and they should avoid such things.” From Imam Khomeini comments: We are proud of the fact that women in different ages, are united and are endeavoring in cultural, economic and military


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

fields, shoulder to shoulder with men, and even more than them, for the promotion of Islam and the objectives of the Quran. In Imam Khomeini’s comments we can see how he specifies Islam’s theological and legal principles regarding women and on the basis of his saying that woman and the Quran are both instructor of human, he gave women a more important role than men. These principle and rights have been based on Prophet’s pure conduct and the foundations of the Quran. Some of these rights are given below: 1. Equality right: God says “oh! Men we created you male and female and put you in various races and nations to get familiar with each other. Definitely, the best of you before God, is the one who fears him most” God has not determined being man or woman as the criterion of greatness, but the only scale is piety. And this indicate that Islam consider equal right for men and women. But due to their different characteristics, and to maintain the balance and the perfection of humanity through man and woman, They have been given the opportunity to get involved in their own special fields. 2. Freedom of speech and choice and political awareness: Islam puts especial emphasis on the necessity of political awareness of women so that they can have their own particular political ideas. One of the greatest examples of this issue in the history is Hazrat Zeinab, the daughter of Hazrat Ali (P.U.B.H.) who defended the philosophy of Imam Hossein’s (P.U.B.H.) revolution after his martyrdom and her uprising and campaign against the murderers of Imam Hossein led to the formation of revolutionary spirit among Muslim nations in practical and theoretical arenas. Mentioning some of Zeinab’s speeches to infer the political and intellectual maturity of a woman in Islam, can be interesting. After Al-Taf war (the event of Karabal) Yazid’s forces took the head of Imam Hossein and his followers to Yazid’s palace. Yazid had a long stick in his hand and beat Imam Hossein’s mouth and teeth with it

85


and said some pieces of poem that showed his hostility with Islam and Prophet Mohammad; Zeinab told him: Definitely God and his prophet were right as they said:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

‫ثم كان عقبة الذين اسوا السواي ان كذبوا بايات اهلل و كانو بها يستهزءون‬

86

The evil was the end of those who did evil, because they rejected the communications of Allah and used to mock them (Surah Al-Roum, verse 10) “Oh! Yazid, when (your forces) captured us and were taking us like captives to prison, you thought that we have been humiliated before God and you have been extolled? You felt that you are powerful and you got arrogant and felt that you determine the fate. Definitely the verse of the Quran that says “ Do not think that those who insisted on their blasphemy and we gave them some time are in a good situation, we have given them more time so that they plunge into sins and a painful torture awaits them on the Doomsday.” So use your ploy and do your best, I swear in God that you can never destroy our memory.” 3. Right of working God says “every man and woman get what they seek.” Islam has given woman the right to do business and have financial independence and also the right to possess things. 4. Right of education God says “God promotes the position of faithful men and scientists”. He also says “Are those who know and those who do not know are equal?” Prophet Mohammad says: “Learning science is a must for every Muslim man and woman.” He also says whoever has a daughter and nurtures her in a good way and teach her and supplies her with God’s blessings that have been predetermined for her, He will be safe from the Hell. “


8. Right to participate in Jihad and battles: As far as women’s participation in Jihad is concerned, Jihad means a general social situation that dominates the society and each person in proportion to his or her capabilities takes their Jihadi role.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

So, in Islam, learning science and seeking knowledge and culture is not exclusive to men, but it is a right for every person. Hazrat Fatemeh (P.B.U.H.) the daughter of Prophet is a perfect paragon for the women in the world. One of her titles was wise. 5. Right to vote and running for elections: God says oh! Prophet, when women come to pledge allegiance to you,” this shows that women have right to run for elections and take political positions like men and that was the reason for women’s oath of allegiance. 6. Right of political participation and competition: One of the principles that indicates that Islam has given women the right of political participation is the present political competition. Here, refer to the role of Hazrat Fatemeh, the daughter of Prophet, who has already proved political opposition in more than a speech and political stance. So that her burial ceremony was a kind of opposition, he has asked her husband Ali (P.U.B.H.) to bury her overnight and covertly so that those who annoyed her and were cruel to her can not attend her funeral. 7. Right to participate in social and cultural activities: Islam has provided women with many ways to participate in social and cultural affairs to fulfill their rights. One of the most important roles for women is to carry out cultural missions and preach religion in the society especially by working at organizations that deal with women’s affairs. God says “Those who preach God’s religion and fear him and do not fear any one else and God alone will be sufficient for them” In this regard Hazrat Zahra is a perfect paragon for women. As historians say, the Prophet sought her daughter’s assistance in explaining and spreading the Islamic rules among women.

87


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 88

A man who takes up arms and goes to the battlefield, in fact owes this situation to a woman, that could be his mother, sister or wife, who has already paved the way and set the background for this situation. So, woman is man’s partner in Jihad because of her special presence that paves the way for victory by supplying the combatants with food and clothes and treats injured fighters and maintains jiahad for the implementation of its holy objectives. Imam Khamenei says: “The role of women in the Revolution and during the war was fundamental and fateful and their role in future will God Willingly remains fateful.” Woman is in the state of defensive Jihad, a jihad that has been imposed on Muslims due to enemies’ threats and attacks. Jihad is mandatory for all qualified Muslims including men and women and also taking up arms to counter enemies’ threats is a must for every Muslim. But primary Jihads, like the jihad in which the battlefield is in enemies territory, like Muslims wars for conquering-are obligatory for men and women are exempted form such jihads that are not needed nowadays. What has been the role of women in Islamic Awakening movements? As one of the most important elements of the Islamic Awakening has been the massive presence of all nations, women also were involved in these movements. One of these movements in which women participated was the Islamic Revolution in Iran that paved the way for the participation of women and did not place any obstacles in the path of their growth and promotion. The situation of women in Iran in comparison with other Arab and Muslim countries is much better. This situation could give an answer to the questions regarding the conflict in religion over different social fields. Iranian women have actively participated in social, economic and military activities since the 1979 revolution in Iran. They took part in anti-Shah protest rallies and eventually realized their goals.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Imam Khomeini’s speech proves this point. Here is an extract of that speech: Women who were trained on the basis of Islamic values took to the streets and sacrificed their lives and secured the victory of the Islamic Revolution. We consider our uprising dependent on women. Men took to the streets due to women’s support. Tomorrow is woman’s day, the day of a woman that the world is proud of her. The day of a woman whose daughter is Zeinab. Hazrat Zeinab stood up against the tyranny and made a famous speech against the tyrant rulers. They intended to intimidate her but she did not show any fear and admonished Yazid and made him understand that he is not a human and does not deserve humanity(parts of Hazrat Zeinab’s speech has been given in section of women’s political awareness). Such bravery is appropriate for women and thanks to God; the women of our era are like that lady. Women fought for the victory of the Islamic Revolution, while they were holding their child and chanting slogans against Shah. Nowadays, you can not find a city or village that does not have a cultural and educational center in which respectable Muslim women are involved. These are all due to the Islamic uprising that made such great achievements in the society and the men and women thanks to the teachings Islam, passed the 100-year road at one night. You witnessed how respectable Iranian women competed with men to get to the streets and toppled Shah. The victory the Islamic uprising is a big honor for Iranian women who actively and bravely participated in the revolution and defended the Islamic country and the Quran in face of ill-wishers and enemies and even right now they are ready to fight against enemies and sacrifice. Praise be upon the committed women all over Iran that are working to educate children and illiterate people and teach human science promote the culture of the society by spreading the teachings of the Quran. God’s mercy and Salawat be on those who were

89


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 90

martyred in the Revolution and in the path of defending their country and those women who treat the patients and paralyzed people in hospitals. Women suffered problems and difficulties and played their roles in all cultural and social fields and some even were active in agricultural and industrial arenas. The Islamic situation of women in Iran was promoted due to the widespread participation of women in social affairs. Women in Iran continuously attend the Iranian parliament and even in 2000 a woman was elected as the member of the panel presiding over the parliament. Some other women have been elected as deputy chief of some organizations like the ministry of culture, the ministry of health and medical services, and also president’s counsellor in women’s affairs. In the Expediency Council, which supervises the general policies of the establishment, there is a special organization that deals with women’s affairs and also in all ministries there are women counselors. And there is a special day for women coinciding with the birth anniversary of Fatemeh Zahra on 26th of Jamadi Al-Thaani. Iranian women are the symbol of the Islamic Awakening in the present time thanks to the Islamic Revolution led by Imam Khomeini. But in Lebanon, Muslim Lebanese women learned lessons from their Iranian sisters and performed Imam Khomeini and Imam Khamenei’s recommendation for the necessity of continuing the fight against oppression and occupation. Lebanese women supported the Islamic resistance movement in Lebanon until it became victorious in 2000 and six years later it outlined the symbol of resistance against the Israeli regime. Lebanese women were inspired with Hazrat Zahra and her son Imam Hossein’s conducts hoisted the flag of Islam through devoting martyrs in defense of their country. They learned lessons of resistance and patience from Zeinab the daughter of Imam Ali. Lebanese women carried out a jihad through helping the combatants


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and supplying them with food and clothes and praying for the victory against the Israeli enemy, Woman as mother, wife, sister and daughter has a major role in jihadi training and culture in different situations. They were many women who brought up faithful children and sent them to the battlefields. There were many women who helped their husbands and tolerated difficulties of jihad. This is the same training that promotes women to the high positions of forgiveness and sacrifice. We have seen this issue in the families of martyrs and combatants. Some times they have been asked to carry weapons to the battlefields. But right now, there are enough forces to carry out such missions and fighting in the battlefield is not mandatory for them. They mobilize popular assistance behind the battlefields. This task is in proportion to women’s physical features. Their absence in the battlefield does not reduce anything from their reward before God because reward depends on carrying out the religious responsibility and women have performed their responsibilities. Here we say that some of the Lebanese women, during the Israeli invasion of southern Lebanon in 1982, poured hot oil on Israeli troops and threw stones at them. Now Lebanese women are endeavoring in scientific fields and are active in various cultural, social, intellectual fields. They are actively working in engineering, medicine, law, mathematics, agriculture, and human sciences and train combatants against the Israeli enemy. But in the occupied Palestinian territories women have had a major role in the resistance and fight against the Zionist regime.

91


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 92

Palestinian mothers, sisters and wives encourage their beloved ones to fight in the path of God and for the dignity of their country so that Palestine is liberated with the help of God and is given back to its real owners. Palestinian women, besides participation in educational, social, cultural and political aspects of life play a major role in the resistance against the Israeli occupation. And this is due to the uprising of women despite difficult situations and under the occupation of Zionists. And also because of nurturing children and their awareness of the great cause for which they are fighting that is the liberation of Palestine which is the focal point of the Awakening of nations so that the issue of Palestine as Muslims first Qibla has turned into a vital point for them. But about other Arab countries: oppression and corruption is rife among the rulers and this is especially true among those rulers who have friendly ties with Israel. But the will and demands of Arab and Muslim nations are a far cry from their corrupt rulers’ and dictators’ will. These rulers think about their own interests and accumulation of more wealth while they are in power; they don’t pay attention to their people’s demands. Those rulers that have done nothing regarding the issue of Palestine, except a fake and deceitful speech. Palestine needs action and not deceitful words to secure it freedom. There are some Arab rulers who have signed peace agreements with the Zionist regime despite the will of their nations. The Arab revolutions and the uprisings in Arab and Islamic countries demand freedom, social justice, and restoration and revival of their respect and dignity that have been undermined by the ruling dictators and they also want the hoisting of the flag of Islam which represent the beliefs and sentiments of the nations. People in Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain, Libya, and Yemen equally demand freedom and social and political justice. They destroyed their corrupt rulers and regimes. Women had a significant role in these


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

revolutions. They participated in anti regime rallies and called for change of government in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen. Maybe Haraer town in Bahrain is the best example of women’s participation in political and social arenas as women demand freedom, equality and justice. They staged massive demonstrations and chanted slogans of freedom and justice and demanded their legitimate rights authorized by Islam. The most important right they demanded was the right to participate in politics and have freedom to vote, practice religion and carry out their cultural and social responsibilities. But the Bahraini regime responded to their protests with bullets, poison gas, torture, and detention. Women presence in the streets and the regime’s deadly crackdown revealed the real face of the Al-Khalifa regime and was manifested in the restoration of two important theological and legal principles that are women’s rights and her participation in politics and decision making. Despite the regime’s deadly crackdown, torture and humiliation, the protesters still try to implement their rights. The restoration of these rights for the Bahraini government which took its laws from Sharia, was mandatory. But are there any Islamic laws in Bahrain? Or do Bahraini rulers like most of Arab rulers simply pretend to follow Islamic laws and in practice they carry out their conventional and traditional customs. Summary In recent decades, the issue of women has attracted much attention. Many conferences have been held, and many agreements and laws have been desperately made to secure the rights of women. This could be because of lack of attention to the role of women in these laws and agreements. The Islamic establishment through its special theological and legal principles has a complete knowledge of women’s rights because it has not deprived women of any rights or activities-- which do not violate Islamic laws and respect women’s privacy-- because of their gender.

93


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islam gave women the right of equality with men, freedom, the right of activity, and freedom of speech. Women’s faith in Islam and following its teachings, contribute to the protection of the mission of the Prophet and the path of Fatemeh and Zeinab. This can show the role of women in politics, media, and even making peace or war in the world. This is what Iranian women did and through their participation in the Islamic Revolution have become a perfect paragon for the women in other Muslim countries and it is hoped that Bahraini women get the same role. The following proposals and suggestions could be useful for the women to implement their goals. We ask God to keep up stable in this path so that we can satisfy him.

94


A pathological Approach to Interactive, Exchanging, and Non-textual Perspectives in the Evaluation of Informational Sources of the Websites of Moslem Women: A Step towards Accelerating the Islamic Awakening in the Cyberspace

Sediqeh Mohammad-Esmaiel1 Mahrokh Nasehi-Oskuei2

1.Assistant professor at Azad Islamic University, Faculty of Science and Research, Tehran 2 . Student of Azad Islamic University, Faculty of Science and Research, Tehran

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Abstract This research has assessed websites associated with Moslem Women in Iran by the evaluative method, examining the status of these websites from the point of view of observing the measures of Interactive, exchanging, and non-textual perspectives, as well as addressing the components and properties related to this area. Data collection tool of this research is a checklist consisting of 21 components based on studying various texts and sources as well as literature review. In the checklist mentioned, the methods of formal validity and content validity have been used, and as the final measurement, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has been applied. Alpha was calculated 0.97 which is indicative of a robust reliability. The statistical population of this research consists of seventeen websites namely, Social and Cultural Council of Women, Al-Zahra Research Center of Women, Presidential Women, Family Research Institute, Information Center of Hazrat Zahra (Peace be upon her), Shamim, Iranian Women New Agency, Tashaio, Tebyan, Research and Study Center of Seminary Hawza, Research Center of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Hawza and University Research Center , Hijrat, Science of Hadith Faculty, Representative Institute of the Supreme Leader of Iran, National Library and Archives of Iran, and IranDoc .

95


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

It was impossible to access Hijrat website due to a message in its homepage indication: “Please contact your web host. Otherwise your website will be deleted from our server within a week.� In order to analyze the findings of this research, descriptive statistics (frequency, present and mean) to describe the current status of websites under question, and inferential test for rejecting or confirming hypotheses have been used. The findings of this research indicate that IranDoc website took the first rank with the score of 59 and observing 72 present of the components of Interactive, exchanging, and non-textual perspectives, while Hawza and University Research Center took the last place with the score of 27 and observing 27 present of the components in question. Of these 16 websites, half of them observed almost 50 present of the components of Interactive, exchanging, and non-textual perspectives. Although this is indicative of the relative success of the designers of these websites in achieving user-friendly interfaces, it will take a lot of effort to reach the ideal in this field. The wave of the Arab Spring movement and Islamic Awakening, and the fact that Islamic Republic of Iran has a lot of valuable experiences about revolution and overthrowing a brutal royal regime, makes it necessary for the designers of these websites to try with all their might to make these websites more and more popular, so that Arab countries can have access to the experiences of Islamic Iran and its brave fighting women. Keywords Islamic Awakening, women, evaluation, Interactive, exchanging perspectives, Interactive, non-textual perspectives, website, Iran

96


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction The trend of Islamic awakening made Muslim nations aware of their rights throughout Muslim world and also made them to stand against oppression. Among them, Muslim women have participated in uprisings intended to topple oppressive regimes in countries like Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Bahrain and …. Women participation in different revolutions attracted world attention of different international organizations. Since women played important role in Islamic awakening and shaping this movement, autocrats changing their attitudes try to extinguish this democratic yield due to their attack toward them (Islamic awakening website. 2011) In Islamic point of view, women are important in terms of their valuable impact as wife and mother as well as being influential in all social developments of their countries. Similar to men, one of the women’s duties is society reform. In verses of Quran, God suggested equally to men and women to have piety and avoid committing sins and wrong doings. With regard to these verses, women are also influential in reforming their own society from deviations. In this regard, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, leader of Islamic revolution says: “In social, political, scientific and other domains, like men, women have right to do their duties toward society. Similar to men, women must be present in society to understand society’s troubles and try to make them disappear.” As our Islamic leader says, Muslim women cannot go away from their societal reform (Afifane website, 2011) Furthermore, it seems that Muslim women should also use physical weapons in addition to virtual tools and media technologies to interact ideas and thoughts with women of other nations involving revolutions. As one of the most important and most powerful tools of communicating websites can play significant role in the trend of these revolutions by being easily available and as well as being

97


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 98

cheap. Applicability and availability of one website is important in its success. Therefore, this paper examines the applicability of some websites relating to Muslim women from interactive, interchangeable and non textual perspective in addition to determine their adaptation with available standards. In addition to the above, achieving reliable and credible information about appropriate features of a well designed web, knowing weak points and strong points and finally presenting suggestions to boost strong pants and eliminating weak points is among other purposes of this research. Functional definition of the components of the issue Applicability of web pages: by web applicability we mean determining the level of influence, efficiency and applicability of one website to determine and provide better suggestions for informational needs of users in addition to understand effective factors in web page quality and their usability. Control list: in this research a researcher-made control list consisting 2 general criteria along with 21 features have been used to evaluate webpage applicability in terms of interactive, interchangeable and non textual criteria. By the word “frequency� we mean the number of sources emphasizing that specific feature (it is crystal clear that inserting numbers in respective columns of frequency is precisely indicative of the document which its bibliography information in resources and is used under that specific number. Furthermore, in the mentioned list, existence and non existence scale (YES is marked with √ and no with -) X frequency or utilization level have been used. So that the score for YES is considered 1 and for NO would be 0 in which X frequency or respective level of each feature form the overall respective score of that feature. In other words, scoring method includes: the score of each feature= respective frequency or score of 1 or 0(based on the existence and non existence of that feature in the website). Interactive and interchangeable indexes: in this research by interactive and interchangeable research we mean mechanism which


Research methodology and justification of its validity In this research it has been tried to combine library method (documentary), survey and assessment to do our research as well as to determine respective indexes of webpage applicability assessment. Therefore, a check list or control list had been used for data collection. Since finding assessment indexes and criteria for websites require referring to several books and papers, therefore, it has been attempted to infer and compile available criteria and indexes existing in mentioned checklist after collecting, studying and analyzing them while having surveys and website visits related to women, their quality and applicability they are evaluated. Therefore, women

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

provides users to have interaction with the person or organization in charge of web content. Non-textual indexes: non-textual indexes are different elements which require users to be equipped with a specific software or explorer while using and working with webs including these (nontextual) indexes. Maps, audio and video files as well as graphics are some examples of non-textual indexes. Hypothetical index of website: in this research we assumed a hypothetical index of website with a presupposition that effective features and measures are well considered to increase applicability of the website from the viewpoint of interactive, interchangeable and non-textual indexes. Index website can be used as a meter or a measurement instrument. Main questions: 1. From the viewpoint of applicability, what is the level of adaptation of the web pages of women with the indicators related to observation of criterion of existence of interactive and interchangeable indexes in the site (under study by this research)? 2. From the viewpoint of applicability, what is the level of adaptation of the web pages of women with the indicators related to observation of criterion of existence of non textual indexes in the site (under study by this research)?

99


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

websites which are 17 in number had been known. These websites are Social-Cultural Council of Women, Alzahra Women Research center, Women of Presidency, Family Research Center, Hazrate Zahra Information Center, Iran Women News Agency, Tashayo, Tebyan, Qom Seminary school Research Center, Research Center for Humanities and Cultural Studies, University and Seminary Research Center, Hijra, Hadith Sciences college, the office of the representative of the Leader of Islamic revolution, The National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran (NLAI) and Iran Doc. Which among them Hijra Site included the message “please call your service provider, otherwise after one week your site will be removed from the server” which prevented access to the site. Although we had various external indexes in the form of checklist which assess how women websites were applicable, therefore assessment method had been used.

100

Method of data collection and analysis Data collection had been done with direct observation method and based on a checklist with 21 indexes. Main pages of websites in terms of interactive and interchangeable and non textual indexes of evaluating these web pages were observed and analyzed and then for data analysis, descriptive data method had been used. Therefore, examining index of researcher had been used whose available measures were inferred due to the study of texts and resources of this field study. After studying resources and their respective background as well as knowing experts’ view points, the determined criteria had been inferred and after final modifications they compiled them in the format of a check list consisting 21 indexes and features. Data analysis and presenting findings In answer to the research questions first it is necessary to achieve scores of effective measures and features in interactive, interchangeable and non textual indexes of site in the index site. As it was mentioned earlier, a hypothetical website had been used in this


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

research so that in its designing each and every feature is designed so that it can be used as an index for assessment of other sites of the society under study. After determining the scores of hypothetical website, to answer the second and third questions, “determining the adaptation level of specified websites of research from interactive, interchangeable and non textual perspectives with given criteria in research firstly we examine the issues related to existence and non existence of each presented criterion in women related websites and then it had been evaluated using checklist. At final stage the finding of these assessments had been compared to the findings of index website. Research findings indicates that in index website, the overall score of considering the presented criteria in interactive, exchanging and non textual indexes will be 81 scores among which 25 scores is specified to interactive and interchangeable indexes in page(30.86%) and 56 scores is specified to the existence of non textual indexes available in site(69.13%). The above information can be illustrated in the following diagram. 1. The criterion of existence capability of interactive and interchangeable indexes in site: In assessing the applicability of women web pages from the perspective of consideration of related features to existence of interactive, interchangeable indexes in site, the achieved results can be presented in table 1. Results showed that Cultural- Social Council of Women and Family site and Iran Doc achieved 25 scores(100%) and became the top score, Tebyan 21 scores(84%), Women of Presidency 19 scores (76%), Iranian Women News Agency 13 scores(52%), Tashayo 12 scores (48%), Hadith Science college, Family Research Center, Alzahra Women Research center, Shamim, Qom Seminary school Research Center, Research Center for Humanities and Cultural Studies and National Library 6 scores(24%). Among them Cultural, Social Council of Women in terms of the related features of this criterion such as: user awareness of the existence

101


of indentifying file mechanisms in site, the possibility of registration in site and considering a specific system for its implementation, the existence of a specific system for users’ feedback as well as the existence of a specific system for users to ask more information had been more successful compared to other similar web sites. Table1. The index of applicability assessment of web pages from the perspective of consideration level of related features to criterion of interactive and interchangeable indexes

-

-

-

102

-

√ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

Cultural-social Council of Women

Al Zahra Women's center

Shamim Alzahra information Center Family Research center Women of presidency

Tashayo Iranian Women News Agency

Tebyan

Research Center and Seminary

Research Center for Humanities and Cultural studies

Seminary and university research

Hadith Science college

the office of the representative of the Leader of Islamic revolution

Iran Doc.

National Organization of Documents

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

-

The existence of a determined system to have user’s feedback The existence of a determined system for users to ask more information from institute Mentioning necessary time for receiving answer from institute Possibility of registration

Frequency

-

features

Row

Interactive and interchangeable indexes

Centers

1،3 ، 8،7 ، 13، 16، 23

1

1،3 ، 8،7 ، 16، 23

2

1،7 ، 16، 23

3

1،1 6،2 3

4


-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

The existence of a determined system for users’ registration

-

1،1 6،2 3

5

6

21

13 12

11 6 6 6

0

24

24

74

52 47

86 24 24 24

10 0 0

25

6

0

36

0

1

47

0

16

24

0

6

Total scores Percentage of scores

Diagram 1. The index of applicability assessment of web pages from the perspective of consideration level of related features to criterion of interactive and interchangeable indexes

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

2. The existence criterion of non textual indexes in site While assessing women web applicability from the view point of considering related features to the existence criterion of non textual indexes in site, we have achieved findings which can be illustrated in table 2. Our findings show that Iranian Women News Agency, Iran Doc, National Library with 42 scores (4.75%) have most consistency with

103


determined criterion. Family Research Center, Alzahra Women Research center, Sahamim and Research Center for Humanities and Cultural Studies as well as seminary and University have least consistency with determined criteria. Table 2. Applicability assessment checklist of web pages from the perspective of consideration level of the related features to criterion of non-textual indexes Interactive and interchange able indexes

-

-

√-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

Cultural-social Council of Women

-

No use of baseless moving images, (animations )

1،2،7،1 3،16،2 1،22،2 8

1

-

Using graphics, audio and video files to increase site performance

1،4،7،1 3،16،2 2،21

2

-

Expressing the name of the specific software to make information available for all users

1،4،7،1 3،16،2 2،21

3

-

alternative files requiring special software for data accessibility for all users

1،4،7،1 3،16،2 2،21

4

Components

Women of presidency

Al Zahra Women's center

Family Research center

Alzahra information Center

Shamim

Iranian Women News Agency

Tashayo

Tebyan

Research Center and Seminary

Research Center for Humanities and Cultural studies

Seminary and university research

Hadith Science college

-

Row

-

-

-

104

Representing the the office of the representative of the Leader of Islamic revolution

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

-

Frequency

Iran Doc.

Centers

features


-

-

43

43

-

-

-

21 36 22 22

-

-

-

36 21 21 43 22

Mentioning the name of the browser software needed, or the special edition, to access pages (if necessary)

-

22 22 36

21

21

1،4،7،1 3،16،2 2،21

5

Total scores

50/7

50/7

63/1 37/5 37/5

37/5

85/4 50/7 50/7 63/1

37/5

37/5 63/1 50/7

85/4

85/4

Percentage of the scores

Diagram 2. Applicability assessment checklist of web pages from the perspective of consideration level of the related features to criterion of non-textual indexes

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Generally, research findings shows that Iran Doc with 59 scores and considering 72% of related features of interactive and interchangeable and non textual indexes are at the highest level and the Seminary and University research center with achieving 22 scores and considering 27% of features is located at the lowest level.

105


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Among the related websites, 7 websites had considered more than half of the related features which are as following: Iran Women News Agency 69%, Women of Presidency 67%, Social Council of Women 66%, Tebyan 61%, The National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran (NLAI) and Iran Doc. 60 %, Hadith science college 55% and Qom Seminary school Research Center 51%, these websites constitute half of the 16 discussable websites. Although this issue indicates relative success of these website designers in achieving user intermediaries but to achieve the final step of satisfaction they have a long path to go. Especially with Arab spring wave and Islamic awakening as well as having valuable experiences of Islamic Iran in terms of revolution and fall of Idolatrous regime which designers did their best to have more satisfaction for these sites to share the experiences of Islamic Iran and brave women with Arab countries.

106

Recommendations One of the purposes of this research had been identification and elimination of weak points in addition to resolving problems while designing women web sites. Therefore, considering data analysis, examination of findings and achieved results and identification of weak points and eliminating them as well as women knowledge in terms of designing a web site has been presented. These recommendations are as follows: 1. Doing broader and deeper researches to keep theoretical and practical knowledge of designing website up to date for all kinds of websites especially women web sites. 2. Having educational workshops to teach web designing (especially for women), in the format of trainings at the time of service. 3. Holding seminars and conferences for highlighting the importance and role of web sites as a new informational places and their appropriate designing in development of information services, speed measurement, simplification as well as qualitative and quantitative optimization of user accessibility to resources and


consequently, a more influential applicability of site and available informational sources and outspread resources. 4. Creating websites related to women in countries involving in Islamic Awakening and making a social website out of these sites to have better communication of Muslim women in Islamic awakening countries. 5. Creating a website from active women in Islamic revolution of Iran to share Iranian women experiences with other awakening countries.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 107


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 108

Suggestions: 1. Women should deeply and analytically study the views of Imam Khomeini on woman and her role the Islamic Revolution because there are methods and point in these views that can help Muslim women restore the Islamic ideology 2. Muslim women should return to the theological and legal principle of Islam and try to put these principles into practice in her social and scientific life for having an active participation in the Islamic Awakening movement. 3. Women should stand up for their rights and demands including and end to old traditions that block their participation in social affairs. They should also criticize men’s authoritarian behaviors towards women. They should also follow the Islamic rules and put them into practice in the society rather than simply chanting slogans. 4. Women themselves should attempt to progress through improving the level of their awareness and information as well as participation in social, cultural and political activities and should not wait for men to take action in this regard.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Reference: Considering that inserted numbers in frequency section in tables is referred to the reference number, the order of authors’ alphabets has not been considered in reference part. 1. Asqari Poudeh, Ahmad Reza. (2002) “important elements and features in designing website of university Libraries”, Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol. 31-49. 2. Qansari, Jeiran. (2000) “Creating Successful Websites for Small University Libraries”, Electricity Industry, No. 54. Vol. 24-28. 3. Rezai Sahrif Abadi, Saed, &. Foroudi, Noushin. (2002) “Web Page Assessment of Iran’s University Libraries and Proposing the Suggestive Model”. Book Quarterly. Vol 13. No. 4:12-19. 4. Osareh, Farideh. (2002) “assessment Criteria fo internet Sources”. Book Quarterly. Vol 13. No. 2:61-73. 5. Koosha, Ivan. (2002) “Guidelines to Assess Databases in Web”. Information Research Bulletin. Fifth year. Vol. 10, 11. 82:6-7. 6. Koosha, Ivan (2003) “Assessment Criteria of Net Search Engines:Text Analysis Approach to present examining Checklist”. Data knowing. No. 1. 82:77-106. 7. Janson, Estiv. (1999) “ 8. Alexander, Janet. E., & Tate, Marsha Ann. (1999) "Web Wisdom: How to Evaluate and Creat Information Quality on the web". LEA: (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. London. Mahwah, Newjersey. 1. Back, Susan E. (1997). "Evaluation Criteria: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Or, Why It's a good Idea to Evalute web Sources". Institute For Technology - Assisted Learning, New Mexico State University. Yuly, 1997. 10. Bakken, Clarence, & Armstrong, Sara. (2002). "Web Page Evaluation Criteria". Alrogers, Global School Net Foundation and Cyberfair Contest. Ref: http://WWW.ux1.elu.edu/..cfmgb/web.html 11. Barker, Joe. (2003). "Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask". VC Berkeley – Teaching Library Internet Workshops, 12. sep. 2003. Ref: http://WWW.Lib.berkeley.edu/Teaching lib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html

109


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 110

12. Berger, Pam. (1999). "Web Evalution Guide". Tramline, Incorporated. Ref: http://WWW.infosearcher.Com/cybertours/tours/touro4/tourlaunch1.html 13. Braynik, Giorgio. (2003). "Atomatic Web Usability Evalution: What needs to be done?". 29 Jan. 2003, P. 1 – 16 Ref: http://Usable.binghamton.edu/Atomatic Thesis.html e-mail: (glorgia@dimi.uniud.it) 14. Engle, Michael. (2002). " Evaluating Websites: Criteria and Tools". Newyork Library Association Conference, Saratoga Springs, Ny. October 1996. Revised 24 July 2002, P. 1 – 3 15. Everhart, Nancy (Dr.) (2002). "Web Page Evaluation Worksheet". St. John's University, Division of library and Information Science, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, Ny 11439 (718) 990 – 1454 Ref: http://WWW.duke,edu/~de1/evaluate.html. 16. Gaffney, Gerry. (1998). "Usability Evaluation Checklists for Web Sites". Information & Design Pty Ltd. Ref: http://WWW.infodesign.com.au 17. Jafari, Ali. (2000). "Optimizing Campus Web Sites". EDUCAUSE QUARTERLY, Number 2,2000, P. 56 – 58 18. Marwaha, Jatinder. (2002). "Ferl: Usability" 16. Jaunary 2002. Ref: http://WWW.Usable.binghamton.edu/Atomatic thesis.html 19. Nielsen, Jakob. Coyne, Karapernice, and Tahir, Marie. (2001). "Make It Usable – Web Site Usability". P. Magazin, February 6, 2001. P. 1 – 5 20. "Questionnaires". (1998) USINACTS, Oct 1998, P. 1 – 13 21. Sloan, John (2001). “Rampo College Web Design Standards”. Rampo College of New yersey Statements and Policies. Ref : http://WWW.guide.rampo.edul/cotent/webstandards.html 22. Sullivan , Terry . , & Matson Rebecca . (2000). “Barriers to use : Usability and Content Accessibilily on the Web’s Most Popular Sites”. Interdisciplinary PhD. Program in Information Science, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, ACM 2000. (mail: tetty @ pantos. Org 23. Tungar, Manas N. (2002) . “ Heuristic Evaluatlon”. Aug , 2002. Ref : http://WWW.cc.gatech.edu/~manas/cs8803a/Heuristic.pdf.


24. “Usability Evaluation: Overview of Usability Evaluation Procedures”. Metadata Human society, oct. 2002. 25.Weibel, S.L.(1995). “The World Wide Web and Emerging Internet Resource Discovery Standards for Scholarly Literature”.Library Trends,43(4), 627-644. 26.Williams, R., & Tollett,j.(1998). “The Non-Designer’s Web Book: An easy guide to creating, designing, and Posting your own website. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press. 27.Wilson, s. (1995). "World Wide Web Design Guide." Indianapolis, IN: Hayden Books. 28. Zaphiris, Panayiotis, and Darin, Ellis, R.(2001) .“Website Usability and Content Accessability of the Top USA Unierrsities”. Institute of Geronotology and Dept . of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Wayne State University. Dertoit, MI. (e-mail: P.zaphiris @ wayne . edu

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Web sources: 29. Islamic Awakening website available in 11/3/10 www.islamicawakening.ir 30. women website of the province of kohkiluye and buyreahmad, Afifane, available in 11/2/23 www.afifane.ir

111


Veiled Women’s Contribution to Islamic Awakening Amir Hussein Bankipour Fard1 2  Ahmed Reza Ghanbari Nasrabadi 3  Soheila Abyar

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

112

Abstract Islamic revolution of Iran revived the Islamic Awakening movement, caused exploitation and colonialism to face serious challenges and questioned the tyrant nature of hegemonic system. Revolutionary people of the Islamic world of which a great population are Muslim women have been present determinedly in the scene with an indescribable and tremendous hope and faith. Having self-belief and observing sublime Islamic trainings, they have entered the scene. In the present paper we attempt to explain the role of veiled Muslim women in the Islamic Awakening and the strong effect of observing Islamic rules, including Hijab, as a firm stronghold against colonizing cultures. This is a survey research with a descriptiveanalytical approach as methodology. We try to go through veiled women’s contribution to Islamic Awakening movement and introduce the position of Hijab, as a sign and Islamic tool to stand against hegemonic system, to whole the world. Keywords Islamic Awakening, Women, Hijab, Islamic Dress

1. Assistant professor at “Ahl-al Bayt” faculty, university of Isfahan 2. Clinical Psychologist and MA in moral sciences 3. B.S in Islamic Philosphy and Theology,University Professor and Seminary school teacher


Introduction Revolutions are always and generally indicative of some type of crisis under various layers and infrastructures of a society. Iran's Islamic revolution was the culmination of a repressive and incompetent regime that entirely changed and transformed the infrastructures of the society. For the process and values of a revolution to be able to have a steady progress and continue in time for future generations it is necessary to examine and find its nature

revolution achieved victory thanks to serious and close intellectual and material cooperation of all segments and classes of the society, particularly women. The role of women in the process of victory of the revolution and afterward is notable if we want to maintain the capacity of this great force in various stages of the Islamic awakening. Women's role in building the society is indispensable. That's why in order to keep alive Islamic awakening the crucial role of women in the victory of the revolution should be examined. This would let women to understand their real status and prestige and thus consciously and actively play their roles in all areas of the Islamic awakening.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and elements. As the late Ayatollah Motahari pointed out the Islamic revolution had an Islamic nature; "Islamic nature in real term of meaning, that's being multidimensional and comprehensive, that is Islam forms the spirit of this revolution from material and other perspectives. For such values to continue for future, Islam should be considered as the basis. (Motahari (2008 ; 74) The Islamic revolution had three pillars of Imam, nation (Ummah) and Islamic school. One can't deny the active presence of the public and their role in paving the way, formation and establishment of the revolution. In other words, the Islamic

113


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

For some reasons such active presence of women during the process of Islamic awakening has been neglected. As Ayatollah Khamenei mentioned in his statements, examining such role should be considered among strategic tasks. (Ayatollah Khamenei address to the 3rd session of strategic thoughts with the subject of women and family). (January 04, 2012 ) The role of women in the ups and downs of the revolution was mainly due to the reformist thoughts and doctrine of Imam

114

Khomeini. So much so as one of the most extraordinary and interesting aspects of the Islamic revolution in Iran was the participation of women at all scenes of the revolution. Imam Khomeini helped to move woman out of the dark corners of history and from a low profile and unconscious status into conscious participation and action in the society. He elucidated original Islamic thoughts about dignity and position of women in Islam and therefore paved the ground for their participation in the society. He emphasized on three important missions of women as an individual (spiritual self-control and improvement on the path to spiritual perfection) and in social arena (active participation in all fields while adhering to Islamic standards) and special role of woman in the family (mother and wife role). Imam Khomeini revived the dignity and the lost values of women. He also made presence of women in different scene in the society as a religious duty. Regarding the role of women, he says "Islam gives women a critical and crucial role in building the society. It promotes the status of woman to a degree so that she could regain her human dignity in the society and move away from simply being viewed as an object. It is conducive to this growth that women can assume various roles in the governing of an Islamic society.( Sahifeh Noor, volume 4, interview with envoy of Amnesty International (November 10, 1978)


Overview of the Poor View towards Women before Revolution Muslim women had not enjoyed an appropriate status since the conquest of Iran by Muslims in 89AH until the establishment of Safavi dynasty. Widespread corruption under the ruler ship of Omavid and Abbasid had made implementation of Islamic principles far away from those of pure Islam introduced by Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Under such circumstances, the dignity and

Presence of Ulema and expansion of Shiism could greatly benefit the general culture of Iranian women. This was mostly due to religious beliefs of the public and their devotion to the household of prophet particularly Imam Hussein. It was at this time that holding mourning ceremony for Imam Hussein expanded into a culture and turned into part of the social institution. Even after the demise of Safavid dynasty and until Qajar, women still took part in these mourning ceremonies held at mosques and other places to add into their religious and political knowledge. Such presence became visible when women actively participate in "Tobacco uprising" in 1309 (lunar year) which construed their presence as depth of their awareness at a time when most of women were illiterate and had no access to any school to learn how to read and write. When Pahlavi came into power this trend changed

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

position of women were greatly harmed. They were deprived of performing any social and political act and were mostly engaged in housekeeping responsibilities. Although one can't deny presence of a handful of elite and knowledgeable women, their presence however was not much of a public achievement for society. It was not until the establishment of Safavid rule and announcing Shia as the official religion that this trend changed. "Dearth of religious scholars and books forced the shia Safavid government of the time to invite Shia Arab scholars to Iran. They arrived in Iran from two regions of Bahrain and Jebel amel. (Brown; 1345-312 )

115


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

dramatically as it took a different degenerative view of women at all levels. Among the most significant developments at this time aiming to weaken and status of Iranian women which planned by colonial powers and their stooges are; a. Force women away from performing maternal duties and duties as wife: Western colonialism in Iran has learned that in order to turn the Iranian society into a dependent society and deprived of an identity society, they should first empty its women from culture,

116

national and Islamic values. Religious beliefs, values and traditions were deeply rooted and thus, the policy of uprooting religion faced serious difficulties and resistance. In order to achieve that objective, regime’s stooges while taking their lead from western countries with various interests in Iran, tried to implement similar models of uprooting religion and promoting secularism like the one in Turkey. One of these values was the role of woman as mother and the one mainly tasked with upbringing children. This role gradually lost its value due to the expansion of corrupt western values and culture. As Ayatollah Khamenei pointed out "In the past, the main role of woman which stems from her female nature was turned into worthless task. However, even in those countries that we tried to copy them this trend could not be seen." (Interview with Shahe Magazine )68/6/13 ) These policies had dangerous repercussions. "Women turned into an entity that did little work, with less influence that only consumed; they also become an instrument for taking the society towards absurd and futile as well as immoral behaviors." "This trend of emptying woman from her maternal and wife mission made her into an instrument to advertise for consumerism culture which was the outcome of the presence of foreigners in Iran.


b. Keeping women backward in various social arenas Another policy for weakening the position of women in the past was promoting the culture of luxurious lifestyle, excessive attention to fashions and preventing them from acquiring science and knowledge; and making their carnal desires dominant over their lifestyle; as well as not allowing them to again social and political awareness. According to Ayatollah Khamenei, "Prior to the revolution, the dominant culture in our society endeavourer not to

They degraded woman during these recent eras. From among great betrayals to our nation was that they took away our human resources, hold our youth backward, hold our women backward, and direct them towards decadence. They turned our women into playing object these actions are all insult to the place and dignity of women.( Sahifeh Noor, speech to Qom women )58/12/13 c. Turning women into an instrument for corruption One of the most significant strategies that the domineering system was seeking before the revolution was to direct women towards decadence and corruption. In order to achieve this objective it started to promote corruption and promiscuous behavior under the pretext of freedom of women. To push ahead with that agenda they even followed most drastic violent measures, among them was to

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

allow innate talents of women grows up according to Islamic values. All the programs about women were designed and performed around this objective‌ in fact the society didn’t provide women with the opportunity to think like women of the early Islam, to think that way and to promote those thoughts.(meeting with a group of students of seminary schools and students of Islamic Association of Masjid Soleiman schools) )61/6/4 Imam Khomeini also refers to the exclusion and oppression in the period of ignorance prior to Islam and Pahlavi era and describes the conditions of women as follows:

117


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

forcefully remove hejab. This policy was pursued under the rule of Reza Shah with the force of bayonet. The policy was later adopted a softer and cunning form. Later woman had no mission but to be charming for men and should remove all obstacles on her way. Under such policy not only women became corrupt but also men as the other half of society would become corrupt which in the long run had no benefit but to corrupt the society. The sagacious leader of revolution considers the policy of the past towards women as

118

promotion of the culture of nudity instead of promotion of knowledge and wisdom and points out: “they succeeded to move women away from their religious and behavioral beliefs which rooted in traditions; this trend turned women into a consumer. Unfortunately they succeed in their policies as far as the past generation is concerned." (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech in International Congress of Women and Revolution in the World of Islam Therefore, in the past, women were stripped of their identity and were alienated. While many intellectuals affiliated with Pahlavi regime saw pursuing the western method as the only viable option, another group of reformists was trying to present a modern adoption of Islamic teachings. The prominent face among this group was Imam Khomeini whose religion-based view formed the pillar of in every aspect of his thoughts (Bostan; 2002-156) Such a way of thinking is markedly reflected in the ideas of that great leader about issues of women. He truly understood as early as 1960s that the regime was taking advantage of freedom and women's rights and thus he strongly stood against those so-called policies of reform; regime was hiding its opposition to Islam under the banner of defending women and their rights. Imam Khomeini found that Shah was a demagogue and was moving toward erasing the identity and dignity of women. By declaring equality between men and


women, the second Pahlavi was seeking to gain popularity and thus, guarantees its survival. Imam understood that if that agenda went ahead, the potentials of women would fall within the hands of someone who didn't want to serve women, therefore he opposed that treacherous scheme to safeguard women's dignity and their rights. (Atarzadeh, Women Strategic Studies, Quarterly; No. 35, Spring 2007) As he pointed out; “can progress be achieved only by sending

effective role in the movement for Islamic awakening. Influence of women in paving the ground for the Islamic revolution until 1978 The strong presence of women prior to the victory of the Islamic revolution, in all areas including their steadfast resistance against pressures and harassments by regime can't be denied. These contributions are so notably visible that one can say this period until the victory of the revolution was among the most valuable historical period in which women played had a role in Iran. In his statements, Imam Khomeini both referred to the role of men and women in the victory of the revolution. He pointed out that "women's sacrifices were more valuable than those of men, since these sisters who took

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

several women into parliament? Did men who have been into parliament bring progress for you? We are not against progress of women, we are against this corruption, we are against these wrong actions." (Atarzadeh, Women Strategic Studies, Quarterly; No. 35, Spring 2007) By a look at the conditions of women in Islamic countries in recent years, we can see the above issue more or less in these societies. This is because the root of such conditions goes back to the colonial and anti-Islamic culture. Today Muslim women are tired of the existing conditions and therefore, play a more tangible and

119


to streets and stood before tanks and guns with clenched fists made men feel stronger about struggle and we saw that these women had a great share in this movement.” (Sahifeh Noor, Volume 10, Speech in the gathering of female teachers and students )57/8/7) In the light of the above discussion, the manifestations of the presence of women before the revolution were in the forms of playing an active and direct role in the society and playing an indirect role in the front of guidance and training, supports and logistics. Such aspects can also be extended to the presence of women in the movement of Islamic awakening in history.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

A. Direct presence of women in struggles before and after the

120

revolution: As mentioned above, the history of Muslim women being actively involved in struggle against oppressive regimes goes back as far away back to Qajar period during “Tobacco Uprising”. Such fervent presence gradually increased next years as we get closer to the victory of the revolution. According to historical records women could often be seen in mass protests during Qajar period in 1207 (lunar year) and 1302 (lunar year)( Motazed 2000-203-204) and most significantly they participated in events that led to “Tobacco Uprising” (Karbalaei; undated-168172) Imam Khomeini, on various occasions has referred to the trailblazing role of women in struggles against regime and has the following statement about women’s participation in the early years of the revolution: “Before Pahlavi regime comes to power women were active along with men, they were visibly seen in the society to be active in political and social matters as well as difficulties and problems of their country, just as men who stood up against the regime.” (Sahifeh Noor, Volume 10, Speech in the gathering of female teachers and students, September 30, 1978)


Women’s participation in the years ahead of the victory of the revolution were intensified including their presence “in protests and rallies, while adhering to Islamic principles and slogans and perhaps the most significant of all was the time when they stood up against bullets in 17 Shahrivar in Shohada square; at the time more women were martyred than men; the incident was a strange turning point in the process of the Islamic revolution.” (Motahari; 2008-210) This outstanding role didn’t limited to active and direct

afterwards men took to the streets.” (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech during the 3rd meeting of Strategic thoughts with subject of Women and Family )10/10/14 The more women became involved in struggles against the regime, the more the revolution was getting closer to its victory.” In the two or three years before the revolution women’s role reached to a level that it was women who started the first dangerous rally and took a leading and active role in perilous scenes of struggle against regime.” (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech during the International Congress of Woman)66/11/18 Among the more visible signs in all areas where women were directly involved we can see their adherence to Islamic principles and Hijab and thanks to the words of Imam Khomeini that brought

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

participation at gatherings the led to 17 shahrivar mass killings. In all events leading to the victory of the revolution women were in one way or another had an outstanding role. In his statements Iran’s Supreme Leader while referring to the direct role of women in rallies and struggles; he has described their participation as a key to the victory f the revolution. “If these women were not present in the gatherings, no doubt such mass rallies and protests would have become ineffective; in addition in some places like Mashhad, women were the starting point of the rallies. This means that the general uprising of the public was mainly a movement of women… and

121


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

women into the scene of struggle and defending the achievements of the revolution as far as the Islamic revolution were later dubbed “the revolution of chadors (veils)” (Mortazavi; 2009-117) The direct role of women in all social and political scenes before the victory of revolution was in various forms as follows: -Participation in political meetings and hearing “ -Taking part in political gatherings and hearing speeches that divulged corruption of the regime;

122

-Taking part at protest rallies in the streets -Distributing pamphlets and periodicals -Relief and rescue works including treating the injured and hiding activists -Taking part in armed struggles and using arms against the regime -Building barriers to defend against military forces B. Support and logistics role of women before revolution; the most critical aspect of their presence; In addition to playing an active role in the years leading to the victory of the Islamic revolution, women had a heavier burden on their shoulders meaning they made critical and fruitful contributions to the victory of the revolution. About this momentous role Imam Khomeini says: “you who have always been leading in this movement had always directed the others and it was you who gave the courage to others to struggle.” (Sahifeh Noor, Volume 9, Speech to Isfehan Students 57/6/22) The vital role of women during struggles against Pahlavi regime could be seen in their patience and preseverance agains thardships and difficultires resulting from the struggle. Women by supporting their husbands and childern, while being aware of their divine mission were strongly and visibly present in all stages of the struggle had it not been for these brave mothers, their husbands and childern would not have been able to fulfill their role in the struggles against the regime. The sagacious leader of the revolution also points out to this momentous task “women played their at their home, and this should


not be taken for granted, if the heart and thought of woman are not aligned toward a single objective, men can’t mobilize all their potentials. That’s why women were in fact worked in two fronts; they were physically present in the streets and squares and during mass rallies; on the other front they boost the quality of struggles, encourage men and gave them courage and these two are both of great significance.” (Address of Ayatollah Khamenei in a meeting with 107 female students of Najes Maktab 61/2/2)

stoppedand sustained heavy damages. Finally the proud nation of Iran A. Presence at the fronts and warzones: Islam does not require women to participate in acts of jihad and therefore exempts them from that. This is mainly because Jihad is not compatible with physical and personal characteristics however, women actively participated in the warfronts shoulder to shoulder with men. Ayatollah Khamenei points out that: “Martyrs’ mothers, wives supported their next of kin in the war fronts be it in logistical support and in rare cases in military operations- I personally witness some of these logistical support – they had an extraordinary role. They were even active in military operation.” (Ayatollah Khamenei address to the 3rd session of strategic thoughts with the subject of women and family )10/10/14)

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Manifestations of women’s role during 8-year Iraq imposed war; The victory of the Islamic Revolution brought broad changes within in various areas including those of military forces in the army where it has lost many of its commanders. Also many American military advisors had left Iran and Iraq’s ba’ath regime invaded Iran and started an eight-year war under an illusion that it would be able to conquer the country while enjoying the support of the U.S. and other western countries. Thanks to the valiant and brave youth of Iran Iraq’s advance was

123


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Acts of Devotion: The 8-year Iraq imposed war prove the world that Iranian women fight with the enemy along with their children. They sacrificed their children for Islam and its glorious objectives without any reservations so that the tree of revolution could further blossom. Imam Khomeini says “we saw numerous instances when women were proud for sacrificing their children in obedience to god and for the sake of Islam; In fact they were ready to devote all their belongings for that goal just like the glorious lady of Islam Zeinab (peace and benediction be

124

upon her) did in Karbala. They know they have gained something far superior than bountiful heavens let alone the trivial and mundane articles of worldly life.” (Sahifeh Noor, Volume 21)67/3/15 Thousands of martyrs are the clear examples of such acts of devotion by Iranian mothers and women and speak of patience, insight and perseverance of these valiant women in the all out epic history of Iran. The judicious leader of the revolution in this regards says “Has it not been for these martyrs’ which I had the honor to meet them—their faith, strenuous efforts and wisdom about far casualties, acts of devotion by youth and brave men—victory would have been impossible. If these mothers, wives had shown impatience they could have demoralized their men to show acts of valor and seek martyrdom; these devotion and sacrifices brought jubilation to the society. (Ayatollah Kamenei’s speech in a mass gathering of women, September 20, 2000) Training and Guidance: Islam as a school for human making gives special attention to educating and training children by parents. This means that the critical function of parents is upbringing and teaching religious thoughts to children. The role of mothers in this area is of great significance. In the words of Imam Khomeini “prosperity and decay of every society stem from the role of women in that society; woman


is the only creator who can deliver individuals to the society who can serve the society or otherwise bring decay and corruption to that society.”(Sahifeh Noor, Volume 16, message on the occasion of day of woman) This denotes the significant role of women in the thoughts of Imam Khomeini as far as upbringing righteous children is concerned. Under such reasoning women’s role takes precedence over the role of men in the revolution “this the woman who nurtures gallant men. The holy

nature of a female spirit is more effective than harsh character of men in training and shaping children."(meeting with a group of woman from Education and Training Dept May 28, 1978) This mission of women has always taken precedence over other roles despite being present in all areas of the society. Being aware of such unique task brought up children that were later become martyrs for Islam. With regard to the valuable role of such valiant women Ayatollah Khamenei says” these women who brought of martyrs, these women who taught their husband and children self-sacrifice so that they could go and defend the country and the revolution, defend the dignity of the nation, they are great entities, it was them who could do great things.” (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech in the mass gathering of women held on the occasion of the birth ceremony of Kowsar)

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Quran is human making and woman is also making humans. If that role of women is denied defeat and downfall of the society is inevitable.” (Sahifeh Noor,Volume 6, among women of Qom) and this is exactly the unique role women played during the movement of Islamic awakening just like what they did during the 8-year Iraq imposed war. The importance of women’s role in upbringing the family is not of less value than presence in perilous fronts of war. Ayatollah Khamenei considers one of the principal role of women as assuming cultural, educational and training responsibilities and adds: “Upbringing of children is among the duties of woman and one area where the delicate

125


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

d. Support and logistics: During the imposed war they engaged in various activities behind the frontlines including tailoring, cooking, and packing of food staff and …, they had a visible role in supporting the warriors. “you were the one who gathered in the squares, streets and with your clenched fists stand against tanks and machine guns and now that it is time to defend the country while your men are fighting the enemy you serve behind the frontlines; and this is one of the

126

qualities of the Islamic revolution; this is one of the qualities of Islam.” (Sahifeh Noor, Volume 14 speech to a group of people of South Tehran) . With regard to this valuable role of women, Ayatollah Khamenei says. “ serving behind the line of fire, encouraging men, letting your husbands and children, brothers and fathers to sacrifice themselves, as well as providing the necessities of the front line, performing the role of nurses, and tending those injured in the war in the front line and behind the scene , all and all are among the blessing of the Islamic revolution.” (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech during Friday prayers of ،December 19, 1980) The mission of Muslim Iranian Woman in Continuing the Islamic Awakening Since the victory of the Islamic revolution, it has become a model for awakening movements and its principles and ideal have become clear to the world year by year. That‘s why the enemies of Islam have gradually employed more complicated tactics to fight back. This requires the Islamic society improve its spiritual, social and political awareness in the face of such threats. Women who bring up children in society are the first line of defense of Islamic ideals and principles. Thus, it is suitable to make appropriate plans and programs about the role of women in society to help inspire


women’s revolutionary movements and keep the fire of Islamic awakening alive. Being mindful of the following could help achieve the above objective: a. Nurturing strong pillars with emphasis promoting women both mentally and spiritually: giving religious teaching to children is among the prominent roles of women in the Islamic school of thought. The unique role of women in continuing the process of

Ayatollah Khamenei considers the unique characteristics of women as the key and secret to these developments: “It is among the praiseworthy qualities that whenever a woman in the family enters a field of activity this means her husband and children are spontaneously present in that field. It is not the same for men. In any field of activity that women enter –the same woman that is a housekeeper—in fact she draws all members of that family into that field. Presence of women in various fields is important.” Placing emphasis on the vital role of women in respect of family issues and their particular attention to the education children and directing them are only possible through a real sense of natural features and her divine nature.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

awakening include nurturing and teaching fresh soldiers with due observance of various intellectual, spiritual and moral dimensions. About this fundamental role of mother in teaching children for society Ayatollah Khamenei points out : “ if the country could make women of the society familiar with the same Islamic teachings that Islam calls for, no doubt this would speed up progress and growth of that society. Whenever women enter a field of activity with the sense of responsibility the pace of progress will be multiplied that field. (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech in the mass gathering of women held on the occasion of the birth ceremony of Kowsar)

127


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

In the early years of struggles against the Pahlavi regime Imam Khomeini embarked on a mission to change this inferior perspective towards women while taking note of Islamic and religious principles. b. Taking part in political, cultural and scientific scenes: Among other role of women today is to independently and constantly take part in political and social scenes with due observance of Islamic values. The Muslim women stood up against Pahlavi regime along with men and now they are also duty bound to stay in the scene.

128

“Islam has defined a set of limitations as far as the differences between women and men are concerned. According to Islam there should be clear boundaries which differentiate between the responsibilities of men and women including having Hijab. If such limitations are taken into consideration women also can perform activities in the society as the men do provided that they have the physical capability and opportunity for those tasks. (A meeting with a group of elite ladies May 22, 2011) Hijab (veil coverning) for women is among those precautions Islam has envisaged safeguarding both women and men from corruption and letting them to freely perform their activities in the society. This would guarantee the safety and security of the society. Thus, the prerequisite for active and effective presence of women in society is to adhere to those values of decency modesty and virtue towards strangers. Otherwise their main function in the society which is to safeguard social and spiritual safety of society could be damaged and this could have negative and direct effects on their teaching role in the family. c. Fight against cultural invasion: The enemy while being aware of the fact that the main reason behind victories of Muslim nation in various fields has been their adherence to Islamic precepts, it has focused on undermining the rich culture and human making teachings of Islam. In order to accomplish its objectives it has used


various tactics to disappoint the youth from playing a beneficial role in the progress of the Islamic revolution. Corrupting the culture and thought of women have been among the strategies used by the enemy. Imperial and Zionist media have focused their efforts on policies such as fighting adherence to Hijab and spreading false political propaganda. According to Ayatollah Khamenei one way to repel such

Therefore, Muslim women who has a correct understanding of the Islamic principles should defuse those overt and covert plots and do not let their Islamic movement depart from true and noble Islamic principles and do not let deviant western currents like extremist feminism take advantage of to their interest and against Islam. Presenting a model of Muslim women Islam strongly disprove of any humiliation to women. It describes Hazrat Zahra (S) as a role model for Muslim woman so that women could follow her path and could discern good from evil and at the same time be able to enter various political, social, and cultural scenes in the society.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

invasions is to present modern designs and perspectives about the dignity and position of Muslim women with due regard to Islamic principles. “Intellectual and conscious women of Islamic Iran should continue on the right path and move their steps as strongly as ever. Beware that the generation of revolutionary and pious women turn to culture of consumerism and hollow luxurious lifestyle or let the bold and ignominious promiscuity be revived again. (Ayatollah Khamenei’s message on the occasion of the gathering to examine the character of women from the view point of Imam Khomeini, October 25, 1989)

129


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The Muslim women by following the footsteps of Sedigheh Tahereh(S) could bring about e the epic of the Islamic revolution despite all the hardships and oppression. She also could overcome all the difficulties of the 8-year imposed war and with her devotion behind the front line and often in the frontline as well as fighting back the cultural invasion could defuse all enemies’ plots. In the words of Ayatollah Khamenei, “Today’s women need a role model”. If she follows Hazrat Zeinab and Hazrat Zahra, her work include true

130

understanding , be vigilant to grab opportunities and take the best decision, even if that requires making sacrifices in order to be able to observe divinely based duties. (Ayatollah Khamenei’s message on the occasion of the gathering to examine the character of women from the view point of Imam Khomeini, October 25, 1989) Among the practical lessons learned from these indisputable models and observed them in the process of the Islamic revolution; was active participation in political and social scenes with due observance of Islamic principles including Hijab. In other words their genuine faith and belief to Quran and Islam played a basic role in this revolutionary presence. In view of Ayatollah Khomeini: “Women are not taking into street risking having themselves and their children killed to gain anything e.g. a position and post. This is Islam and Quran that have brought them out into the streets moving shoulder to shoulder with men and sometimes moving ahead of their men in the political scene. (Sahifeh Noor, address to women from Shemiran) Such active participation proved that if Muslim women grow up with extensive recognition and awareness of pure Islam and away from any deviation, superstition and embellishment surrounding Islam then they might be able to easily remedy and rectify their cultural way of thinking and such thoughts give them the opportunity to actively take part in various social and political scenes unrivalled.


Today Iranian Muslim women have emerged successful out of the tests of Islamic revolution and can provide Muslim women in other nations with precious experiences. Their accomplishments in social and individual fields are clear evidence to the right path they have taken under the leadership of the sagacious leader of the revolution. Muslim women of Iran can be a role model both in their presence to shape the Islamic revolution and the continuous guarding of the ideals and principles of the revolution.

government officials and are a source of honor for Islam so continue your endeavors. You revived Islam. (Ayatollah Khamenei’s speech among families of martyrs and war veterans, Bushehr, January 01, 1992) Conclusion 1. Islamic revolution was aligned with the status and dignity of women in society. The potential of women turned into a strong force under the leadership of Imam Khomeini. And this fact was of great significance in promoting the status of women in Islamic Awakening. 2. Considering the spiritual and personal characteristics of Iran’s Muslim women they had a pivotal role in the family and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

While taking into account such precious role of Iran’s Muslim women, the leader of revolution address them in this way: “Your high spirit and the continuation of your movement as well as your perseverance is source of assurance for other nations. You Muslim women are source of confidence for Palestinian women and women in other Islamic countries. They clearly say they have learned a lot from you. Keep on the struggle and value such resistance. With your strenuous efforts, with your unity and your presence at various political, social and economic fronts as well as running the country, and pushing the country forward you have stand behind the

131


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

become the vanguard of change. They heard the message of Imam and the revolution with open heart and endeavored to create one of the long lasting and most effective roles in various individual and social areas and also they become a role model for other Muslim women in other countries. 3. Women can only return back to their high and real status as long as they have a comprehensive look to all the dimensions of the innate features of woman. And that could not happen unless a

132

Islamic human making doctrine can be understood properly. 4. The active participation of women in lead up to the victory of Islamic revolution proved that women’s role in addition to their individual and family role is not harmful and with due compliance of Islamic principles. Such activities could safeguard the safety and prosperity of the society. Thus, by proper management of social and family roles Muslim women can move forward on the path to Islamic awakening. 5. Excessive liberal thoughts and reactionary thoughts are among the main elements that could undermine movements of Islamic awakening. Women are among the most influential class of society have a key role in fighting those harms. Awakening combined with religious and political insight as well as following the true and righteous leaders of movements could guarantee the right path for a revolution. 6. Considering the maternal role of women and their role as wife in the family any intellectual growth could affect the upbringing of children as well as directing and supporting their husbands and having social roles. This key role needs to be directed with wisdom so that it can guarantee its steady progress and advance.


References: 1. Edward Brown, History of Iran’s Literature from Safavid to the Present time, translated by Rashid Yasemi, Ibnsina, Tehran 1966. 2. Bankipoor Fard, Amir Hosssein, Aeenehzan, Collection of Speeches Ayatollah Khamenei the Leader of Isalmic Revolution, Tehran, 2001. 3. Bostan, Hossein, Political-Social Partnership of Women from the View Point of Imam Khomeni, Compilation of Political-Social

Year, No, 35, Spring 2007. 9. Mottahri Morteza, Future of Islmaic Revoluiton, Sadra, Qom, 2008. 10. Mortazavi, Seyed Zia, Imam Khomeni and Identifying models on Women Issues, Islamic Propogation Organization, Qom 2009 11. Software of Lights of Reovlution, Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Imam and Leadership, Besharat Cultural and Artistic Group, 2000.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Thoughts of Imam Khomeini, Ma’aref Publications, 2002. 4. Khosro Motazed & Niloofar Karimi, Politics and Haramsara, Woman in Qajar Era, Elmi Publications, Tehran 2000. 5. Karbalaei, Sheikh Hassan, Dokhaniyeh Hostor, Pocket Books, Tehran, Bita 6. Mosavi al-Khomeini, Seyed Rohollah, “Sahifeh Noor”, Tehran, Istintue for Propogation of Works of Ayatollah Khomeini, 2001. 7. Mosavi al-Khomeini, Seyed Rohollah, Description of Women in the Words of Imam Khomeni, Ministry of Cultural Guidance, 1986. 8. Mojtaba Attarzadeh, Quarterly of Women Strategic Studies, 9th

133


Islamic Call in the Awakening of the 21st Century: Imam Khomeini (May His Soul Rest in Peace), Women, and the Islamic Awakening

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers



134

Ana Laura Vieira Smith1

Abstract The primary aim of the present paper is to illustrate the links between the ideas of Imam Khomeini (May His Soul Rest in Peace) and the Islamic awakening, which has taken place in the recent months. I will briefly demonstrate the links between the process of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the representation of women in the ideas and thoughts of Imam Khomeini (May His Soul Rest in Peace), the Islamic awakening, and the Jihad of the women. In both of the processes, i.e. the Islamic Revolution and the Islamic awakening, women played a critical role in the social sphere. Their Jihad was for gaining strength and authority; it was for the sake of their religious principles, Islam, and the preservation of their hijab. Moreover, it was for gaining freedom from the domination of the foreigner powers who tried to humiliate Islam, and ultimately, for confronting Zionism, which oppressed and still oppresses a very large number of Muslim [religious] brothers and sisters. A significant and important point, which became the motivation of this paper, was the Jihad of the people in the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Islamic awakening of Palestine. Both people jointly made great struggles for gaining freedom, confronting Zionism, and reconsolidating Islam in their cultures. The Jihad of the Palestinian people is an instance of many other Jihads of the Muslim brothers in the Islamic awakening. It is indeed a Jihad against the colonial empire and Zionism, which have always intended to humiliate Muslims and Islam. Keywords Imam Khomeini (May His Soul Rest in Peace), Islamic Awakening, Islamic Revolution, Muslim Women, Zionism, Hijab 1. Scholar and Researcher in Women Affairs – Uruguay


The Islamic Awakening: Formation of an Islamic movement The term Islamic Awakening refers to a social phenomenon, which means revisit, return, awakening and Jihad in an Islamic society to achieve its goals of religion, rights, economic independence and finally do Jihad against imperialism. The phenomenon of the Islamic Awakening consists of various factors that among them we can name internal and external factors.

Formation of External Factor Lack of good religious leaders in some Islamic courtiers has estranged them from the ideal veracity; the shortage of Muslims’ activities has dragged them towards corruption and towards a religiously downward slide among which Egypt and Tunisia can be named. The reality of many of these countries could be compared with the reality of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Revolution of Iran which is recognized as a role model in the region. The promotion of virtue and the prevention of vice was the base of the Islamic Awakening movement that was preached by great Islamic role models among whom we can name Prophet Mohammad

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Formation of Internal Factor Islam’s richness in culture and beliefs is so significant that by this means it can promote a likewise phenomenon. Islam grants dignity, morals, faith and belief, the things that the West has rejected and has not valued them. A Muslim strengthens his spirituality by his belief system and through his relations with the Almighty Allah that is clearly reflected in his conduct and social interaction. It means that Islam has characteristics of reformation and productive ideas which make an Islamic society.

135


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

(PBUH), Imam Khomeini, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei and Seyyed Hassan Nasrallah. This was the deterrent power that didn’t allow the Western policies (which in many cases were to infect the revolutionary process of the Islamic Awakening) to permeate through imposing their own culture and ideas. Therefore, the Muslims produced their specific leaders and intellectuals and supported them. Hence, the Islamic Awakening can

136

be called a doctrinaire movement that awakened many people from their hibernation. The Islamic Awakening can be summed in few sentences: strengthening the social relations, granting power and capability to intellectuals in order to get rid of despotism, ignorance and end power disorder which is in the hands of sinners by launching movements with presence of intellectuals, who are independent from the Western powers and also by Islamic values, articulated cultures and especially by having faith in the Almighty Allah. Undoubtedly, change is possible through Islamic values, especially by the doctrine of promotion of virtue and the prevention of vice. However, if our reference is formation of the recent Islamic Awakening movement, one of the essential factors in its formation was that people were oppressed. Behind this oppression was the obvious support and guidance of big Western powers. In fact, on one hand the Islamic Awakening is a battle against injustice, and on the other hand it is a way of improving economic, political and religious powers which could be maintained by supporting dignity, character and religious values of people. The Islamic Awakening is the outcome of fight against dictatorship, oppression, disorder and being under domination of imperialism; the imperialism that ultimately seeks to plunder the culture, cultural identity and fortune of the oppressed people. The


Islamic Awakening is the right path to revive Islamic identity, freedom, independence and battle against the brutal imperialism. The Islamic awakening is a movement of the new generation, the young Muslim generation which demonstrates the Muslims’ power, fight for human rights, freedom and independence that has its roots in Islamic principles.

1979 that was based on battle against the dictatorship and despotism of Mohammad Reza Shah. The Islamic Awakening started in December 2010 with antiregime demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt, armed conflict in Libya, pro-democracy protests in Bahrain and Yemen, and mass demonstrations in Palestine against the oppression and colonialism of the Zionist regime of Israel (there were somewhat sporadic rallies in other countries such as Algeria, Morocco and Oman as well). All demonstrations were tightly linked to the oppression and westernization of these countries by the Zionist regime and the United States of America, which are after occupation, colonialism and plunder of peoples’ national fortunes and also are after keeping nations in harsh social conditions at all levels.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The Islamic Awakening and Imam Khomeini’s Reflection According to what has been said so far, it can be inferred that the Islamic Awakening is a revolutionary movement that its principles are based on Islamic faith, which distinguishes it from Western revolutions. The principles of the Islamic Awakening or the formation of the Islamic Revolution was rooted in Imam Khomeini’s thought; that’s why it enjoyed a peaceful manner based on Islamic unity. This phenomenon which is taking place in Arab and Islamic countries is considered an Islamic wave of demonstrations and protests against despotism. This is something similar to Iran’s Islamic Revolution of

137


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Iran was considered a country dominated by imperialism before the Islamic Revolution. By imposing American customs and traditions over the Iranian people, Mohammad Reza Shah turned a country with rich cultural and historical heritage into a Zionism and imperialism’s colony. Shah had really sold his country to the socalled super powers and tried to westernize the Iranian society. The country’s wealth was in hands of few people while the majority was suffering from a social disorder. The rate of illiteracy was very high,

138

women’s social place was vague, religious gatherings were prohibited and women had to wear western clothes. Until a religious leader like Imam Khomeini with the support of his people called for freedom and restoration of the rights of the Iranian nation. He was the one who founded the Islamic revolution which is the role model of the Islamic Awakening movement today. As permanent representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, Mohammad Khazaee clarifies: “The Islamic Awakening is not a new phenomenon, it is a movement derived from thoughts of Imam Khomeini and teachings of the Leader (of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei)”. Just as the Iranian nation resolved firmly to combat against oppression and greed of foreign colonialist powers, today the Islamic society in different countries is ready to react to all the years of oppression and plunder of foreign colonialist powers. Basically, the movement formed by Imam Khomeini carried the great cultural and ideological message based on spiritual and moral values. Why do nations come to streets to call out their protests? International organizations like Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have not reacted to all these issues. Therefore in order to materialize their causes, people arranged peaceful protests so they could topple their despotic regimes, and in this regard we can mention Egypt, Tunisia and Libya.


The Islamic Awakening movement like Imam Khomeini’s movement presents freedom and justice based upon Islamic principles. Imam Khomeini used to say that: “by God’s will, we’ll cut the hands of offenders and oppressors in the Islamic countries; we’ll end hegemony and injustice in the world; and we’ll provide the background for arrival of the world’s savior and the just and righteous ruler on the earth”. It can be inferred from what happened in the past that among

Arab countries want to return to their Islamic ideals by means of the Islamic Awakening in order to quash materialism. Ghazanfar Roknabadi, the ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Lebanon mentions that: “the popular uprising and the Islamic Awakening is a prelude to fall of the world’s despotic dictators and the international Zionism”. Iranian and Palestinian women: the Epitome of Jihad in the Islamic Awakening To begin our discussion on the issue of Iranian and Palestinian women and the Islamic Awakening, first we’ll review some of the fundamental theories to have a better understanding of women’s roles and also by analyzing the two revolutionary processes we’ll get

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

goals of the Islamic Revolution were fall of the Shah’s rule, reviving the Islamic identity and making the world familiar with a true Islam. Therefore according to reason and logic, the Islamic Revolution is a preliminary step of what today is known as the Islamic Awakening. In both of the phenomena the target is same, that is battle against oppressors and kings who have deprived their own people from their rights and prostrate themselves in front of imperialist and Zionist forces; reviving the Islamic identity and preventing westernization of the Islamic civilianization; and finally to convey the message of true Islam opposite to what is propagated in mass media.

139


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

near to our objective. Iran’s Islamic revolution was formed on the basis of Imam Hussein’s (PBUH) doctrine, who set the Islamic principle of the promotion of virtue and the prevention of vice and launched Jihad to fight against oppression and injustice and realizing the true values of Islam. In contrast to what mass media has diagramed, Islam is a religion that respects and values the woman to the highest pedestal. That’s why in these phenomena women get to streets to demonstrate their

140

support and also they are to retake their denied rights by oppressors, among which we can quote the example of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this country women have no rights of vote and are not permitted even to drive cars. This is the reality that makes the women fight against the regimes to get their rights. We are at the brink of a new era in global life; the era of Muslims who are seeking the truth and women who have made Islamic values as their goals. And in this manner, great Iranian and Palestinian women, on whom this article has focused, are great examples of the struggle. We’ll mention some issues which are put forward about Islamic revolution and the role of Iranian women in it. Imam Khomeini returned women to the position that Islam had granted them in the society, family, and education and so on. Imagine how they could accept the idea of the Islamic revolution, if they were not like this in 1977. Whereas it was women themselves that supported this process and got to streets against the Shah in order to defend their ideals like Hijab (veil) and their identity as Muslim women. They were oppressed at different levels and times. For instance, if she wanted to enter in some scientific areas, she had to put her religion aside. It means she was prohibited from observing veil and authority in scientific institutions and training centers. This was one of the Jihads of Iranian women, a struggle to strengthen her


authority and get respect for her veil, and in this path many of them were tortured and some were martyred. Today as a result of efforts done by these revolutionary brave women, we see that the Iranian society values a woman for her compassion, piety and religion. On the value of woman in the society, Imam Khomeini says: “Iranian women, in comparison with men, have been pioneer in this movement and revolution”. And as we see, the Islamic revolution has granted women a very significant place by providing her

Imam Khomeini said a great deal of the Islamic revolution’s achievements owe to women who, alongside with men, were present in Jihad and battle against evil, the women who lost their fathers, children, brothers, sisters and even mothers but they fulfilled this responsibility, and today the fruit of their Jihad is reemergence of Islam and authority in Islamic society and also restoring the significance of woman among different classes of society. The Islamic Revolution truly restored the authority and selfesteem of the Muslim woman. She was the one who compulsorily had turned to the colonialism’s puppet. And here is the proof of our dear Imam who said “women are leaders of this movement”.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

religious rights. Thanks to the efforts of these brave women, we see a considerable number of women joining scientific fields, as for women consist 68 percent of university seats. These veiled women are powerfully and honorably active in all social and familial areas. As Imam Khomeini used to say: “Woman is the teacher of the society”. So these are the women who raise their children based on the Islamic order, take care of their husbands, strengthen family relations and family foundations, and so they support the Islamic spirit of family and society away from Western materialist culture.

141


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

According to what has been mentioned so far, we see that the Islamic revolution of Iran presents a role model of the revolution -the model that is a prelude to the Islamic Awakening movement. As I have mentioned earlier, one of the principles of the Islamic Revolution and of course, today’s Islamic awakening is Jihad against injustice, which is a protest to the Zionism, imperialism and colonialism. One of the nations that have fought tirelessly to realize this goal to date is Palestine: people who live under oppression,

142

colonialism and occupation. In the following, I’ll briefly mention the Jihad of Palestinian people in order to gain their Islamic identity, and then I’ll present a short history of this long-lasting Jihad during so many years of oppression especially against women by the Zionists. Imam Khomeini, a courageous Jihadist for restoring the rights of Palestinian people observed that the way out for Palestine issue is restoration and reviving their Islamic identity. He said, “Until and unless we do not return to Islam (it means the Prophet’s Islam), our problems would not be solved. Until then, we cannot solve the Palestine issue, nor can we solve problems of Afghanistan or anywhere else. Nations must return to the early Islamic era. If their governments did so, there would not be any problem, otherwise nations must separate from their administration and do what the Iranian nation did with its own government. This way the issues would be resolved.” The Islamic Revolution of Iran has strengthened the battle against the Zionism and support of the Palestinian people. We must remember that the Quds (Jerusalem) Day was launched by the Imam. The Iranian Shah was the ally of the Zionists and exploiting Iran’s oil and money the Zionist regime produced weaponry and used it to massacre Palestinians and occupy their land. This was unacceptable


for Imam Khomeini. He exposed this exploitation of people’s wealth and its illegal transferring to Israel. The Islamic Revolution was one of the severest blows to the international Zionist body. The people of Iran were sick and tired of Israeli atrocities against the Palestinians and wanted to help their brothers and sisters. Now we come to our broad discussion about the essence of Palestinian women and their Jihad against brutal oppression of the

this kind of psychological pressure and playing with a woman’s chastity bearable? They also threaten women to dishonor their chastity and even rape them. All these atrocities are being perpetrated in Palestine, first committed by the Englishmen, and today by the Israeli colonialists. During the first and second Palestine Intifada there have been cases of humiliation and putting people under intense pressure. As mentioned before, they used to force women to undress in front of the eyes of members of their families or in front of Israeli soldiers and by utilizing the policy of contempt of chastity, they threatened to rape them. All these incidents had a role in creating panic in the Palestinian society. Especially, young and active women have been living under fears of being raped, so they cannot leave their houses.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

enemy. Since 1967, the Palestinian women have endured a lot of pains and sufferings. They have lost their fathers, husbands, brothers, sisters, children, and other dear ones, and even they suffered humiliations and psychological traumas at the hands of the Zionists. The clear example of this is humiliation of their honor. For instance, in many cases the Zionists forced men to undress in front of women. For a moment, we can imagine the psychological pressure and the humiliation of the victims. For example, think of a woman whose father has been humiliated in front of her own eyes. Now, is

143


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The Israeli occupation has made women prisoners and created power chaos in detention centers in which torture, rape and violation of human rights are committed. The goal of the Zionism is to uproot the Palestinians from their land by imposing individual aggressions like the instances we mentioned before, and also group aggressions like demolishing houses and attacking educational centers. The logic behind this policy is to humiliate and destroy a nation. By demolishing the

144

cultural richness of the Palestinian nation the Zionists want to tell the Palestinians that there is no other alternative for them than to surrender their land and leave their own country. The official educational institutions in Palestine are run by Israel and that’s why none of Palestine’s history and politics is being taught n these schools. Even Palestinian children are not allowed to have the flag of their country on their books, and it means there are no symbols of Palestinian nation and culture. Before the Zionists started their attacks on hospitals, educational centers, meeting places, houses and so on, people would use these places as their shelter. And women and their children run to the streets and rose against aggression and violation of human rights by the Israeli regime. During the second Intifada at Al-Aqsa mosque in 2000, the social Jihad required raising the issue of women among political movements and sexual issues, and so uprisings and protests on the streets were founded in support of the revolution and family, against problems, blights and conflicts. The active presence of women is obvious, just like the beginning of the occupation. Two factors of occupation and Jihad have made the woman to devote herself to the domestic affairs. She is facing a significant challenge for strengthening her family while she is located at the one


end but her husband and children at the other end; this is what can break a family. One of the other dreadful challenges of the Palestinian women is the massacre of their children and relatives by contaminated bombs. The toxic gases have consumed many of the young Palestinians. The other challenge of the Palestinian women is their presence in the society and at public places. For example, the Israeli soldiers do not allow women to pass through their gates, even for going to a

psychological diseases that even have influenced her relationship with her children. Meanwhile, according to the Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) many of the children born to these women suffer from diseases similar to their mothers. The Palestinian women are persisting with Jihad, combat and resistance to achieve their goals, just as they used to do in the past. One of the recent instances is Hana Shalabi, a 29 years old woman who is cooperating with the Palestine Islamic Jihad. She was detained illegally by the Israeli army. The detention was illegal because there was no evidence against her. The Israeli army’s excuse was that “she was a threat” to the society.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

hospital. Even when they are pregnant many a times they have to deliver the babies at home, despite the crucial risks for babies and for themselves. Sometimes, Israelis violate women’s rights and in result they deliver their babies at check points. Unemployment, demolishing the people’s houses and lack of safe homes, lack of special healthcare services, deprivation of freedom of movements, the soldiers’ intrusion, all these have gripped the Palestinian people somewhere between life and death in daily lives. Taking the aforementioned issues into consideration, we infer that the Palestinian woman today is suffering from depression, stress,

145


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Shalabi was one of the many Palestinian prisoners who were freed in a October 2011 prisoner swap after the freedom of Gilad Shalit, the Israeli soldier who was captured by Hamas. She was detained on February 16, 2012, once again with no proper reason. It means that like many other prisoners she is in detention for no valid charge. The International Amnesty has asked the Israeli administration that in case they cannot provide proper evidence for imprisoning

146

Shalabi and other detainees, they must be freed. Not only are Israelis violating human rights, but also they are caring a damn to the requests of international organizations. Hana Shalabi began her hunger strike to register her protest to the behavior of the jail guards and Israel jailers. She had told her independent lawyers and physicians that Israelis had ill-treated her in jail and during transferring her to the military court and hospital, and also many a time they had tried to put her under intense pressure so she would break her hunger strike and few times they tried to forcefeed her. Many Palestinian prisoners joined Shalabi in her hunger strike and announced that they would not terminate their hunger strike until they do not have a proper human rights resolution, independent physicians and the right to have an independent attorney. Little later on Shalabi was transferred to the Gaza Strip (as a deal with Israel to terminate her strike) and she said, “I won against the enemy. Now I am free and comfortable�. Shalabi is an example of what many people call the third Intifada. The hunger Intifada, with 43 days of hunger strike (which was started on the Palestine Prisoner Day) and with her exit from the jail made her a Palestinian national hero. However, Shalabi is not the only Palestinian Jihadist; there are many instances of Palestinian women who struggle to improve their


social and vocational conditions. For example, there are the workers of “PalStyle” who are exclusively working to design and distribute women’s clothing, the exclusive wages for women and those who are refugees in Lebanon and Jordan are all struggling for this purpose. We must remember that this kind of work merely provides the minimum income, for living in a camp or village is very difficult indeed. The basic human needs could be fulfilled with great

I would like to mention another matter that is defending the Palestinians in Jerusalem (Beit-ul-Moghaddas) which is now occupied by the Zionists who want to demolish it. Jerusalem is considered a sacred place for all the Muslims in the world. It has a clear message to the Muslims and all people who are concerned for Jerusalem and the Al-Aqsa mosque: “the only thing that can help solve this issue is a clever and immediate awareness of Arabs and Muslims, what exactly we are after”. In the project of judaizing the Jerusalem, the Zionist colonialists are after demolishing Jerusalem and the surrounding residential houses. During long days the Palestinians were about to defend the Muslims’ third sacred place by establishing Friday prayers and pleading to Allah Almighty.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

difficulty. Note that lack of water, food and education among other scarcities are more significant. These are the women who are in constant struggle to provide a well-built and quality life to their family. Hence, from the beginning of Britain’s occupation today’s aggression of Israel, the struggle and battle of the Palestinian women are not but for restoring human rights, their nation’s independence, but also they are fighting a battle against occupation, making a struggle to stay alive and improving the quality of their life of their families despite all crises.

147


Few days ago Israeli soldiers entered Jerusalem to raise the Israeli flag, but Palestinians defended this sacred place intelligently. Even Hamas prime minister announced the financial, political and humanitarian supports of Arabs and Muslims to approve Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine. According to what has happened earlier, we see that by defending her freedom, authority, independence, land and religion, what a crucial and significant role the Palestinian woman has been

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

playing in her Jihad against the occupying Zionist forces.

148

The Inspiring Muslim Women and the Islamic Awakening The Muslim women have great instances in the Islamic history of resistance against tyranny and ignorance as well as examples of doing Jihad for Islam and struggle to empower the Muslim women. We can present two fine examples of two great Muslim women in this regard, Hazrat Zeinab (SA) and Hazrat Fatmeh Zahra (SA). Hazrat Zeinab (SA), a daughter of Imam Ali (AS) and Hazrat Fatemh Zahra (SA), was the prime example of Jihad who fought accompanying with Imam Hussein (AS), so we should discuss her first. This pure woman of Islam has enhanced the image of Islamic women in the society. She stood against the army of condemned Yazid in the nick of time when they were about to put out jewelry of Imam Hussein’s daughters. She guarded Imam Hussein’s children against attacks and invasions of the enemy. Hazrat Zeinab (SA) stood against the corrupt and brutal Yazid, who had arrested the Prophet (PBUH)’s household after Imam Hussein (AS) was martyred. She steadfastly revealed the evil of Yazid and his companions. She was a woman equipped with heavenly determination against enemies and ability to solve problems. Hazrat Zeinab (SA) stood firm against people of Kufah as well as against the tyrants of the times.


She proved that her Islam is the true Islam and she showed this by her act and examples. Hazrat Zeinab (SA) was a courageous woman who didn’t fear losing her life for her family; neither was she afraid of death, nor of threats and torture of tyrants and infidels against Islam. Hazrat Zeinab (SA) was a great woman who defended Islam and her family from the bottom of her being. Her conduct, her beliefs, her unique lectures and her everything were role models for all the

(SA), who was brought up by Hazrat Mohammad (PBUH) and Hazrat Khadijeh (SA). After the passing away of the Prophet, Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) strived hard to guide the people toward the straight path. She would give lectures to people, especially to women at different mosques. In her personal life, Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) was a spiritual and moral lady. One of her greatest Jihads was her struggle to change the image of woman in the society at the Age of Ignorance, for the woman was treated humiliatingly. We must remember that at the pre-Islamic era, ignorant Arabs used to bury their daughters alive for they would feel ashamed and star-crossed for having daughters. But the Prophet of Islam kissed

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

women around the world. She is a role model for all women because of her courage, spirituality, reflection and defending Islam and defending her family. Imam Khomeini said: “a woman must have this kind of thinking. Thanks to Almighty Allah for her bounties, our women are like Hazrat Zeinab (SA) who fought against oppressive sovereignty of the Shah and helped the Islamic movement make progress even at the time they were carrying their small children”. The other great woman who is the leader and an Islamic role model we’ll mention here is the great lady Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra

149


her daughter’s hands and showed to everyone that a woman must be respected and dignified. From her childhood, Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) was combating with oppression, so she had a firm stance in defending justice and Islam, and also she had an active role in the society. One of the significant instances in her life was her lecture on Fadak garden issue. While she was observing her Islamic hijab, Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) sat in the mosque with some other women, whereas there was a curtain between

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

them and men, and she began her talk about the grief of losing the God’s Prophet, Hazrat Mohammad (PBUH) and the subsequent issues. Her words were so gripping that made the audience cry. As what has been said so far we can infer that Hazrat Zeinab (SA) and Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) have been the role models for powerful, the Muslims and faithful women who fought Jihad against oppression and invited people to the Right Path and inspired the people to fight against idolatry regimes.

150

Conclusion: The Islamic Awakening is a movement arose from the thoughts of Imam Khomeini and his predecessors. We can claim that today’s intellectuals of the Islamic Awakening movement follow Imam Khomeini’s ideas. Iran’s Islamic Revolution as well as the Islamic Awakening has taken place in order to revive the Islamic identity, morals, faith, justice and Jihad for the promotion of virtue and the prevention of vice. All these factors are reflected in the Iranian Islamic Revolution and Imam Khomeini’s thoughts and ideas as well as in Arab countries’ uprisings, especially in the Palestinian uprising. Therefore, both countries of Iran and Palestine have fought Jihad against oppression of the international Zionism and imperialism that are seeking to demolish Islamic principles.


The West had intended to penetrate the Islamic Awakening movement. They called it the Arab Spring, and tried to extract Muslims’ identity and Islam’s revival laying behind this revolutionary movement. They even tried to manipulate mass media so they could label this movement as the Arab Awakening. Even about women, the West put forward the sexual side of the phenomenon and claimed that Muslim women are seeking social amendments against Islamic principles. This is totally rubbish.

the image of a strong woman and that its justice is different from what the West is trying to implement in the society. Finally, I would like to say that the Imam’s reflections are binding not only for the Iranians but also for all the Muslims of the world. We can clearly see the reflections of Imam’s thoughts in viewpoints of intellectuals in the Islamic Awakening movement. Allahu Akbar! Thanks to Imam Khomeini for preparing battlefield principles against tyrants and the Zionism. And thanks to him that he introduced the great Islam’s ladies Hazrat Zeinab (SA) and Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) as the role models for women and revived the significant place of women and handed her a fundamental role in society as well as in Jihad. -

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Practically, it was the women who run to the streets at front rows of demonstrations against oppression of the Zionists and tyrant rulers and claimed their rights as Muslim women in order to achieve a true Islamic society. These women present the image of Islam by proper education of their children and providing a secure atmosphere at homes according to the Islamic principles for an Islamic future. They take the Islamic innocent role models such as Hazrat Zeinab (SA) and Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA) who rose to fight against the ignorance and oppression of corrupt leaders of the time. These women taught us that what Islam shows of woman is

151


Strategies for Stabilizing the Role of Muslims in Religious Awakening in West 

Ankhelina Maria Rokhas Amina Rashida1

Abstract The facing note briefly assesses the position of woman in front of Muslim woman in West both from ambit of religion and local context aspects. In addition, by considering current and historical information there will be some suggestions about stabilizing the role of Muslims in the realm of Latin America especially in Colombia.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Keywords Muslim, Hijab, Islamic Awakening, Woman, Role Creation

152

1. Expert and Professional in Women Affairs – Colombia


Introduction Individuals converting to Islam get familiar with the facts existing in this religion. This means that each human being willingly, no use of force, accepts Islam. Diplomats, scientific elite, writers, soccer players, actors, executives, and other well known persons throughout the world, have attained fact and truth in Islam. However, in the present time, picture of Islam is in its climax; due to uninterrupted growth of Islam, majority of Islam’s enemies are united together to

husbands in Spain during just one year (we should remember that it is not an Islamic world). In this regard, unfortunately, Colombia (not an Islamic country) has the highest percentage of internal forced displacements; according to official statistics of 2011, 5.2 million persons live in this situation. This statistics proves that violence and terror are not existed solely in Muslim-majority countries. Though this fact that these Middle-East countries have been involved in so many problems, war, and struggle to be true, Western countries have not also been an exception, and have faced significant problems; regarding this fact, women have come under the this influence more than others. Second, understanding this fact that Islam has promoted woman and linked her to the highest position is very important. Almighty

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

stop its development. Furthermore, there were a large number of individuals trying to distribute irritant images of women mistreated, disabled children, and thousands of homeless individuals; all of these miseries were attributed to Islam. Their only goal is distortion of the real entity of religion of peace, not the religion of war and aggression. Meanwhile, religion should not be mistaken for political conflicts, cultural conflicts, and background differences. First of all, it is necessary to mention two points regarding Islam. First, before 2000, according to instances of violence in the world, 90 women were slaughtered by their husbands or their former

153


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

God has granted woman power, right to education, working and expecting reward, absolute right to her wealth, rights marriage and divorce (Ja’far Gonzales, 2008, p.20). It is the opposite of what is portrayed in West. The major duty of Muslim woman is not to be repressed by her husband or relatives, but she can be present in the society freely and naturally. It is clear that she will be present there protecting herself through regarding her chastity and respect. So, one of the obligations imposed on men by Islam is protection of women,

154

a command from God written in Quran: women are garments to you (men), and garments are you to them (Holy Quran, The Cow, verse187). The present research will observe Muslim woman condition in Latin America, especially Colombia. Furthermore, structural perspective regarding how Muslim women rights are exposed to damage will be mentioned sometimes. Similarly, speeches regarding (Muslim) women’s challenges in Colombia as a western country will be stated. Therefore, some probable strategies for consolidation of Muslim’s roles in Islamic awakening in the West will be mentioned. Woman in Colombia as a Western Country Say to believing women, too, that they ought to restrain their gaze, safeguard their modesty, and never display their ornamentsexcept what normally therefore appears! And that they ought to draw their veils over their breasts, and never display their finery, except before: their husbands, their own fathers, their husband’s fathers, their own sons, their step-sons, their own brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their womenfolk, and bondwomen of their, or male attendants lacking male desires, or children who have not yet known carnal knowledge of women, and that they should not strike their feet together, lest they reveal a portion of their ornaments


hidden; and all of you, believers, turn to Allah, perhaps you’ll win salvation (Quran, The Light, verse31). Role of woman in Western context has been distorted and corroded due to different reasons such as fashion and consumerism. Some elements have transformed Non-Muslim women to a sex object in communications media and commerce. Therefore, Muslim women are always criticized and ridiculed by a society which is not accustomed to observing chaste women in veil (Hijab); it is a kind of challenge for Muslim women. In general, Westerns thought of Muslim women, just due to their veil, to be suffered and tortured and their rights to be ignored; this thought is governed and dominated in those countries. Therefore, the researcher first investigates and tries to know the current place of woman in West, then introduces the history in the above mentioned context.

the society, right of their attendance in politics, has been begun by French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouge declaring rights of women and citizen. Furthermore, protests started in 1950s for recognition of men and women equality supported by the thought of “Equality Feminism”, as well as mentioning certain rights and woman’s identity known as “Difference Feminism” formed in 1980s and 1990s (Montoya, 2009), all those paved the way for a system, inclusive one especially regarding civil and labor rights. Anna Melina Montoya speeches: “The contents of female citizenship are developing continuously at local and national areas as well as international scene. According to Bargas (2002) collisions, and economic-cultural changes briefly

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

A Selection of Women Status in West: Colombia Woman, from ancient times, has tried to have her own rights. Women’s constant Jihad for attaining the right of their presence in

155


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

looks at new areas of their rights’ development on the basis of mixed needs and social relations among men, women, production systems, cultural systems, and spaces for political participation, which are developing their activities beyond boundaries of national government, even considering this supposition that there is no legal center to be recognized in the world.” Montoya In this regard, the most important women’s citizenship Jihad in the West for attaining the specified position determined by the

156

society has been “the right to rights” (Montoya2009). This means that the western system has stayed sedentary against presentation of necessary areas for women to take part in those areas as a free human possessing all her God-granted abilities in equality with man. Nearly 14000 red-skinned (Indian) women from 8 different states signed a manifesto “Indian woman’s rights” on November 18, 1927. We will read some parts of that (Paes, 2012). “Today we, Colombian Indians, who signed this document, are brave. We are like a group of united angry eagles, trying to improve our rights through Jihad. This adjudication should be done for the rural women of poor segment, whether married or single, and all the women dominated by civilized man. But their rules will not be implemented, because even if Indian men, a long time before conquering countries, were the owners of our lands, they would not arise against unlawful and unjust acts; therefore we are women preparing ourselves for shouting “NO, NO”.” Another important matter here is emphasizing the importance of education and its growth. In Colombia, “education aims to raise good spouses and mother of girls.” Therefore, if a woman is eager to learn alphabets, she should make another decision. There were not any educational facilities for women in Colombia lands nearly until the end of Colonial period, 18 century (B. Y. Gaus, 2006). The woman living in Latin America especially the woman born in


Colombia (a country which majority of people is Catholic) does her best to attain the position which society always has tried to grasp from her. In this regard, a woman converted to Islam is a part of this system, the woman who has seen her position as a Muslim in danger. Muslim Women and Their Rights, Truth of Muslim Woman in West We should mention here that Catholic religion introduces woman as a dependent being, as it is mentioned in Holy Book:

woman cannot divorce and girls, for example, can be heir if just there is no son in the family. These thoughts have a deep root in western culture, since woman is introduced as a subordinate. This position, in which woman is imprisoned, will not be changed for a long time. In 1900, a woman hardly had a right. Similarly, there was wage discrimination during Industrial Revolution; at that time a female worker or employee received lower wages in than male ones. After centuries, legislation without priority was approved in Great Britain, among relative achievements, in order to attain woman’s adjudication. The law by which women are allowed to utilize total score of wage cost. In 1893, New Zealand could record its name as the first country in which women are allowed to vote without limitation.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

God descended sleepiness on man, man slept. He separated a piece of bone out of his body, and repaired that through using his meet. God worked on the bone separated from him, and created a woman out of that; then introduced her to the man. Man told her: her bone is made out of my bone and her flesh out of my flesh. Her name would be Woman, since she has been extracted from man (Khansys, 2/18). In Mosaic Law, basis of Jewish-Christian religion, woman’s opinion can be refused by her father or husband. At that religion,

157


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

In Colombia, women could vote until December, 1, 1957, besides they could be chosen for a position in government. Act 1257 hardly lasted until 2008. The Act in which a woman was inviolable; furthermore, preventive, surveillance, deprivation, and condemnation decisions include each kind of violation, whether physical and sexual, or psychological and hereditary were possible. There is not any doubt that Quranic Revelation, especially regarding its thoughts about woman, was a true revolution:

158

O Men and women fear your lord, the One Who did create you from a single soul, and, out of it, produced its mating twin, and from the twain, He spread the whole of men and women (The Women, verse1). This verse, of course, completely denies this wrong belief that woman is dependent on man. Here, God says that man and woman are created from a single soul, the same nature. This viewpoints promotes the position of woman greatly, this will not happen unless the leave and allowance of God. Hijab is an affair bringing about a new social-cultural viewpoint for the society, and it is above all other plans. In other words, when Muslim women observe Hijab (veil), they not only introduce themselves dominating all other Muslims, but also hereby obtain some right for themselves, a right which other religions do not have access to that. Westerns usually pay attention to Muslim Women, even in most cases they consider them deprived from their rights of work, education, and access to several centers solely due to their Hijab. Therefore, Hijab got a reliable symbol of presence of Muslim women. On one hand Hijab is considered identity of minority; on the other hand it represents courage and sacrifice of women trying every day to get closer to their God. The researcher will mention some strategies having application in consolidation of women’s roles in Islamic awakening in the West.


Strategies for Keeping Alive Muslim’s Role in West Consolidation of Religion: Unfortunately, some Muslim women have gradually been forgetting their commitments to religion. Their lacking knowledge about fundamental issues of religion is one of the reasons, may be they do not carry with themselves what God has revealed to His Prophet of Mercy for the first time: “Read! In the Name of your Lord, who is the creator. Created

development of Islam will get multiplied, God Willing. Working with Muslim Families In Colombia, there are increasing numbers of Muslim families willingly developing appropriate spaces for children and youths to get familiar with Islamic knowledge and culture. For attaining this goal, one can support the capacity of professionals in education and training adapted to lives of Westernoriented Muslims (Muslims seeking West); hereby, educational planning and organization should be adjusted appropriately. Similarly, having access to spiritual leaders and expert clergymen for guiding couples in a way to have a good and appropriate marriage, in accordance with Islamic teachings and even above

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Man from the blood, coagulated. And your Lord is the Most Exalted. He tutored by the pen; what man knew not.” Therefore, it is necessary to provide spaces for the study of religion. Issues such as laws of religion (Ahkam), beliefs, morality, reading Quran should be studied more carefully. Therefore, establishing Islamic Centres seems necessary. Centres not only dedicated to Muslim women, but also aimed to familiarize NonMuslim women with Islam, those interested in Islam. If women get committed to acquisition of religious knowledge more than before, surely their motivation for taking part in consolidation projects and

159


cultural and local thoughts, is necessary. Therefore, one can expect more successful and stable marriages, of course in accordance with Islamic purposes and sharia, through providing spiritual stability whether for couples or their children.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islam Spread Let there be no compulsion in religion; True Guidance now is made distinct from error. Therefore whoever now Taghoot1 forsakes, and does believe in God, shall grasp for ever a handle most secure that will never break. For God is the All-Knowing Hearer. This verse’s concept is obvious and clear. Latin America’s Muslims have the mission of familiarizing individuals with Islam’s beauty and perfection. One way applicable and helpful to this issue is planning some assemblies and conferences for discussion about woman, family, and other issues depending on individuals’ interests. Furthermore, translation of books and Islamic writings in accordance with different audiences’ real social context is very important. Since each individual interested in Islam belongs to his/her own exclusive social-cultural context. Spreading Islam through Internet- creating website, weblog, email, and password in social networks- is another way. These networks and media are very important, since people have frequently used these; besides, one can easily have access to their information. Conclusion: Role of women in west is derived from beliefs and culture deeply ingrained in Catholic. Islam, despite Catholic which provoked and raised western woman against herself through breaking traditional thoughts and degraded and humiliated her position and transformed 160

1. Anyone or anything in rebellion against God, and anything worshipped besides God; idols, evil, the Satan


her to an instrument for fashion and sexual pleasure, grants a distinctive and impressive position to woman. Muslim women’s mission is very extensive: conveying Islam’s reputation to others through providing perfection and knowledge by accurate utilization of Hijab (veil) and active participation on all fronts keeping alive the name of God’s favourite and perfect religion, i.e. Islam.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

References: Raol Gonzalenz Brenz (2008) - Printed Interpretive Bilingual QuranMadrid- Quran translation centre Website mentioned in the original text Plaez Mekhaya, Margarita (2012) - 50 Years of Women’s Suffrage B. Yegas Bootro, Louis (2006) woman Education in Colombia between 1780 and 1930

161


The positive and negative position of social networks in the Islamic Awakening Maedeh Banayi1  Houssein Heidari2  Masoumeh Zoghipour3 

Abstract

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Followed by the Islamic awakening, various sectors of society, including values and anti-values, will inevitably change. Being a mass media, internet has the power to influence people’s attitudes. It seems that after the Islamic awakening, these two (the cultural space and the cyberspace of the society) have developed an interaction with each other. According to available statistics, among the growing number of Internet users, most of them were online in popular online social networks last year. Research reveals that in the last decades, one of the tools of the Western World to penetrate into the different layers of Islamic countries in order to make fundamental changes in the personal and social identity and the nature of Islamic societies, have been using the these social networks. Therefore, in order to assess their cons and pros, this article reviews the characteristics of social networks and explains why they are attractive and to what extent. It later discusses effective participation in the cyberspace, especially the domain of social networks, in a manner that is consistent with the Islamic awakening. Keywords Role-playing, social networks, Islamic values, dangers of the Islamic awakening 162

1.Lecturer of the seminary and the University 2.BA degree in technology and Information 3. BA degree in technology and Information


Introduction: With the advent of technology and mass media in families, social values of family have been affected (Slevin, 1380) although Kaznev believes that individual’s tendencies do not change even when they turn to the media (Kaznev: 1372). Of these developments is an easy access to the Internet. Along its strengths, The Internet has also some weaknesses but it seems a strategic vision and planning can turn the weaknesses into the strengths .This is possible only if the goal is clearly defined andpositive and Islamic changes can be established based on correct information and entry to these areas.

typically long process and hard to change.Yetaccording to the Islamic traditions these beliefs arecan developand change in three different ages: 7, 14 and 21. In the middle layer dos and Don'ts of person are defined. These norms have a direct correlation with the underlying personality. It must be clearly stated that there is one do or don’t behind any belief. In the third stage, these norms will form and manifest the personality. For example it can be stated that one person believes inthe Resurrection, then the Resurrection exists in his beliefand the result of the belief is that they should follow God's commands and the outcome will be Hijab. Here we review the different dimensions of society. Four dimensions in each society can be seen: cultural, political, economic,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Identity, dos and don’ts To clarify the issue, a short discussion expressed in terms of psychology seems to be necessary. In this view, people have generally three layers of personality and the third layer manifests itself as the ultimate cause of behavior in society, although before its formation, there are two other categories. In other words, in the first layer there are personal beliefs: the initial beliefs developed in a

163


and social. With changes in the political system of a society, changes in other systems, including social and cultural systems will be inevitable. Obviously, if the community moves toward an Islamic government, cultural and social part of it will experience Islamic change as well. The media are the pillars of the culture of community and one of them whose users are increasing in the world today, that is the Internet and cyberspace which has the greatest role in creating and changing the values of the various components of society including

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the family. Certainly after the Islamic Awakening, the virtual space of each community will move toward the values of this great transformation. But due to the characteristics defined in this space, access to different types of information is possible and also during the progress of the Islamic Awakening, western propaganda - more active than the past – promotes its intereststhroughall kinds of media, especially the Internet.

164

West and cultural programming for the Internet Among the items the West pursues not only in Arabic and Islamic countries, but in all countries is to eliminate the sense of national and religious identity of people. This happens in the first step throughthe weakening of family foundation and later by eliminating their national identity and then religious in order for people to become the citizens a global country by their own will. Thus it seems that in this period which the Arab countries are in the status of a cultural revolution to study potential and actual possibilities of the spaceis more urgent than ever before. The program “Techwomen� that wasput forth by the U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton in 2010 exactly at the very beginning of the Islamic Awakening movement is very suggestive in this regards. By virtue of the program some leading technology corporationsof the U.S. including Google, Facebook, Cisco, Microsoft, IBM, Yahoo,


Hewlett-Packard Co., Kata Pullet Design, Basic consortium of Innovation and Science, and a consortium comprised of more than 20 such institutions as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, SRI International, Intelligent Technologies, Symantec, and SndyaaNational Laboratories were committed to involve. According to the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, it was aimed at a weekly training in the professional coaching based on the project with the management of technology companies and involving active women of the Middle East

critical role of a wife, mother as well ashandlerof economic and cultural issues in many households. Yet what isimportant is the development of the youngsters in the family and society. When investing on young and aware Muslims does not work, this is the mother who canchange the methods of upbringing and modeling forher children by neglecting the world changes and how to attract them. Since mother and children trust each other, a covert invasion is institutionalized unconsciously in the underlying layers of personality of individual household members. Because women are half of the population and also makers of the other half, it is necessary to explore their sentimental and rational traits. This is exactly what is going on now in the ad hoc research investments of the West and the U.S. The widespread use of cyberspace in family has made the research grow and false information of themunder the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and NorthernAfrica as participants. The project’s eligible persons were some25 to 42 years old women from Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, West Bank and Gaza Strip. It should be noted that this initiative was implemented by the Institute of International Education in collaboration with Anita Borg Institute for Women. Apparently such cultural projects and programs are very attractive but they are aimed at debasing family foundation. One of the easiest and most cost effective methods used by Western scholars and statesmen is to undermine family foundation and merely requiresmanipulating women of thefamily, having simultaneously the

165


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

guiseof new and exciting upbringing practice through cyberspace undoubtedly offer a direct impact on the public opinion, and especially the target population -that is Muslim women. The development of the Islamic Awakening as well as dramatic involvement of women and of course their leading rolemake cyberspace mounta move to change minds. This virtual space whose main components are the social networks and blogs may act asa weapon that both sides can benefit from. Thesidewho wins the game

166

and the soft war is the one offering the most popular and interesting ways to different age groups to feed its users. As mentioned earlier dimensions of any community are divided into four cultural, political, economic, social categories and mean while individual identity plays a crucial role in both the culture and society. Generally speaking, identity is the relationship between the individual and the social structure. The issue is critical because the concept of identity is strongly influenced by social, cultural, political and technological developments. Place and space is the greatest factor that will shape the identity .Then in the borderless and multicultural virtual world as such, identity can become a complex issue. So the technology needs to be available through cyberspace in order to find a solution to fix individual, familial, national and religious identity. For the extent of religious belief and faith as well as commitment to morality and patriotism in the people and also respect for national identity is defined through identity. For these reasons,the woman's identity has an ad hocposition. Although social revolutions require cultural backgrounds, their emergence is of an instantaneous nature: with a little spark, a large population having the same goal consolidatesin one placeagainst a dominantregime in the society. The revolutionaries typically do not pay enough attention to the futureof the movement.The thirty-three years’ experience of the Islamic Revolutionof Iransuggests that the


West with the U.S. and the U.K. as leaders has been trying to exploit the future cultural sphere of the Islamic Iran even before its authorities due to the distance from the center of the events and challenges faced by the Revolution in all the areas as well as those nations’ intrinsic opportunism. Meanwhile, some great scholars and think ersofIranwere assassinated at the beginning of the Revolution and some were engaged in the explained programs in the new culture’s here of the country and its new structure and failed to look for ward to future planning. It is clear that, from the very beginning of theIslamic Awakening movementone mustthink aboutits future to have a significant and decisive presencein the effective virtualspace. Even one can say thatlong-termplanningfor the futureof thissphereisofgreat importance toensureits success.

actual data are needed to examine each factor. The following statistics are data which were officially released at the end of 2011. Internet users usually spend 22 percent of their online time surfing social networks, 21 percent using search engines for obtaining information, 20 percent studying and reading through contents and materials, and 19 percent checking out their e-mails. Internet users have visited Google more than any other website. However, they have spent most of their time in Facebook. In discussing the issue of the spread and growth of social networks, especially Facebook, one should note that the ability of these media to attract the users belonging to the region of Asia has dramatically increased. Whereas the number of the American users is dropping day by day, the number of Asian and Oceanian users is

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Social networksandtheir usersinthe world For successful participation in the cyber space, analyzing its environment and applicationsis critical. From the beginning, the

167


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

significantly rising. According to official reports and statistics, this number has gone beyond 900 million users and will soon reach a record of one billion users. It is reported that 13 million users update their statuses at least once a day; 2.5 million users like various pages on a daily basis; 700 million pictures and images as well as 4 million video files are uploaded in the site every month. Moreover, every month, 15 million posts and materials including web links, news, blog posts, notes, etc. are shared; 2 million events are created; and 19

168

million working groups are active in this web site. Facebook users spend as much as 700 billion minutes in the site monthly. An average for each person equals to 15 hours and 33 minutes in every month. An interesting point is that 300 thousand users help Facebook to translate its contents into 70 major languages of the world. Google Plus is another social networking service which was developed by Google Company in order to confront the uninterrupted proliferation and growth of Facebook. There are 25 million registered users in this network. Due to the support given to this service by Gmail, the network has seen a greater rate of growth than other social networks. To put it another way, the website has reached the record of 10 million users in just 16 days, whereas it has taken 780 days for Twitter and 852 days for Facebook to reach the record of 10 million users. In May 2011, there was an average of 190 million tweets every day in Twitter. Similarly, since February 2011, 490 million users have signed up in the website YouTube (apart from the number of videos viewed in the site). Every month, 92 billion viewable pages are uploaded in this website. In a similar fashion, Flicker is a huge source of images, hosting about 5 billion picture files. Why is it this way?


Certainly, if you spend some of your time in the virtual space, especially if you be a user of the social network Facebook, you would accept the obvious attraction of these services. The reason for this attraction lies in the fact that humans are social entities and need to have a sense of belonging. The networks similar to Facebook fulfill such social needs of humans by providing the means of communication among people. In this way, Facebook has been able to gather a large number of people in a friendly and easy space,

users by overcoming such limitations. No doubt Facebook has utilized a significant number of tools developed in the world of information technology. It also has made use of other specific tools developed for its special purposes. This has created competitive advantages for Facebook in attracting large numbers of users in comparison to other competitors. It should be noted that the goal of all such websites and networks belonging to the West and America is to impose their dominant culture and ideology on the Muslim youth and women of the world. Along with that, they are also interested in money-making and profitability. Their remarkable earnings can be considered a great source of motivation for them to continue their jobs and to make use of creativity and innovation. In the following paragraphs, a list of the earnings of such companies is provided:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

collect their personal information, analyze them, raise controversial debates and discussions based on those information to engage different minds and thoughts, and direct them in a way that their interest are met. Indeed, the owners of this network impose their own ideologies on the users in an attractive and appealing way matching the inner identities of the users. The users’ sense of freedom and lack of restrictions is a main reason for their presence in such space. The limitations imposed on the delivery and the use of services have always been a factor of failure for new ideas in the world. However, Facebook has attracted and provided services for a large number of

169


Facebook: In 2006, the annual profit of this network was 52 million dollars. In 2007, there was a growth of 188% which equaled to 150 million dollars. In 2008, the rate of profit reached 280 million dollars. In 2009, it increased to 775 million dollars, and in 2010, it increased by about 158% to reach 2 million dollars. Twitter: According to a report of the public affairs of the Iranian Information Technology news agency, the company has gained 139.5 million dollars by advertising in the past year. It is expected

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

that in 2014 their income will reach the record of one billion dollars, whereas it took six years for Facebook and five years for Google to reach that record. YouTube: In 2010, 3.5 percent of the advertisement income of Google was obtained through YouTube. The same year, it was forecast that the income of the website would go beyond 1.3 billion dollars by 2011 and 2 billion dollars by 2012 with a growth rate of 60 percent.

170

Conclusions Taking the above mentioned points into account, one can observe a soft and heavy invasion. To maintain and preserve the presence of Muslims and pioneers of the awakening movement, to declare the rightfulness of them, and to protect their uprising from the western and American plots and conspiracies, there should be patience a great thought along with planning and foresight. One can make use of up-to-date technologies which are prevalent throughout the world and are popular among people; these technologies can be developed to meet our needs. It is necessary to pay more attention to the future and prepare the ground for it rather than engage merely with present concerns. There is a very long way before us; we can make use of innovations to promote the movements, spread them more quickly and preserve them properly. We just need to know what we want and


what should be done for achieving our goals. We should understand that science is the specific way for success in our religious struggles and spiritual uprisings. Muslim scientists need to familiarize themselves with the new tools and devices so that they can guide the educated women who are struggling in this sacred way. In this way, the movement can certainly succeed. The present woman of the movement is the future mother; the mother of children who are going to take part in the Islamic awakening and move in its path and direction.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 171


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Guidelines One of the first duties of the thinkers of any uprising, especially the movement of Islamic awakening (due to the evident opposition and animosity of westerners and Americans with Islam), is to identify the factors which are essential for the maintenance and preservations of the uprising in the future. It is necessary to have plans for every stage of the uprising. The thinkers need to analyze the brief 2-year history of the movement in depth in order to develop

172

and expand the current short term plans into the future long term programs. They should take into consideration the fact that one of the most prominent tools (virtual world) in today’s struggles and wars needs specialized and in-depth analysis. Hence, they can understand the characteristics and specialties of the above mentioned technologies, such as the successful social networking system Facebook. This does not mean that the movement needs to present its information and programs by the means of those technologies. Indeed, such an understanding is necessary in order to localize those technologies and make adaptations to them in a way that they become compatible with the nation and its specific characteristics. In this way, the movement can present its materials through favorable media. Certainly, this is the key to success. Presenting the materials and information in this space is the most important principle. However, the type and format of presenting the materials are equally important. Indeed, we should prepare the users to receive the intended materials. This is possible by paying attention to the personal needs of the users. The second solution is the creation of jobs and the possibility of money-making in this space. If the economic problems and financial concerns of the users be solved, they can become more active and supportive in the religious areas and play significant and dynamic roles in the maintenance and promotion of the awakening movement. In other words, there should


be attempts to fulfill the social, religious and financial needs of the users. Furthermore, it is necessary to pay attention to education and cultural planning in any revolutionary movement. Education is an important factor regarding the spread and development of the struggle and achievement of the goals. In the meantime, an important point is the creation of religious atmosphere in the social networking systems. Since such social networking sites are essentially contrary to the religious spirit, especially Islam, we should analyze them from this perspective. Some important challenges on the way are listed below: 

The addiction of the youth to the virtual space

 The misuse of freedom of expression: There are currently some pages which are obviously and presumptuously attacking and insulting Islam  The lost of the virtual chastity: The presence of immoral and filthy images is indicative of this challenge The misbehavior and the violation of privacy

The waste of time

The density of irrational and baseless ideas and views

 The high influence of the modern media over the educated people It should be mentioned that we can confront Islamophobia and ignorance using the opportunities of the virtual space.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

173


Women’s Contribution to Islamic Awakening with an Emphasis on the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers



174

Fariba Shayegan1

Abstract Occurrence of a Revolution as a fundamental, rapid change in the political structure and composition of the elite class people needs majority support and participation of many people in a society. Women constitute a significant portion of the society and can be effective in many aspects on and after the revolution. Women in the Islamic revolution of Iran had a significant role in its realization through different measures, such as active participation in social protest, maintaining and observing the Islamic dress code, and holding political meetings and improving the political awareness of themselves and their families. Moreover, they were active in sacrificing themselves and bearing the martyrdom of their children and their spouses, helping the injured and the revolutionary fighters, encouraging and supporting their children and spouses to participate in revolutionary activities, forming organized political activities and training a revolutionary generation,. They also managed to have a critical role in preserving the achievements of the Revolution by measures, such as supporting the veterans after the Revolution, enduring the hardships and economic sanctions, and taking active parts in intellectual, social, political and cultural activities after the Revolution. Muslim Women in Islamic countries, who had an active contribution in the movements of Islamic Awakening, can take benefit from the role model of the successful presence of Iranian women in the Islamic Revolution of Iran, acting upon their duties in this campaign and fulfilling their social, humanistic, revolutionary, and religious responsibility. Keywords Revolution, Islamic Revolution of Iran, women, Islamic awakening 1. Lecturer and a science board member of the police university


Introduction Independence, freedom and maintenance of national-religious values are among ideals of all the free-born countries throughout the world. People, living in all countries, seek their own national and religious identity. Throughout history, they have fought for achieving these sacred goals and many people have sacrificed their lives in this way. Population growth and development of countries have made people to establish independent governments and to entrust the

be heard by governors and demand them to change their career and to be faithful to their land and people. There could be a vast variety of actions to take; from expressing opinions through media and written protests which is mainly done by elites and enlightened section of society as a tongue for other people to periodic revolts, demonstrations, strikes, armed fighting, social movements and finally revolution and overthrowing a governing systems and its substitution with another one. Of course revolutions and overthrowing systems through revolutions are among rare social phenomena and they are counted as few as the number of fingers of a hand during a century. Other methods to change governing systems are more frequent and probable. During recent years, the number of freedom-seeking and independence-seeking movements has increased in many countries

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

management of society to them. Having entrusted the power to authorities, people expect them to preserve territorial integrity as well as religious and national values. However, sometimes governors who are indebt to a nation and run the country out of the source of people’s efforts and taxes, instead of supporting people and maintenance of country’s reservoirs and borders, go under domination of colonizers. They whether provide foreign powers with their country’s national benefits and become puppet regimes or exercise tyranny against their own nation and trample their rights in order to preserve their own individual benefits. Then people shout their protests in different ways to

175


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of which one of the main characteristics is their people being Muslim. These nations have arisen against their governors by following Islamic orders and learning from Islamic revolution of Iran which, as an unprecedented phenomenon, has been a prominent and reliable model not only for Muslim countries, but also for all of freedom-seeking nations of the world. Their main demand has been performing pure religion of Islam and relying on people against imperialist powers.

176

There have been offered several interpretations for recent Islamic movements and the best, most meaningful and most comprehensive one is offered by the supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khamenei who called these movements “Islamic Awakening�. This title is of a deep and precise meaning and its most evident meaning is Muslim nations becoming aware of their human and Islamic rights. This awareness is spreading to all Muslim people, whether man or woman. A significant point in Islamic awakening movements is cognizant, insightful and wise presence of women in political and social arenas and demanding their rights. This presence is important, influential and significant from different aspects and needs scientific examination. The present paper investigates the constructing contribution of women in Islamic awakening and attempts at helping to learn from Iranian Muslim women’s contribution to evolutionary activities as well as their efforts for Islamic revolution of Iran to gain victory. It also explains the important responsibility of women in Islamic countries. Therefore, the main research questions for the present paper are: 1. What was the role of women in Islamic revolution of Iran and what measures they took for victory if revolution? 2. What could Muslim women in Islamic countries do in Islamic awakening movements in their countries?


We answer above questions attributively and by reviewing available sources. First we briefly introduce Islamic revolution of Iran and then we identify the role of women in it. At the end, we present some recommendations for Muslim women in other Islamic countries to fulfill their religious, national, political and social duties. Islamic revolution of Iran On Bahman, 22nd, 1391 (solar calendar)

1

Islamic revolution of

Iran becomes thirty four years old. It is a revolution which gained history as a result of Imam Khomeini’s leadership, grand martyrs and determination of nation. It turned to such unique and prominent revolution that no other revolution could be compared to it. The reason is different motivations and goals of it. Political scholars have stated several characteristics for Islamic revolution of Iran of which the more important ones are ass follows: Its Islamic nature;

-

Relying on a strong support of nation;

- Comprehensive leadership of Imam (Allah may have mercy on him); - Its happening fast in comparison to other countries’ revolutions; - Insistence on determined ideals and goals, etc. Islamic revolution of Iran had sacred goals to be realized. These goals were thoroughly of a religious nature and were based on values and pure Islamic trainings. Goals such as: -

Overthrowing the tyrant Pahlavi regime;

-

Establishment of Islamic Republic of Iran;

-

Giving dominance to Islamic values, rules and orders;

-

Eradicating manifestations of corruption and decay;

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

-

177

1 February, 10th, 2013


- Cutting the hand of colonizers from country’s natural sources; - Supporting other Muslims and oppressed nations in the world and motivating them, etc. (Khaza’i 2008:6)

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Political contribution of women from the viewpoint of Islam Unlike the societies at the age of Ignorance (pre-Islamic era) which used to downgrade women, regard them as weak and inferior

178

humans and make them to exercise platitude and corruption, Islam bestowed them a high position and personality. Progressive and influential Islamic principles not only don’t prevent women from social and political participation, but also regard it as necessary and due. Islam doesn’t discriminate between men and women in maintenance of Islamic values and religion of Islam. For instance, in the 12th verse of Mumtahana chapter of Quran we read: ...‫"يو ايهو النلي اذا يوءک الوؤمنوت يلويًنک علي ان ف يشاکن حوج شائو و‬ "...‫فلويًهن‬ “O Prophet! When believing women come to you giving you a pledge that they will not associate aught with Allah, and will not steal, and will not commit fornication, and will not kill their children, and will not bring a calumny which they have forged of themselves, and will not disobey you in what is good, accept their pledge, and ask forgiveness for them from Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” Oath of allegiance means nation’s promising to leader in following him and not transgressing his orders. The Great Prophet took an oath of allegiance from men on the day of Mecca triumph. When women had an audience with the Prophet to oath, this verse was revealed and recommended him to take oath from women, explaining the conditions and qualities (Shafayi, 1993:64).


The trend of women’s oath of allegiance to Great Prophet (peace be upon him) in the treaty of Hudaibiyah and Mecca triumph is indicative of the fact that, from he viewpoint of Islam, women, as much as men, are competent to express their opinions regarding important political and social affairs and to take responsibilities to the extend of their ability (Shafayi 1993:65). The noble verse “‫“( ”و لهن مثل الذي عليهن بالمعروف‬they have rights similar to those against them in a just manner”) (Baqarah chapter; verse 228) also indicates that women, like men, have responsibilities and proper rights. Still another verse includes similar concept: “ ‫فون‬ ‫حاجک فيه من بعد ما جاءک من العلم فقل تعالوا ندع ابناءنا و ابناءكم و نساءنا و نساءكم و‬ ‫“( ”انفسنا و انفسکم ثم نبتهل فنجعل لعنت اهلل علي الکاذبين‬But whoever disputes

men and women are of equal values in Islam, their responsibilities are different according to their human nature. Undoubtedly, the requirement for equal human value and respect for men and women is equal human rights. But since they are not created identically and have different characteristics, their rights are not similar. There is equity in their rights on the basis of justice (Motahari 1978:89) The history of initial Islam also indicates women’s political contribution. Hazrat-e Khadije (peace be upon her) was influential in strengthening and development of Islam. She was a spiritual and financial supporter of Prophet (peace be upon him). Some of other spouses of the Prophet also played important political roles. Moreover, in the first and second immigration of Muslims to Habashah which were done with the purpose of maintaining their lives and beliefs, women also migrated to there.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars”) (Al-i Emran chapter; verse 61). As we saw, according to Quran women have a right to participate in political activities (Mostafavi 1990:26). We could say that although

179


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

In the 11th year of Be’that, 6 people from Medina, Khazraj tribe, met with the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Aghaba which is located in Mena (near Mecca). This allegiance is called women’s allegiance. There is also another allegiance in the history of Islam under the name of Rezvan allegiance in which women contribution is undeniable (Davani 1985:195). Therefore, there is no doubt about women’s contribution to the society in initial Islam. The influential role of hazrat-e Zeynab

180

(peace be upon her) in mega-historical event of Ashura is one of the prominent examples which demonstrates the importance of women’s position in the history of Islam and it was a significant symbol for Iranian Muslim women in standing against Pahlavi dictator regime. There is no doubt in the fact that Islam identifies a special respect for women. There is need to explain that, because as we all know the first person who believed in Islam was a women. The first martyr in the path of Islam was a woman. The only person who is buried within Ka’bah Is a woman. The heir of Prophet (peace be upon him) also is his daughter i.e. Hazrat Fatima Zahra (peace be upon her) on whose hand the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissed and called her “Omme Abi-ha” which means the one who is a mother for his father. The supreme leader, Imam Khamenei, also says: “Islam aims to make intellectual, political and scientific growth of women reach perfection and use their maximum potentiality for development of the society. … Consistent with sublime Islamic trainings, we believe that women in any society have a right to make efforts in order to gain social and political progress, to take responsibilities and to acquire necessary opportunities (Zane Ruz, 13 Azar, 1993).” Women’s contribution in Islamic revolution Women are the half population of people on the earth and have had a very important effect on movements and revolutions. The criticality of their role is a result of their deep influence on all the arenas of life.


One of the honors of Iranian Muslim women is their prominent participation in the scene of Islamic revolution. They entered the demonstrations from the very beginning and helped Islamic revolution step by step. They were firmly determined in fighting against tyrannies and world arrogance and fulfilled their responsibility regarding Islam and revolution. Iranian women involved in Islamic revolution stated obviously that Iranian Muslim women are present in all the social and political

“You are leaders of the movement. Women are leaders of our movement and we follow them. I recognize you as leaders of movement and I am in service of you (Sahife-ye Nur, 7th volume, p. 96).” He also said that: “You have had an important contribution to this movement (Sahife-ye Nur, 9th volume, p. 285).” Or that: “You have had a great contribution to the Islamic movement. You are reservoirs of our future (Sahife-ye Nur, 22nd volume, p. 219).” These are clear evidences of women’s role in the victory of Islamic revolution of Iran. Women had many activities in Islamic revolution of Iran from which we can refer to:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

areas and their religious beliefs is not a barrier against them to do so. They proved that they can change the history and at the same time maintain their virtue and chastity. Imam Khomeini, the great leader of Islamic revolution of Iran, also demanded women’s active presence at different scenes of revolution, while following Islamic sacred orders. He, being aware of delicate nature of women’s soul and their natural needs, appreciated women’s participation in his several speeches, emphasized their high position and sometimes regarded them as movements’ leaders. He said:

181


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Attending street demonstrations: One of the influential and significant activities of women in Islamic revolution is their glorious presence in street demonstrations while observing religious values. They hold their babies and came to the filed of protests without any fear of tanks and guns. In the demonstrations, they demanded the same things as men and they were even pioneers. As the supreme leader said: “women had a very important contribution to this revolution. The first demonstration in

182

the country, which was done aboveboard an inimical against tyrant regime with harsh slogans, was performed by women. A very significant and great move was urged by women and it was continued. At all the stages, women were very active in it (Hafezian, 2001: 157). John For an, a theorist of revolutions, says: “Thousands of veiled women were moving forward in a widespread demonstration. They were both prone to danger and decrease the range of danger (For an, 1998: 561). He believes that the expanded presence of women ahead of other demonstrators was indicative a message and the message is that our revolution is a herald of peace. So we don’t do violations and governmental authorities are responsible for setting fire on banks and breaking private properties. For an says that women’s attendance in demonstrations and protests was more difficult and challenging than that of men; because: 1. Since the majority of them were wearing hijab, when gunning, they had less possibility to move and escape comparing to men. 2. Usually women are of a less physical power that men; so it decreased their chance to fight with security guards and armed forces. 3. Many women attended demonstrations while they were holding a baby; so they had less opportunity to escape and little possibility to resist (Foran, 1998: 561).


Generally speaking we could say that women had an active and significant presence in all the demonstrations and protests. Their presence was of a variety of forms. For example, some of them distributed brochures, some distributed Imam Khomeini’s statements, some hold a picture of Imam Khomeini and some welcomed demonstrators with water, tea, juice and sandwiches. One of their common and usual activities during revolutionary combats was their coming to roofs at nights and shouting “Allah-o Akbar” beside men.

ways of receiving news or formal information. They also used to hide cassettes containing political speeches or copy them and distribute them among revolutionary people. Generally, we could claim that women, through Islamic revolution and Imam Khomeini comprehensive leadership, got such high political insight that enemies of Islam and revolution lost their hopes to misguide them. They realized the nature of enemies’ tricks, entered the field of politics and fighting and made tyrant enemies to get out of the country.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Holding political meetings One of the important activities of women was political ones. Several revolutionary women, just like men, were tortured and martyred in the prisons of Pahlavi regimes. They hold political meeting at that time, actively participated in many political speeches in different cities and hence, increased their revolutionary and political awareness (Khalkhali, 2000: 78). Sometimes such meetings were held under the name of the religious mourns and meetings. They were informed about the time and place of demonstrations in these sessions and through common

- Sacrificing and generosity The number of women martyrs was not less than men martyrs. In addition to being present in dangerous scenes and being killed or injured there, they prepared their husbands and children to fight too.

183


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Martyrs are fruits of being raised in the pure skirt of their great and wise mothers who link divine love with motherly kindness and prepare their children’s soul and body to be martyred. That’s why Imam Khomeini (Allah may have mercy on him), the great reformer of the century, frequently introduced women as revolutionary pioneers and described them as those women who raise their children for the purpose of martyrdom and those who respected martyrs’ blood to strengthen the revolution.

184

The supreme leader of revolution also says:” another tremendous movement was done by women and that was their sacrificing and generosity towards their children and husbands. It was so important and unprecedented both in the present conditions and in the past days (Khamenei 1985:175).” At the time of revolution, women experienced death of their dearest ones. At that time even they were not allowed to mourn. So they were obliged to bury their martyrs secretly and without performing any ceremony. - Helping fighters and the injured Another sensitive measure taken by women at the time of revolution was sheltering those who had escaped from prisons or the soldiers who had escaped from garrisons and rejected to shoot their people. Ms. Sami’i talks of her memories that:” One night that the sound of shots were breaking the silence of alleys, we decided to half open the door of our houses so that if any youngster was in danger of being tracked by armed forces or Savak agents, he could refuge easily in our houses. It happened. One of the youth who was writing revolutionary slogans on the wall was encountered with Savak forces. After an almost long pursuit and chase-chase, he entered one of the houses whose owner was a brave old-woman. After a few


moments, Savak forces entered our houses to find him, but they couldn’t find him. Then they went to the door of old-woman’s house. She stood against them so courageously that they didn’t dare entering her house. So they returned. Such incidents motivated us to resist against the tyrant regime more than before. Therefore, women’s presence became increasingly active and prominent. Sometimes at critical and sensitive conditions of revolution, there were not possibility of transferring those who were injured in street battles to the hospitals. It was the women’s task to protect them or transfer them to nearest medical centers.

“Your coming to the streets and battle fields motivated men to be empowered, strengthened and gain high spirit to resist (Sahife-ye Nur, 9th volume, p. 499).” “Men, following women, came to the streets. Women encouraged men. They were ahead of men (Sahife-ye Nur, 9th volume, p. 499).” “They (women) encouraged men; (therefore) our people are in debt to women for their courage and bravery (Sahife-ye Nur, 11th volume, p. 253).” The supreme leader also says: “(During Islamic revolution) women took two important measures: one is that they attended demonstrations and the other is that they, believing firmly in Islamic revolution, encouraged men to be present in the trend of revolution and in this way they improved

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Motivating others to come to the scene In addition to direct participation, women motivated and encouraged their husbands and children to join the trend of Islamic revolution. They had a very influential role in this regard. Imam Khomeini (Allah may have mercy on him), as the most sincere narrator of Islamic revolution, confirmed this issue frequently. He said:

185


its qualities. The reality was that women entered the scene with a deep belief (Khamenei 1985: 175).” In addition to motivating men, raising committed and resisting children is among important and permanent tasks of Iranian Muslim women. Attending religious meetings, they remembered braveries and fighting of Imams and revived the spirit of fighting and Islamseeking in their children. Remembering Imam Hussein’s (peace be upon him) martyrdom and his companions’, they prepared their

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

children to be present in the revolutionary scenes. - Organized resistance One of the dominant dimensions of women’s contribution to different areas of Islamic revolution was their noble presence in fighting against tyrant Pahlavi regime. Their activities in armed fighting, distribution of statements and leadership of resisting movements showed that their sex had not any effect on their presence. Moreover, women had another role in resisting movements, i.e. they formed hidden clubs and thereby they not only supported the families of fighters, prisoners and martyrs, but also distributed statements and news to reveal the oppressing nature of Shah’s regime. Usually the center of such resisting clubs was located in the mosques, councils and some meetings of women (Haji Beygi 2000: 213). Striking also could be considered a resisting movement which, unlike secret resisting clubs, stood against regime evidently and tried to exhaust it through direct or indirect resistance. Therefore, female workers (e.g. loom workers), employees (e.g. nurses) and educational employees (e.g. teachers) had a high contribution to strike against Pahlavi regime (Reyhaneh quarterly, 2003: 192). - Armed fighting Some women put their steps even further and participated in 186

building trenches against police forces. Some other held guns and fought against regime at the last days of Pahlavi regime. Nikki


Keddie elaborates on another aspect of women’s activities in the demonstrations and writes:” When regime launched severe threats, these veiled women attended the demonstrations heading row courageously (Keddie 1990: 366).” At the time of victory of revolution, women and girls were making explosive devices and cocktails in their homes and deliver them to men in order to fight. One of the evolutions made by God in the women’s heart was

tanks! it was a spiritual evolution made by God the High in the heart of people (Sahife-ye Nur, 7th volume, p. 129).” So since 1355 (=1976), when anti-government combats were intensified by Imam Khomeini (Allah may have mercy on him), women actively attended demonstrations and strikes. They were not indifferent any longer and took responsibility for their own fates as well as their families’ and Islam’s. As the great Imam said: “The same women who were indifferent towards their country before, entered the scene and we saw that they can fulfill their tasks well” (Sahife-ye Nur, 9th volume, p. 156). Following leader’s orders, they even went further and played another important role i.e. they encouraged men and intensified their activities against regime. Moreover, they participated in resisting

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

their willing to fight, having a peaceful life and hence coming to dangerous filed of combat against tyrannies. Their fears from the regime vanished away and were substituted by courage and bravery. Muslim women had no fear of Shah’s guard and forces. They were not afraid of being injured or killed. Imam Khomeini described this evolution as: “God removed fear from hearts. He eradicated the fear people used to have from the regime and substituted it with determination and will. Therefore, women and children all roused to fight. It was unprecedented for women to come out and stand against guns and

187


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

clubs, helped the injured, distributed the statements and other things. Imam Khomeini and the supreme leader both confirmed the widespread movement of women in the victory of Islamic revolution and appreciated it. Of course we should admit that it is impossible to show all the dimensions of active and sacrificing presence of Iranian Muslim women during the years of fire and blood (1355 to 1357 = 1976 to 1978).

188

Women’s contribution to social activities after the victory of Islamic revolution Iranian Muslim women’s role becoming more prominent in Islamic revolution is now worldly known. After revolution and especially during 8 years of imposed war, women had a significant effect on survival of revolution and realization of its sacred ideals. As statistics show, women in the Islamic society of Iran have had a more prominent presence in different areas of the society after the glorious victory of Islamic revolution. As scholars in social affairs states, women have acted in high positions after revolution. They have had social and political activities and have grown significantly in these areas. Moreover, Islamic revolution changed the values and concepts of previous West-stricken society and thereby could make women’s contribution more prominent and emphasized their critical role in the family. After the victory of Islamic revolution, women’s attitudes and criteria were changed. They realized that they shouldn’t care about only their own periodic benefits and put this insight as a basis for their social life and social interaction with others. Islamic revolution caused women to realize that Quran and Islam regard such a high position for them. They entered to this path of perfection to find their main identity and respect.


It was in Islamic revolution of Iran that women found their spiritual value and respect. As we see in the society of today, the trend of women’s activities during the decades after revolution has fastened in comparison to that of the past. Their high educations and their presence in social and political activities are also another fruits of Islamic revolution. Two important achievements of Islamic revolution for women are creating self-belief and gaining Islamic identity. These two

revolution and attending battle fields and thereby they could preserve this valuable Islamic-social treasury. Presenting in the social, economic and cultural arenas, they guaranteed the survival and permanence of Islamic revolution and at the same time they fulfilled their motherly and wifely duties. Muslim women’s contribution to Islamic awakening As we explained, thank to God many Islamic movements have been created during recent years and all of them had the goal of facilitating the conditions to properly performing Islamic orders and establishing a true Islamic government. So it is expected that all the freedom-seeking and justice-seeking Muslims attend these Islamic movements. Women are the important factors; because they have a constructing and training role and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

achievements paved the ground for women’s improvement and progress and their more opportunity to be present in the society and be efficient in all the arenas. Of course these high and positive movements caused strengthening the foundation of family and their motherly roles. After victory of Islamic revolution, family turned to the most important and major organ for human evolution and progress. Women also were introduced as a person in the family that rear humans. After Islamic revolution, women attended comprehensively in many political scenes such as demonstrations, elections, defending

189


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

deep influence on different aspects. It is their responsibility to contribute to these movements in a variety of forms and thereby to help Islamic movements to be prospered. It is the social conditions that guide individual motivations, determine the proper performance of people in different situations and strengthen the social actions of people in the form of different social roles. These string roles are called “role’s expectations”. They are the dynamic forces for motivating social behaviors and have an important effect on the performance of people as well as formation of their personalities. On the other hand, since the new society consists of many different and sometimes contradictory groups, authorities and benefits, it is very dynamic and requires that the relationships between different roles in the stricter of society be organized wisely. It is of a special importance in the society. The role of Muslim women in the society and particularly in the revolutions gains variety of forms and is somewhat complicated. As we discussed in the section of women’s contribution to Islamic revolution of Iran, Muslim women’s contribution in other countries in which Islamic movements are taking place could be as follows: - Role of raising children: It is the most important task of women to train a committed generation who is aware of their own responsibilities and Islamic duties, i.e. a combatant, freedomseeking, justice-seeking generation who perform Islamic orders in the society. Regarding the fact that these days young people are prone to cultural invasion by anti-Islamic powers and their religious and Islamic identity is targeted by them, the most important duty of Muslim women is to train a revolutionary generation and to transfer religious values to the future generation. - Informing role: Muslim women are responsible firstly for themselves, i.e. at the first step they should become aware of their 190

social, political, global and Islamic responsibilities, retain their Islamic and sexual identity, recognize their role and duties regardless


of all the tricky propaganda of Feminists and take it to practice. At the next stage, they should transfer this awareness to above the family level and to all the women across the world. Intellectual and knowledgeable women could act effectively and pave the way for the victory of Islamic revolution through scientific and research activities and attending such conferences. - Encouraging their husbands and other family members to participate in revolutionary activities is another measure that could be taken by Muslim women. If women don’t support their combatant husbands, men are not motivated to act too. Since initial Islam period up to now, we could see the emotional effectiveness of women and their encouragement for men to fight. As many examples of these revolutionary activities of women are also seen in the Islamic revolution of Iran and eight years of sacred defense.

- Maintaining Islamic hijab is a very influential too in standing against dictators and non-religious governments. It both shows Islamic identity and the religious nature of the movements and protests and makes clear the path for future movements and revolutionary actions. In the era in which fighting against Muslim women’s hijab is one of the enemies goals in the soft war, we should observe this religious order as a tool for political combat as well as an indicator of Muslims’ position against Western countries. - Enduring the martyrdom of their dearest ones during revolutionary combats and exercising motherly patience in defending Islamic values are of influential measures taken by fighting women.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Active presence of women in evolutionary scenes including their attendance in street demonstrations and protests _that is absolutely more effective than that of men and is an important factor in bringing the protests’ news to the media_ and their participation in different cultural, social, political and even economic activities which are related to revolution.

191


The effect of martyrs’ blood becomes permanent only when survivors including, their own mothers and wives, respect them learn from them as a symbol of patience, resistance, freedom-seeking and justice-seeking. They should also globalize the value of their martyrs’ sacrificing through interviewing firmly with media.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Undoubtedly, in any revolutionary condition, enemies try to make evolutionary people surrender via different tools of which we could refer to economic sanctions, shortages and starvations. It is

192

women who should bear the difficulties more than others and manage home affairs in a way that they neutralize enemies’ measures. Muslim women could use their proper management and an economical thought as the tools to stand against those oppositions. During revolutions of Russia (1917) and France (1789), women protested against shortage of bread and artificial starvations created by their government. They caused other revolutionary people to join them and performed overthrowing protests against the regime. Therefore, we should neither surrender, nor retreat because of difficulties and problems. We should use these tools to resist against enemies of revolution. - In case the revolution requires, women also could be organized in revolutionary actions or they could actively participate in armed fighting; if it is applied as the last way to combat in revolutions. - In addition to the above mentioned measures, women can play a useful and constructive role in the post-Revolution era and contribute to the accomplishments of the Revolution’s goals and objectives by being active in intellectual, scientific and educational areas. They should be ready to be present in areas in which their presence is necessary after the Revolution. Sometimes, there is a greater need for self-sacrifice, devotion, presence and struggle after the victory of the Revolution in order to maintain, preserve and protection of the Revolution from deviations and departure from its


genuine path. Therefore, it is necessary for women to be ready to face various hurdles and sanctions after the Revolution, to confront the plots and conspiracies of anti-Revolutionary forces, which appear in too many form including terrorist attacks, wars, sanctions, cultural invasion, etc., and to protect the accomplishments of the Revolution. Muslim women of Iran had a more critical and significant role after the Revolution than before it. If mothers were not patient and did not encourage their children to be present in the fronts of defense and resistance; if they were not active at the rear and other areas of war where their presence were essential, then certainly the Revolution could not survive up to now. - After the victory of the Revolution, the role of Muslim women is more difficult, great and dangerous. They need to have active and self-sacrificing presence in social, educational, moral, cultural, economic and political areas and fields. "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 193


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Conclusion Apparently, the Muslim women have gained the self-confidence for political participation in order to direct the course of history towards global justice. They have retrieved their specific personality and identity, and have gained an understanding of their noble status and position. Moreover, they have obtained political, cultural and social perceptions. The Muslim women are not indifferent anymore and feel responsible towards the future of themselves, their families and Islam.

194

From the cultural perspective, the discourse of the women is in accordance with the goals and ideals of the Revolution. According to this discourse, women and men have common roles and this is fundamentally different from the dominant gender oppositions in the world. Thus women have restructured and reformed their present role and position by complying with the religious model. They have developed a new model of relations among humans in the form of “Muslim Woman”, which is in contrast with patriarchal views or even the feminist ideology prevalent in the current century. Regarding the pivotal role of women in the Islamic culture which has been realized as the “Iranian Muslim Woman” in the Islamic Revolution, it is important to understand that any important step towards the evolution and improvement of the society, especially in times of Revolution, should be taken with the proper presence of women; otherwise, the movement will be ineffective or unfavorable. Of course it should be noted that in the school of Islam, there is a veil and hijab between men and women. This does not meant that women have a separate and different world from that of men; indeed, men and women live together in the society and work places; they cooperate on many issues; they solve the social problems together; they handle the war together as did they in our case; they manage the family and bring up the children together; however, the veil and hijab exists between them in the outside environment. This is the important point in Islamic modeling. If this point is not observed,


then the triteness with which the West entangled will spread in the country and women will not be able to take the lead in moving towards the values as they did in the Islamic Iran (Mosaffa, 1996: 190). Based on the points discussed earlier in the paper, some suggestions are provided below: 1- To ensure a proper interaction between the Muslim women of the countries where Islamic awakening is taking place and the Muslim Iranian women so to exchange revolutionary experiences.

virtual space and to make use of this opportunity to transfer the revolutionary experiences.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

2- To hold scientific conferences and meetings to provide an understanding of the view of Islam regarding the political participation of women and the role of Muslim women in the times of Revolution. 3- To enable the Muslim women in various ways so that they can participate actively and along with men in the revolutionary movements. 4- To present successful models of Muslim women who were active in and after the Revolution. 5- To ensure communication between Muslim women in the

195


References

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Holy Qur’an Haji-Beygi, Mohammad Ali. (2000) Khaterat-e Hojjat ol-Eslam va al-Moslemin Amid Zanjani [The Memories of Hojjat ol-Eslam va alMoslemin Amid Zanjani]. Tehran: The Center for the Documents of the Islamic Revolution. Hafezian, Mohammad Hoseyn. (2001) Zanan va Enghelab: Dastan-

196

haye Nagofte [Women and the Revolution: Untold Stories]. Tehran: Andishe-ye Bartar. Khamenei, Ali. (1985) Chahar Sal Ba Mardom [Four Years with People]. Tehran: Islamic Republic Party. Khaza’i, Ali. (2008) “Barkhi Vijhegiha, Ahdaf va Dastavard-haye Enghelab-e Eslami-ye Iran” [Some Particularities, Goals and Accomplishments of the Islamic Revolution of Iran]. Bahman 22, Javan Newspaper. Khalkhali, Sadegh. (2000) Khaterat-e Ayatollah Khalkhali [The Memories of Ayatollah Khalkhali]. Tehran: Sayeh Publication. Davani, Ali. (1364) Tarikh-e Eslam az Aghaz ta Hejrat [The History of Islam from the Beginning to Hegira]. Tehran: Elmi Press. Zan-e Ruz. (1993) Azar 13. Volumes 1437 and 1438. Shafayi, Hoseyn. (1993). “Faraz-hayi az Jahgahe Zan dar Qor’an” [An Overview of the Position of Women in Qur’an]. Seraj Quarterly, Year 1, No. 1. Sahife-ye Nur. (1982) The Center for the Cultural Documents of the Islamic Revolution. Tehran: Islamic Guidance Ministry, Institute of Press and Publication. Reyhane Quarterly. (1382) Winter, No. 5. Foran, John. (1998) Moghavemat-e Shekanande [Fragile Resistance]. Translated by Ahmad Tadayyon. Tehran: Rasa.


Keddie, Nikki. (1990) Rishe-haye Enghelab-e Iran [The Roots of the Iran’s Revolution]. Translated by Abdolrahim Govahi. Tehran: Ghalam. Mostafavi, Zahra. (1990) “Negah-i be Hoghugh-e Zan dar Eslam va Digar Makateb” [An Analysis of the Women’s Rights in Islam and Other Schools]. Neda Quarterly, Year 1, No. 4]. Mosaffa, Nasrin. (1996) Mosharekat-e Siyasi-e Zadan dar Iran [Political Participation of Women in Iran]. Tehran: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Motahari, Morteza. (1978) Nezam-e Hoghugh-e Zan dar Eslam [The Order of Women’s Rights in Islam]. Qom: Sadra. -

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 197


Women’s political participation in the wave of the Islamic Awakening: right or obligation? 

Faezeh Azimzadeh Ardabili1

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Abstract Upon studying the history of Islamic society at the dawn of Islam and the opportunities for political efforts as well as the political communication and assessment in different fields, it will be evident that the political activities of Muslim women of that time are different from the political activities of women today in terms of convention and common methods. The prominent elements of political contributions of the women at the dawn of Islam were the women’s presence in the fields of Jihad, their migration to preserve Islam, allegiance with the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him), defending guardianship and confronting rulers of the time. This active contribution was approved by the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Faultless Imams (Peace be upon them) and this approval has proved the original permission to the contribution of women in political and social areas of the Islamic society. The form and framework of the contribution of women today, however, is different from the political activities of women at the dawn of Islam or the past centuries in accordance with the form and nature of the society, political assessment conventions, and the conditions of the society. In the current age, particularly in the Islamic awakening movement , the political contribution of Muslim women in various areas , such as their contribution in continuation process and success of the Awakening movement, referendum, elections, confronting brutal rulers, taking part in political rallies, presence in administrative activities and political decision-making organizations, etc., can be

198

1.Scientific board member and research assistant in Pardis Sisters, Imam Sadiq (PBUH) University


Analyzed . What is going to be addressed here is the question that is political contribution just a social right or in some cases a religious duty? What do Ayahs, Narrations and religious biographies of the Holy ones (Peace be upon them) say about this? Keywords Contribution, Politics, Interaction Between Right-oriented and Duty-oriented Approaches, Right, Duty

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 199


Introduction The freedom accompanying responsibility given to human is one of the social characteristics of the Islamic legal system. It suggests that God has empowered human to accept or reject the guidance put forward by the prophets: »ْ‫«وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَبِِّکُمْ فَمَن شَاء فَليُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَليَکْفُر‬1

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

“And say the truth is from you Lord, so let him who please believe and let him who please disbelieve”;

200

On the one hand the human is reminded, though he is free to choose the path of life, every action done voluntarily will be effective in the mortal and eternal life and he should be responsible for his free-will behavior. Given the fact that society is a system, every behavior which its members do will affect the others’ destiny, in the Islamic legal system, not only Moslems should not be indifferent to the society’s concerns especially political ones, but they are required to monitor political situations and participate in the direction to growth and prosperity of society. For instance, Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) puts forth the necessity for social and political participation in a letter: One of the divine Islamic obligations for the Muslims is to elect a great leader for themselves after they missed a leader due to his death or murder…2 Women as half of the body of Islamic society in all stages of birth, growth, maturity and prosperity of a community are present. As a citizen, women must have a maximum participation. Political participation of women is a social responsibility and they are required to play an effective role in determining their political-social fate by obeying this obligation.

1 .Sura Al- kahaf/29 2 .Mirza Hossein, Noori. Mustadrak Al-Wasayel.Qum,Aal Al-Beit establishment.Vol.1.1985,6th ed.,p.14.


Realm of political participation In order to examine the semantic realm of political participation, first we should define two terms of “participation” and “politics” and reach a concept common between them. a. Meaning of participation - Literal meaning In Arabic literature, participation comes from Mufaeela and signifies the feeling of mutual cooperation and interaction. In literal

motivation in individuals so that participation can come true.3 The prevalence of participation concept in the last two decades is due to the fact that in critics’ opinion, the magnitude and complexity of bureaucratic society and the concentration of economic power have weakened the foundation of traditional guarantees and democracy for the preservation of individuals’ rights and these guarantees must be

1.Hasan Ameed, Persian Dictionary of Ameed, Tehran, Sepehr Printing, Ninth Print, 1993, V. 2, P 1807 2.Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, the Dehkhoda Lexicon, Tehran University Publication Printing, 1961, P 460 3.Shoja’ee, Zahra, For women of future (Articles), Tehran, Soureh Mehr Publication, First Print,2004, P 180

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

meaning, participation means partnership and communion.1 According to the Dehkhoda lexicon (Loghat Nâme) participation means partnership, having partners, and sharing.2 The idiomatic meaning Some regard participation as awareness of participation and having effect on process of decision making within society. In other words, they consider participation as a bidirectional process in which there is no circular, statement or force. At any rate, participation can’t be stated or requested; rather, we should provide the appropriate and necessary ground for developing and improving

201


improved and expanded, so just the direct participation of people in decision makings can preserve their rights and freedom.1 b. Meaning of politics - Literal meaning Politics comes from saas, and in Arabic, it means training horse2 (‫ سوس الواس‬in Arabic). It has come in colloquial collection and juridical terms that:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

3

202

»‫«السياسه تعني القيام علي شي ء و تصرف فيه بما يصلحه‬

Which means uprising for a thing and seizure of it for what we are deserved. Politics has been defined in Ameed Dictionary as such: politics means managing the affairs of country, improving affairs of people and the domestic and external affairs of country, treating subjects well4. Also, Dehkhoda has stated that politics means protecting country, preserving, ruling over subjects, governing and presidency and arbitration.5 In political language of Islam, politics has been derived from root of saas yasoos and its meanings include governance, presidency, punishment, training, policy and preservation, and it seems that the real and true meaning of this word is the very training and education. Since it is said in explanation of training horse (‫)سوس الواس‬, i.e. the owner of horse attempted to train and educate it, this very meaning of politics or development is used in the case for educating people. In valid narrative texts, politics has been used with the meaning of education. For example, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) stated that: 1.Ashouri, Dariush, political encyclopedia, Tehran, Golshan Print, the Fourth Print, 1997, P 302 2.Sajjadi, Seyyed Ja’far, Dictionary of Islamic Sciences, Koumesh Publication, third Print, 1994, Vol. 2, P 1026; Farhikhte, Shams o Din, Dictionary of Farhikhteh, Tehran, Zarin Publication, First Print, 1998, P 125 3. Abdo Rahman, Mahmoud, colloquial collection and juridical terms, n.p., n.d., P 375 4. Ameed, Hassan, Ameed Persian Dictionary, P 537 5. Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, Dehkhoda Dictionary, P 905


»‫«كان بنو اسرائيل ستوسهم انبياءهم‬ Which means that always Bani Israel (Children of Israel)’s prophets are responsible for their patronage and presidency.1 Also, some are of the belief that politics has been derived from “police” meaning city, and that there lived in police or in ancient cities of Greece a community of people with equal rights and common interests.2 It has been in another definition that: ‫«هي ( أي السياسه) إستصالح الخلق بإرشادهم ( أي االنبياء)الي الطريق المنجي في‬

‫العاجل و االجل و نص بعض الفقها علي انها فعل شي من الحاكم لمصلحه يراها و ان لم يرد‬

»‫بهذا الفعل دليل شرعي‬

1. Moghimi, Gholam Hussein, “Politics, decoding of a vague concept”, Journal of political sciences, Qom, 2005. No. 29, PP 115-117 and P 121 2. Sa’eedian, Abdol Hussein, the Great Encyclopedia of No, Tehran, Oloume Zendegi & Aram Publication, first print, 2006, Vol. 5, P 4675 3. Abdurrahman, Mahmud, Colloquial collection and juridical terms, p 375; Husseini Dashti, Seyyed Mustafa, Ma’aref and Ma’areef, Qom, Hojjat, 2nd print, 1997, Vol. 6, P 387; Sajjadi, Seyyed Ja’far, Dictionary of Islamic Sciences, P 1026

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

which means that politics is the improvement of people’s ethics through guidance to direct path, which is, in appearance and inside, the attribute of prophets, and some jurists have asserted that politics is the doing an action by governor due to a benefit he/she sees in it, although there is no legal reason beyond doing it.3 Also, some believe that politics has a general and a specific meaning: 1- General meaning: any strategy or method for managing affairs, whether personal or social is called politics. Therefore, we are talking about economic, military, financial, educational, etc. politics. 2- Specific meaning: anything which is related to government and administration is associated with political sciences.

203


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

In Islamic scientists’ opinion, politics is the method of managing the society in a way that the material and spiritual benefits of different sections of it come true. Allama Muhammad Taqi Ja’fari has defined politics as management: »politics is the managing and explaining and regulating the social life of people in the path of wise life«. By wise life, he means the reveled life and the life of prophets and infallible Imams (AS). From Imam Khomeini’s view, politics is divided into three kinds:

204

1- Satanic (Evil) politics: this kind of politics is associated with employing deceit, cheating and lying while managing the society. 2- Animal Politics: in this kind of politics, government tries only in order to achieve material needs. 3- Islamic Politics: in this kind of politics, in addition to providing material and animal needs of people, government should try to flourish the human values and spirituality.1 Generally speaking, politics is any type of policy and attempt and activity and reflection and thought and personal and collective action towards gaining power and administrating affairs of country in a way that country and its people are put in the path of their wishes and demands coming true.2 c. Meaning of political participation In definition of political participation, it has been stated that political participations refers to the opportunity of addressing the political affairs by so many people, which is a necessary conditions of democracy.3 Also, some regard political participation as any successful or unsuccessful, organizational or non-organizational, periodic or constant 1.Moghimi, Ghoam Hussein, “Politics, decoding of a vague concept”, p 121 2.Madani, Seyyed Jlal e Din, Fundamentals and generalities of political sciences, Bi Ja, Allama Tabataba’ii Publication, 2nd Print, 1995, Vol. 1, P 13 3.Martin Lpset, Seymour, Encyclopedia of Democracy, Kamran, Faani – Nour o Allah, Tehran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Center for Print & Publication, 2nd Print, 2004, Vol. 3, P 241


voluntary action, including employment of legal or illegal methods for affecting and selecting general policies, managing general affairs and selecting political leaders at any level. Although there are also instances of political participation in ancient civilizations, discussion on participation as a theoretical issue and the criterion for evaluation of legitimacy is particular to modern governments, and parallel to changes in concept of politics, the political system has been expanded from the realm of government to

influence on or support a specific government or policy.1 Generally speaking, it can be said that political participation is the organized efforts of citizens for selecting their leaders and for effectively participating in social and political activities and affairs and for having effect on structuring and directing the politics of government.2 But if we want to present political participation in religious and Islamic society, it can be said that political participation refers to the effect and role of people in government structure and politicians’

1. Feyrahi, Davoud, “meaning of political participation”, Scientific – Research Quarterly of Political Sciences, Tehran, 1998. No. 1, P 75 2. Agha Bakhshi; Afshari, Minoo, Political Sciences Dictionary, Tehran, Chapar Publication, 1st Print, 2000, P 75

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the wider terrain of political action. Robert Doll defines political system as any presented pattern of political behavior which covers a specific type of political existence of power, governance and authority. It seems according to this definition that political system covers, in addition to superficial and public government, the formal and informal patterns of human relationships which have effects on decisions of a government or administration. According to this definition of political system, which is far beyond the formal institutions of government, political participation can be defined as a collection of activities and actions by which private citizens seek to

205


behaviors and all of the political affairs in an institutionalized way and by legal method in Islamic society and government.1

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Principle of political participation permission for women and the reasons for that In this regard, we can invoke arguments from the Book and Tradition, which becomes associated explicitly or implicitly with the issue of women participation in different areas of power and governance.

206

a) One of the most important Verses ]in Holy Quran[ through which we can find the permission of political participation for women is the verse no. 71 of the Sura (Chapter) Mobarake “Tobe” (Repentance) which implies the issue of having the responsibility for enjoining the right and prohibition from the denied. The explanation is that the above said responsibility has been explicitly placed on Muslim men and women shoulders. As God Almighty, in Verse 71 of Sura Tobe, has considered true for both man and women towards each other to enjoin the right and prohibit from the denied: ...‫و المؤمنون و المؤمنت» «بعضهم أوليآء بعض يأمرون بالمعروف و ينهون عن المنکر‬ . I is obvious that one of the instances of enjoining the right and prohibiting from the denied is the political affairs, i.e. political right and denied. Therefore, Quran considers the participation of women in this part of political activities not only as her rights, but also far higher than that, and as her obligation and responsibility.2

1. Taqavi, Seyyed Naser, “the effect of all kinds of legitimacy on political participation”, Quarterly of Islamic Government, Qom, Summer 2001 (in Solar), No. 2, P 189. 2.Muhammad Jamal, Muhammad Faqih Rasoul, Woman in Islamic Thought, Mahmud Ebrahimi, Tehran, Ehsan Publication, 1st Print, 2004, PP 478-479; Qazi Zadeh, Kazim, Women and administrative responsibilities at the macro level, Payame Zan, Tehran, 2004, No. 11, PP 166-167, Husseini, Musa, Quran’s view on Women political participation, Quarterly of Quranic Research; Qom, Islamic Propagation Office of Qom Seminary, 2001, No. 25-26, P 173; Arasta,


Other verses which we can refer to are verses 23 to 44 of Surah Mobarakah Naml (ant). In these verses, God talks about an intelligent and wise woman who rules over a land and converts from Sherk (polytheism) to Islam by Prophet Solomon’s invitation. These verses are indicative of competency and capability as well as the rights of women to take and play roles in the areas of political affairs and power and governance.1 Here, Quran mentions a woman’s pattern of healthy politicalsocial management, who has observed the principles of management and has therefore become the leader of her people towards the prosperity in this world and in the Hereafter.2 Also, we can mention the verses which have been revealed about women’s homage3 and women’s migration4 and other verses which have implicitly alluded to this issue5 all of which are indicative of the permission of political participation for women. b) Hadith of Prophet (PBUH) who said: ‫من أصبح و أمسي و لم يهتم بامور المسلمين فليس بمسلم‬

One, who eats breakfast and dinner, while not paying attention to Muslims’ affairs, is not a Muslim. Muhammad Javad, Woman and Political Participation (1), Scientific and Research Quarterly, Tehran, 1998, No. 1, P 138 1. Husseini, Musa, Quran view on political participation of women, P 170 2.Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Woman in the mirror of beauty and glory, Qom, Asra, 9th Print, 2004, P 242 3.Momtahene/12 4.Momtahene/10 5.For example, verses which have been revealed about consultation (Shora/38,/Ale Emran/159), which states that remarkable characteristics of the Faithful in Verse 38 of Surah Shora, and the Verse 159 of Surah Ale Emran commands The Holy Prophet to consult with the Faithful. There is no doubt that in both verses, by the Faithful Quran means the faithful men and women, meaning that consultation must be employed in any time and any field. Both men and women are of the right to comment. Therefore, Quran gives women the right to participate and implicitly approves of her competency and capability. Husseini, Mosa, Quran’s View on Women political participation, P 174 6.Kalini, Abu Jafar Muhammad Yaghub, Osule Kafi, Tehran, Darolketab Aleslamie, 1st Print, 1985 in Lunar, P 156

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

6

207


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Without doubt, Muslims’ affairs cover their political ones, as well. This Hadith of Prophet (PBUH) covers also women, since he said: ‫( من اصلح و امسي‬one who eats breakfast and dinner), and not a man who eats breakfast and dinner. Thus, not only Muslim men and women can pay attention and effort to each other’s political affairs, but it also is incumbent of them to do so because, otherwise, they will not be considered among the Muslims.1 Also, there is another Hadith from Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said: 2 ‫كُلُّکُم راعٍ وَ كُلُّکَُم مَسئولٍ عَن رَعيَّتِه‬

208

All of you are responsible for each other and for society. The addressees of this narrative have not been men only, but women have been also addressed, i.e. Holy Prophet (PBUH) have considered women as responsible for society and its situations and conditions as well, now how can it be possible that someone becomes responsible for doing something but he/she is not given the permission to do it? This obligation is what is intolerable (‫)موفيطوق‬ that surely Infallible Imams (As) don’t put it on a person’s shoulders. Therefore, surely women both can and must have political participation and activity in society. c) The attitude of the Infallibles (AS) or other Muslims which has been presented by Infallibles (AS). Of the first type, we can mention political activities of Hazrat Zahra (SA) in reviving the trampled rights of her Honorable husband 1.Arasta, Muhammad Javad, Woman and Political Participation (1), P 156 2. Majlesi, Muhammad Bagher, Behar olanvar, Muhammad Javad Najafi, Tehran, Islamieh Publication, 3rd Print, 2001, Vol. 72, P 38; Bonabi, Hassan, Deylami, Ershad olgholub, Qom, Sharif Razi Publication, 1990 in Lunar, Vol. 1, P 184; Shairi, Tajo din, Jameato alakhbar, Qom, Sharif Razi Publication, 1984, P 119; Ehsani, Abnabie jomhur, Oliala’ali, Qom, Seyyedolshohada (AS) Publication, 1983 in Lunar, Vol. 1, P 129; Varamabnabe Faras, Majmooato Varam, Maktabo alfeqhie Publication, Vol. 1, P 6; Shahid Sani, Maniatolmarid, Qom, Office of Islamic Propaganda Publication, 1987 in Lunar, P 381


Ali (AS), who, after demise of Holy Prophet (PBUH), went to homes of Mohajerin (Emigrants) and Ansar (Helpers) along with Imam Ali (AS), took them as witness to what she herself has observed (regarding determining Ali (AS) as Imam and Caliph) and requested help from them to assist the Truth.1 Also, her speech against the governing body of that time2, defending Imam Ali (AS) in mosque3 and her political will4, all are suggestive of her political presence, who wherever felt a duty, she observed it.

women at the time of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Infallible Imams (AS), we can mention these: - Women’s allegiance with Prophet in the First Oqaba (sequence), the Second Oqaba, conquering of Mecca, Rezvan Allegiance, allegiance in Ghadire Khom6

1. Ebn Abi Hadid, Nahjolbalagha explanation, Qom, Dar olershadel hadith, n.p., n.d., Vol. 1, P 131 2. Majlesi, Muhammad Bagher, ibid, P 120 3. Ibid, P 115 4.Majlesi, Muhammadd Bagher, Behar olanvar, P 179 5. Ghaemi, Ali, Life of Hazrat Zeinab (SA), Tehran, Amiri Publication, 3rd Print, 1997, P 285 6. Khamenei, Seyyed Muhammad, Woman’s rights, Tehran, Science and Culture Publication, 2nd Print, 1996, P 76; Husseini, Seyyed Hussein, Seraj (a glance at legal doubts regarding women’s issues), Tehran, Centre for Islamic Research of IRIB, 2nd Print, 2001, P 219

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

We can also mention the attitude of Hazrat Zeinab (SA). Although she has not been explicitly considered as infallible but her actions have been approved of by the Infallible Imams (AS). The remarkable and important role of Hazrat Zeinab (SA) in conveying the real message of Karbala is not secret to anyone, and if there hadn’t been her wise and fiery sermons against Yazid and of Yazid, the legitimacy and truth of Imam Hussein (AS) path would not have been revealed to ignorant and negligent people and Karbala would have been forgotten.5 If we want to mention briefly some political activities done by

209


- Women’s migration to Abyssinia and Medina on order of God and Prophet (PBUH)1 - Political activities of Sudeh Hamedani at the time of Imam Ali (AS) who becomes his representative in one of the most important political affairs, removal and installation of a regional governor2

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Om Salame (mother of all women) defend of Imam Ali (AS) and her attempt to prevent from War of Jamal3

210

- Presence of women like Hazrat Zahra (SA), Om Eimen, Om Ammare, Amimeh, etc. in battlefields4. What was mentioned is only a part of political-social participation of women at the time of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Infallible Imams (AS). There are numerous other instances which have been quoted in history books5 and there is no time here to discuss them. All of the said instances are indicative of women political-social participation and activities approved of by God and Infallible Imams (AS). Review of right and duty in the field of women political participation Here, we want to examine whether political participation is woman’s right or duty. In other words, is woman of the right or duty to participate in political and social affairs? To investigate this issue, first we examine the concept of two terms of right and duty. Then, we explain the relationship and difference between these two. a- Meaning of right 1. Muhammad Ebn Sa’d, Katib Vaghedi, Tabaghat, Mahmud Mahdavi Damghani, Tehran, Farhang o Andishe, 1st Print, 2003, Vol. 8, PP 1-42, and 236-325 2.Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Woman in the mirror of beauty and glory, p 247 3. Ebne Abi Hadid Explanation, Vol. 2, PP 78-79 4. Ayati, Muhammad Ebrahim, History of Islam’s Prophet, Qom, Darolfekr Publication, 1st Print, 2007, P 299 5. Muhammad ebn Sa’d Katib Vaghedi, ibid; Rohani, Tahereh, religion-promoting women in Islam history, Qom, World Center for Islamic Sciences Publication, 1st Print, 2003,


Lexically, right means stability, anti-wrong and stable existence1, a stable existence denial of which is not allowed. Also, it means an absolute and unbounded existence, meaning the Holy Essence of the Sublime2. The essence of right is the consistency and uniformity and harmony and correctness, like the consistency of the door foot, while it rotates on its heel with stability3. In Majmaolbayan below the verse 7 Sura of Anfal, it says: the right is when an object occurs in

a person by Law.6 Rights can be divided into two categories: a category rightfulness of which human intellect finds separately, meaning that it understands well that if humans are deprived of it, the aim of God Almighty of Creation doesn’t come true. For example, if humans do not have the right to use comestibles and potables, the life will be 1. Gharashi, Seyyed Ali Akbar, Lexicon of Quran, Tehran, Darolkotobe Eslamieh, 5th Print, 1988, Vol. 1, P 158 2.Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Right and Duty in Islam, Qom, Asra, 2nd Print, 2006, P 23 3.Abolghasem, Hussein ebn Ali ebn Fazl known as Raagheb Esfahani, Almofradat fi Gharib Al Quran, Seyyed Gholamreza Husseini Khosravi, Tehran, Mortazavi, 2004, Vol. 1, P 548 4.Gharashi, Seyyed Ali Akbar, Lexicon of Quran, P 159 5.Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Right and Duty in Islam, PP 23-24 6.Jafari Langeroudi, Muhammad Jafar, Terminology of Law, Tehran, Ahmadi Print, 8th Print, 1997, P 216

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the proper time, which is the last meaning of Ragheb’s quotation.4 There is no doubt that in some cases, right is of the rational credit nature and in some cases, of the legal nature, and there is also no doubt that in all cases, right is of a unit meaning and nature and its instances and cases are commonly spiritual.5 In terms of jurisprudence, right has been defined as follows: it refers to affairs that have been predicted in Shariah (Judge), if people are allowed to change some of them of their own volition, then these changeable affairs are called right. And in legal terms, right means a power which has been given to

211


impossible. Therefore, the fixity of right in these cases is among the mental independencies which are called innate rights. There is another category of rights regarding which human intellect can’t find any relationship between action and aim. The fixity of this category of rights is understood through Divine Revelation. 1 “Rights” is of various classifications, including division of right into “one whom the right belongs to” (‫ )من له الحق‬and “one whom the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

right is against” (‫)من عليه الحق‬.

212

One whom the right has been made for is called (‫ )من له البق‬and one who is in the face of right owner and has a specific duty is called (‫ )من علاه البق‬or Mokallaf (the obliged one).2 b- The meaning of Taklif (duty) According to terminologists, Taklif has been derived from the root “Kallafah” meaning ordering something doing which is difficult.3 In terms and culture of religion, it refers to legal and religious Dos and Don’ts, meaning necessarily legal and religious4, and also Taklif in religion refers to making obliged towards Divine teachings and obeying God’s Dos and Don’ts. Mokallaf (the obliged one) is one who obeys God’s wishes (Dos and Don’ts).5 Arguments of adherents to rightfulness of women political participation Some scientists are of the belief that political participation is a fundamental right which all of the people (whether man or woman) are 1. Mesbah Yazdi, Muhammad Taqi, Rights of politics in Islam, Qom, Educational and Research Institution of Imam Khomeini Publication, 1st Print, Winter 1998 in Solar, PP 46-47 2. Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Right and Duty in Islam, P 241 3.ibid 4. Jafari Langeroudi, Muhammad Ja’far, Law Terminology, P 177 5. Sarami, Seifollah, Right, Order and duties of citizens and statesmen, Qom, Secretariat of Experts Panel, 1st Print, 2002, PP 41-42; Qazi Zadeh, Kazim, Imam Khomeini’s Juridical-political Thought, Tehran, Centre for strategic research of President, 1st Print, 1998, PP 244-247


allowed to use and nobody can deprive them from. According to view of different schools regarding origin of human rights, there are different theories. In many human schools, “law” which is enacted by people or their representatives or by the scientists of society, has been considered as the origin and source of rights. Another group considers needs as the source and origin of rights, meaning that “human need” causes human to get right and to get right towards what he/she needs. Some regard “power” as the origin of right. According to this view, the more power a person has, the more rights he/she will have. Some know “will” as the source of right, and therefore, any existence that has will, has right.1 But the scientists of Law divide rights generally into two kinds:

legal equality, the right of property ownership, freedom of speech, freedom of having religious and political opinions and the like. 2- Written or contract law It refers to laws which are enacted by humans4. These rights are the gift of Rede and experience in various societies, i.e. a set of

1.Vara’ee, Seyyed Javad, Rights and Duties of Citizens and Statesmen, Qom, Secretariat of Experts Panel, 1st Print, 2002, PP 41-42; Qazi Zadeh, Kazim, Juridical-political thought of Imam Khoemini, Tehran, Center for Strategic research of President, 1st Print, 1998, PP 244-247 2. Qorbani, Zin Ol Abedin, Islam and Human Rights, Bi Ja, Office of disseminating Islamic Culture, 3rd Print, 1988, P 16; Vara’ee, Seyyed Javad, ibid, P 43 3.Javan Araste, Hussein, Social and political rights in Islam, Qom, Office of disseminating teachings, 1st Print, 2005, PP 34-35 4. Ghorbani, Zin Ol Abedin, Islam and Human Rights, P 16; Wara’ee, Seyyed Javad, rights and duties of citizens and statesmen, P 44

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

1- Natural and innate rights Natural rights refer to principles which have been developed out of human’s own nature and society and whereby the powers and duties of individuals are determined2, and human benefits from it because of his/her being human, and due to the fact that it has innate and natural origin, it is not removable and enacting and removing it are not done by people or governments3, such as personal freedom,

213


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

current regulations and orders in every society, which is the very concept of Law, specifically speaking1, such as administrative, civil, criminal, etc. law (rights). According to this theory, enacting and removing these rights is performed by reason and conscience.2 According to this theory, political participation is considered as a natural and innate right which all people (whether man or woman) are allowed to use and nobody is permitted to deprive them from.

214

For example, regarding voting, two systems with different thoughts were against each other. One group considered the right to vote as belonging to those who had the right to use or refuse it and nobody could deprive them from this right.3 In contrast, another group interpreted it as a social act or an obligation by citizens.4 In contrast to said group, followers of some great religions in the world and several philosophers are of the belief that the rules of life and the extent and responsibilities of individuals must be determined by God.5 Islam which is an innate religion and the regulations and orders of which can’t be the opposite of God-given human nature, is surely of a positive view towards humans natural rights and the obligation to obey them. In a glance at religious convincing texts and the procedure of governance by Infallible Leaders (Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Ali (AS)), their attention to these rights is obvious.6 The attitude of Holy Prophet (PBUH) is suggestive in 1. Javan Araste, Hussein, social and political rights in Islam, PP 34-35 2. Ghorbani, Zin Ol Abedin, ibid, P 17 3. This theory was based on divided governance theories, defended by Rousseau and his like-minded. If governance of people is the sum of governance share of every citizen, then the owners of governance quota, meaning people, have the right to participate in organizing governance. Qazi Shariat Panahi, Seyyed Abulfazl, necessaties of fundamental rights, Tehran, Mizan Publication, 33rd Print, 2009, P 296 4. ibid 5. Ghorbani, Zin Ol Abedin, ibid, P 18 6.Qazi Zadeh, Kazim, Imam Khomeini’s juridical-political thoughts, P 244


many cases of people freedom and their participation in governance. The Commander of the Faithful (AS) not only benefitted from others’ comments, but he also encouraged people to use their rights and freedom.1 There are several cases of attitude of Holy Prophet (PBUH) where he allowed others to give comments. These are clear examples of recognizing natural rights of people. Also, the Commander of the Faithful (AS) reiterated mutual rights of the governor and the

determine his/her own destiny, which is considered to be from God and according to which no body is allowed to deprive people from it at any rate. One of the most important usages of this right is the participation of people in administrating their own country affairs.4 In Imam Ali (AS)’s view, people’s active presence and participation in improving society affairs is of great importance. Thus, although the truth of his governance was based on Divine Decree, in his first speech after people allegiance with him, referred

1.Nahj Ol Balaghe, Sermon 216 2. ibid 3. Rauof, Habbe, Woman political participation from Islamic view, Mohsen Armin, Ghatreh Publication, 1st Print, 1998, P 63 4.Shabani, Ghasem, Fundamental rights and the structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran, Etella’at, 22nd Print, 1994, P 103

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

people.2 The basis of human rights in its Western sense is his/her natural right which is interwoven with human essence and nature, while in Islam, it is human’s legal right and referable to his Divine dignity. These rights are integral parts of God’s rights due to the fact that they are organized because of Sharia and are associated with Sharia. Thus, no person or group can ignore or waive a part or all the parts of human’s legal rights. These rights are regarded as the necessities of human, which under the Islamic Sharia, government and society and people are obliged to preserve.3 One of the rights Islam regards for all is the right of human to

215


to people’s presence and allegiance for accepting leadership of Muslims.1 Also, Imam Khomeini regarded the major and key role in governance for people, meaning that governance doesn’t come true without people and without their will. For him, people are considered as the measure of affairs and as the major indicators of governance that nobody is allowed to rule over them without their will.2 »the criterion is the nations.3«

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Regarding political communion and participation in elections, which is among the most notable instances of political participation, Imam Khomeini says that: »this is an obvious right for people, this is a right which according to the world should be with nations4«

216

Arguments of adherents to principle of women political participation being a Taklif (obligation) In political system of Islam, law making and mandate and leader assignment is performed by God but these laws will not be put into practice without people acceptance and support and the Divine Mandate will not be manifested and realized. Thus, we can direct many governance orders which will not be implemented without a strong and capable government to the public, and consider them among the public obligations; i.e. people, with establishment and submission to Divine Governance, provide the grounds for Divine Governance. In this regard, we can mention the Verse 123 of Sura 1. Nabavi, Seyyed Abbas, “the Ideal Society”, Encyclopedia of Imam Ali (AS), Tehran, Organization of Print and Publication of Islamic culture and guidance Ministry, 2nd Print, 2003, Vol. 6, P 178 2. Delshad Tehrani, Mustafa, Arez Khorshid, An introduction to Imam Khomeini’s political thought, Tehran, Organization of Print and Publication of Islamic culture and guidance Ministry, 2nd Print, 2001, P 312 3. Institution of regulation and disseminating Imam Khomeini’s works, Sahifeye Noor, Organization of Print and Publication of Islamic culture and guidance Ministry, 1st Print, 1989, Vol. 7, P 575 4. ibid


Mobareka Towbe (repentance), Verse 135 Sura Mobareka Nesa (woman) and Verse 38 Surah Mobaeka Maedeh (the Table). Islamic Government has four important pillars: the first pillar is the God’s Tashri’ee (legislation) law and will. The second pillar is the Divine Imamat (Islamic pontificate) and leadership. The third pillar is the people acceptance and belief and the fourth pillar is the people participation and uprising. The former three pillars are the introduction to the fourth pillar, meaning realization and manifestation of

Taklif. According to this view, intervention in politics is introduced not as fulfilling animalistic desires and satisfying the thirst for power and not as meeting human need, but as observing a religious obligation and submitting to a Divine Order. In this view, human is Taklif-tending and his/her activities revolve around something beyond his/her natural or human desire. Such a human, in achieving his/her human rights tries, but all of these are considered as a religious obligation and without this obligation, its desirability is flawed.2 Now, considering what was mentioned, the role of every Muslim (whether man or woman) in determining his/her society and the 1. Haji Sadeghi, Abdullah, Philosophy and Political system of Islam, Qom, Zamzame Hedayat Publication, 1st Print, 2004, P 119 2. Qazi Zadeh, Kazim, Imam Khomeini’s Juridical-Political Thoughts, P 245

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

government, which is not obtained except for people’s constant effort and sacrificing life and property. In contrast, if there are Divine Law and Leadership and people’s belief but there is no popular practical participation and support, religious government will not come true and people will be deprived of fundamental guidance of religion. From the Verse 25 of Sura Mobaraka Hadid, leadership and support of people in the path of realizing the religious government and establishing social equality is well understood.1 According to this viewpoint, the motivation for participation in politics and social affairs is to observe the religious obligation or Divine

217


reflection that others’ actions have in his/her destiny and the commitment he/she must have towards accepting social responsibilities entails that he/she should be aware of and observe all the affairs that occur around him/her and his/her society. Quran has put this principle as enjoining the right and prohibiting from the denied1 as a part of social obligations and has regarded it as one of the fundamentals of political thought and political vital pillars of Muslims. This Quranic principle has caused to the fact that the political

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

activity is an integral component of social life efforts of every Muslim and is his/her partner in determining the destiny of society.2 Here, we present some of Imam Khomeini’s comments as the leader of Islamic society and one of the great jurists of current age.

218

Explanation of Taklif-Orientation concept from Imam Khomeini’s View In Imam Khomeini’s view, the fundamental impetus of human in different moves is nothing but observing Divine obligation. Taklif-orientation thinking of Imam can be referred to Quranic Verses and narrations. The Holy Quran has in many cases reminded people of the responsibilities of people and leaders of society, and has stated their Taklif: 3

»َ‫« فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِين‬

Regarding popular participations, Imam’s guidelines can be summed as follows. Participation is Taklif, not right. The view prevailing over Imam Khomeini’s testament implies that Muslim People are obliged to participate. In contrast to the view current in 1. »...ِ‫«و الوؤمنان و الوؤمنت حًضهم أولاآء حًض يأماون حولوًاوف و ينهان عن الونکا ر‬, Tawbe, 71 2 .Ameed Zanjani, Abbas Ali, Political Jurisprudence, Tehran, Sepehr Printing, 2nd Print, 1988, Vol. 2, P 126 3 .E’raf/6 : therefore, surely we will ask those whom prophets were sent to and will ask prophets; Ghazi Zadeh, Kazim, Imam Khomeini’s juridical-political thoughts, p 251


Western contemporary civilizations which consider participation as people right, Imam has regarded people participation in areas associated with governance as among the Imperatives1 and has considered men’s non-participation when they must participate as among the unforgivable sins2. In his testament, Imam Khomeini has not regarded the participation in political and state affairs as belonging to a specific section or class, and has emphasized presence of women, small and

affairs. This view is consistent with prophetic view of “ ‫كلّكم راع و كلكم‬ ‫مسئال عن رعاته‬, and is regardless of gender.

4

Interaction of two approaches of right-oriented and Takliforiented Religion is a set of rules. Religion maker is the very human creator and universe creator, and the human creator is aware of his/her truth and interests. Thus, he has developed programs to provide human rights and

1. Imam Khomeini, Political and Divine Testament, Tehran, P 70 2. Ibid, P 71 3 .Imam Khomeini, Political and Divine Testament, P 9 4. Koushki, Muhammad Sadegh, reflections on Political thought of Imam Khomeini, Tehran, center for documents of Islamic Revolution, 1st Print, P 42-43

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

old and young3, as today, the Supreme Leader emphasizes universal and constant presence of informed and sophisticated women in movement of Islamic awakening. In Imam Khomeini’s view, non-participation of people in political and state affairs and separation of people from government leads to the situation where the way for intervention by foreign and colonialist powers and their dominance over country’s wealth and resources is paved. In other words, in a government desirable to Imam Khomeini, political and economic independence of society will be dependent upon people’s participation in political and state

219


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

interests and has presented them in a set called religion (i.e. Taklifs (obligations)) so that human can obtain his/her rights.1 The main part of religion which covers a set of Dos and Don’ts is for providing and preserving human rights. Therefore, do’s and don’ts (Taklifs) in religion, are not overloads which have been put on human’s shoulders in order that a third person gains some advantages or benefits, but they are for human himself to achieve these benefits and to remove the obstacles in the path of Truth.

220

If we are to achieve right, the best way to gain it is through Taklif. It is here that the regulations and programs of religion make sense and that do’s and don’ts of religion are interpreted. Thus, all Taklifs return to rights. Therefore, if a person didn’t observe his/her Taklif, he/she has indeed abused his/her own right. Thus, in Islam, right and Taklif are mutual, except for in the case of God, and there is interdependence between them and there will no instance for Taklif without right and right without Taklif.2 Now, if we want to investigate the issue of interdependence of right and Taklif in terms of political participation, it can be said that although every person has the right to participate in his/her destiny, God Almighty who is the creator of all humans has ordered them to use their rights, since has seen their prosperity in improving political situation and social life of them.

1 Seyyed Muhammad Mortazavi, in Social and Political Rights in Islam, has stated that if right refers to an advantage which is considered for a person and if Taklif refers to toil and difficulty which is considered against him/her, then, the relationship between right and Taklif is conceivable: a) One image of the relationship between right and Taklif means that wherever there is a right for a person or a group, there will be a Taklif for others for that very case, for example, Alimony which is a right for woman and a Taklif for man. b) Another image of relationship between right and Taklif means that if a right is even for a person or group, there will be a Taklif for the very person or group for this right. Mortazavi, Seyyed Muhammad, Social and Political rights in Islam, Mashhad, Yousef Fatemeh, 1st Print, 2008, P 23 2. Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Right and Taklif in Islam, P 34-35


1. Ghazi Zadeh, Kazim, Imam Khomeini’s Juridical-Political Thoughts, P 254 2 .Javadi, Amoli, Abdullah, Right and Taklif in Islam, PP 274-276 3.Tawbeh/71 4 .Noor/ 62, »... ْ‫ِوللهِ وَ َرسُاِلهِ وَ إِذَا کَونُااْ مَ ًَهُ عَلىَ أَمْاٍ يَومِعٍ َّلمْ يَذْهَلُاا‬ َّ ‫« إِنَّوَو الْوُؤْمِنُانَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُااْ ح‬, the true faithful are only those who have believed in God and His Prophet and when convening with Prophet on an issue related to Islamic society, don’t leave the meeting before getting permission from him. By collective affair, it’s meant the very collective issues of the system (regimen) such as Friday Prayers, participation in elections, approving of leader and Islamic officials, etc. The application and context of this Verse Tanqih Monat covers man

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Therefore, political action, due to the fact that people can benefit from it and nobody is allowed to violate it – if we regard it as natural rights, even God doesn’t prevents us from it according to His Wisdom because God’s wise orders are not different from those of Divine Religions – is right and people have benefited from their clear right in this action. But due to the fact that God Almighty has entailed using this right and has made people obliged to benefit from this right, it can be called obligation and Taklif.1 So if it is said that : “people of the society have the right and not the Taklif to participate in political affairs such as elections, we shouldn’t resort to fatwa of religion for their presence in elections”, such an interpretation of Taklif is not consistent with the previous analysis because participation in elections (as one of the instances of political participation) is considered as one of the most important issues of society and is not like participating in watching a game which is a lawful and primary act and isn’t associated with any Taklif. Participation in important political issues such as elections, to which the independence of the system and the authority of the nation and the glory of Islamic society are indebted, is the particular and clear right of Islamic community, which is associated with Taklif, meaning that such a right must be achieved.2 According to what was said, when God, in Holy Quran, Addresses man and woman and considers them as responsible for society and says that they must enjoin the right and prohibit from the denied3 and must participate in social issues and are not allowed to leave the important political and social areas without their leader’s permission4. Thus,

221


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 222

political participation is the clear Taklif of every Muslim man and woman. Since, if Muslim men and women demand the excellence and perfection and happiness of their society and consider this as their right, they must observe this Taklif to achieve this right. Research findings 1. Political participation is a fundamental right which all of the people (whether man or woman) are allowed to use and nobody can deprive them from. 2. One of the rights Islam regards for all is the right of human to determine his/her own destiny, which is considered to be from God and according to which no body is allowed to deprive people from it at any rate. One of the most important usages of this right is the participation of people in administrating their own country affairs and women are of this right as well. 3. The motivation for participation in politics and social affairs is to observe the religious obligation or Divine Taklif. According to this view, intervention in politics is introduced not as fulfilling animalistic desires and satisfying the thirst for power and not as meeting human need, but as observing a religious obligation and submitting to a Divine Order. In this view, human is Taklif-tending and his/her activities revolve around something beyond his/her natural or human desire. 4. Regarding popular participations, Imam’s guidelines can be summed as follows. Participation is Taklif, not right. The view prevailing over Imam Khomeini’s testament implies that Muslim People are obliged to participate. In contrast to the view current in Western contemporary civilizations which consider participation as people right, political participation of Muslim women of today in movement of Islamic awakening, according to presented texts, is a legal Taklif and fighting against political presence of women is contrast to Sharia (Judge). References and woman altogether and has necessitated this order for both of them. Javadi Amoli, Abdullah,ibid, P 239


1) Ibn Abi Al-Hadid, Sharh - e Nahj Al –Balaqa [Annotation of Nahj Al –Balaqa], Qum, Dar Al – Ershad Alhadith,n.p, n.d. 2) Ahsaee, Ibn Abi Jumhur, Awali Al-la’ali , Qum, Seyyed Al – Shohada Pub., 1985. 3) Arsta, Muhammad Javad, Zan va Mosharekate Siyasi,[Women and political participation (1)], Scientific quarterly of political science, Tehran, No. 1, 1998. 4) Ashuri, Dariush, Daneshname-ye Syasi, [Encyclopedia of

9) Javadi Amoli, Abdollah, Zan Dar Ayeneye Jalal va Jamal [woman in the mirror of glory and beauty], Qum, Asra, 9th ed., 2004. 10) Javadi Amoli, Abdollah, Haq va Taklif Dar Islam [Right and obligation in Islam], Qum, Asra, 2nd ed., 2006. 11) Javan Araste, Hossei, Hoqoq-e Ejtema’I va Syasi Dar Islam [social and political rights in Islam], Qum,Daftare Nashre Ma’aref, 1st ed., 2004. 12) Haji Sadeqi, Abdollah, Falsafe va Nezame Syasi –e Islam [The philosophy and political system in Islam], Qum, Zam Zam-e Hedayat Pub., 1st ed., 2003. 13) Hosseni, Dashti, Seyyed Mostafa. Ma’aref va Ma’arif [Knowledge and renowned], Qum, Hojjat pub., 2nd ed., 1996.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

politics] Tehran, Golshan Pub., 4th ed., 1997. 5) Aqabakhshi, Ali and Afshari, Minoo, Farhang-e Olum Syasi, [Dictionary of political science], Tehran, Chapar Pub., 1st ed., 2000. 6) Ayati, Mohammad Ebrahim. Tarikh –e Payamber-e Islam [The history of the Prophet of Islam], Qum, Dar Al-fekr Pub, 1st ed., 2007. 7) Taqavi, Seyyed Naser, Ta’sire-e Anva’e Mashro’iat Dar Mosharekat-e Syasi, [The effect of legitimacy kinds in the political participation], Hokomate-e Islami quarterly, Qum, No.2, 2001. 8) Ja’fari-e Langarodi, Mohammad Ja’far, Terminology-e Hoqoq, [Terminology of law], Tehran, Ahmadi printing, 8th ed., 1997.

223


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

14) Hosseini, Seyyed Hassan, Seraj. (Negahi Gozara Be Shobahat-e Hoqoqi pyramon Masa’el-e Zanan), [women’s rights questions at a glance], IRIB research center, Tehran, 2nd ed., 2001. 15) Hosseini, Musa. Didgahe Quran Darbare-ye Mosharekate Syasi Zanan [Quranic view on women rights], Quranic Studies quarterly, Office of the Islamic propaganda , Hawza Elmiah Qum, No 25-26, 2001. 16) Khamene’I, Seyyed Mohammad. Hoqoq-e Zan [woman right],

224

Tehran, 2nd ed., Elmi va Farhandi Pub., 1996. 17) Delshad-e Tehrani, Mostafa. Aareze Khorshid[Face of sun] , An introduction to the political thinking of Imam Khomeini (P),Tehran, Ministry of culture and Islamic guidance printing house , 2nd ed., 2001. 18) Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. Loqat Name [The Lexicon of Dehkhoda], Tehran, Tehran University printing house, 1961. 19) Deylami, Hassan Bin Al-Hassan. Irshad Al-Qulub [Guidance of the hearts], Qum, Sharif Razi Pub., 1990. 20) Raqib Isfahani, Abu Al-lqasim Hussain Bin Ali Bin Fazl. Almufradat fi Qarib Al-Quran [Notes on the Holy Quran], trans. by Seyye Qolamreza Hosseini Khosravi, Tehran, Mortezavi, 2004. 21) Rohani, Tahereh. Zanan-e Din Gostar Dar Tarikh-e Islam [Religion promoting women in history of Islam], Qum, World center for the Islamic sciences, 1st ed., 2003. 22) Ra’uf, Hebe. Mosharekat-e Syasi-e Zan, Didgah-e Islami [Women participation, An Islamic view], translated by Mohsen Armin, Tehran, Qatreh Pub., 1st ed., 1998. 23) Sajadi, Seyyed Ja’far. Farhang-e Ma’aref-e Eslami [Dictionary of Islamic knowledge], Tehran, Komesh Pub., 3rd ed., 2004. 24) Sa’eedian, Abdolhossien. Dayeratol Ma’aref Bozorg-e Now [The new great encyclopedia], Tehran, Oloom-e Zendegi va Aram, 1st ed., 2006.


25) Shoja’ee Zahra. Baray-e Zanan-e Farda [For the future women] Selected Articles, Tehran, Sureye Mehr, 1st ed., 2004. 26) Sha’bani, Ghassem. Hoquq-e assasi va sakhtar-e Hokumat-e Jomhuri-e Eslami-e Iran [Constitutional rights and the structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran], Tehran, Ettela’at.21th ed., 2004. 27) Sho’eiri, Tajoddin. Jami’ Al-Akhbar [Collection of News], Qum, Sharif Razi Pub., 1984. 28) Serami, Seifollah. Haq, Hokm va Takleef [Right, Creed and

Persian], Sepehr printing house, 9th ed., 1993. 33) Faras, Waram Bin Ubai. Majmu’a Waram [Waram Ontology], Qum, Maktabat Al-Faqih Pub., n.d. 34) Farhikhteh, Shamsoddin. Farhang-e Farhikhteh [Farhikhteh Lexicon], Tehran, Zarrin Pub., 1st ed., 1998. 35) Firahi, Davood. Mafhum-e Mosharekat-e Syasi [Understanding political participation], Scientific quarterly of Political Science, Tehran, No.1, 1998. 36) Qazizadeh, Kazem. Zanan va Mas’ulyatha-ye Ejraee Dar Sat’h-e Kalan [Women and macro level executive responsibilities], Payam-e Zan, Tehran, No.11, 2004.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

obligation]. Qum. Research Center for the Culture and Islamic Sciences, 1st ed., 2006. 29) Amili (Shaheed-I saani), Zein Al-Din Ben Ali Bin Ahmad. Manyat Al-Murid , Qum, Office of Islamic propaganda printing house, 1987. 30) Abd Al-Rahman, Mahmud. Mo’jam Al-Mustalahat wa Al-Alfaz Al-Fiqhyyah[ Terminology of Fiqh], n.p, n.d. 31) Ameed Zanjani, Abbasali. Fiqh-e Syasi [Political Fiqh], Tehran, Sepehr printing house, 2nd ed., 1988. 32) Ameed, Hassan. Farhang-e Farsi-e Ameed [The Lexicon of

225


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

37) Qazizadeh, Kazem. Andishe-e Fiqhi-Syasi-e Imam Khomeini [Fiqhi-Political thinking of Imam Khomeini (P)], Tehran, The presidential strategic research center, 1st ed., 1998. 38) Qazi Shari’at Panahi, Seyyed Abolfazl. Bayestehay-e Hoqoq-e Asasi [The requirements for constitutional right], Tehran, Mizan Pub., 33rd, 2009. 39) Qa’emi, Ali. Zendegani-e Hazrat-e Zeynab [Biography of Hazrat Zeynab(S)], Tehran, Amiri Pub., 3rd ed., 1997.

226

40) Qorbani, Zeinoalabedin. Islam va Hoqoq-e Bashar [Islam and Human Rights], n.p., Office for the promotion of Islamic culture, 3rd, ed., 1988. 41) Qorshi, Seyyed Ali Akbar. Qamoos-e Quran [The Lexicon of Quran].Tehran, Dar Al- Kotob Al- Islamiyya. 5th ed., 1988. 42) Kateb Waqedi, Muhammad Bin Sa’ad. Tabaqat [Classes], Trans. by Mahmud Mahdavi Damqani, Tehran, Farhang-0 Andisheh, 1st ed., 2003. 43) Koleini, Abo Ja’far Muhammad. Ya’qub, Osul –e Kafi, Tehran, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Islamia, 1st, 1985. 44) Kushki, Mohammad Sadeq.Ta’ammolati Dar Andishe-ye Syasi-e Imam Khomeini [ Reflections on political thinking of Imam Khomeini(P), The center for the documents of the Islamic Republic, 1st ed., 2000. 45) Martin list, Seymour. Encyclopedia of Democracy, trans. Into Persian by Karmarn Fani and Norollah Moradi, Tehran, Foreign Affairs Ministry printing house, 2nd ed., 2004. 46) Majlesi, Mohammad Baqer. Bahar Al-Anvar, trans.by Mohammad Javad Najafi, Islami’a Pub., 3rd ed., 2001. 47) Muhammad Faqi Rasul, Muhammad Jamal. Zan Dar Andishe-ye Islami [woman in the Islamic view], trans.by Mahmood Ebrahimi, Tehran, Ehsan Pub., 1st ed., 2004.


48) Madani, Seyyed Jalal Al-Din. Mabani va Koliat-e Oolome-e Syasi[Fundamentals and generals of political science] , n.p., Allameh Tabatabaee Pub., 2nd ed., 1995. 49) Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad. Hoqoq-e Ejtema’I va Syasi Dar Islam [Sociopolitical rights in Islam], Mash ‘had, Yusof Fatemeh Pub. 1st ed., 2008. 50) Mesbah-e Yazdi, Mohammad Taqi. Hoqoq-e Syasiat Dar Quran [Political rights in Quran], Qum, Educational and research institute

2003. 54) Noori, Mirza Hossein. Mostadrak Al-Vasa’el, Qum, Aal Al-Beyt (P), 1st ed., 1985. 55) Vara’I, Seyyed Javad. Hoqoq va Vazayef-e Shahrvandan va Dolatmardan [Rights and obligations of citizens and statesmen], Qum, Secretariat of Khobregan Assembly, 1st ed., 2002.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of Imam Khomeini (P) printing house, 1st ed., 1998. 51) Moqimi, Qolamhossein. Syasat, Ramzgosha’I Az Yek Mafhom-e Por-Ebham[ Politics, decoding a vague concept], specialized quarterly for political science, Qum, No.29, 2005. 52) Institute for the compilation and dissemination of the works of Imam Khomeini (P).Sahifey-e Noor, Tehran, Ministry of culture and Islamic guidance printing house, 1st ed.,1989. 53) Nabavi, Seyyed Abbas. Jame’e-ye Armani [Ideal society], Daneshname-ye Imam Ali (P), Tehran, Ministry of culture and Islamic guidance printing and publication organization, 2nd ed.,

227


Deficits and the Threats Which Women Are Facing in the Islamic Awakening Movement

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

228

Efaf Khalifa Habani1

Abstract The basis of Islam is believing in God as the Creator of the world and believing in His prophet, Hazrat-e Muhammad (peace be upon him). Faithfulness is a condition o heart, which is admitted by tongue and manifested in human’s actions and behaviors. The requirement for all the praises, prayers, and Islamic ceremonials is having faith in God. Any commitment to Islamic rules should be preceded by having belief in God as well as sacred books, divine messengers and divine fate. One of the threats that contemporary societies_ which have gained a very high level of science and technology and have changed today life of human_ are facing, is that new science has denied the unseen world and is on the basis of arguments, experiments and objective experiences. It denied believing unseen and thereby it is one of biggest threats against faithfulness and sacred religion of Islam. We believe that faithfulness means understanding and acceptance of a special meaning. It is a kind of cognition that relates to specific areas of brain. For example, the eyes see and transfer the image to specific areas of the brain. Its understanding and analysis depends on the set of concept people have in their minds; the concept which interprets the meaning of image. It is what we call cognition. Therefore, faithfulness is, in fact, cognition, understanding and interpreting the realities, which lead to a deep belief in the unseen world. Committed people accept the meaning of unseen without knowing its very details. The responsibility of Islamic nation is to develop this cognition and teach children to maintain it in their hearts and minds from their very early ages. In this way, children’s understanding merge with faithfulness and it prevents them to refuse belief realities and disobedience. 1. PhD in Gynecology – University of Khartoum


Keywords Muslim women, deficits, threats against Islamic awakening, contribution

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The new science, which ignores the unseen world, is itself a part of it. The issues, which were previously unknown, were a part of the unseen worlds and after that they are discovered, they turned to everyday and tangible issues of life. For example, the revolutions and uprisings that occurred in the world of communication and information all caused reduction in time factor. Even some innovations inventions, such as telephone and video conference, traverse the distances within one second. It is like nightly ascension of prophet (peace be upon him) to the seventh sky which occurred in the world of unseen. Advances in human sciences led to enhancement of understanding and applying communication tools, which now are available to all. Fifty years ago, these things were all considered as ultra-human and out of the scope of his abilities. Nowadays, human reasoning is competent to understand the conditions, which were previously unknown to him. Now information is dominated by people. Therefore, new science is a kind of confirming the unseen world. It affirms that perceiving what is not visible to our eyes does not mean that it does not exist. This reasoning enhances faith in the heart of believers. Another related example is that previously the sexuality of baby in the womb of mother was unidentified. Now we can identify it. Medical science has had great advances to the extent that it can change the sexuality of chrysalis too. This scientific advance makes more tangible for us the birth of Jesus (peace be upon him) without having any father. What was considered as to be impossible has turned to a science now. These issues deepen the concept of faithfulness. The increasing number of people who are accepting Islam is a proof here. They are committed and faithful Muslims with high educations. They are those who lead people to Islamic awakening. It is also true about Muslim scientists who live in Western countries and are born in Western culture.

229


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction Quran was revealed in the seventh century and two people believed in it. Since then up to the twenty-first century, the number of believers has increased despite blasphemies, debaucheries and disobediences, and we are witness to the increasing number of Muslims in spite of seditions, conspiracies, wars, uninhibited freedom, broken families, and unrestrained sexual relationships. Today, we can see that in spite of the conspiracies and the efforts

230

and money spent on fighting Islam and corrupting Muslim nations, Muslims enter Europe and challenge blasphemy, debauchery and disobedience in their birthplace. Muslims need to fight in order to defy all the attempts made at weakening Islam and undermining Islamic values. But it should be understood that these wars do not harm Islam, because most of these wars are not aimed at confronting or fighting Islam; they are rooted in political and economic conditions that are clear to everyone. Imposing these wars on Muslims will only increase their faith and their trust in it. In this context, I’ll point out some elements that are the weak points of the Islamic Awakening. There is no doubt that there are many weaknesses, but I’ll only mention some of them: 1. Issues related to faith and beliefs; 2. Women's issues such as: marriage, sexual lasciviousness, clothes, staying single or refusing to marry; 3. The interaction of young Muslims with new scientific issues; 4. The interaction of young Muslims with political conflicts and disputes in the Muslim world Challenges related to faith and beliefs The foundation of Islam is based on having faith in the oneness of Allah and the prophecy of Muhammad (PBUH). But faith should exist deep in the heart and be demonstrated by speech and behavior;


all the Islamic rites and traditions necessitate a faith in God, and having faith in God, resurrection day, divine scriptures, prophets, good and bad precede any commitment to the lawful and the unlawful. One of the biggest challenges in the modern world, which has reached a great scientific progress and has therefore resulted in great changes in humans’ life and behavior, is ignoring the unseen by the new science. This new science used all kinds of tools and evident

faith and perception and accepts the unseen without knowing the hidden details. Every Islamic nation takes on the role of developing that said perception, and sowing its seeds during childhood in order to connect children’s perception with faith and to keep that person from blasphemy, heresy and rebellion against the reality of faith. The new science that ignores the unseen was itself considered unseen until a few centuries ago, and what was once a part of the unseen has become a tangible reality today. For example, in this context we can mention the revolution in the transference of information, communication, and reducing the factor of time in transportation, which were once considered as elements of the unseen. The Ascension incident is another example. Human’s

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

reasoning and experiences to ignore all beliefs and express doubt about the unseen. This is the biggest challenge for Islam. But it should be mentioned that faith is a diagnostic perception in which certain parts of the brain have gained expertise. For example, the eye sees an image and sends it to certain parts of the brain. But the analysis of that image and its meaning, and connecting it to one’s visual experience and the memory center results in understanding the meaning of that image. This is called perception. Faith is in fact the act of perceiving, interpreting and understanding the human condition with physical senses, something that is interpreted as deep

231


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

progress has led to human understanding and perception. Therefore, the communication tools are available to all today and human intellect has the ability to understand a situation that was not previously known to him and was considered a part of the unseen. Today, these matters have become proven facts for humans. The new science supports faith in this regard and shows that not understanding what the eye can’t see doesn’t rule out their existence and this increases their faith.

232

Another example in this area which was once part of the unseen and today is considered an obvious thing is determining the gender of the fetus thanks to the progress of medical science. Moreover, science has made the simulation of the human fetus possible. This phenomenon highlights the fact that Jesus was born to Mary without a father, and what was once considered a part of the unseen has become a scientific and mundane fact today. This leads to a deepening of faith and results in religious outcomes. The increasing number of Muslim scholars and scientists who have turned to Islam is a witness to that. Even some of them who have lived in Western countries and been influence by their cultures are now the heads of the Islamic Awakening movement. The second challenge for women in Islamic societies: In the contemporary world women’s appearance, Feminist propaganda, and showing off one’s beauty have become inseparable parts of the media in promoting goods and services, and this is in stark contrast to Islamic concepts. God has stated: »‫“ «وَلَممو قَلَمماَّيْنَ قَلَ ماْجَ الَِْوهِلِاَّ موِ الْ مأُولَى‬Don’t put your beauty on display like the Dark Ages.”He also states: ِ‫«فَلَو قَخْضًَْنَ حِولْ َقاْل‬ » َ‫"فَ َاطْوَمعَ الَّمذِف فِمي َلْلِمهِ مَما‬Don’t use a soft tone in your speech so as to not provoke someone who is sick at heart.”


He also says: ‫ُن َولَمو‬ َّ ‫يه‬ َ ‫ن فُماُو‬ َ ‫ب َوفْم‬ ْ ‫ِن َو َي‬ َّ ‫ن َأ ْحصَمو ِره‬ ْ ‫ن مِم‬ َ ‫ضضْم‬ ُ ‫ت َي ْض‬ ِ ‫« َو ُما ِّل ْل ُو ْؤ ِمنَمو‬ »َّ‫“ يُلْميِينَ يِينَمتَهُنَّ إِلَّممو مَممو َِهَماَ مِنْهَممو ب وَلْاَضْماِحْنَ حِخُوُماِهِنَّ عَلَممى يُاُمماحِهِن‬And tell the faithful women: close your eyes [from strangers] and be chaste, hide your beauty except for what is naturally revealed, and hide your neck with your scarves.” So Islam not only explicitly advises women not to reveal their beauty and use it for advertisement, believing that the uniqueness of women's concept of femininity is their womanhood, but also invites

Tell your wives and daughters and Muslim women to cover themselves more diligently. This is necessary for them to be recognized and not be harassed, and God is Forgiving and Merciful.” Just as men are responsible for themselves, women are also responsible for themselves, and this is their personal responsibility; because women have not been created to help others or be dominated by anyone. So if women improve themselves, their actions will be considered good, and if they commit a sin or crime, they’ll be punished like men. So if women commit murder, they will be killed, and if they commit a theft, their hands will be cut off. Therefore, they have a responsibility and all their actions will have certain consequences. This is a personal responsibility towards other people

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

women to take part in all areas of life without ignoring the human instincts of women. As the Lord says, ‫ي ًَ ْلنَمو ُك ْم شُمًُاحو‬ َ ‫قَل ْقنَموكُم ِمّمن َذكَم ٍا َوأُنجَمى َو‬ َ ‫س إِنَّمو‬ ُ ‫« يَمو َأْيهَمو النَّمو‬ »‫قلِاما‬ َ ‫علِمام‬ َ ‫ِن اللَّمَ َه‬ َّ ‫ِن َأكْم َا َم ُك ْم عِنم َي اللَّمَ ِه َأ ْققَمو ُك ْم إ إ‬ َّ ‫ا ِل َتًَمو َرفُاا إ إ‬ َ ‫“ َو َلَوئِم‬O people, we have created you man and woman, and divided you into nations and tribes to arrive at a mutual understanding of each other. The most honorable of you in the eyes of God is indeed the purest one of you. Undoubtedly, Allah is Wise and Cognizant.” He also says: ‫ك وَ ِنسَوءِ الْ ُوؤْمِنِانَ يُيْنِانَ عَلَاْهِنَّ مِمن‬ َ ‫يكَ وَحَنَو ِق‬ ِ ‫«يَو أَيْهَو النَّلِيْ ُا لِّأَ ْيوَا‬ »‫ن اللَّمَ ُه َوُمارا َّر ِاومو‬ َ ‫ن ا َوكَمو‬ َ ‫ن َفلَمو يُم ْؤ َذ ْي‬ َ ‫ك َأ ْننَمى أَن ُيًْم َا ْف‬ َ ‫ِن إ َذلِم‬ َّ ‫يلَموحِا ِله‬ َ “O Prophet!

233


and society. Women should understand this and be trained based on equal principles with men. Men do not pay attention to their masculinity, and commercial advertisements do not sway them towards revealing their bodies in front of women, because men are aware of their position and duties. Women should also be well aware of their position and try not to become a promoter of women’s appearance and clothing. Such advertisements are against the principles of Islam and its teachings.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Aside from these cases, women are free to do all kinds of good deeds in this world and the hereafter, and lawful actions such as removing obstacles from others’ path or sacrificing their life and wealth for God. In the field of education and new knowledge, women are as free as men and they can choose those that suit them without having any particular field imposed upon them or being excluded from certain branches of science.

234

The third challenge, women's clothes: Do the shape, color and quality of clothes have anything to do with worshipping God, or are there some limits that must be observed? Will not adhering to them lead to legal punishment? What is the minimum legal hijab? The subject of women's clothing has occupied the West and the East. Eastern society gives man a free reign and has certain rules concerning women’s clothing. For example, wearing certain clothes such as Jalabat leaves men’s phallus completely bare. Even today, this issue is ignored entirely, and no one has ever criticized improper clothes worn by men. But Eastern Muslim societies accuse women because of the type and quality of their clothes, and many people who are either extremist or shallow have expressed their opinions on this subject. Being strict and rigid on the subject of women's clothing


is a plague that has been transferred to the Christian extremists from Muslim extremists. We even see that in some Muslim countries women are forced to use a veil. On the other hand, the veil is banned in some Western countries and women who use it are punished. Islamic teachings and principles concerning Muslim women’s clothing are aimed at preventing unrestrained moral behavior and corruption. But can it be considered characteristic of Muslim women? Can we reach an agreement on the minimum acceptable hijab? Can we use the law to impose certain restrictions on clothing? Will women who do not adhere to the dress code face punishment? Are men equal to women when it comes to clothing? With regard to hijab, Muslim rulers have to act with great responsibility and without extremity. They should also refrain from restricting Islam to women’s clothing and ignoring other religious issues by putting all the emphasis on their clothing.

age of globalization is the spread of ideas supporting sexual lasciviousness, and accustoming the society to them. This is done by using various tools such as movies and TV series which promote sexual relationships as an essential daily activity done by mutual consent. This method greatly influences children and adolescents, and it is clear that this effect is greater on male adolescents. As a result, having sexual relationships with the opposite sex, adultery, and seeking asylum in foreign countries to meet one’s religious demands in societies that lack a strong religious foundation are quite common. It should be mentioned that young girls’ obligation is greater than boys, because society has very rigid rules regarding women’s adultery, and the society and its governing principles play a great part in

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Sexual lasciviousness One of the problems faced by women and young Muslims in the

235


preventing women from falling into the abyss of Western corruption. But will it be also true for future generations? To prevent this, Muslim societies need to promote science and culture among girls, increase their self-confidence, treat men and women equally, and put their relationships on the basis of science and work competition, so that their interactions can be different from what is seen in the West. Muslim societies need to reduce the socializing of teenage girls and boys, but encourage it at universities and workplace with an emphasis on not

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

being alone together.

236

Encouraging girls and boys to stay single In rich Muslim countries, boys and girls stay single because of the high amount of the dowry, and in poor countries because of the expensive cost of living. The spread of this phenomenon affects single women more negatively than single men. Women are more committed to celibacy than men, and after a certain age they are no longer able to give birth. On the other hand the increasing number of divorced women has cast a dark shadow upon them. Islamic countries need to deal with this new phenomenon and financially support young boys and girls to encourage them to marry, so as to prevent the spread of illicit relationships and the cohabitation of boys and girls in future generations. Women and new scientific and medical issues Some of the new issues related to women are the embryo transfer, sperm storage, Surrogate Pregnancy, pregnancy without sex, and virgin mothers. These phenomena require a scientific and religious understanding to determine religion’s views regarding them.


Political conflicts in the Muslim world War, the fragmented political situation in Islamic World, and Muslims’ confrontation with each other are some of the negative aspects of Islamic Awakening which undermine young people’s trust in Islam and result in accusing Islam of creating sedition, conflict and tension among Muslims. Political strife in the Islamic World is a battle over political and economic interests and is related to other people’s regional interests and has nothing to do with Islam. Public diplomacy should adhere to the Islamic teachings and try to connect Muslims in different political circumstances to each other, find solutions, and facilitate their interactions. The tragic results of conflict in the Muslim world are the decline of trust in Islamic thoughts, the decrease in its influence, and attempts to avoid confrontation by resorting to heresy, secularism and evading Islamic solutions. "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 237


Examining the role of creativity on the degree of Moslem women’s participation in the political activities

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Soudabeh Radfard1

Abstract The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between creativity of women in Islamic countries and the degree of their political participation. It aims at proving that using this personality trait, i.e. creativity, and fostering it, can be one of the motivations of women for active participation in political society and repelling deviated schools of thought. The statistical population of this study included women political activists in Iran and sample population included 35 Iranian activist women. Research questions were examined with respect to the degree of Moslem women participation in political activities and their creativity indexes. The applied methodology of the study is casual-comparative. Statistical population was about 500 people from which 35 people were selected randomly as sample. Data-collection tool was researcher-made questionnaires; one questionnaire under the title of “the degree of participation in political activities” including 100 questions and one standard questionnaire of “creativity” including 40 questions. After calculating Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha, the reliability coefficients for two questionnaires came out to be respectively 0.79 and 0.53. In this study, political participation as well as the role and importance of creativity in the degree of political participation in the sample population, i.e. a number of Moslem women, were discussed. The reason for working on creativity is that by promoting creativity we will have innovative and active women in social and political arenas; such women are not affected by cultural self-

238

1.women rights activist and MA student of executive management, strategic management


alienation and can be present in political arenas through innovative methods as well as insistence on supreme Islamic values. Creativity, as a personality trait, is important too; because it is a critical and significant factor for individuals as well as societies in order to create values and permanently contending in the complicated and unsteady environment of today. The findings of this research showed that in the target statistical population, those women with higher degree of creativity index had higher degree of political participation and in comparison to those with average or low creativity. Therefore, it was proved that at almost stages, those with higher degree of creativity gained a higher score in political participation. Keywords Political participation, Moslem women, Islamic Awakening, creativity "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 239


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction “Iranian women have a bigger participation in the uprising and revolution and today they are actively working behind the war fronts, they have a bigger participation in the Revolution, as they are also involved in educational affairs.” The remarks above are extracts from a speech by the founder of the Islamic revolution Imam Khomeini at a gathering of women in Isfahan. He also said: women were ahead of men in the path of

240

Revolution.” Imam Khomeini’s comments clearly show that he never undermined the role and presence of women in the Revolution and even considered women’s role more important than men’s. Now, ahead of the first anniversary of the Islamic Awakening, it could be a good idea to use his comments and advice in decision making regarding women’s issues. After the occurrence of the Islamic Revolution, along with Iranian men, supported the general goals of the Islamic Revolution and stood up for their rights. They had an inactive participation in political and social activities before the Revolution. They tried to remove the obstacles lying ahead of the path of their political activities to bring about the necessary conditions for the participation of women in political and social arenas. Their campaign was manifested in three major cultural, economic and political sectors. . The grand leader of the Islamic Revolution strongly emphasized the presence of women in social and political arenas and publicly said: women must be involved in the major developments in the country. This sentence alone is enough to realize that Iamam never supported the idea of have women home-bound. During his life, he constantly underscored the presence of women in various political and social arenas. The above mentioned sentence indicates the necessity of the presence of women in various fields from Imam Khomeini’s perspective. In addition, the leader of the Islamic


Revolution Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei has frequently emphasized the dignity and respect of Iranian women. Back in 1992, he described woman as the being that reforms the society. (Rad fard, 2009) Also, the socio-political participation of women in developing countries and organizing this participation in an effective way, plays a significant role in the process of stable growth. According to the official statistics, women consist more than half of Iran’s 70 million population (Razavi Al-Hashem, 2010). The participation of women in the society is

for the people and the societies in order to establish values and stable competition and it is also one of the necessary elements in management. (Jazni, 1982). This article seeks to discuss the role of creativity and its significance in the process of the extent of participation in political activities. Two standard questionnaires (developed by Dr. Soltani) have been used to evaluate the level of creativity and participation in political activities among 35 female political activists in Iran. Review of Literature 1-political participation Political participation means involvement in an organized and general activity that seeks to affect of change the policies and behaviours of the ruling power process.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

important because it paves the way for the establishment of stable growth. The main responsibility of every Iranian citizen, especially Iranian women, is to explore the horizons of wisdom because wisdom directs the people of the society towards salvation.( Skof, 1975). According to personality theories, the personal characteristic of people is an important factor in their participation in the social and political events and creativity is one of the personal features.(Rezaeiyan, 2002). Thus, this study reviews the role of creativity as a personal feature in the extent of participation in political activities. Creativity has been chosen among other personal properties because it is an essential factor

241


The properties of political participation are: Political participation is contingent on equality and freedom of people Political participation is people’s right and arises from their heedful and harmonious action. Political participation is prior to the final political decision making and seeks political growth. It should be noted that women’s political participation does not mean their participation in elections. But it means, the recognition of

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

women’s right to enter the circle of the political power in all levels, as same as men’s, so that they can take part in political competitions and play an effective role. Here is a review of women’s political participating in several historical periods.

242

Mashrooteh Revolution(1906): There was a hereditary rule of power in this authoritarian and royal system. People,(men and women) were deprived of participating in political affairs but under the same circumstances, women’s presence in different aspects of social life was not comparable with that of men’s, because they played their traditional role of mother and wife. So there were no female First Phlavi The individual and social lives of Iranian women underwent dramatic events. For example the confrontation between modernism and traditionalism in terms of women’s rights. Reza Shah’s most critical move, removal of veil, took place in winter 1936.This event almost brought some changes for women. He made active some women by establishing educational centers for women, encouraging women to get education and job, establishing the University of Tehran and setting equal opportunities of education for men and women, involving women in job market, and recognizing women’s right


to vote, but at the same time, he made a large group of Iranians who were committed people, astray by forceful removal of women’s veil. In Reza Shah’s era, women were deprived of political rights and elections laws had banned them from voting, as same as children and the insane. The reason was that the male-dominant society could not change its attitude toward women and as a result women faced cultural paradox and became home-bound.

Iranian women were allowed to attend parliamentary elections in 1964 and win the seats of the parliament. Islamic Revolution The Islamic Revolution in 1979 was the pinnacle of people’s political participation in Iran. The massive presence of women in the process of the victory of the Islamic Revolution was one of the specific features of the Islamic Revolution. The participation of women in the revolution started form the very beginning of the establishment of revolutionary movements. Women participated in massive rallies along with men. During this era, religious and traditional women that used to be home-bound and did not take part in political affairs, achieved a kind of political mentality amid political crises and war, without getting

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Second Pahlavi The ratification of the bill of state and provincial councils in Autumn 1962, and its abolition two moth later due to the protests by the clergy-men, merchants and trade unions in Tehran, were among the most important events in this era. Mohammad Reza Shah ascended to the thrown in winter of 1962 through a self-made campaign name the White Revolution. After this, the first amendment of article 10 of electoral law, ratified in 1950, which had banned women form taking part in elections, and the article 2 of amendment 13 that prohibited women from being elected as a member of parliament, was eliminated. So

243


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

any education or organized activities. The Islamic Republic recognized women's right to vote and to run for parliamentary elections so that religious authorities declared the participation of women in the referendum in spring of 1979. 2-Women's political-Islamic participation in Islamic Awakening The people in the Middle East countries have been holding protest rallies in recent months to demand fundamental changes in their country's social, economic, and political systems. Despite Western

244

governments' propaganda on lack of women's participation in the protests, Muslim women have had an active presence in the protests that indicates Islamic Awakening of the Muslim women in the region. Now Muslim women in the region, especially in Egypt, Libya, Bahrain, Tunisia, Yemen, are fighting against the enemy like Somayeh. Their bravery and active presence is reminiscent of the prominent role of Iranian Muslim women in the Islamic Revolution 32 years ago. Egyptian women, with their active presence in antiregime protesters proved that what Western media call the isolation of Muslim women is a bunch of lies. The streets of Egypt were replete with women with veil who participated in protests along with men, to demand an end to Mubarak regime. 25-year-old Khalam Marwa, was among the Egyptian anti-retime protesters. She says: "women need to take part in this great event along with men". She believes women's role is as important as men's and Egyptian women face a lot of difficulties. Besides active presence in street protests against the westernbacked authoritarian regime, Egyptian women contributed a lot to the victory of the revolution by using modern communication technologies, especially the Internet, and even sometimes managed the revolutionary activities on the net. Asma Mahfooz, a young Egyptian woman, published a video on her personal web log and


called on people to join the revolution and asked Egyptian women and men to take to the streets for the realization of their civil rights and dignity. The participation of women in the revolutions in Tunisia, Libya, and Yemen, has also grabbed the world's attention. The presence of Muslim women indicated that they have been set free from the Western materialistic limits and despotic rulers. Yemeni woman rights activist, and anti-regime protest leader Tavakol Karman, says:"Muslim women played an effective and

indicates their knowledge about their effective and fateful role in reforming their society. Ayat Al-Qermezi is one of prominent Bahraini woman activists who have revolted against the Al-Khalifa regime. The 20-year-old woman studies at the teacher training centre in Manama.She was arrested for writing pieces of poem against AlKhalifa in a protest rally back on February 23, 2011. These days, despotic rulers in the Middle East brutally crackdown anti-regime protests. They crush popular protests especially those staged by women through murder, assault and battery, arrest, torture, and blatant aggressions. Muslim women in the Middle East witness the killing and injuring of their furthers, husbands, and children and face intimidation. In Bahrain, we witness severe

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

historic role; women in Tunisia, Yemen and Libya, are not only present in the revolutions, but also sometimes, they themselves fan the flame of protests." She also adds: while the primary purpose of all revolutions is the downfall of the authoritarian political regimes, but women before entering this stage of revolution, revolted against the ruling customs that were void of religious teachings, and then played their role in the second revolution that is political revolution." In Bahrain, large crowds of veil-wearing women, along with their countrymen, poured into the streets to demand the downfall of the Al-Khalifa regime. The Islamic Awakening of Bahraini women

245


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

rights violations against women. right now, tens of Bahraini women are in jail and there have been no word on the fate of many others. According to the statistics by Bahraian Al-Wefaq party, 11 female doctors are still held in Al-Khalifa regime prisons. Dr. Neda Zeif is one of them. There has been no information about her since she was arrested by regime forces last March. Iranian women have spontaneously protested the violation of women's rights in the region particularly in Bahrain. For example,

246

they held a conference in Tehran on April 30 under the title of Religions, Human Rights and Women". Representatives from different NGOs as well as female guests from Japan, Sudan, Bahrain, Tunisia, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, and Syria took place in the conference. The representatives from the society of Iranian and foreign women called for immediate action by all international institutions and organization to establish security in the Middle East region to prevent oppression against women. They called on the international organizations to take action against the violators of human rights. The attendants also addressed their oppressed brothers and sisters in the region and said: Every drop of your blood will turn into a flood that will soon uproot cruelty and oppression in the world and this God's unbreakable pledge. (Sepehri,2011) Political participation of women in world (Razavi Al-Hashem, 2009) socio-political participation in the world; if we consider involvement in the political affairs as conscious participation in the ruling of the country, political participation will be the most significant social activity and the essence of the social life. Political participation is people's right and women's participation is particularly important as it reduces injustice and inequality and paves the way for the establishment of stable growth. As UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon says stable peace is not possible without growth and women's role is key to any growth; the


participation of women in employment, management, and decision making in the society guarantees the restoration of their political and human rights. (Andre,1993) According to the statistics by the International Labour Organization, ILO, Algerian women with 8% participation in employment, and Finnish women with 47% participation, have respectively the lowest and highest shares in the world. More than 45 percent of women between the age of 15-64 are involved in

Thus, it has been unprecedented to see a cabinet that most of its ministers are women. At the moment, 84(42%) of Finland's 200 lawmakers are women. There are 8 female presidents in Republican regimes. There are 3 female ministers in Afghanistan, 1 in Pakistan, 1 in Kuwait, 2 in UAE, 3 in Iraq, and 3 in Vietnam.(Shekarbeigi, 2008). In general, statistics show a growing trend in the participation of women in political and social fields that used to be under the control of men. 4. Creativity Creativity has many definitions. Here is a review of some of the most important ones: Herbert Fox believes creativity is any mental solution that genuinely and usefully solves a problem. Eric Froum believes creativity is the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

economic activities. In the US, only 15% of employed people were women in 1970. This figure reached 40% in 1989. By 1995, women stood for 45% of the US work-force. (Jazni,2000). However, only 6% of American women work in executive level. Regarding women's share in the political power in the world, 19 governments are led by women in a total of 192 UN member states. countries like Denmark, the Netherlands, and Britain, that have constitutional monarchy systems, are ruled by Queen. Finland has the most feminine cabinet in the world with 12 women ministers out of 20 ministers.

247


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

ability to see and respond. It seems that Kayzers has given a more general definition for creativity; Creativity means using mental capabilities to create an idea or a new concept (Rezaeeyan, 2001) Creativity is the ability to imagine, predict and create Ideas ( Khaki, 1996). Mahmoud Saatchi quotes great French mathematician Henry Poe Ankare as saying that creativity means recognition, distinction, insight, reception, perception and choice. (Soltani, 2004) Considering the above mentioned definitions, it can be said that

248

creativity is finding and producing a new idea and thought while innovation is putting that new idea and thought into practice. Innovation means employing new ideas produced by creativity that can be used by an organization as a new service or solution to handle affairs. Creativity deals with the ability to create new ideas and innovation means making those new ideas practical.(Jafari, Abdolreza). Golestan Hashemi (2001) believes organizational creativity is the process of producing new ideas and finding new solutions to resolve the problems of the organization. (Esmi, Jahani, 2009). Organizations can use different types of techniques to develop group creativity in a serious and continuous manner. These techniques are: (Alwani) Brainstorming Horologic analysis Imaginary cycle Creative questions 6-3-5 technique of Esmi group parallel thinking mandatory relation patterning the nature


Research Hypothesis The average performance of creative people in the process of political participation of Muslim women in comparison to less creative people, is higher. Research methodology The present study deals with the relation between the amount of political activities and the level of women’s creativity in Islamic countries. The statistical population of this study is a group of 35

research method was scientific-comparative and 500 people were sampled and 35 of them were randomly selected as sample. Data collection was carried out by a 100-imtem questionnaire made by the researcher under the title of amount of participation in political activities and a standard 40-item questionnaire to evaluate creativity and the final quotients were 0.53 and 0.79 by Cron Bach’s alpha This research attempts to clarify the extent of political activity and the significance of creativity in participation in political activities of Muslim women in the above-mentioned statistical population. The researcher made the questionnaire to evaluate participation of Muslim women in political activities. The questionnaire to evaluate creativity, is a multiple-choice questionnaire that has been developed by Dr. Iraj Soltani.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Iranian female political activists. In this research, female political activists are the women that have the following qualifications: Having diplomatic positions including minister, lawmaker, deputy prime minister, …. Membership in political parties Jail term for political activities Expert and researcher in women studies including writing book, Article, news story,… The research questions were reviewed with considering the degree of political activities of Muslim women and the factor of creativity. The

249


After the participants filled out the questionnaires, the collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software and the following results were made: Research results The data collected by creativity questionnaire and the questionnaire to evaluate participation of Muslim women in political activities was analyzed by the SPSS software and the following results were made: Participants were divided into four groups based on their score on

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the creativity questionnaire: uncreative people, people with low creativity, people with average creativity, and people with high creativity and then on the basis of their scores, the scores of each group was compared with its score on participation in political activities. Off course there were finally three groups due to the fact that none of the participants in the study were rated as uncreative.

250

Amount of political

standard deviation

average

27.23

487.72 377.85 503.15

participation—creativity average

Low creativity Average creativity High creativity

Table No. 1: average scores and the standard deviation of respondents on the questionnaire of degree of participation of Muslim women in political activities in creativity groups


65 54 65

85 58 85

68 47 80

85 55 85

82 56 85

66 58 80

Stage 1

stage2

stage3

stage4

stage 5

stage6

stage 7

Table No. 2: average scores of respondents on the questionnaire of degree of participation of Muslim women in political activities in creativity groups in creativity groups stages political participation

creativity low creativity average creativity high creativity

58 57 83

Table No.3: comparison between scores on degree of participation in political activities in three creativity groups level of Score significance F

0.000

degree of freedom

12.61 2

average

total

10053.33 20106.6

Variable Degree of political Participation in thee Creativity groups

The tables indicate a significant difference between the average score of people with low, average, and high creativity in and their political participation and this difference is significant at the level of 0.01.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

As the figures show, people with high creativity had higher scores on the questionnaire of degree of participation of Muslim women in political activities in comparison to the people with average or low creativity.

251


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Data analysis As it was predicted in the hypothesis section of the research, the relationship between creativity and the degree of participation of Muslim women in political activities (in different models and activities) was proved and a significant positive correlation was witnessed between them. After analyzing the results of this research, it was proved that people with highest level of creativity had a better participation in all stages of the process of political

252

activities.(approval of the main hypothesis and first minor hypothesis) Therefore it is suggested that the findings of this research be used for the involvement of Muslim women in various political fields and promote the role of women in the Islamic Awakening as an effective way to counter the propaganda of Western schools. Using the political experience of Iranian women who live in one of the biggest Islamic countries and have experienced presence in the Islamic Revolution can help the growth and improvement of creativity as one of the important personality features. Using the productive methods that were mentioned in 1-1-5-3 section of this research can result in boosting the creativity of women to make them active, and conscious in different social and political field and protect them against cultural paradoxes and enhance the great Islamic values among them.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

References Persian Books: 1. Rezaeeyan, Ali(1995) Principles of Management, Tehran: Samt Publications 2. Rezaeeyan, Ali(2001) Theory of Organization and Management, Tehran: Samt Publications 3. Alwani, Seyyed Mahdi (2006), General Theory of Management, Tehran, Nashr-e-Ney 4. French-Vandal, H.Bell (2000) Management of change in Organization, translated by Seyyed Mahdi Alwani and Hassan Danayee Fard, Tehran, Safaar-Eshraqi Publications 5. Robins, Stephen, (2011) Basics of Organizational Behavior, Translated by Seyyed Mohammad Arabi and Ali Parsaeeyan, Tehran: Publications of Cultural Research Office Persian Articles 6. Sepehri, Esmat (2011), Women and Islamic Awakening in Middle East Countries, Tehran: Women& Family Studies Journal 7. Razavi, Al-Hashem, Behzad (2009), Analysis of the position of Women’s Participation in the process of Socio-Political development of Iran’s Islamic Revolution, Tehran 8. Saatchi, Mahmoud(1992), Creativity and Innovation for Solving Problems, Tehran, Management Studies Quarterly, Issue 6, p.26 9. Khaki, Gholam Reza, Impact of Practical Training on boosting Creativity, Tehran: Management Journal, Issue 26, p 27 10. Jazani, Nasrin, (1981) Conference of Creative Management in Age of speedy Developments, Tehran: Tadbir Journal, Issue 75 Foreign Books and Articles: 11.Azma.Fereydoon, Mostafapour.Mohammad ali, Identify Knowledge management And Organizational learning Indicators and its relation With Creativity,2011 12.Rhimi. Hamid, Arbabisarjou, Allameh, and Aghababaei, Relationship between Knowledge Management Process and Creativity among Faculty Members in the University,2011 13.Eresa M.Amabile,1996,Creativity and Innovation in Organizations, Harvard Business School 14. Andre, Michele, Social Movement of Women, translated by Hamal Zanjani Zadeh, Lika Publications

253


Examining the Reasons for Muslim Women Backwardness in Islamic Societies and the Ways to Retrieval of Their Lost Identity

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

254

Hanavi Mousa Ghazi1

Abstract Talking of permanent Islamic awakening and its political, cultural, economic, and social effects at different levels and with all of its interpretations provides a widespread field of subject to the researchers. Especially it is after the frequent Islamic-Arabic revolutions, which occurred in the region known as “Arabic spring”. The Islamic awakening that we are experiencing now did not happen accidentally. Imam Khamenei (Allah may protect him) knows it as a current originated from contemporary history. We could trace the characteristics of Islamic awakening movements back to their origin and formation. Then we see that this awakening launched among Islamic nations in the early 1980 s. When Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on him) appeared and remembered Muslims to return to Islam and its trainings. He proved the theory of Islam once again and showed that Islam is more compatible to all of the areas of the present life in comparison to other schools of thought and religions. Islam is a live and dynamic religion, which includes all the aspects of life. It addressed all the different aspects of life too. There is no doubt that Islamic awakening, with all its aspects and its significant advances, is an important factor in the way of this immortal religion and its maintenance. It fulfills this purpose through what it manifests; the problems it creates; and the goals it is following to reach. Among the important goals of Islamic awakening are paving the way to constitute a positive role to Muslim women; examining the reasons for Muslim women’s backwardness; as well as discussing the ways to retrieve their lost identity. 1. PhD in Educational Sciences


Women have a very high position in Islam. No religion respects women as Islam does. As Imam Khamenei (Allah may protect him) says, Islam preserves the perfect humanity and real virtue of women. It regards no difference between men and women and considers women as equal to men in spiritual and behavioral aspects; because it recognizes women’s contribution to establishing values and regards women as equal to men in human perfections. However, every person has different characteristics of his/her own.

More importantly, we should ask ourselves that what the different roles of women are under the protective shadow of Islamic awakening. In addition, that what are their responsibilities to retrieve their own lost identity? In the present paper, we aim to answer above questions through Islamic heritage such as Quran and traditions of Ahl-e Bayt (peace be upon them) and by relying on rich thoughts of leaders in Islamic awakening movement; particularly Imam Khomeini’s (May Allah have mercy on him) guidelines and Imam Khamenei (Allah may protect him). Keywords Women, Islamic society, backwardness, reasons for losing identity

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The Islamic viewpoint about women is distinct from other viewpoint in its inclusion. Islam wants women to be present in the society because of their humanity and wisdom. Since, the term “Islamic awakening” is a term which is originated from Islamic trainings, we put forward this question that: Is Islamic awakening wave able of guiding Muslim women to a new world in which intellectual, political, cultural and social requirements are different from that of past centuries? Does it have the ability to solve the long-life problem of exercising tyranny against women? Is it able of setting some tools and mediums, derived from noble Islamic heritage, to stand against such problems?

255


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction Talking about Islamic constant awakening, of its political, cultural, economic, and social effects constitutes a broad issue for discussing in different levels and among various classes, particularly after Islamic Arabic successive revolutions, which have been called Arab Spring. Islamic awakening which we are observing all over the world hasn’t emanated from one moment, and Islamic Republic leader,

256

Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) is of the belief that through contemporary historical analysis, we can follow the start points of Islamic Awakening to its birth and we can see, this way, that beginning in the eighties of the twentieth century with the advent of Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) , its interactions began with Islamic nations, the one who invited Muslims to return to Islam and its teachings and who demonstrated again that the theory of Islam is the most perfect theory which is capable of being applied in different fields and areas. Islam is the live and permanent religion which has talked about all details of life and there is no doubt that Islamic Awakening, with all its aspects and ways of remarkable growth, is an important factor in the path of improvement and in preservation of this eternal religion, or it has tried to explain and solve the issues it has introduced or the problems it has raised or the challenges it has passed. Of the most significant of these challenges, is to revive the leadership role to Muslim woman, to investigate the causes of her backwardness and the way of restoring her lost identity. In Islam, woman is of a high position, and as Imam Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) mentions: No Sharia of the previous Sharias has given such a dignity to woman. As Islam has considered a perfect humanity for woman, it has preserved her


dignity as a woman and has equality between her and man in terms of spiritual, devotional and behavioral structure so that there is no difference between them in values, except for differences which exist between a man and other men. Since Islam views woman from all aspects, it wants woman enters society through her wisdom and humanity, and due to the fact that Islamic Awakening is a term borrowing its meaning from Islam Religion’s teachings, we should ask ourselves whether Islamic

Islamic Awakening leaders in modern age- top of them are Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul) and Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade)- to use Islamic heritage depicted in Quran, Ahl Beit’s way of living. Woman’s responsibility in Islam Islam has attempted to determine roles related to woman, and these roles begin from humanity, which is common between man and woman. Differences in responsibilities and roles are proportional to features and characteristics by which woman is distinguished from man and (May Allah have mercy on his soul) does not mean the superiority of masculine characteristics over those of feminine. Many women understand well the truth of Muslim woman and beyond the scene of her speeches for freedom. However, the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Awakening can transfer Muslim woman to a new world the intellectual, political, cultural and social requirements of which are different from previous worlds; whether it can lead to protesting against an oppression that dominated woman in different aspects of life and for a long time; and whether clear approaches from Islamic genuine heritage can be adopted to deal with this oppression. More importantly, we ask about the role of Muslim woman under the shadow of growing Islamic Awakening and about her obligations to revive her lost role in this field. In this article, we try, along with relying on bright ideas of

257


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

problem emerges when Muslim woman adopts an opposite approach for dealing with these attacks with reference to rich Islamic heritage from Quran, honorable lifestyle of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him)and his innocent Ahle Beit (AS). Holy Quran has given a clear image of Islamic view of equality between man and woman, indicating that this equality is in terms of humanity and values, a humanity which is manifested in spirit and intellect, not in a body which has masculine and feminine characteristics

258

because this latter aspect also belongs to other creatures, including animals and plants. In addition, if there are differences in some juridical and practical decrees between man and woman, it’s just due to the relationship of these decrees with bodily affairs, and it doesn’t have anything to do with moral educations and virtues.1 In this framework, it is so obvious that Holy Quran introduces righteous woman as an example and model for the entire human society2 as it also introduces men as such, and the best example for this is the Verse from Quran for when talking about righteous woman – Saint Mary (AS) – of Pharaoh’s wife.3 However, the wrong behaviors in society should not be left to religion, since religion has not stipulated being male to be considered as a human and has not deprived woman of this human perfection, and God says in His sound Book that 4 ‫من عوا صولبو من ذکا او انجی و ها مؤمن فلنباانه اوة طالو‬ Once woman humanity was a place of debate and discussion, surely the conditions to participate in organizing her time and society was not provided to her and there was a weak element in society and an eliminated power in life, and Islam came to save woman from this

1. Fateme Alhojaj, Equality between woman and man in terms of Quran and its Truth 2. http://www.rayhana-lb.com 3 .Surah Tahrim, Verse 11 4 .Surah Nahl, Verse 96


contemptuous look and to show the right characteristics of living to her. Islam showed her strong and unique points to her and introduced the deviancies and slips to her in order to protect her humanity and dignity. Then, it made it incumbent on her to participate in progressing life affairs as an obligation God assigned to her. Therefore, Islam tried to flourish woman potentials, to foster endowments, to direct her attempts toward prosperity and perfection and towards human society interests and human life.

Each of them has capabilities and competencies, which prepare them for moving in the path of perfection.1 In addition, in Islam’s view, woman is responsible for events occurring in her society and should be aware of what’s current and should fight against any deviation and corruption, and enjoining the right and prohibiting the denied, as it is incumbent of man, is incumbent on her, as well. Majestic God says: Faithful men and women are friends to each other; enjoin each other the right and prohibit each other from the wrong; pray; give Zakat (poor due); and obey God and His Prophet (Peace be upon him).2 In this regard, Imam Khamenei (May Allah

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Accordingly, Islam determined women roles not in one direction and path, but it made it incumbent on her to educate in order to broaden her horizon of thinking and to broaden her cognition and culture level, so that she can find competence and capability for participating in life affairs with a man whose obligation is education, as well. As Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) stated: Seeking knowledge is obligatory on Muslim Men and women. Islam has encouraged woman to compete with man in terms of having perfection qualities, being adorned by goodness and virtue. Therefore, she is able to compete with him in this regard as well.

259

1 .http://wwwtebyan.net/society/womens world/2006/8/23/28979.html 2. Surah Towbe Verse 71


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

spread his shade) says: we attempt to make woman reach her perfection. It means that first, woman achieves her human rights within society, and second, her talents and potentials come true; achieves sophistication, real human maturity and ultimately human perfection; finds complete image of her humanity; reaches the capability to participate in the development of humanity and society; and attempts to make this world a flourished and beautiful one, within her abilities. 1

260

Among the manifestations of woman’s responsibilities in Islam are the pioneering political actions – compared with Muslim woman in the early Islamic society – in a way that women pledged allegiance to Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) on two political grounds. If Khadijah Bent (the daughter of) Khuild – Holy Phrophet’s wife – participated in political Jihad and Bani Hashim women accompanied Khadijah in the surround imposed by Moshrikan (idolaters) in Abi Talib’s Sha’b – as the style of fighting against Islam. Khadijah gave her properties and soul in support of Islam and Muslims. The role of Hazrat Fatemeh (SA), the daughter of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him), who had a political and leadership activity after demise of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him),is not a secret to anyone. Once she had communication with outstanding personalities of Mohajerin (immigrants) and Ansar (helpers) and asked them to help her husband – Ali ibn (son of) Abi Taleb – in getting presidency of government after her father’s death and expressed her discontent with the leadership of that time. Also, history tells us about women who were present for defending Imam Ali Ibne Abi Taleb in political conflict with his opponents. Among them are: Soodeh bente Amare bente Ashtar Hamedani, Bakareye Halalie, Darmie Hajunie, etc. and naturally we do not forget the central role of Bani Hashem women 1. Center for translation and authorship


and Zeinab bente Ali ibne Abi Taleb for Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him) in military – political Jihad, who played a significant role which continued in political-propaganda Jihad form with Bani Omayeh government till after the Karbalah Event.1 Such a woman has had her first footprint in all fields and particularly in Islamic societies and always tries to realize her abilities in constructing society, but woman’s ability in playing this role depends on how society looks at her, recognizes her value and

But, unawareness of woman of her responsibilities on the one hand, and weakness of preparing and training her for undertaking these responsibilities on the other hand have resulted in such a unable and defeated presence that we observe in arenas of political, social, economic, cultural and intellectual activities. Factors of women’s backwardness Every individual who looks realistically at the world will undoubtedly understand the amounts of backwardness Muslim women suffer now from, and it is unfortunate that some analysts regard Islam religion itself to be the factor of backwardness and shortcoming. Nevertheless, indeed, the factors that have caused woman to be engaged in such backwardness today are ass follow: 1. Khadijah Al Mahmeed, woman in political- Islamic system

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

enjoyment of her rights. Islam has addressed woman without any discrimination and with complete justice; has removed from her the oppression and tyranny resulting from discrimination in eras before Quran’s revelation. Subsequently, it recognized woman’s rights in participating in administrating all affairs of society, whether political, social or legal, and woman became of dignity in political area in a way that she is consulted with in all affairs, whether administrative or military, and cooperates alongside men in advancing and administrating affairs of society.

261


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Narrow-mindedly interpreting religion’s texts and nonimplementation of Islam precepts: The cause of many images indicating oppressions on woman is avoidance of people from religion and non-implementation of their Prophet’s method. Otherwise, as discussed earlier, Islam has guaranteed woman’s complete rights and has protected her from harms that may injure her and from people who try to take advantage of her ebullient affection, and has taken into account serious threats against these abusers. However, when people make themselves distant from Islam’s liberalistic teachings and try to interpret and gloss religion’s texts without any credible and convincing evidence and documents, there will be this great oppression to woman which is reflected in the backwardness she suffers now from. Human was dominated by the views taken from the Ejtihadats (jurisprudences) which has been for centuries, and was consequently marginalized and his fanaticism and narrow-mindedness were increased. Even if these Ijtihads go beyond legal texts interpretation and gloss, we should accept that this gloss and interpretation took place in times when and where it had its own specific conditions and situations, and a person who studies formation process of jurisprudential structure will find that the heritage of Jaheli (Ignorance [Era]) was knowingly present at time when these Ijtehads developed. In addition, nations that entered Islam and contributed to these Ijtihads were not distant from their habits, traditions and civilization heritage. Therefore, although Ijtihads have been taken from Sharia’s text, has not been free of conflict with heritage of other nations – although unconsciously, particularly in terms of behavior which is manifested in habits and traditions and then overshadows methods of thinking.1

262

1. Zohreh, Makki, woman between Islam inviters and between advancement claimers


Masculine dominance In male-dominated societies, women are pushed aside from the public arenas and absence of woman’s presence in these arenas becomes a principle and in this case woman as a phenomenon of existence, which natural laws rules over, submits. In contrast, man benefits from the power he has and refuses any change in situation of woman, since he knows well that this change is firstly of harm to his power.

stronger and their bones are bigger. This is the reality and I believe that if you explore this issue, too, it will become clear to you that the origin of men’s hegemonism is inside this.1 Traditions and imitations Among the factors of woman’s backwardness are the traditions that are common among men, moves based on that and has made a Shariat out of it that despite its opposition to Shariat of God Almighty, doesn’t come short and does not deviate from it. Like depriving woman of a right that she has in heritage or forcing a woman to marry or preventing her from seizure of her own property or from expressing her ideas in all political, social and cultural

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Under these circumstances, there is no possibility of woman being civilized or constructing a thought structure. Thus, she, remote from internal and world arena, remains drowned in manifestations of backwardness and dies down from the heavy responsibilities that great Islam has put on her shoulders. Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) interprets the reality of men’s hegemonism over women like this and says: Men practice hegemonism over women, whose bones are more delicate, their voice are thinner and their bodies are weaker, because they [men] are more stronger, their voice is thicker, their bodies are

263

1. Imam Khamenei , Woman of science, work and Jihad


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

maters if her thinking is different from that of a man who considers himself as the owner of her and even of her ideas and feelings. A glance at national heritage that is one of the basic supports of our current culture reveals a deplorable truth, which is the fact that this heritage contains concepts that reduces the value of woman and protests against her dignity, position, and role in society and even inside families. In addition, this issue is naturally reflected in continuity of the backwardness in angles of which woman has been drowned.

264

Among the first manifestations of woman humiliation and reducing her position in family, is the issue of preferring boy’s birth to girl, an issue that is permanent factor of worry and fear of bringing shame. This is the very factor that forced some tribes of Jaheli (Ignorance) to bury girls alive. This is a part our national heritage which not only relies on backwardness and illiteracy and the values and norms of dominant male-oriented system, but it also relies on religious support that has come down to us with a selfdistorted and baseless or interpreted form in a arid and sacred manner, with the soul of patriarchy and dictatorship. This support is surely not the true Islam. This is this distorted support that has prevailed throughout the society this belief that woman has been created from man’s left shoulder and that she comes as devil and goes as devil, and this is this support that has interpreted man’s consistency over woman in this way that woman is only the ignobility and submission to man, and this is this support that has allowed wife beating as a right of man over woman, and finally this is this support that prevents woman from participating in social, economic and political life and deprives society of using this capacity in arenas of production, invention and growth.1 Among the principles of backwardness which are imposed on current situation of woman, is people’s adherence to these habits due to the fact 1. Zohreh, Makki, woman between Islam inviters and claimers of advancement


that they are among the bases and principles of Islam. And this is an issue that enemies of Islam took advantage of and from which they have made a sensitive point in problem of abusing woman. Islamic societies need to reconsider traditions, norms and the dominant social system so that it can be further coordinated with Islamic teachings. There are values, traditions and norms that can extort rights from woman and have nothing to do with Islam, and these norms and traditions have led to isolation of woman and to her

Sometimes man or society is not aware that some behaviors or rules lead to woman backwardness and prevention from her efficiency, and is not aware of the consequences of the oppression and marginalization he has towards woman and which make him more malapert towards these behaviors, and on the other hand, woman is often unaware of some of her orders and rights, which causes that she ignores many achievements Islam has granted her, and she subsequently becomes pleased with the bitter reality he lives within. Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) has paid attention to role of ignorance in oppression towards woman and its adverse consequences in woman’s presence in activity arena, and says: “I 1. Zohreh, Makki, ibid

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

role being marginalized and have had an negative effect on woman’s personality in and outside family. Most importantly, these norms and traditions that are remote from Islam have had another reflection on narrow ideology of men and have made it a feminine way of thinking which is elusive from all Islamic values and traditions ;and hates anything that has Islam color, in a way that it finally leads to collapsing of society and breakdown of family structure and attempt to separate family principles from educational system.1 Ignorance:

265


believe that there have been, through history and in different societies, oppressions to woman.� He mentioned this issue and talked about the origin of this oppression which results from human’s ignorance and this ignorance is due to his nature, in a way that the strong practice oppression on the weak except there is an external force which dominates over him and prevents him from doing so, such as law or sword, or there is a deterrent inside human, meaning a strong, conscious and clear faith,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

which is really rare.1 Undeveloped rules: Backwardness in Islamic society has become a major crisis, particularly for woman, which has lasted long. From previous decades, national wrong beliefs have found their way into constitutions and city rules that regulate daily life of people, and as such, have gone beyond presence in intellect of commons and their collective awareness. A glance at some administrative materials of this law in several Islamic countries reveals clearly the mechanism by which woman is slaved through applying power of law. In various issues such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and guardianship, marital betrayal and other issues in explaining laws of which law relies upon religions and jurisprudential ideas, it is often claimed that it is referred to Islamic Shariat. However, we will find with scrutiny that it relies on conservative and inflexible jurisprudential tendencies. Even some of these legal materials were taken from Constitution and Law of European countries, which were among the colonizers of our country.2

266

1. Imam Khamenei, woman, science, work and jihad 2. http://www.tebyan.net/society/womans world/2007/12/17/55965.html


As such we find that city laws and in particular laws that regulate social life are not significantly different from current culture, but are the reflection of this culture with all its traditionalist and retrogressive concepts. In addition to this, governments and powers’ shrinking from supporting woman and non-helping her when she requests her rights, is one of the factors in woman’s withdrawal from presence in active arenas- due to fear of losing legal and customary support.

What’s more important in issue of self-distortion is that Muslim woman has understood privatization claims and has wrongly realized that she is different from other women all over the world. This has caused that she is pushed aside from world projects, which address woman’s rights and problems. Thus, until she believes that she is different from other women of other nations, the issue of absence of woman in participation in UN conferences is not of surprise. In addition, this has resulted that she loses the soul of comparing between current situation and world woman achievements and doesn’t have an optimistic view towards herself.1 This wrong view that does not consider any true and complete competence for woman- like a complete human in terms of rights 1. http://www.tebyan.net/society/womans world/2007/12/17/55965.html

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Distorted image of herself In majority of Islamic societies, regarding social insight, a retrogressive view toward woman is dominant and looks at her as a tool interaction with which is performed in man’s understanding framework. Man considers woman as a subject and shapes her as he wishes, which has a negative reflection on woman’s image of herself. Therefore, woman herself is one of the major factors of constructing some types of backwardness, which is due to this backwardness, tolerance, compromise, and silence against it.

267


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

and obligations, builds a life based on marginalizing and humiliating woman and consequently her backwardness. How to prevent from woman’s backwardness and to revive her lost identity: What was mentioned was some of the factors of Muslim woman’s backwardness, but we it does not suffice to condemn these factors, but we should explain the significance of woman’s presence in general affairs and her effective participation. In addition, this

268

requires, before anything else, that woman has faith in taking back her lost role through the following: Woman should be aware of her absence and at the same time of degree of this absence, since till she doesn’t understand the extent of this non-presence, she can’t make real efforts for presence and removing this load of violation of her shoulders. In addition, she should understand degree of harm to herself and her society due to this long rooted non-presence and this awareness is not achievable except through relationship with others, recognition of her achievements and specific use of woman’s experiences in some Islamic societies, which have taken great steps in path of awakening and progress. Avoidance from blind imitation: Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) briefly states this thought as follows: “unfortunately, I see that those who defend woman’s rights fall into mistake traps and this defend of woman doesn’t bring any benefit. It means that they look at the situation of Western woman and make a model of her for women, while their culture is different from Islamic culture and Islamic culture is far better and beneficial than Western culture. Starting women’s movement based on wise, reasonable, away from hastiness, and emotional behaviors: in fact, every social movement is a beneficial movement and has proper results when it is


based on wisdom, reflection, judgment, necessity and on right intellectual bases. In addition, every movement, which tries to realize the rights of woman, should consider this point. It means that every movement should begin its move from a wise perspective reliant on existing truths, i.e. understanding the nature and the nature of man and woman and the responsibilities and professions specific to woman and man and their shared responsibilities. In addition, this movement, as Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade)

Reforming laws that are harmful to woman dignity and prevent from her presence in various arenas of knowledge and practice Current reality shows that many feminine pioneering movements have failed or their effect is limited compared with the effort this woman made, and this caused to absence of legal and juridical coverage for their movement and in most cases due to disadvantages of woman presence and making her role efficient- which these movements call for – with numerous State Laws which societies have inherited generation after generation without any clear religious or moral age and, in this regard, Imam Khamenei(May Allah spread his shade) drives our attention to this point that some rules regarding interaction of man and woman needs to be reformed and experts in

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

believes, should not result from emotions and imitation. Another important issue is to explain Islam’s ideas regarding woman rights in contemporary language and Imam Khamenei (May Allah spread his shade) emphasizes the necessity of activity of man and woman equally in this regard. Nevertheless, political activity has been placed on shoulders of Islamic teachings informants so that they can express Islam’s idea in cases when rights of woman and man are different from each other, so that all ensure that these rights are based on human nature woman and man and on interests of society.

269


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

this regard should study this issue and make necessary reforms in rules.1 Woman should get rid of mentality of being a sub to man and understand the depth of Quranic addressing which addresses woman exactly the same as when addressing man (I, don’t destroy action from any action-owner, whether man or woman. Al Emran, 195) God Almighty has put equality between man and woman in terms of thralldom- so that they worship him only – and juridical

270

obligations and has not put any superiority of one gender over the other, rather it has stipulated as the superiority criteria piety, integrity and correction (oh people, We created you from a man and woman and made you in nations and tribes so that you know each other mutually. Indeed, in God’s view, the most venerable of you is the most pious of you. Undoubtedly, God is Knower, Aware. Hojorat 13). He has also considered women and men equal concerning principle of juridical Taklif (religious obligation) and reward and punishment for doing or avoiding it: (those who do an evil deed shall only be rewarded with its like, but those who believe and do good works, either men and women, shall enter the gardens of paradise and are provided for without reckoning. Ghafer, 40) In addition to that, equality in principle of rights and obligations (and for them similar to what is due from them, Baghareh (the Cow) 228) Where is the obeyance of these real obvious texts? Isn’t this default from limited understanding or non-understanding of Quranic text meaning? a- Among the affairs that woman should not be unaware of and ignore is that the text of Shariat, is a interpretable and gloss text which is also applicable under changes of conditions, and this interpretation-openness has made it a text worthy of and deserving 1. Http://www.almaareforg


all places and times. While closeness of this text, if any, would have deprived it from this feature. Thus, the readings of this text that have come down to us are the Ijtihads, which have taken the right and correct path. This concept is so necessary that should penetrate particularly into woman’s insight, so that she doesn’t wrongly interpret religion and doesn’t go forward with thoughts completely distant from magnanimous precepts of Islam. Islam’s precepts wants woman to

capability, competence and self-confidence. c- Woman can’t have a prevalent and universal presence unless she considers this point that her home should be significantly different from her first family home and living with husband, with parents – in terms of promoting and developing it and putting negative aspects aside and preserving positive points – and tries her best to get rid of being stereotyped. d- Woman should find that concept of Islamic Awakening is not a vibrant program relying on fleeting emotions and which dies down. Recommendations: Until Muslim woman herself does not have faith in the role entrusted to her and does not adopt tangible practical actions, which are the translations of this faith and realize it, her rescue from

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

operate actively in society in a way that nothing but code of ethics limits her activity the same way it limits man’s activity. b- Recognizing innate abilities of woman and her potential talents with the aim of protecting and utilizing it in roles that Islam has assigned to woman and this helps the trend of awakening and alertness, makes effective the presence of woman in arenas. But till woman doesn’t determine her priorities according facilities, this is not achieved. In addition, woman should know before all of these that achieving results has nothing to do with number of achievements but it is related to the very experience that gives her

271


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

backwardness and reviving her lost identity is not possible. According to what was said, we provide you with a set of recommendations, which we believe, is of a particular importance as a step in the path of reform – as a result of Islamic Awakening result: - Attempt to developing required attributes for woman independent rationalism, in a way that she can understand her contemporary issues, problems and challenges, and this can be possible only through destroying all forms of spiritual and

272

educational burying alive which is performed on Muslim woman in many situations. - Attempt to growth of Muslim woman’s scientific thinking ability and polishing her wrong thoughts in order to make her know the surrounding world and applying this knowledge in solving problems, and this leads to linking Muslim home with big issues so that the home the Muslim woman administers is not in a marginalized and unaware position to political, social, and other events. - Change of intellectual and cultural environment is related to assigning roles between woman and man for reforming positions and tendencies of people of society and woman acceptance in position of leadership in family and general life (applied, professional and political) with dissemination of this thought that this advancement is to woman’s advantage, does not have negative effect on man’s position but it is important for guaranteeing development of her roles in family and society life. - Removing all kinds of discrimination which reduces woman’s rights, just because she’s a female. (right of education, right of having a good job, right of requesting for a money she is deserved for, right of choosing husband, right of expressing social ideas, etc.)


- Enacting necessary laws for women’s participation in general life, by requiring offices, establishments and organizations associated with these laws implementation - Providing women with access to educational opportunities, in a way that her equality with men – via promoting her educational level and completely putting an end to illiteracy and providing opportunities for benefit from what she has obtained from work arena – is guaranteed.

what is related to woman. - Giving coherent efforts by those engaged in educating contemporary Muslim woman, for clearing heritage of what is in conflict with dignity of Muslim woman – which God has willed for her- and with her creation base on equality with man – which is consistent with woman’s nature. - Giving directions to contemporary Muslim woman, in an effective and strong manner, in a way that she provides the Muslim woman with a direction finder of herself and a filter in various arenas of life and is not like a slave, which moves in a limited path in the at-birth intersection. - Providing suitable environment for woman’s employment and helping her in affairs related to job and family particularly under

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

- Adjustment of biased Social and cultural Contracts Ways for man which results in constant fading of woman’s political participation, and attempt to change the social concepts in order to establish woman’s role in political development - Efforts to disseminate Islamic moderate ideas, which provide human with the possibility of coordination with life traditions and the laws of society; and is embodied through development of Islamic examples in the network of social relationships. This requires that educational organizations present details on practical adjustment, which reforms the error of practical actions in society particularly

273


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the shadow of need for cooperation of woman with man for meeting material necessities by requiring employers to adjust work laws – after reforming materials needing multiplied – in terms of work hours and maternity leaves and observing the situation and conditions of infant. - Encouraging pioneer women in Islamic society and introducing them such as inventors in the fields of literature, art, technology, and employees in various social and educational fields.

274

Results Backwardness and oppression which have gripped Muslim woman in some societies, results from wrong understanding of Islam’s teachings, and mixing of these teachings with wrong social traditions and norms that are observed. Islam has guaranteed for woman her political rights in candidateship, elections and undertaking public positions and financial commitment, and thereby, has surpassed all state laws and other heavenly Shariats, but a reflective look at existing situation, mentions the broad gap between what Islam has considered for human and what the human himself – or a person who has the keys of power in society – has considered permissible for himself, and if we reflect upon woman’s today life, we will find that more than any time else, she needs returning the structure of her personality in practical, intellectual and educational aspects consistent with complete religious education in a way that it is coordinated with existential structure and nature of her human responsibility on earth so that she can pass this realty full of failure, conflict, material and spiritual deceits which have further drowned her in lagoons of following, imitation, character plunder and Westernization.


Unfortunately, a number of Muslim women enter stagnant and fruitless areas of activity due to being engaged in chains of ignorance and backwardness, imitation and dependence. That is why calling for making woman aware of the importance of her mission and role and making aware of her responsibility towards herself and society and humanity seemed abortive. For this reason, Islamic Awakening came to convert Islamic concepts and views into a tangible reality, among these views are the ones related

imitations and rules that have wrongly relied upon religious heritage, her freedom from these chains is on the condition that first, the genuine and true achievement of Islam in dignity of woman returns and then through a new look at Islamic thought and reconsidering root of patterns and methods of current thinking, pays attention before anything to the pressing need of society for using all existing human capacities for realizing concerned movement and joining advanced nations.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

to Muslim woman’s roles. Woman in this Islamic movement participated in elections in which many groups in many countries participated. Also, she were present in her demonstration for reform, justice and removing foreign interference but still, woman’s participation compared to the role that, proportional to Islamic thought, she should benefit from her abilities and facilities, is of second grade. Therefore, it should be said in the end that: if throughout the history, woman has become slave with her submission to man’s dominance inside family and then inside society and due to norms,

275


Islamic Awakening and the Role of Young Egyptian Women in the Tahrir Intifada 

Zahra Habibi1

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Abstract In this research, the Islamic awakening of Egyptian women, their role and different aspects of their contribution is addressed. Also the history of Egypt and the formation of Al-Tahrir Intifada are studied. Research method: This research was conducted by heuristic descriptive method and the survey method has been used to achieve the results. The research tools are questionnaires and interview. The overall conclusion of this paper reveals the decisive role of women in cultural, social, religious, ideological and educational aspects, considering women as effective factors in the continuation of Al-Tahrir Intifada. Keywords Egypt, Al-Tahrir Intifada, cultural identity, Muslim women, Islamic awakening

276

1 . MA degree in women studies


History of Egypt Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and occupied Palestine [Israel] to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its over 80 million population

long rule of former president Hosni Mubarak. Then, a new constitution was drawn up for the country. Currently, Egypt is led by the ruling military council, also known. The SCAF is led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and it has appointed a government for Egypt. The 2011 Revolution On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government. They took the form of an intensive campaign of civil resistance supported by a very large number of people. The protests resulted in the resignation of Mubarak on February 11, 2011. And curfew was declared. Inspired by the victory of the Tunisian revolution, the Egyptians said their revolution aimed to end

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

lives near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers, where the only arable land is found. The banks of the Nile River constitutes one twenty fifth of the whole Egyptian territory. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centers of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. In 1852, Egypt was declared a republic by young army officers who toppled King Rarouk in a bloodless coup. The 2011 revolution of Egypt put an end to the three-decades-

277


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

torture, poverty, corruption and unemployment and also meant to topple the Mubarak regime and scrap the emergency rule. The other objectives of the revolution, they said, were to increase the minimum wages, to end the acts of violence and above all to bring to power a popular government. Mubarak handed over his powers to the military council led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi. The Egyptian had declined to support Mubarak during the 2011 revolution. Mubarak's

278

last Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik had resigned under pressure from the protesters on March 3, 2011. He was replaced with Essam Sharaf by the military council. Sharaf also stepped down in the November of the same year. And Kamal Genzawi was appointed as Prime Minister. Some of the protesters continued to demonstrate in the streets despite the removal of Mubarak from power. In March, Egypt's new constitution was approved in a referendum. And on November 28, parliamentary elections were held. Meanwhile, the trial of Mubarak and his two sons as well as his henchmen is ongoing over a range of charges. The First Sparks The first protests break out outside the Tunisian embassy in Cairo. The protesters show their solidarity with the Tunisian revolution. Many analysts say these demonstrations sow the seeds of the revolution. The early protests are called by a pro-democracy youth group named the April 6th Movement. The group proposes January 25, which is the National Day of Police, for the demonstrations. Tens of thousands of celebrities, football fans and the members of the opposition groups declare on the social networking website Facebook that they will take part in the protests. Egypt's Interior Ministry threaten it will firmly deal with "violators of the law" and


say any street protests are banned under the emergency rule. However, the well-known opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei supports the planned protest rallies, saying it's time the opponents of the Egyptian regime followed in the footsteps of the Tunisians. February 1- Millions-strong Protests and Army's Support A spokesman for the Egyptian army makes a televised statement and stresses its backing for the rights of the Egyptian people. He says

Mubarak's Reaction Mubarak appears on television in the late hours of February 1, 2011 and says that the Egyptian people have the right to criticize the government and that he respects their opinions. He said he has no plans to resign, though he is not interested in power. But He adds that he has no plans either to run for president again. Mubarak also says he had ordered his intelligence chief Omar Suleiman to hold talks with the opposition leaders, but they have rejected any talks with the government. Elsewhere in his comments, Mubarak says those who have damaged the state property will be brought to justice. Mubarak added, "This is my homeland where I have lived, have fought over its territory and have defended its independence and interests and where I will die".

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the army considers the anti-government protests by the "great Egyptian people" over the previous week as legitimate and promises it will not resort to force against the demonstrators. The statement, aired by the state media MENA, reiterates the freedom of speech and the right to peaceful rallies for all Egyptians. Many analysts believe that the army is Mubarak's last hope to crack down on the protesters who demand his resignation. However, up to this time, no confrontation takes place between the army and the protesters and people warmly welcome the soldiers in the streets.

279


Change in the National Democratic Party of Egypt All the members of the ruling National Democratic Party including Gamal Mubarak resign.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Official Talks Beings with Muslim Brotherhood The Muslim Brotherhood declare it will hold talks with Omar Suleiman to resolve the crisis. This is while the Brotherhood had

280

already made any talks with the government on Mubarak stepping down. ElBaradei criticizes the negotiations, saying the Mubarak regime has lost its legitimacy. However, the National Front for Change sends a representative to the talks. The liberal Wafd Party and the leftist Gathering Party and representatives of the prodemocracy youth movements who organize the protests have also attended the talks. Finally, on February 11 Suleiman announced Mubarak's resignation after three decades in power, entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country. Post-Mubarak Developments Two days after Mubarak's resignation, the Supreme Military Council on February 13 2011 says it will hold power until the parliamentary and presidential elections six months later. It has also dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution. March 3 A day before large protests against him are planned, Ahmed Shafik steps down as Prime Minister and the ruling junta replaces him with former Transportation Minister Essam Sharaf. Shafik is removed from power after the revolutionaries demand the remnants of the former regime be set aside to pave the way for the formation


of a technocrat government. The ruling Military Council says on its page on the social networking website Facebook that it accepts the resignation of Shafik who was appointed As Prime Minister by Mubarak in his final days in power. March 21 77 percent of the Egyptian voters strongly support the constitutional reforms in a referendum. The most important change

September 9 The protesters on Friday destroy part of the Israeli embassy's wall with iron rods and potk and enter the first floor of the 21-storey embassy building. They partially occupy the Israeli embassy for a short period. They throw out of the window documents and bring down the Israeli flag. Israel's ambassador leaves Egypt in protest against the attack on the Israeli embassy. The Israeli diplomats along with their families have already left Cairo for Tel Aviv on a charter flight. Change in the Government Mubarak appears on the television on January 28 for the first time since the protests began and promises social, economic and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

to the constitution is decreasing the presidential term from six to four years and limiting the presidential terms to two terms. The new constitution also obliges the president to appoint a vice-president within 30 days following the election. It further decides the conditions for those who want to run for president including the need for them to be at least 40 years old and not to have a foreign wife. Two main political parties of Egypt including Mubarak's National Democratic Party and the Muslim Brotherhood support the constitutional reforms.

281


political reforms including boosting democracy for the citizens and civil liberties and efforts to solve the unemployment problem. He also calls on the Ahmed Nadhif government to step down and declares the formation of a new government. Mubarak further defends the handling of the protests by his security forces. The government is officially dissolved the next morning. Follwing the move, Mubarak appoints the intelligence chief Omar Suleiman as vice-president and Aviation Minister Ahmed Shafik as the Prime

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Minister. This is the first time he chooses a vice-president in his more than three decades in power. Under Egypt's constitution, the vice-president takes over the president's functions and powers if the latter dies.

282

Court Rulings On June 2, Mubarak is acquitted of corruption charges but found guilty over the killing of protesters during the revolution and is sentenced to life in prison. His Interior Minister Habib al-Adly also gets life imprisonment. The rulings angers many people--they who expect him to be sent to the gallows--and they clash with Mubarak's supporters inside and outside the court. The clashes are not limited to Cairo and take place in other cities, as well. Protests of Friday, November 25, the Day of Revolution's Restoration Iran's Mehr News Agency quotes Egypt's media as saying the protesters have converged again at the landmark Tahrir Square in Cairo. They demand the lifting of the emergency rule, the adjustment of the electoral law, the implementation of the political isolation law that bans the remnants of the former regime from political activities for ten years, and the setting of a timetable for the transition of


power from the ruling military council to a civilian government. Other demands are: ending the martial courts and revoking such rulings issued under the Mubarak regime and resuming trials at civilian courts, purging the Interior Ministry and the Information Ministry of the remnants of the former regime, guaranteeing the independence of the judiciary and purging it [of the judges appointed by Mubarak], allowing the formation of independent syndicates and unions and lifting a ban on anti-government protests. The Egyptians

they will not attend the November 25 protests. Theoretical Framework There are a range of definitions for the term social movement. We outline the common points of the definitions here: Anthony Giddens believes that a social movement is a collective attempt to provide a common benefit or to gain a common goal through informal institutions. Giddens (2002, p. 234). Girichet believes that a social movement is a full-blown organization and is characterized by defending, development and achieving particular objectives.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

make clear these demands during the protests. According to the report, many of the political parties and forces call for people to take part in the Friday of the Revolution's restoration. They include the April 6th Movement, Popular Groups' Coordination Committee, Alliance of Egyptian Youths, Coptic Movement, Al-Wafd Party, AlWasat Party, New Tomorrow Party, Al-Karama Party, Al-Nasserist Party, Al-Adl Party, and the Democratic Party. Other parties including the Muslim Brotherhood and its political wing the Freedom and Justice Party, the Salafist Movement, Jamat Islamiah, Free Egyptians Party and the Egyptian-Arab Unity have declared

283


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Karin D. Renon define movement as a method of collective action that constitutes a specific type of belligerent social relationships. Mario Diani gives a synthetic definition of the new theory of mobilizing the resources and the social movement theory. He believes a social movement is a specific social dynamic during which different players including individuals, formal organizations and groups give a common definition of themselves as insider of a

284

group through a collective action and relationship during a social interaction. This is an irrelevant protest or symbolic opposition, which is reflected in a social movement, on which basis a social movement is a network of informal interaction between individuals, groups and organization involved in a political clash or a culture based on a collective identity (Nash 2001, p. 177). Neil Smesler believes that a social movement is a collective action that is organized and involves a large group of social forces that pursue their goals (Smesler 2001, p. 50). The other characteristic of a social movement is that it belongs to the informal sector. There are a large number of formal and informal groups, media outlets, organizations, circles, figures and people within a social movement that show interest in achieving a specific goal or goals without necessarily knowing each other. Thus, the relationship between the members of a social movement is informal. As Melluci says, the network of unseen relations or the floating network is heavily relied on is heavily relied on by colleagues and friends (Nash 2011, p. 178). Another characteristic of a social movement as a collective action is that it requires some sort of common awareness and sense of oneness and belonging to a group or social concept that can be distinguished from other social currents. In other words, it requires gaining the identify known as "We". Identity decides an individual's place and value in a given society. Collective identity is referred to


as a group of common beliefs and sense of belonging. It seems that the process of the development of identity is no more than the construction of a system of action. In other words, the structure of a social movement, as a system of action, consists of objectives, beliefs, decisions and transactions that work within a systematic framework. Melluci, an expert on new social movements, defines ideology as a set of symbolic frameworks used by collective actors to show their actions to themselves and others within a system of

key point regarding the new social movements is that collective identity is not merely a means for achieving a strategic goal---though he pays attentions to its functions---- but the collection action is the end (Moshirzadeh 2002, p. 130). Bernard Crick says all thoughts aim to bring about an institution and all institutions conjure up the goals. Thomas Green believes that ideology plays a pivotal role in mobilization and social movements as it facilitates the development of the groups that have allied themselves with other social classes. Moreover, it gives legitimacy to a social movement, keeps it afloat and justifies the use of violence (Akhavan Mofrad, 2002, p. 130). There are three categories regarding the social movements: 1theory of social movements 2-marxist theory 3-socilogical theory. We should point out that the theory of social movements includes:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

social relationships. Ideology always involves definitions of actor and identifying an enemy and as well as setting objectives for which that ideology fights. Meanwhile, ideology establishes a set of relationships among elements that on the one had gives legitimacy to the actor and on the other hand denies any positive social identity for the enemy. Hence, ideology plays a decisive role in shaping the collective identity as it defines a social actor who is mobilized, identifies an enemy against which the movement struggles and sets the objectives of the movement. As a result, ideology decides the border between "we" and "others". However, Melluci believes the

285


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

1-Classical theories including the Marxism (clash battle), Durkheim (solidarity), Le Bon (collective excitement), Parto (deception of masses) and Webber (charisma). 2-theroeis known as mass society until the 1970s (Hanna Arnet and Koren Hawes), the collective behavior theories (Bloomer, Smelmser Turner and Kilian) and psychological theories (Kshonder, Dobus and J Curve, Tedagger and relative deprivation) 3-new theories and social movements include: organization theories and mobilization of resources, world

286

order theory and identity and knowledge theories (Thoren, Melluci, Eirman and Jason). Meanwhile, Dr. Jalaipour divides the social movement theories into two categories based on their being historical and the main schools: 1-conventional theories 2-new theories. The conventional theories refer to the Marxist theory and the structural-functional paradigm that includes the theories of mass society, Smelser's structural strain and relative deprivation. The new theories explain the following perspectives: A-mobilizaiton of resources (approaches of Olson, Abershal, Zaled, McCarthy, Charles Tilly) B-valueoriented structural perspective (approaches of Offeh, Habermas, Inglehart) C-identity-oriented structural perspective (approaches of Thoren, Melluci and Castles). Another Iranian researcher divides the social movement theories (and revolution as well) into five categories based on the main schools of social studies: 1-The class battle that includes theories of Karl Marx and his followers (in early 20th century the views of Kaolsky, Lenin and Hegelist marxists like Lukach, Gramshi and Marcouse) views the whole history of mankind and the world full of struggle among social classes. 2-Political realism that is inspired by the views of Machiavelli, Parto and Dorseau and basically regards revolution a political


phenomenon through which power is handed over from one group to another irrespective of considerations for a cause and ethical issues. 3-social solidarity theories that stems from the tradition of Emile Durkheim and says social life is based on common values. It also refers the views of Johnson, Smelser and Huntington under the title of pragmatic school. 4-charisma theory that emanates from the views of Max Webber and considers revolution as a result of the appearance of figures with

masses who are closely linked and are disillusioned with the ruling regime form a criticizing population. And they are capable of mobilizing themselves to fight the regime. Teenager believes that the main reason behind movements is the mental failure and disappointment. People get disillusioned after relative deprivation develops in a society. Relative depuration means a mental picture of the difference between the value expectations of actors and their apparent value capabilities in a given society. One drawback to this view is that it fails to justify the actions within some movements by a group of people who make sacrifices. Sociological theories: There is no society without a gap. There are gaps within societies due to the division of work and many other

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

unique characteristics and creative powers. 5-Individualist and psychological theories are related to the theories of Surukin, Alexi de Toquil, Davis and Tedagger. These theories say revolutions originate from people's view of themselves. Marxist theories: they are based on economy and the clash of classes. On this basis, the workers' class and that of the employers or the exploiter and the exploited are the opposing classes and the objective is equality between the classes. Psychological theories: it says the stability or instability of a political system depends of the mental conditions of a society. The

287


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

factors like family relationships, gender, etc. However, each of these factors could work at a given period of time. Neil Smelter whose mentor was Parsons explains his collective behavior theory within the framework of social action theory. Like Parsons, Smelter enumerates the characteristics of social actions (with social behavior sub-divisions) as following: A-values or the general sources of legitimacy that provides the bulk of the guidelines for social behavior. Values in general forms

288

outline desirable goals that guide us towards humane efforts and actions. Klakhon believes that values entail general and organized meanings about the nature, human's place therein, the relationship between human beings and good and bad thins about the relationship between human beings as well as between human and the nature. B-norms with regulated criteria for interaction in which the valuable patterns of the common culture of the social system unite within an annexed action of the units with regard to the interaction of those units. C-mobilizing the individual motivation for organized action within in the form of actions and gatherings (sociological theories of Smelser and Johnson-meanwhile the psychological theories believe that movements being involuntarily and without single individuals knowing that their movement will be construed as revolution in the future. The psychological theories maintain that awareness or ideology does not produce a movement; rather, the movement comes into being in an unstable manner. Given the fact that the present research studies the role of young Egyptian women and the dimensions of their participation in the Tahrir Intifada, it uses a descriptive-exploratory method to find out that role. The author has referred to the history of Egypt and mad interviews with Egyptian women on the internet or in person in order to collect data about the sociological, cultural, social, economic,


political and religious variables. The author has also used questionnaire to gather the data. Necessity and importance of the subject In this respect, the author outlines several parameters: 1-Egyptian society, most particularly, Egyptian women, have been evaluated in most researches in light of politics and related issues to date. However, the social life of Egyptian women and the social conditions in which Egyptian women in particular have been raised are of high importance here.

role of women G-military role of women Questions of the research What were roles of the young Egyptian women with regard to culture, economy, society, education, politics and military matters in the Tahrir Intifada. Definition of Concepts Role: refers to a behavior that is expected of a person who has a certain standing in society. In the study, it means the behavior of Egyptian women in the Tahrir Intifada. Young Egyptian woman: referred to in the present study as Egyptian women and girl aged between 20 and 40 who were born in

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Goals of the research The goals of the present study are as follows: The main goal is to know the role of Egyptian women aged between 20 and 40 in the Tahrir Intifada. Specific goals: A-efforts to become familiar with the cultural role of women B-educational role of women C-social role of women Deconomic role of women E-pedagogical role of women F-political

289


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Egypt and at least one of their parents is Egyptian and are currently residing in Egypt. Intifada: uprising, movement and restoration Direct role of women: activities and roles women directly play in the Tahrir Intifada. Indirect role of women: activities and roles of women indirectly effective in different social, cultural, public and private areas during the Tahrir Intifada.

290

Cultural identity (cultural participation): cultural identity in the culture of the Egyptian people in light of studies and dialogue with Egyptian women with criteria such as type of veil, dialect, respect for the Egyptian flag, raising of children according to Egyptian culture, encouraging women to have babies, family bonds for maintaining generation, sanctity of the Egyptian soil as fatherland, social participation. The main criteria here are: membership in a group; employment or unemployment and type of job; hours and days during which women take part in different social, political, cultural and sports events; participation in different social arenas (religious-cultural). Economic participation: in the present study, its criteria are amount of financial contribution to the Tahrir Intifada; level of physical presence in the Intifada or giving assistance to it; level of economic participation wither directly or indirectly including working in small house workshops, making domestic products, heling the needy families and the families of martyrs and prisoners. Political participation: its criteria are presence or absence in protest marches; membership in political groups; chances of running for government posts; victory in elections; being imprisoned for political activities; membership in women's unions and political groups Religious: it includes 8 parts: saying prayers five times a day; fasting during the holy month of Ramadan; paying the zakat (alms)


and khoms (one fifth of saved income); staging jihad against oppression; sacrificing one's life in the path of God; Islamic veil (dress code); visiting relatives in Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha; participating in the prayers of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha Military: A-direct participation: direct presser on the front, giving all one's income for the Tahrir Intifada; taking part in operations and carrying arms and ammunitions B-indirect presence: cultural and social including the raising of revolutionary children, taking care of children, fighters and prisoners of war Political: toeing the line Economic: giving financial support to the relatives of the victims by raising funds; economizing and making domestic products Military: presence behind the front and giving spiritual support to the fighters and participation in the operations.

welcoming martyrdom as well as by strengthening their patriotism and forming education committees for the children. Following the Intifada, women pioneered men in moving towards the goals of the uprising by participating in popular educational committees. This is because they have stronger emotional understanding. Despite having concerns for their children, just as all mothers do, the women teach their loved ones to fight for their homeland. Social role of women: women's role becomes very important in light of the broad range of political, military, economic, social and cultural issues. The situation prompts her to try and trust in God and seek solace in spiritual matters. This has deeply affected the Egyptian family with regard to its role in society. The most important effect is the strengthening of solidarity, unity and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Roles and activities of women of Intifada Educational role: the Egyptian women encourage children to believe in Islam and defend their homeland by building culture and

291


patriotism among the members of a family and on a larger scale among all walks of life in Egypt. Women play a more active role in society. Religious gatherings at holy sites help women to further strengthen their awareness. During the Intifada, women, girls and even elderly women rushed to help the young men by chanting slogans. This participation in the revolution affected the personality of women and made them into strong and patient and helped them stand up against the enemy through patience and reliance on God.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Political role of women There has been a considerable increase in women participation in the street protests and marches across the country. They play an active role in the fight--- whether organized or spontaneous--against the regime.

292

Economic role of women Although the Egyptian revolution is moving towards people's goals, it has had dire economic consequences for the Egyptian households. Hence, the role of the young Egyptian woman has had a deep, positive effect in strengthening the economy of the Intifada and maintaining the revolution due to her mindset and thinking. Women's participation in the uprising has had different dimensions: 1-women give financial assistance to the Intifada activists by raising funds. They also help find sanctuary and food for the resistance activists. 2- women give aid to the families of the Intifada victims by raising cash and oncash assistance and distributing it among the needy and those who have lost their property.


3-women create small manufacturing workshops at homes. Most of these women have managed to lessen he financial burden of the economic embargo by growing cereals and vegetables at home. Military role of women The military role of Egyptian women in the Tahrir Intifada is divided into two categories: A-direct role-women take part in the frontline of jihad shoulder to shoulder with men. They suffer from

Egyptian women have set a good role model for other Islamic countries. If Egyptian men have always been active on the frontline, Egyptian women have proved that they can positively affect the frontline. Psychological effect The ability of Egyptian women to carry out operations with diligence has deep impression in the western countries and showed the superpowers that not only Egyptian men but the women also love their homeland. Egyptian women play a more active role in this respect compared to their physical presence.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

hardships and resist alongside men. Women have paid a heavier price than men have. This is because of the diversity of their tactics in the fighting. This is while martyrdom-seeking operations involve a limited number of women and they can be carried out by professionals who have had special training. However, a large number of women take part in indirect fighting. What they do on this front gives coherence to military and direct operations. Building culture and setting role models: the first effect of such operations is that they create a cultural current in Islamic societies.

293


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

B-Indirect role of women Dimensions of women's participation: young Egyptian women are active in different areas. Here, we take a brief look at some of the dimensions: Social dimension: Egyptian woman maintains the Intifada by strengthening the spirit of martyrdom-seeking and sacrifice in his children and by bolstering the family. The Egyptian women are hit by Israeli bombs and gunfire while sitting at home and if it were not

294

for their high self-confidence, the family would have disintegrated due to the loss of its members. Some of the women are persecuted and martyred because of their relationship with the members of resistance groups. Cultural dimension: Egyptian woman fights by keeping her identity and culture. The woman has given up worldly desires by resorting to religious teachings and spirituality. We are witnessing Egyptian women's knowing and live presence in the struggle and their high ability to make a living despite widespread and modern efforts to destroy their Islamic and national identity. Economic dimension: by shouldering the heavy burden of poverty, Egyptian women look after the injured at relief organizations without asking for wage and despite having to look after their own orphan children. Thus, we witness that the women are protecting the family and making a living and even give assistance to the Intifada by making products at home. Statistical methods: The present research uses descriptive and inferential statistics to study the role of Egyptian women in the Tahrir Intifada. Given the nature of the variables mean and standard deviation, frequency tables and graphs are given in the descriptive statistics section. The inferential statistics section uses t parameter and sign non-parameter


tests to study the research hypotheses. The Friedman ranking is used to study some of the hypotheses for the purpose of prioritizing constructive one-dimension questions. Statistical society: the statistical society involves young women aged between 20 to 40 years old living or studying in Egypt or the capital Cairo with at least one of their parents being Egyptian. Sample population: it consists of 360 young women aged between 20 to 40 years.

important references to collect data for our questionnaire. Validity of the research: the validity of the research has been verified through using the elite panel method. The panel is made up of 9 university professors of different majors such as sociology, political sociology, war sociology, revolution sociology, psychology, statistics and law. The members of the panel have verified the validity of the research after conducting studies and making changes to the study. Reliability of the research: in order to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, the reliability of each dimension has been assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Most of the dimensions of this questionnaire are reliable. Therefore, the reliability of this questionnaire is considered as acceptable.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Sampling method: the sampling method used in the present study is a two-stage one including the selection of batch and random sampling within each batch. The total of people in the statistical society is 6000 from which 360 women aged between 20 to 40 years have been selected using the Morgan table. Measuring tool: the study uses questionnaire to measure the variables. It should be noted that we have conducted interviews with a large number of men and women in the Egyptian capital Cairo to come up with main criteria for preparing the questionnaire. Moreover, we have used different documents and books as well as

295


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

The findings of the research Age: the respondents of this study between 20 and 40 years old. Education: given the results of the research, most of the respondents, that is, 180 people equaling 32 percent, hold a bachelor's degree. Only one of them is illiterate, which equals 0.3 percent of the respondents. Meanwhile, 43.1 percent of them are single while 48.1 percent

296

are married. 3.5 percent of the respondents are widowed and the remaining 6.3 percent are divorced. The fathers of most of the respondents, 76 people equaling 21.1 percent, are laborers. However, the least percentage of them---0.3 percent, are nurses, stay at home or are students. Meanwhile, the fathers of 17.8 percent of the respondents are employees, 13.6 percent teachers, 9.4 percent physicians and 5.6 percent university professors. The mothers of most of the respondents, 206 people equaling 57.2 percent, are housewives. However, the least percentage of them---one person equaling 0.3 percent, is self-employed. Meanwhile, the mothers of 13.6 percent of the respondents are teachers, 0.10 percent nurse, 1.1 percent self--employed. Most of the respondents, 104 people equaling 28.9 percent, stay at home and the least percentage---only one person, 0.3 percent--- is university professor. However, 26.7 percent are university students, 25 percent teachers and 3.3 percent nurses while 41.7 of the respondents are single. But the spouses of the remaining are students (3.9 percent), teachers (5.8 percent), employees (14.7 percent), workers (10.6 percent), physicians (1.9 percent), university professors (8.2 percent), jobless (6 percent), managers (3.6 percent), self-employed (14.4 percent). As you can see, the majority of the respondents' spouses are employees and the least percentage of them is physician while 6 percent have no jobs. The highest percentage of the respondents comes from families with


4 to 7 children (188 people or 52.2 percent) and the least percentage (84 people or 23.3percent) comes from families with 1 to 3 children. The highest number of children is related to families with 1 to 3 kids (133 people or 69.9). 72 people (35.1) have no children. Here are the general deductions from this part of the research: 1-the rate of divorce is very low (3.6 percent). 2-family policy of having more than 3 children belongs to the past. 3-willignness to continue studies and the low rate of illiteracy is

the (t) test. The result showed that safeguarding the Egyptian identity is meaningfully bigger than 3, which verifies the hypothesis number 1. Mean Ranking 88/6 6/60 7/52 7/54 2/25 7/59 2/66 2/90 3/58 Table 2

Questions Encouraging marriage and having children Type of veil and safeguarding one's identity Sanctity of Egypt's flag Sanctity of Egypt's land Safeguarding Egyptian language and accent Making efforts to raise one's children Toeing the line of the family No choice but to tolerate Undermined maternal feelings

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

indicative of the intellectual growth of the Egyptian women. 4- families are mainly of the core type and sometimes there are grandparents in families. 5-family integration is visible among the respondents. Inferential statistics Hypothesis number 1-(1) young Egyptian women stick to the norms and values of the Tahrir Intifada in order to protect their Egyptian identity. To study the hypothesis, the mean variable of safeguarding one's identity was compared to the 3 of the middle of the responses by using

297


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Table 2 shows that while 50 percent of the respondents contribute part of their income to the Tahrir Intifada, 50.6 percent of them contribute no money in terms of time to the Intifada.

298

Mean Questions Ranking 6/39 Contributing money to Intifada 5/33 Working to create house workshop 6/30 Saving some money to help the needy 5/73 Creating a manufacturing or production union 6/04 Giving assistance to the needy 5/06 Agricultural products 4/95 Providing material for preparing cake and jam 4/98 Holding livestock 5/13 Making domestic products 5/09 Making clothes at homes Table 5 Table 5 shows that the question relating to the contribution of income to the Intifada tops the ranking and that of the food is at the lowest point. Hypothesis number 3-young Egyptian women's involvement in political activities in order to achieve the goals of the Tahrir Intifada. Here is the relevant abundance table. Percentage

Number

Motive for participating in Intifada

12/5 45 Gaining personal freedom 85/0 306 Egypt's liberation 2/5 9 Achieving Egypt's goals 100/0 360 Total Table 6 As you see, most of the respondents took part in the Intifada to liberate Egypt. The findings of the rpesent study show that participation in the Tahrir Intifada is practically low. Therefore, the third hypothesis cannot be verified. However, as the table shows, participation in the Tahrir Intifada is a demand of the Egyptian women.


Hypothesis number 4-the religious beliefs of the young Egyptian women plays an effective role in persuading them to support the Tahrir Intifada and its goals. Percentage

Number

Saying prayers in mosques each month 0 Once Twice Three times Four times Total

11/4 41 39/6 142 13/4 48 10/6 38 25/1 90 100/0 360 Table 7 As Table 7 shows, the majority of young Egyptian women go to mosques for saying their prayers during a month. Table 8 shows that the religious beliefs of the Egyptian women is an effective factor in making them support and participate in the Tahrir Intifada. Percentage

Number 317 309 304 314

88.6

319

82.8 83.9 81.1 1.1 85.3 Table 8

298 302 292 4 307

Mean Ranking 2.52 2.87 2.81 1.80 Table 8

Prayers Fasting Khoms and zakat Jihad to fight tyranny Sacrificing property, one's life, one's children Islamic veil Visiting relatives in eids Participating in eids' prayers Miscellaneous All of the above

Questions Trust in God's assistance in daily life Having witnessed God's assiatnce Saying prayers Participating in eids' prayers

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

88.1 85.8 84.4 87.2

Religious beliefs

299


Hypothesis number 5-young Egyptian women's presence on the fronts in order to support the Intifada Tahrir. Percentage

Number

Strengthening morale through martyrdom-seeking operations Very much opposed Opposed No comment Agreed Very much agreed Total

.8 3 3.3 12 20.3 73 31.4 113 44.2 159 100.0 360 Table 10 As per Table 10, an overwhelming majority of the respondents have checked the choice "very much agreed".

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Percentage

Ready to die in martyrdom-seeking operations Very much opposed Opposed No comment Agreed Very much agreed Total

1.1 4 1.4 5 25.8 93 23.6 85 48.1 173 100.0 360 Table 10 As per Table 11, an overwhelming majority of the respondents have checked the choice "very much agreed". Mean Ranking 2.17 1.97 2.10 4.39 4.38

300

Number

Questions Carrying weapons Participating in martyrdom-seeking operations Presence in the frontline Strengthening morale through martyrdomseeking operations by women Ready to die in martyrdom-seeking operations

Table 12 The findings of the above tables show that young Egyptian women are ready to attend the war fronts.


Hypothesis number 6 relates to women's indirect participation in the fronts in order to support the Tahrir Intifada. Percentage

Number

Motive for participating in Intifada

7.0 25 Gaining personal freedom 64.5 231 Egypt's liberation 28.5 102 Achieving Egypt's goals 100.0 358 Total Table 13 As Table 13 shows, the majority of the respondents say they support the Tahriri Intifada to liberate Egypt. Mean Ranking 2.46

Questions Providing food and clothing for fighters

2.70

Looking after families and children of fighters

3.57 3.17

3.10 Table 14 As Table 14 shows, solidarity with the families of fighters, prisoners and martyrs has the highest ranking and providing food and clothing for the fighters has the lowest ranking. Anyways, Egyptian women's indirect participation is considerable. Hypothesis number 7 says women play a social part in the Intifada particularly the Tahrir Intifada. Percentage

Number

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Solidarity with the families of fighters and martyrs Giving financial support to the families of martyrs, fighters and prisoners Giving blood to the injured

Membership in social groups

62.8 226 No 37.2 134 Yes 100.0 358 Total Table 15 The table shows the largest percentage of the respondents are not members of social groups.

301


Percentage

Number

Membership in charity groups

45.6 164 54.4 196 100.0 358 Table 16 The table shows the largest percentage of members of charity groups. Percentage

Number

No Yes Total the respondents are

.Role in social group

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

35/6 128 Ordinary member 4/4 16 Chief or head 60/00 216 None 100/0 358 Total Table 17 The table shows 35.6 percent are ordinary members, 4.4 are chief or head of the groups and 60 percent are not members of any social group at all.

302

Deduction and analysis of the research results The quantitative findings of the questionnaire -Regarding the cultural role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women play a cultural role in the Tahrir Intifada. All the respondents consider the safeguarding to the Egyptian identity with the defined parameters as very important. -Regarding the economic role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women play no significant role in the al-Aqsa Intifada due to their low income. This is while a group of them give financial assistance to the Intifada. -Regarding the political role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women play no political role in the Tahrir Intifada.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

-As for the role of young women's religious beliefs in persuading them to support and participate in the Intifada, our findings show that religion and ideology is a main factor in strengthening the resistance, perseverance and patience of the young women at the level of family and society. -Regarding the military role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women play no role in this respect, though they are willing to attend the frontlines and are even willing to participate in martyrdom-seeking operations. However, the research has found that even if they participate in operations, these women will not tell whether they will be ready attend the fronts due to the status quo and for the sake of protecting confidential information. -Regarding the indirect military role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women sometimes play a role in this respect. -Regarding the social role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women play a role in this respect. -Regarding the educational role of women in the Tahrir Intifada as per the findings of this research, we should say that young women participate in the Intifada. Given the results of the interviews of this research: -The young Egyptian women describe the role of education as effective and significant and believe women play a more important and effective role in this regard than other individuals and institutions. -Using statistical results, essays, interviews and field researches, the present study has arrived at the following conclusions: -The Tahrir Intifada from the viewpoint of Egyptian identity: Here we see women playing a major and high-level cultural role. Besides the cultural and Egyptian identity criteria laid out in the questionnaire, one can refer to the role of verbal and anecdotal

303


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 304

literature and epic poetry as well as works of art in boosting the spirit of fighting. For example, the works of art depict women seeing of their husbands, children and other loves ones while they are going to the war or towards martyrdom. Meanwhile, a key point to which most of the respondents refer is the safeguarding of the traditions and rituals of Egypt. Finally, one can say that culture and safeguarding the cultural identity is not only effective in protecting the Tahrir Intifada, but is also vital for keeping world nations alive. The Tahrir Intifada from the political viewpoint: Here we see women are participating in the uprising. If it were not for the logistical support of women and their assistance behind the frontline, the consistency of the uprising would be hampered. Although the women are not politically active in the Intifada, participation at the high level is much different from what's happening in the sample society. For instance, were it not for the presence of women behind the frontlines and their political presence during Iraq's imposed war on Iran and afterwards, Iran might not be as it is now. It seems that given their role at both the family and social levels, if women withdraw their support for any nation's politics, the forward movement of that country will be hampered. The Tahrir Intifada from the political viewpoint: Many papers have been studied for the purpose of studying the parameters of young women's economic participation in the Intifada. All the studies verifies the participation and role of women in this regard. An analysis of the questionnaires and interviews show that are willing to provide financial support in case of a crisis. They also show that those who feel the crisis and give financial aid to the Intifada form a low percentage of the sample society. Finally, one can say that women are divided into three categories in terms of economic participation in the Intifada with regard to the criteria of this study: 1-young women who are currently do not believe the situation is critical politically and decline to give financial aid to the Intifada. 2-young women who give financial


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

support to the Intifada. 3-and young women who are willing to give financial aid to the Intifada but cannot afford it. -Tahrir Intifada from the viewpoint of religion and ideology: Melluci believes that the ideological and religious viewpoint is based on the formation of a collective identity and Thomas Green maintains that ideology plays an effective role in mobilizing the social movements and give them legitimacy and continuity. We can vividly see the role of religion and ideology in the Egyptian revolution, which was a factor in helping maintain the Intifada and struggle. Regarding Islam's view of jihad an defense and also the viewpoint of the Arab scholars including Sheikh Akramah Sabri and Sheikh Nasr Farid, the mufti of Egypt and many other great scholars including Imam Khomeini (during the Iraqi war on Iran), we consider religious beliefs as an effective factor in keeping up the revolutions including the Egyptian uprising. Speaking at the International Conference on resistance-Revolution held at the Strategic Studies Center of the Dayan University, which is affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Martin Kramer recently said Imam Khomeini regards intentional martyrdom as legitimate given the fact the Shia Islam believes Imam Hussein (Peace Be Upon Him) rushed towards death voluntarily. -Tahrir Intifada from the viewpoint of religion and ideology: Smelser's values theory says that the values individuals think they have guide them in their social actions and give shape to social behavior under pressure in the form of specific constructs. And Johnson believes that when people fail to achieve their desired values in the society where they live, the society loses its balance. He also defines internal development in the social movement and says a change in thinking and views results in a change in the social structure. Given the foregoing, we can say that we have witnessed similar points in the Egyptian revolution and it seems women's participation in the uprising is the result of the following factors: 1-Values in which the Egyptian society, most particularly Egyptian women believe (jihad against tyranny) 2-Trying to achieve the goals prompts women to take part in the Tahrir Intifada.

305


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 306

General viewpoint The common point of the economic and social views is that ideology plays a key role in creating movements and revolutions because it serves as a factor in creating solidarity or giving legitimacy to the action of the actor or the social movement and also in maintaining it. One can dare say ideology is one of the factors--and even the most effective factor----in revolutions, especially in religious revolutions. However, it should be noted that the factor of charisma and the role of charismatic leaders like Imam Khomeini and Hezbollah's leader Sayyed Hassan Narsallah, which are regarded as specific features of revolutions worldwide, are also effective and a branch of ideology. In General, we can say ideology is the most important factor affecting people's participation in movements including the Tahrir Intifada. In the end, we should not that the role of the young Egyptian woman in the Tahrir Intifada can be vividly seen at some levels. For instance, at the cultural level, all the respondents were serious about safeguarding the Egyptian identity and studies show that one of the reasons why revolutions achieve victory and move forward through history is the role women play in pursing [the goals] and supporting [the revolution]. During the Vietnam war or during the eight-year Iraqi war against Iran, we witnessed this clearly. While studying the role of Egyptian women in their revolution, we can say the cultural, social, religious and ideological as well as educational factors are criteria that have played a more pivotal role in the continuation of the Tahrir revolution compared to other factors.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

References: 1- Hamidreza Akhawan Mofrad, Ideology of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini and Islamic revolution Research Center Publications, Tehran, 2002 2-Alwin Stanford Cohen, Theories of revolution, translated by Alireza Tayyeb, Ghoms Publications, Tehran, Third Edition, 2002 3-Neil Smelser, Theory of Colelctive Behavior, translated by Reza Dozhkam, Dawavin Publications, Tehran, 2001 4-Gholamabbas Tavassoli, Sociological Theories, Samt Publications, First Edition, 1990 5-Hamidreza Jalaipour, Sociology of Social Movements With Emphasis on the Khordad 2 Movement, Tar-h-e No Publications, Tehran, 2002 6-Homeira Moshirzadeh, And Introduction to Social Movements, Imam Khomeini and Islamic revolution Research Center Publications, Tehran, 2002 7-Anthony Giddens, Sociology, translated by Sabouri, Ney Publications, Tehran, 2002 8-Keith Nash, Contemporary Political Sociology, translated by Mohamed Taghi Afrouz, Kavir Publications, Tehran, 2001 1- nada elia , this is not living , journal of middle east women studies , 2006 , p. 125 2- charlotte weber , women gender and nation, journal of women history , 2006 , p. 203 3- nadha y shehada , women negotiating family law and customary practice, 2004 , p. 103 4- nancy l stockdale , the quality of heroic living , women and education in, journal of human studies , 2003 , p. 10 studies quarterly , Belmont , 2003 , p. 107 5- Rassam , Amal , , the middle east journal , Washington , 2002 , p. 692 6- LARRY KAPLOW , women bomber , the Atlanta journal – constitution , Atlanta , 2002 , p. 3

307


Islamic Awakening in Bahrain: Government Instability and Women’s Political Functions Marjan Badi’i Aznadahi1  Seyyede Razie Mokhtari Yousef Abad2 

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Abstract The wave of political developments known as the Islamic Awakening which originated in Tunisia, in the northern Africa, reached Bahrain in its third step. Bahrain along with Azerbaijan, Yemen, Iraq and Iran are the countries with Shiite as majority while its rulers are from a Sunnite minority. What makes Bahrain’s developments different from the other Arab countries, is the Shiite women’s role and their various function in the developments. Although the Bahraini regime has tried to make some changes in the political, economic and social contexts of the nation in the recent decade, it has not been able make successful strides. Active participation by the Bahraini women in the developments has resulted in the brutal response of the Bahraini regime which claims to observe democracy and freedom. The unprecedented response brings about some questions concerning the political functions of the Bahraini women and how these functions have led to instability of the regime. The methodology used in the present paper is of an analytic-descriptive approach. Keywords Islamic Awakening, Bahrain, instability of regime, political functions of Bahrain women. 308

1 . Assistant professor of political geography 2 . M.A student of political geography


Introduction Enjoying a unique and important geographical, geopolitical and geo-economics position, a great deal of energy reservoirs and energy transfer routes on the one hand, and having common features including common religion, language, race and colonialism experience on the other hand have made the Middle East and North Africa region an interconnected territory in which occurrences, even naturally, are transmitted, very quickly. As the world’s center of gravity, the region has encountered changes rooted in demands of people including Islamists, nationalists, leftists etc. as independent from any conventional

them had suffered from colonialism backgrounds and nondemocratic states. Likewise, in spite of the lack of the necessary infrastructures in various areas, awareness development and political maturity along with taking advantage of the modern information and communication technologies have played a significant role in generalization of the recent revolutions. Inter alia, participation of women from all walks of life of the Arabic societies in people revolutions across the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa in winter 2010 has been very interesting because the different roles women play in sociopolitical movements often can transform the future of developments are taken place in the world’s political units. In Bahrain like other Arabic countries of the Middle East, women

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

organization by political unions and parties, people has been confronted directly with the governments. The considerable point is that the recent political developments have occurred in countries where are categorized as Islamic in terms of civilization and Arabic in terms of race and ethics and all of

309


alongside men ask for reforms, democracy, free elections and eventually overthrowing of Al Khalifa family, the ruling royal family of Bahrain and despite the inhumane reactions of the Bahraini rulers in misusing tools of violence and massacre, Bahraini people try to achieve their claims. The misconception of the Bahrain government that the Bahraini Shias are controlled by Iran is what fuels the violence. As a part of the western designed “Iranophobia” project in which many military bases are constructed in the regions, particularly in Bahrain, Bahraini kings spare no efforts to crack down hard on their men and women with the aim of drawing them back and consolidating

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

their instable reign. The article explains how the unstable reign of Bahraini monarchy is come true increasingly through political functions of the Bahraini women.

310

Theoretical Framework of Discussion Social Movements and Islamic Awakening Before dealing with the “Islamic Awakening”, it is necessary to bring briefly the “social movement” and its features to light. Daiani defines the social movement as “a network of the informal interactions among a number of individuals, groups and/or organizations who take part in political or cultural confrontations based on a collective and common identity”. Structurally, these movements are divided into two classes: 1. New Social Movements (NSMs), and 2) Old Social Movements (OSMs). NSMs have decentralized and unstable structure and have not any direct link and relationship with the elective currents and often are fruits of changing pattern of policy-making; but OSMs are derived from capitalism class structure which seeks for


eradicating of injustice caused by style and pattern of production, while NSMs have gone beyond the social classes and have been influenced by non-materialistic considerations and objectives (Pishgahifard, 2007). Many NSMs including feminism movements, pro-environment movements, anti-racism movements have been developed during three past decades. Most geographers believe that the international economic networks had detached people from their cultures, histories and lands and the civil society react against its inability to control people and group’s destinations. Others have attributed the transnational new social movements to development of post-materialist society and

informal interaction networks among various individuals, groups, organizations; 2) Common beliefs and correlation: An interactive collection, e.g. a social movement, needs a joint set of beliefs and a sense of belonging; 3) Conflicts: the social movements’ players come into political or cultural conflicts; 4) Protestation: Staging protestation is one of the certain characteristics of the sociopolitical movements, although it cannot be considered as a completely violent or aggressive action, it is regarded as a bohemian behavior (Mottaghi, 2009). As a result, people, groups or organizations’ informal interactions in political and cultural issues finally can bring to the fore fundamental developments in a society and its territory as rule change or instable governments may be resulted.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

people disaffection of the national governments and their inability in interacting with a multi-dimensional society (Muray, 2009). Four important specifications of social movements originated from the European and American schools of thought are: 1) Informal interaction networks: Movements can be treated as the

311


An interlocked chain of uprisings, rallies and contests in mostly Arabic countries of North Africa and southwest Asia such as Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain and Jordan and smaller levels in Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Oman, Kuwait, Morocco, Mauritania and Sudan have been started. In these uprisings people chant a main slogan, “people want to overthrow the regime” and the peak days of contests have been named as “day of wrath” or similar names. The Arab World uprisings started in December 18, 2010 in Tunisia after

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Mohammad Bu Azizi immolated himself in response to corruption and misbehavior of a Tunisian policewoman.

312

Domination of the similar condition in other countries of the region and successful results of protests in Tunisia paved the wave for repeating such uprisings in Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya and Saudi Arabia. In many cases peak days of protests have been named as the day of wrath or other similar names. Many allies of the United States in the Middle East and North Africa region that always have enjoyed from political and economic supports of the superpower have hosted such uprisings. Such popular movements in the Arabic Middle East and North Africa have been named differently by scholars, authors and politicians; Islamic Awakening, Arab Spring, Human Awakening, Islamic Resurrection, Arabic revolutions etc. are only some of them. However, the "Islamic Awakening" was the title used by the most of Iranian authors in articles about revolutions, uprisings, and contests taken place in southwest Asia and North Middle East in 2010. Some researchers believe that Islamic Awakening means resurrection in the light of the Original Islam. In other words, it is used as the


alternative for the Islamic resurrection based on which justice and all transcendental instructions and values are renewed (Islamic Development Organization (IDO), 2006), (Shiroudi, 2009). Similarly, some consider the Islamic Awakening as a social phenomenon which it refers to a condition in which the Islamic Ummah has found its lost awakening and conscience and has reached self-confidence and they pride themselves on their religious, political, economic, and thinking independence and spare no efforts to play its natural role as the best ummah for people (Adnan bin Abdullah, 2005). Although some scholars such as Jeffry Camp believe that the developments trend in this

communication technology, type and structure of governments, inequalities and sex, employment, religious discriminations are potentially strong to bring about social-cultural and political developments in the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, the Islamic Awakening is made of several factors and components which form it either internally or externally. The cultural (values, beliefs, and opinions), intellectual and judgmental components derived from the Islamic concepts are internal constructing factors while intellectual and cultural invasion of western and eastern materialistic civilizations, technological weakness, lack of committed leaders and governments towards colonialists, schismatic policies and lack of unity which form it from outside. Fundamentally, the Islamic

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

region reflects four main components: oil, market, political culture and geopolitics which have always been effective in forming changes in the current political-geographical space (Camp, 2004). However, it seems that during recent years other components such as Islamic Awakening, information and

313


Awakening is not a sudden phenomenon, but many politicians and scholars have anticipated it already. They believed in the fact that in response to trespass of foreigners and get rid of weakness and oppression of their leaders and governors, the Islamic societies will resort revolution in order to develop an advanced society and free from oppression and tyranny. For instance, in his famous work, The Future of This Religion, Sayyid Qutb, Hamed Rabie, Professor of Political Science, Smith, Professor of the Montreal University have predicted the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islamic Awakening. In his book, “The Modern Islam”, which had been published in 1950’s, Smith has attracted attention of

314

his patriot politicians to the awakening. Mono Komly Watt, a British orientalist, published a book in 1964 in which Islam during the medieval ages has been analyzed and the Islamic Awakening has been foresighted. In this book, he says, “the Islamic Awakening will become a fourth ideology which will dominate the contemporary world at the end of the 20th century.” In subsequent to the Socialistic revolution, Joganofski points to two socialistic revolutions in France and Russia and claims they had been failed at least from an aspect, “the worlds needs another revolution which is able to correct the mistakes of human path in life.” In 1929, he predicted that the uprising of the third revolution will originate only from the Muslim World (Adnan Bin Abdullah 2007). In fact, the recent changes of the Middle East are a type of the modern sociopolitical paradigm which is being increasingly developed in the Islamic civilization area. The common aspects of such developments and changes are, 1) the symbols and examples of the Islamic Awakening such as centralization of the people movements in Friday Prayer


Ceremonies and opposition with tyrant and dictatorship regimes based on the religious instruction; 2) Participation of youth at the center of such revolutions and taking advantage of the Islamic slogans such as Allahu Akbar (the God is great); 3) simultaneous participation of the public general and scholars; 4) Taking advantage of the Islamic resistance derived from the wave of developments with the aim of improving democracy, Islamseeking and livelihood of societies. Besides the above mentioned factors which are effective in developing the Islamic awakening, civil and economic demands, non-democratic and tyrant regimes and leaders, lack of the necessary infrastructures, the United

roles in launching people uprisings (Amir Abdullahian, 2011). Geographical features of Bahrain Bahrain is an archipelago of 33 islands located in the Persian Gulf and southwest Asia (Gitashenasi 2003); Saudi Arabia lies to the west and is connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway. In spite of many islands, about 33-35, its area is only 695.26 km2. Manama islands or Bahrain, Muharraq, Sitrah, Umm an Nasan, Umm as Sabban, Raka, Abumahru, Hawar (16 islands) are some of its islands (Nami, 2011). Therefore, its political geography shape is scrappy. Its unique geographical position and location at the center of the Persian Gulf has created an important strategic position for the country (Mottaqizadeh,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

States and the Zionist’s regime degrading policies against Muslim countries, improved political knowledge and maturity of people which is due to three past developments of the region, particularly the Islamic revolution of Iran, using modern communications tools are considered as factors played important

315


2005). Bahrain is also important in other aspects: its communicative position, foreign military bases, the fifth fleet of the United Stated Navy and financial-banking centers of the region (Amir Abdullahian, 2011). According to the 2009 census, Bahrain has a population of 1460000, about half of whom are expats (Amir Abdullahian, 2011, www.worldbank.org/external). According to the 2009 census, Bahrain has a population of 1046814, out which 55.5% and 45.5% were men and women, respectively (Nami, 2011). The geographical distribution of

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

population is so that about 78% of Bahrainis live in cities while the remaining 22% found villages better places for living (Bazdar, 2010). It is interesting to note that most dwellers of Bahrain are native and about 36.4% of people who live there are expats came from the Asian countries or other mations (Seyf Afjehei, 1997). According to the 2009 census, 88.3% of men and 8.6% of women of Bahrain are literate (Nami, 2011). Hence, the country is ranked as the first country in terms of literate population among other Arab countries located around the Persian Gulf (Kazemidinan, 1970). Islam is the official religion of Bahrain and most (96%) dwellers of the country are Muslim, in the same direction about 70 % of Bahrainis believe in Shia and 30% of them are treated as Sunnis; while the political power is in hands of the Sunni minority (Asadi, 2002). Political structure of Bahrain Although most Bahrainis are Shiites, the government and the political power are in hands of the Sunnis minority. Bahrain’s 316

political system is the constitutional kingdom and according to the constitution, king of Bahrain is the governor and highest authority


of the country and the rule and government is hereditary in his family and his son will be appointed as the successor of the king. The highest constitutional authority of the country is the Amir of Bahrain who elects the prime minister and the ministers (Amir Razavi, 2004). Also, Amir and the ministry of justice are the highest authority of the justice system (Nami, 2005). Bahrain’s reign completely is ruled by Al Khalifa family who manage it through autocracy (Elahi, 2005). Organizationally, the country is very broad, but since it is a small country, the central government rules over the whole regions integrally and identically (Mottaqizadeh, 2005). The current constitution of Bahrain has

parliaments: house of representatives (Majlis al-Navvab) and consultative parliament (Majlis al-Shura); each one has 40 representatives who are elected by people and the King, respectively. Bahrain parliament’s sole regulatory responsibilities are legislation and approving the annual budget and its authority is very limited (Bazdar, 2010). Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa is the king of Bahrain who took power after his father died in March 1999. Under severe internal and external pressures, he started to carry out a number of political and economic reforms. In other words, the critical state of Bahrain and the sudden death of Sheikh Isa in 1999 forced Hamad to choose one of two following ways: imposing more limitations or offering a new perspective. The latter will be followed by support of the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

been set down in 1973. In accordance with the article 32 of the constitution, Bahrain must has three main powers: legislative power, executive power and judiciary. They are independent from each other and they are not allowed to meddle in affairs of others (Seif Afjei, 1997). Bahrain parliament includes to legislative

317


foreign forces and probably it was the main reason made him decisive to follow this policy. In searching for safer places in the Persian Gulf were leaving Bahrain for Dubai. On the other hand, the American politicians, who have maintained their fifth navy fleet in Bahrain, have been informed gradually that the Sunni rulers of Bahrain need to follow some milder guidelines against the Shiite majority of the country. Joseph Adam Erely, the U.S. ambassador to Bahrain in 2006-2009, says, “we always offer the Bahrain rulers to acknowledge Shiites rights in order to establish

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

stability in the country (Herb, 1999), (Amir Abdullahian 2011). Shortly after taking power in Bahrain, Sheikh Hamad bin Isa tried

318

to adopt new policies which affected somehow the domestic condition and political state of the country and it sketched a positive outlook which revived hopes for reaching an open political space and holding a national reconciliation and has been resulted in returning many oppositions to the political and social scenes of Bahrain. Some of such new policies were reopening the parliament which have been banned by his father in 1975, abolition of the law of security crackdown, forgiving all 1000 political prisoners, compiling and holding “Bahrain National Charter” on referendum, forgiving the expatriates who have left the country for political reasons, forming the human rights committee in the consultative parliament, strengthening women’s role in elections of city councils, municipalities and parliaments 9Amir Abdullahian, 2011). As his first reformative act, King Hamad held the new national charter on referendum on Feb. 2001. The charter had been provided with several reforms such as holding free Parliament election, increasing personal freedoms, offering equal citizenship rights to all people, an independent


judiciary and predicting more social activities and voting right for women. The government immediate actions were abolishing the governmental security trial and security special rules which have been ratified in response to civil riots in 1995 (The Islamic Republic of Iran Embassy to Bahrain, 2010), (Amir Abdullahian, 2011). In spite of such developments and reforms across the country, what has scratched Bahrain’s government in the international societies is its unpleasant behavior against its citizens, particularly the Shiite citizens. The human rights activists have condemned the violation of the human rights and also the oppressive reign of Sunni rulers of this small country who are

communications has made people more informed rather many years ago and numerous human rights activists and NGOs have recorded many cases of human rights violations in this Arabic island of the Persian Gulf. In other words, even during the past years and before crackdown on people started, i.e. since 1999 when the new king was crowned and suffocation in the country became lesser, such violations were valid as before. For instance, although three elections were held in 2002, 2004 and 2010, they were all accompanied with tension and many sidelines. As most of the human rights activists and experts have stated that such reforms are trivial regarding the essential necessities felt in this country. However, such actions always have been described as important, outstanding and deserved by the United States

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

supported by Washington officials for many years. For example, according to the tens reports which are published by the American Human Rights division of the US Department of state and other civil human rights organizations, it is clear cut that Al Khalifa violates rights of his people. During recent years, globalization of

319


government as the bully supporter of Bahrain rules. For instance, Hillary Clinton’s, the US secretary of State, remarks on Dec. 3, 2010 in Manama can be referred here. In her speech, she supported these measures and according to the New York Times she was blamed and criticized by the human rights supporters for describing a beautiful picture of Bahrain. In response to such criticisms, while pointing to the positive measures of the government she said that, “I see the filled half of the glass.� However, the international society rejected her remarks and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

described trivial such measures in comparison to the rights the Sunni minority are taken advantage. Thus, imposing

320

discrimination on the deprived majority and putting them under pressure have not been something which can be resolved through reforming the political structure of the government and the Bahrain government are being threatened by instability as of yet.

Social, Political, and Cultural Position of Women in Bahrain Recent international academic studies on official policies and civil society have concluded that women are influenced decisively in all dimensions including human, economic, political, social and environmental developments and play complicated and essential role in all levels of the society. In spite of their increased participation in social activities, it has been remained unknown, non-quantitative and covert. According to the official statistics, investing in and making policies for women will be followed by important advantages in health, nutrition, education, children rights, population, social development and health, national and local policy and


democratic considerations. Like other parts of the world, role of women in the Arab societies is discussed under various titles such as “human development”, “fight to observe human rights”, and “democracy” (Sjerifa, 2003). A great deal of major discussions on Arab women drastically focus on the “feminist” or “sex and development” outlooks which are not familiar for these people. Such outlooks and perspectives are known and common across the western societies, but stereotypically they are imposed on the Arab World. Hence, they are consistent with the local needs. Substantially, women’s pivotal role is carried out in the private area rather public area and necessarily

women (Sayiegh, 1981). Bahrain women follows the way other women of the Persian Gulf region passed under the name of the Arabic-Islamic tradition, however the Bahraini women enjoy some further freedom rather the former. Women constitute 44.5% of Bahrain’s population out which 83.6% are literate (Elham Bazdar, 2010). The first women based association in Bahrain was developed by exemplary women who were volunteers to offer social services to poor people. Presently, there are four women associations in Bahrain: Children and Mothers Support Association, Bahrain’s Girls Movement, First Women Society, Women International Assembly etc. the first primary school for girls, the first guidance school for girls and the first high school

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

their roles are confined into mother and housewife routine activities. Westerners historical impressions on obedience and strange nature of Arab women is along with a unilateral viewpoint which include powerful and new concepts about secularism, human rights, culture, identity and position of

321


for girls were established in 1928, 1951 and late 1960’s respectively. During 1950’s a number of young Bahraini girls transferred to Beirut with the aim of completing their education; they are now active in various classes of the society as teachers, nurses etc. Bahraini women found their way into the private schools since 1991-1992 and the girls who enrolled in such schools were increased considerably until 1997 (Seif Afjei, 1997). Except Saudi Arabia, all Persian Gulf littoral states have taken numerous strides to increase participation of

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

their women in the higher education system and this trend is being facilitated and accelerated over time (Emami, 2001). In

322

Bahrain, women constitute over 60 to 65% of university students and according to the latest report of the United Nations, in average 24 percent of the Bahraini women take part in the economic activities (Emami, 2001). In Bahrain, most women prefer to take part in teaching, nursing, technical and occupational fields which they avoid as far as possible from administrative and service works. For elections of the local councils and Parliaments, it is worthy to say that Bahraini women are allowed to vote according to their constitution (Seif Afjei, 1997). Before referendum of Feb. 14, 2001, Bahraini women were not allowed to vote, but after the referendum they were allowed to vote (Bazdar, 2010). Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa’s reforms in 2001 opened the space for women participation in important executive and political areas. Ms. Nada Ahfad was the first lady in Bahrain history who appointed as the minister of health. In 2006, a juristic woman, Mona Jassim Al-Kuwari, was appointed by the Bahrain king as


the senior judge which was an unprecedented act in Persian Gulf littoral countries (Kazemi Dinan, 1970).

Sociopolitical movements in Bahrain Focusing on Women All in all, for many reasons Bahrain has witnessed numerous religious, political and social turbulences through its history. “Identity Crisis” is one of the most causes for such turbulences. Because this island has become the headquarter of a tribe or clan once in a while. Before gaining its independence, Bahrain has experienced many rebelions including Khawarij uprising in 572

public rebellion of Bahrainis against the Al Khalifa reign was taken place in March 1895. Putting the aggressive ideas of Charles Dalrymple Belgrave, the British advisor of Bahrain King, into force caused the first general strikes in 1938 (Mojtahedzadeh, 1990); these rebellions and strikes finally had been succeeded in 1972 through approving the constitution and formation of the national parliament. However, the achievement did not last more than a year and the time king abolished the parliament and suspended the constitution 9Bohrani, 2008). Similarly, a movement with the aim of adjudicating women’s rights and freedom was started in 1970’s (Hamedani, 2003). Interestingly, Bahrain’s political movements in 1980’s, which have been inspired by the Islamic revolution of Iran,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

A.H, Sahib al-Zanj rebellion against Abbasids in 3rd A.H and the Qarmatians revolution in 286 A.H. when British Empire touched the Persian Gulf region, Bahrainis rebellions took another shape and form. In fact, Bahrain’s political and social rebellions started when the British colonialism established its domination in Bahrain thorough concluding a contract in 1892 (Bohrani, 2009). The first

323


got intensified in 1990’s (Barzegar, 2001). As the representative of all opposition groups and parties, the Islamic Movement for Bahrain Liberation, offered a scroll including national discourse, opening parliament, returning to the constitution and granting public freedoms and women participation in the political decision makings and taking advantage of their capacity. The most important movement after developments in 1994 and 1995 was the constitution movement which had been focused on gaining political and civil rights for women in order to achieve the democratic

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

condition (Hamedani, 2003). When Sheikh Isa died in 1999, his son Sheikh Hamad took positive strides to perform political

324

reforms in the country. Besides such measures which have improved the political dominant atmosphere in the country, he hoped that the election system of the city councils will be revived through making condition for participation of women until 1999. He also emphasized his decision or forming a consultative parliament with 40 representative including 4 women and a Christian Bahraini. It was the first time for woman to have seats in the parliament that has been established since 1992. The Supreme National Committee, which has been established for laying down the “National Covenant�, announced its agreement with reviving the parliament, changing government to kingdom and the right for women to be candidate for the parliament election and take a good measure towards a modern society through respecting women position in Bahrain society. The national Covenant was put on referendum in Feb. 2001 and 18.4% of people including women who could vote participated in it (Abdureza Hamedani). Therefore, dislike the elections in 1973, women could vote in elections of 2001; however, no woman candidate was elected for being the


parliament representative (Amir Javaheri, 2003). Likewise a group of the Bahraini women headed by Lulu Al-Awazi, a member of the national covenant committee, participated in a gathering called, “woman and politics”, which has been held in early June 2001 in Bahrain. Meanwhile, in order to give women their political and social rights, Manama hosted “Woman and Law” seminar headed by Bahrain’s queen, Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa. It is clear that Bahrain has taken quick steps, including defining new rights for women, towards installing democracy (Hamedani, 2003). However, unfortunately, the discriminative nature of the political function of the government on its citizen, particularly Shiites,

sociopolitical endeavors and measures in the Bahrain society. Here, it must be emphasized that women didn’t play important roles in past popular rebellions in Bahrain and their major activities were confined to participating in rallies. In parallel with incidents taken place during 1952 to 1956, Bahraini women gradually spanned their activities out which writing articles in press and participating in the student protests, rallies, membership in the supreme executive board in 1955 can be enumerated. As a result, the number of the literate Bahraini women was increased and many women who have been graduated from foreign universities returned their country and joined the political parties. Bahrain’s Girls Movement was the first female association developed across the Persian Gulf littoral countries in 1995. In

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

prevented the formation of the bedrocks necessary to develop a civil society. What has been pointed out so far was based on granting rights and or positions to the Bahraini women, however, reaching these rights or taking social responsibilities depend on women’s

325


1970’s, with regard to development of the national parliament of Bahrain which to which women were banned for being candidate, Bahraini women wrote many scrolls for the King and asked him to let them take part in political activities and become candidate for parliament. Political activities of the Bahraini women continued until 1990’s. In a scroll signed by 25000 Bahrainis in 1994, women played significant role, as about 20% of signers of the scroll were women. Bahraini women submitted independently a scroll to the King of Bahrain in 1995 which have been endorsed

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

by 313 women from every walks of life of Bahrain. Their most important request in this scroll was reviving democracy and the

326

political participation right for the Bahraini women. The government had severely creaked down on the signers of the scroll, as three women who didn’t retreat from their claims were fired from their jobs. In response to women’s movement, the government detained many of them and tortured them physically and psychologically, as many women have been killed in rallied and rebellions (Bohrani, 2008). Hence, the active presence of women is treated as a new and unprecedented phenomenon in Bahrain. Findings Political functions of women and governmental instability in Bahrain Local and international reports from Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya and Syria practically have emphasized the key role played by the women during the Islamic Awakening. Very broadly, the educated and experienced physicians, lawyers, university professors, teachers a great deal of the unemployed university


graduates joined the women protestors in streets through internet and discussed about the related issues and helped the protestors. Therefore, it is completely obvious that unlike the western and conventional regional considerations of Arab women as individuals whose only concerns are their family, a new form of such people has been emerged (Sayiegh, 1981). Bahrain witnessed the overwhelming presence of the protestors who showed their wrath on the political structure and discriminative policies of Al Khalifa government via rallies. These protests which are mainly held by the Shiite majority of Bahrain have a long root in the country and date back at least

minority has severely cracked down on the uprisings (Mousavi, 2010). The main requests and demands of protestors were political reforms and removing economic and social discriminations. They also insisted on some pivots such as elective government, freedom of press, removing religious discrimination and the right to hold political assemblies and organizations (Niakoui, 2010). Unlike other Arabic-Islamic uprisings, Bahrain’s revolution had two distinctive features from other protests: 1) worldwide boycott by the Arabic and western media; 2) Outstanding presence of Bahraini women and girls in all street rallies and even field confrontations. In Bahrain, women were among the first groups who had been gathered around the LuLu Square of Manama and asked

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

two decades ago. Bahrainis’ rebellions wee revived along with protests wave in North African countries such as Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia and has covered the entire country particularly Manama as the capital city of Manama. In response to the protests, the Bahraini government which belongs to the Sunnis

327


for development and change. Bahrain movement was led mainly by Zeynab Khawaja who went on hunger strike in protest against beating and detainment of her family (Farzaneh Milani,14 jun2011). In fact, except Bahrain, no other country experienced such massive presence of women as the revolutionary forces; it can be demonstrated through counting the great number of detained and tortured Bahraini women. In reaction to very aggressive and violent behavior of the government including detaining and torturing

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

nurses and physicians, assail to girls schools and detaining students and teachers, night attack to protestors’ houses with the poisonous

328

gases and destructing them. They took part in all integrated and crowd lines of protests along with men. Despite the savage behavior of Al Khalifa hirelings against Bahraini women, the movement kept out from other similar Arabic protests and became a very active and dynamic current in fights, as women like men started street challenges (www.charghad.ir). Since women have played a significant role in formation of the Islamic Awakening, particularly in Bahrain, the Bahrain government intends to withdraw people from continuing the protests through menacing chastity and privacy of women (www.armansepehr.blogfa.com). According to the announced statistics, many Bahraini women become innocent victims of the uncontrollable violence of Al Khalifa which has been published in UN Notification. Over 100 Bahraini women have been detained by the intelligence machine of Al Khalifa so far which is an unprecedented fact in history of the country. Among the detained women, several well known faces can be seen including Dr. Khalud al-Darazi, one of the best gynecologists of the Persian Gulf region, Mela al-saffar, the Head


of Alsafar society of Bahrain, Jalila Salman, the vice president of Bahraini women association and Ayat al-ghermezi, the young Bahraini poet, who have been detained and tortured by Al- khalifa regime (www.charghad.ir). According to the Bahrain Al-vefaq society, still 11 women including Neda Seif are in detainment (www.armansepehr.blogfa.com). Bahrain’s Human Rights Center announced, “Applying unprecedented violence in the country not only has killed and wounded many people, but also it has resulted in disability and irreversible injuries, particularly in pregnant women. Just between March to November 2011 about 21 abortions have been reported to this center which have occurred because

Khalifa are the main victims of violence against women in this country (www.iranwomen.org). While pointing out to detainment of four Bahraini women because of holding a peaceful sit-in against the Ministry of Interior building in Manama, Bahrain Al-vefaq society said, “It was done in continuance of conducting revenge policy based on which tens of women have been detained and tortured (www.armansepehr.blogfa.com). For her part, the responsible for women affairs of Bahrain Al-vefaq society said that the Bahraini women encounter with various forms of human rights violation such as detainment, menace to rape, death and torture by Al Khalifa forces (www.wafa.ir). Awakening and revolution currents are one of the components which bring the women role into focus. Sheikh Yusuf al-Qardawi, Qatari Salafids Leader,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

using poisonous gas, tear gas and other crackdown tools in various areas (www.teriboon.ir). With regard to their key role in the Islamic Awakening movement, Bahraini women have been condemned to bear great suffering from Al Khalifa dictator regime. The Bahraini women who have been raped by the Saudi forces in jails of Al-

329


supported Al Khalifa and issued indirectly the approval for raping Shiite women in Bahrain which is another sign of violence against Bahraini Shiite women. Another weapon Al Khalifa uses to prevent women from participating in protests is unveiling women (www.farsnews.com). The broad presence and even sometimes leading protests is the fact that only takes place in Bahrain. The passionate presence of Bahraini women poets in protests and encouraging people to protest against oppression of Al Khalifa, detainment of Ayat al-Ghermezi and hirelings’ misbehavior against

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

40 Bahraini shiite women against opposition with the engineered parliamentary elections followed by a new wave of protests

330

including sit-in clergymen, hunger strike of prisoners and broad rallies. They are other signs of political participation of women in the recent sociopolitical movement. Therefore, we see that Bahraini women are the main victims of the organized crimes of Al Khalifa and have played active and undeniable roles in revolution of the country and have not left the fighting fields in spite of sever crackdowns. These women have gathered in LuLu square since Feb. 14, 2011 and several women have been martyred so far (www.wafa.ir). Statistically, there are unbelievable statistics about human rights violations against Bahraini women. Here a brief report of such violations is proposed: 100 women have been detained in Al Khalifa jails; about 35 women prisoners have been condemned for political activities against the government, most women who have been detained by Al Khalifa forces had high ranking social positions and education in Bahrain; 11 women physicians were condemned to imprisonment, 10 women teachers were condemned to imprisonment, 21 abortion cases have been reported; 8 women have been killed, many cases of physical and


psychological tortures (www.farsnews.com). Eight great Bahraini women martyrs are: 1) Behieh Abdulradi, the first Bahraini woman physician who were martyred in Qadam region through shooting bullet in head (Ganjineh Majma, 2011) (report of Bahrain 2011); 2) Khadija Mirza Abbas Abdulhadi who has been martyred because of inhaling tear gas in April 25, 2011 report of Bahrain 2011); 3) Zeynab Al-Tajer who has been martyred because of inhaling tear gas (Al-alam); 4) Zohreh Salih Muhammad, a 27 years old girl who had been martyred by beating an iron bar on her head (tribun); 5) Fakhriyeh Jasim Eskaran who has been martyred because of inhaling tear gas (www.inrn.ir); 6) Jawahir Abdulamir Kutiani, one

the recent rebellions in Bahrain as “women revolution in Bahrain”. Therefore, the most important political functions of Bahraini women are as follows:  Participating in street protests and changing urban political space outlooks;  Making speeches in public gathering in order to awake and improve people’s political knowledge;

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

of Bahrain university students who had been martyred because of head injuries; 7) Azizeh Hasan, a 24 years old woman who had killed by Al Khalifa forces in her home and another woman who had been martyred during the recent contentions. The statistics and active presence of women in it is so eye-catching that we can name

 Supporting, caring the injured people during protests;  Active presence in cyberspace and information dissemination about demands and claims of people and informing people on cruel behavior of the government against protestors;

331


 Active participation in the human rights field;  Field confrontation with military forces and militia in spite of numerous physical and physiological wounds;  Resisting against the government through bearing imprisonment and torture, practicing sit-ins and hunger strikes;

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

 Standing against religious fatwas issued by some Sunni and Wahhabi clergies on raping and unveiling Shiite women. Following silence policy by governments and media which

332

introduce them as pro-human rights activists toward human massacre in Bahrain is what irritates any free-thinking human being. For instance, the United States silence against Bahrain human rights problems is so that all world pro human rights organizations have criticized such silence. Particularly what the Bahrain government performs against physicians and medical workers is an unprecedented record in human rights violations history. Richard Sollom is Deputy Director at Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) condemned crackdown on doctors and nurses. The U.S. silence policy in this issue brings the U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East Region under a bug question. Bahraini women has acted so that the foundations of the Bahraini government are being shaken now and Al Khalifa will never be able to restore the control of its society as same as before.


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Conclusion The social movement is defined as a network of the informal interactions among a number of individuals, groups or organizations that enter the political and cultural contestations based on a common and joint identity. Hence, the Bahraini women are individuals who form a consolidated network of the informal interactions based on some common features such as sex, religion, education level and they try to achieve some common objectives such as social justice, removing discrimination, freedom of expression and reforms. Regarding the Bahraini women features including 1) over 44.5% of Bahrain population are women; 2) over 80% of Bahraini women are literate, 3) Most Bahrainis are Shiite and enjoy a same ideology; 4) Great experience in sociopolitical activities during recent years and their active participation in the society; 5) Massive presence in peaceful protests; 6) shocking statistics on detainments, psychological and physical tortures, threatens1, rapes, broad dismissals, imprisonment and murder; 7) Active presence of girls and their hijab. Such features reflect the outstanding presence of Bahraini women in rallies and protests against Al Khalifa regime. More than 800 women have been detained, more than 100 women have been imprisoned and more than 40 women have been condemned to bear imprisonment for acting political oppositions and more than 8 women have been martyred cruelly. Reading the small population of Bahrain, such statistics are shocking and it cause indispensable damages to the government as neither military supports of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates nor supportive policies of the United States and its allies cannot refine them, because recent experiences of the Middle East and North African Arabic countries have demonstrated failure of unpopular and tyrant governments.

333


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers 334

References  Asadi, Bijan, Persian Gulf and Its problems, Samt publication, 2002  Elahi, Homayun, Persian Gulf and Its problems, Qumes, 2005  Emami, Muhammad Ali, the internal effective factors of the Persian Gulf, Political and International studies department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2001  Amir Abdullahian, Hussein, failure of the great Middle East plan and Islamic awakening movement in the Arab world: Case study: Bahrain, strategic studies journal, 14th year,vol.2, 2011  Bazdar, Elham, Bahrain, Tehran, Amir Kabir publication, 2010  Bohrani, Morteza, Bahrain sociopolitical movements, Andishesazan Noor Research Center, first edition, 2002  Barzegar Keyhan, effective factors of the new policies in Bahrain, Foreign Policy journal, 15th year, vol.3 , 2001  Jade, Otomanil, Bahrain Intifada and the Political Reforms Trend in Bahrain, Political Sciences journal, Middle East studies, 2003  Jones, Martin et al. , an introduction on the political geography, Tehran University publication, 2007  The geographical organization of the armed forces, Persian Gulf geopolitics, focusing on Shiites, The geographical organization of the armed forces publication, first edition, 2008  Seif Afjei, Masumeh, Bahrain, Political and International studies department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997  Shirudi, Morteza, Islamic Revolution and Islamic Awakening (effects and samples), The Islamic Revolution Journal, 5th year, vol. 16, 2009  Tolui, Mahmoud, Politics Glossary, Tehran, 1998  Adnan bin Abdullah, Al-qahtan, Islamic Awakening and Its contemporary thinking needs (first part) Rah-e Nejat newspaper, no. 743, 2007  Kazemi Dinan, Morteza, reasons for Shiites uprising in south Persian Gulf region, Shiitology publication, 1970  Ganjineh Majma, a quick look to 7 months resistance in Bahrain, vol. 52, 53 ,54, 2010  Mottaqizadeh, Zaynab, political geography of the Persian Gulf Shiites, 2005  Mottaqi, Ebrahim et al., terrorism and new sociopolitical movements, Politics magazine


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

 Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz, Geoplitical ideas and Iranian facts, Nashr Ney, 1990  Mofid al-zeidi, democratic development signs in Bahrain, from Emirate to constitutional kingdom, Political science journal, Middle East studies, 2003  Murray, Warwick A., the globalization geography, Tehran, Chapar publication, 2009  Geography, cartography institute, world’s countries information, first edition, 2003  Moosavi, Seyed Fazlullah et al., Analyzing the chase and irritation under recent events, the legal international affairs of the presidential entity, 2010  Mir-Razavi, Firouzeh, Ahmadi Lafouraki, Behzad, the Persian Gulf guidem Tehran Abrar institute, 2004;  Nami, Muhammad Hasan, Shami Gharachehloo, Abulfazl, Bahrain, Shahid Sayyad Shirazi Research center, 2011  Niakoui, Amir, Recent Developments in the Middle East and North Africa, different roots and outcomes, Foreign Relations journal, 3rd edition, vol.4, 2011  basuoni.sharif.report of the Bahrain independent commission of injury .november 2011  http:,www.charghad.ir  http:www.farsnews.com.neswstext.php  http:www.rajanews.com.detail .aspid  http:www.rajanews.com.detail .aspid  http:www.teribon.ir  http:www.static.mihanblog.com  http:mehravehyeasr.com.index.php.book  http:assad nohamadi .blogfa.com.post  http:rasekhoon.net.article.show-97972.aspx  http;iranwomen.org.pags.defult.aspx  See the Op-Ed piece by Farzaneh Milani in the New York Times on Saudi Arabia’s Freedom Ridsrs (14 Jun 2011 )  Sayiegh, Resemary,(1981),Roles and Functions of Arab Women: A R eappraisal,Arab studies Quarterly,3,3,(258-274)  Sherifa, Zuhur, (2003), women and empowerment in the Arab World, Arab studies Quarterly, 25,4(17-38)

335


The Islamic Awakening, the Task of the Women, and the Principles and Basics of Dynamism and Durability 

Izzat Al-Sadat Mirkhani1

َ‫«وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ مِلَّة‬ ْ‫أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَفِي هَذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُم‬ »ِ‫وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاس‬

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

[And strive for Allah with the striving due to Him. He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you "Muslims" before [in former scriptures] and in this [revelation] that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people] (Al-Haj: 78)

Abstract One of the major tasks of the Muslim women in the Islamic awakening is giving a clear explanation of their identities and tasks according to the valuable principles and basics of the glorious monotheistic thinking. The illustrative message “ْ‫[ ”يَو أَهْاَ الْكِتَوبِ قًََولَاْا‬O People of the Scripture, come to…] (Ali Imran: 64), which is based on human dignity, servitude to Allah, and freedom from captivity and enslavement, is indicative of the above-mentioned task of women in the global scene. According to the thinkers from different nations, the identity crisis prevalent in the world today is due to the domination of humanist, liberal, and secular ideologies over the world. Such domination has led to the passivity, and intellectual and mental inanition of the humans. Contrary to what dominant politicians believe, the thinkers maintain that observing moral principles and paying attention to spirituality are the most reasonable ways for getting out of the deadlock. In order to satisfy this collective need of the human beings, one can only turn to the comprehensive orders of Islam.

336

1 Member of the Department of Women Studies – Tarbiat Modares University


In spite of the global propaganda against Islam, this religion is effective in managing the lives of the humans and satisfying the everyday needs of them. This has provided a desirable ground for the promotion of the powerful Islamic culture. It should be noted that the wise struggles of the Muslims, especially the women, were influential in the preparation of this ground. Now after an endless waiting, the great struggles and the red bloods of the martyrs seem to reach the desirable state of success. Therefore, it is necessary to

of deviation, hybridization, inanition, and obstruction. In so doing, the above-mentioned concerns, the current situation of the world, the principles, goals, and basics of the religion and the unique and symbolic pattern of Islam are taken into account. Keywords Muslim Women, Global Changes, Islamic Awakening, Principles of Dynamism, Basics of Durability, Patterns of Resistance, Barriers to Intuition

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

design proper tactics and make the needed efforts according to the theoretical and practical teachings of Islam so that the achievement of the ultimate and high goals of the Abrahamic religions becomes possible. Such tactics and efforts should be based on the task and the position of the “just nation” (‫ )أُمَّو َوسَطو‬and the “the best of the nations” (ِ‫يتْ لِلنَّوس‬ َ ِ‫ ;)كُنتُمْ قَاْاَ أُمَّوٍ أُقْا‬they should be in accordance with the responsibilities specified by the Qur’an. In this paper, an attempt is made to identify the task of the Muslim women in three areas for other nations based on the dynamic and durable nature of the sacred religion of Islam, and free from any form

337


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Introduction "You, ladies, have a message for the world. Make this message accurate and certain and then give it to the world. [The] message is not merely oral or written. It's practical….your very existence can be shown as an example of Islam's global message." The leader of Iran's Islamic revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (1989) When human beings enter in an accurate way the field of Islamic teachings and the divine law system, especially the field where goals and main religious objectives and criteria as well as the collective expediencies and corruptions are expressed in Islam, they realize that the high objective of the religion is not merely growth of humans and their spiritual and materialistic development in different fields. Each Muslim has a global and comprehensive mission that will lead to high social objectives and principles and will help create collective unity in the society. The key point here is the configuration of legislature based on collective correction and globalization of religious objectives as a universal declaration of Islam. The declaration has been expressed frequently with clear words in the form of general principles and tenets its realization is one of the most important tasks of the selected Muslim Ummah that is demanded by the legislator, that is, God or creator of the universe. Such messages as "And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)?Men, women, and children, whose cry is: َ‫«وَمَا لَكُمْ ال تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِِّجَالِ وَالنِِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُون‬ »‫رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ نَصِيرًا‬ "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are 338

oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!"1; such messages depict the responsibility of the Islamic Ummah in the face of oppression


imposed on human society. And Islamic Awakening is a prelude to the realization of this key responsibility. Hence, one can say one of the reasons why Islam is attractive to human beings and why it's so consistent and enduring is the very unique characteristic, which is strengthened by the principle of jihad or fighting the enemies and rejecting oppression. A school whose monotheistic principle is realized through rejecting the evil and the condition for faith in God is disbelief in satanic powers and is based on » َ‫«قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِِّ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُْْق‬ "Whoever who reject evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy handhold"2 and thanks to its rich and consistent culture has a set of principles that guarantees independence, power and dignity as well as prosperity both in this world and the hereafter and a school that is governed by such principles as »‫«االِسالم يعلوا و ال يعلي عليه‬ »‫«وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَ النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا‬ "Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves"5 clarifies their collective mission and religious identity and such concepts as »َ‫«وَلِلَّهِ الْعِزَّةُ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِين‬ "Honour belongs to Allah and His Messenger, and to the Believers"6 gives them a divine power and clout that is close to dignity and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

"Islam goes up and it cannot be left behind by anything"4 and

»‫«وَلَنْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيال‬ "And never will Allah grant to the unbelievers a way (to triumphs) over the believers" 7 forbids any domination by the infidels and any obedience to the arrogant powers and God accompanies the secret of divinity with the prayers of resistance and

339


purges their inside of any sadness given the depth of faith therein. With rejection verses like »َ‫«يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ال تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاء‬ " O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors)"8, it clarifies the border between the righteousness and falsehood, truth and error, light and darkness, and finally friendship enmity and with

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

»َ‫«هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَ الدِِّينِ كُلِِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُون‬

340

"It's He who hath sent His Apostle with guidance and the Religion of Truth that he may proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest"9 it decide the global source of uprising and the final destination of the eternal religion and gives proof of the sacred struggle of Muslims so they will never become weak. Thus, a movement, which is based on awakening and waking up all others, is an integral part of Islam. On this basis, God continuously entrust the Muslim Ummah with a great mission that is based on all lofty ideas so His true caliph on earth will pave the way for this great goal and magnificent event. Therefore, a comprehensive planning and carefulness about the future based on vigilance, awareness and consultation are necessary for all Muslim women and men to respond to this divine call. On the other hand, satisfying the needs of human society and the dealing with challenges facing them make such gatherings necessary for this divine mission in the world. The revalorization of waiting and of righteousness' victory over falsehood in the world, which is one of the true ideas of the divine prophets, is contingent on paying attention to this issue. The key point is that the enemies of freedom have tried for centuries to distort the truth about the efficiency of Islam and the capability of this human-making school to give human beings dignity. They have separated religion from politics, the world from the hereafter, rationality from servitude to God, and knowledge


and science from religious studied and have tried to portray a negative image of any movement which is based on religious beliefs and Islamic ideology. However, according to divine pledge, the bell of the awakening of nations rang after the rise of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and afterwards the popular movements were triggered by the oppressed nations of the world. The movements were maintained by the shouts of the free men and women and the red blood of the martyrs guaranteed the continuation of this divine

struggle of our predecessors and has now reached this point. Today, Islamic Awakening's goal is to revive the Islamic values and restore the dignity of Muslims in the world. However, the movement should maintain its path based on pure Islamic identity until it reaches the point promised by God that »َ‫«وَنُرِيدُ أَنْ نَمُنَّ عَلَ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا فِي األرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ أَئِمَّةً وَنَجْعَلَهُمُ الْوَارِِْين‬ "And we wished to be gracious to those who were being depressed in the land, to make them leaders (in faith) and make them heirs"10. A requirement for this awakening is vigilance, unity, planning and prudent moves by all walks of life in the Islamic world most particularly women, who constitute half of the Muslim Ummah.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

uprising. And the enemies, which until recently declared themselves as victorious, are now on the defensive thanks to the wave of Islamic Awakening and resort to any trick because they are feeling the danger. Today, the shouts of the Islamic Awakening bring glad tidings of "Truth has (now) arrived, and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish." Today, our unity and clout and planning and rational and confident movement are keys to facilitation and gradualism in this bumpy road. Islamic Awakening, which is a collective, popular, dynamic and consistent movement, is the fruit of centuries of suffering, hardship, jihad and

341


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islam and revival of women's respectable life in three basic areas The rise of Islam has been a turning point in history as far as women's life is concerned. The images of the ignorance era and the peak of oppression and violence and imposition of one's willpower on women and denying them their rights, even the right to life and spirituality; these are nothing that people are do not know about. The notorious practice of burying girls alive to imitate the Jews, along with the foregoing, is a dark chapter in the history of mankind,

342

which took place during the ignorance era. However, the great uprising of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) brought about a fundamental change in the Arab society of that time and was a confrontation with any ignorant mindset whether in its early form or in the modern day. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) took measures to restore the rights of women in a realistic and value-oriented way in three areas:1-Women's private life 2-Society by carefully deciding limits and borders 3-At the international level as a global role model. First area: Private life and reviving human life in the family An unprecedented action by the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in the private life of women to restore their rights in the family and to determine their place as the base and root and oum [Arabic for mother] was the first effort on part of the prophet to restore the rights and true dignity of women. This was a turning point in the whole human history. Despite the notorious culture of that time which was replete with views that undermined women, the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) both in practice and theory depicted a different picture of women in the family with regard to their personality and security as well as their dignity, of which some features appeared in such Quranic verses as »ُ‫«فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّه‬


"Therefore the righteous women are devotedly obedient and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard"11. In this verse and similar verses God the Almighty mentions some positive aspects and parameters of women in the form of Quranic news. This is despite the fact that women had always been humiliated throughout history. The reason for this could be: 1-Perhaps, Allah sought to show the valuable standing of women from the viewpoint of Islam. 2- Allah sought to outline their role in

values in her and even such characteristics as bravery and firmness begins in her in a hidden fashion and this is the essence of »‫«حافِظاتٌ لِلغَيب بِما حَفِظَ اهلل‬ "And guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard"12. The way the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) treated her daughters, especially his treatment of Fatemeh Zahra (Peace Be Upon Her), his kissing of her hand and the hands of other his daughters, his deploring of inhumane and rough behavior treatment of girls, and his showing respect to his daughter with ‫«فياهو‬ »‫" أحاهو‬May her father die for her"13 and his repeating of such frequent statements to reject the ignorance era culture as »... ‫«البنات هنِّ المشفقات المجهّزات المباركات من كانت إبنهٌ واحدهٌ جعلها اهلل له سترا من النار‬

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

the family with the realization of their valuable characteristics. 3-Allah wanted to tell women that their consenting to this was acceptable. This means that pious and wise women always obey the rules of God because of their divine raising and they also do their responsibilities in the family in light of their great servitude to God and all these characteristics help safeguard values of a healthy self and the prosperity of a generation because life is maintained within the existence of women and the persistence of values depends on the persistence of their prosperity. This means that the piety and health of an individual and society originate from the existence of human

343


"Girls are kind, bring men their equipment and are blessed and whoever has only one girl, God will make him a shield from fire"14;

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

»‫ البنات محبّباتٌ و البنون مبشِّراتٌ و هنِّ الباقيات الصالحات‬،‫«رحم اهلل أبا البنات‬

344

"God is kind to fathers of girls; girls are lovely and boys bring good tidings, and they all are good things men leave behind"15; all these show cultural and educational developments with regard to girls. There are other instances of the prophet's good treatment of women including showing love and kindness to his wives and showing tolerance when his wives had illogical expectations of him; his frequent recommendations that men should be kind to their wives in privacy and should serve them and should avoid any violence in dealing with them; appreciating his wives' efforts and assistance, especially hailing Hazrat Khadijah as long as she was alive and expressing gratitude towards her for his services to the prophethood as she was the first lady who believed his prophethood; stressing the necessity of showing respect to women and wives and this hadith from the prophet that »‫«ما أكرمهنِّ إال كريم و ما أهانهنِّ إال لئيم‬ "Great men respect women and petty ones insult them"16; all these instances and many others show how the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and his successors treated women. An ominous event is taking place: the world is suffering from a plague with regard to the issue of women and family and is moving downhill at high speed towards an abyss. This is happening because after the enlightenment era, women were emancipated only in terms of their body. She has now turned into a tool to facilitate the work of capitalists and to help them achieve satiate their greed and their sexual desire. Individualism, slavery to sexual desires and escaping from responsibility, purging private life of love and friendship, priority of sexual rights over observance of ethical limits, and finally


separating women from their emotional bonds have paved the way for the destruction and weakening of the family. And easy divorce, an increase in the number of children with only one parent, lack of identity as to parents, etc. are all the result of modernity for women in the family. However, Islam believes that starting a family is one of the most beautiful aspect of nature and considers marriage as a divine contract and a matchless worship. It also regards divorce as one of the ugliest acts and says family's integrity can guarantee the

the name of freedom and human rights and in the name of equality and democracy. On the other hand, women as divine human beings were put on the agenda of the global arrogance as a political and economic tool and all these are imposed on humanity under the guise of hypocrisy and tow-faced-ness. The pace with which this happened has worried scholars in societies a lot. Ayatollah Motahari describes the situation in the modern day in this way: "What are the most distinguished feature and the most exposed phenomenon or our age and what are the biggest factories of or times? The biggest phenomenon of our age is hypocrisy. Hypocrisy means one says one thing and acts in other ways. This is a gap between heart and tongue that is evident in today's human being. This is a gap between the outside and inside. A gap between claim and act. A gap between

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

health of a generation, self and wisdom as well as health of this world and the hereafter. With its supplementary theory, Islam laid the groundwork for mutual life based on love and bilateral protection, facilitation and fitness, trust and belief, love and sacrifice, friendship and compassion. In the modern day, this base was threatened and badly damaged by the greed and interests of the arrogant powers. Equalist and sex-oriented ideas, such currents and movements as feminism were imposed on humanity and sexual interaction replaced human interaction and it engulfed the realm of interaction and struggle in

345


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

words and action. In which age, claims have been made about ethics, peace, security, freedom, humanity and human rights? In which age, these concepts have been played with and used as toys?... How much has the world progressed in terms of humanity and human ethics compared with these scientific and technological advancements? [It has progressed] not even a single step. This could not be achieved by science and technique. It can exclusively be achieved by faith"17.

346

The elader of Iran's Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyeyd Ali Khamenei says: "The reason why Islam attaches so much importance to women's role in the family is that if women are committed to the family, show love [for it], cares about raising and educating children,‌ if they meet the children cultural needs including stories, religious rules, Quranic stories, constructive stories, ‌..then generations will achieve their deserved growth in the society. This is a woman's art and is not at odds with teaching, working, entering politics, and so on"18. Second area: Islam and the efforts of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in resorting the social life of women The second stage was the prophet's effort to give the social rights of women back to them and allow them to decide their fate through their civil rights based on respect and human character. Many instances of how the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) approached women in this regard have been recorded in history book of different Islamic sects: accepting cooperation from women and appreciating their efforts and assistance, accepting the efforts and sacrifices of women like Somayyeh, Oum Sharik, Oum fadhl, Oum Salameh and Aysha and encouraging them to participate in the scientific, cultural, political and social areas. Women were present in many areas including their presence to pledge allegiance to the


Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and emigration from the land of polytheism to Medina as described by Islam and also the allegiance verse, which is strong proof of women's presence. Allegiance was in fact a political-social covenant taken by a leader from his people so as to strengthen the pillars of his rule and assisting the leadership of a religious society. Allegiance became routine for women since the times of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). History tells us that the first martyr of Islam was a

after the conquer of Mecca lots of women of the city, along with men, entered into political allegiance with the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Her). Women stood beside the prophet were present at all stages during the planning and construction of a civil society, such stages as promoting Islamic teachings, fighting the enemy, attending gatherings, giving relief aid from behind the frontline of war, and if necessary going to the frontline to confront the enemy in order to safeguard the achievements of Islam. The book “Declaration of Women names 202600 women who were expert in different areas. 1400 narartor of hadiths, faqih (jurisprudent), scholars of Quranic knowledge, 520 literary women and poetesses, some 200 arifs and pious ladies, some 290 women who encouraged acquiring knowledge and were altruistic and charitable, about 200 challenging

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

woman named Somayyeh. The person who informed the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) of a plot hatched by the Quraish tribe was also a woman. History also names two women were present while people made the first allegiance to Islam's prophet. This was when the prophet wanted to take the first steps to create an Islamic society. Ibn Sa'ad names 489 women among people who bid allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Ibn Hijr Asghalani says more than 489 women bid allegiance to the prophet. At Al-Ridwan pledge of Allegiance, women were present and

347


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

women, nearly 30 artists and physicians and musicians. (19) An Islamic scholar and researcher says: “Women ahs been interested in acquiring religious knowledge since the early centuries after the advent of Islam. It can be estimated that 100 Muslim women who were narrator hadiths and were faqihs have appeared in each century�. (20) The trend declined after the ninth lunar century. Most of these women had permission to relate hadiths. Many men and women were taught to relate them and they were given permits. An

348

Arab scholar named Soyouti learned from a women named Oum Hani and Muhammad Ibn Idris Shafei was taught by Sayyidah Nafisah. (21) These are instances of special care given to women by Islam. After the victory of the great Islamic uprising, huge developments took place that were different from the culture and rituals of all other nations. This was such that other epochs cannot compare with the age of prophethood and the times close to the period in terms of fundamental changes in the lives and conditions of women. The emphasis placed on the presence of women in the social and political arenas was unthinkable at that time considering past history such that even some companions of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) doubted their presence and criticized the prophet. The issue hijrah (emigration) and leaving one’s home and hometown in order to safeguard their religion and avoid the persecution from the polytheists and the enemies was a political move. God commanded the Muslim men and women to leave the land of pagans and move to Medina. History tells us that in the first hijra 11 men and 4 women emigrated from Mecca and later on other Muslims joined them until they number of the those who went to Habashah reached 82 including 18 women. (22) Presence in political consultations was another point. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) consulted women with vigilance and prudence and allow


them to have a role in politics. After the signing of the Hodaybiah peace treaty, he consulted with his wife Oum Salameh and a stalemate in the talks was resolved by this prudent lady. Oum Slameh’s sound viewpoint prevented Muslims from slipping into divisions. Women also actively play a part in promoting virtue and prohibiting vice, which the Quran commands Muslims to exercise it on many occasions. Women frequently criticize rulers and force them on the defensive and to admit mistakes because of the women’s

Muhammed (Peace Be Upon Her) who freed her husband Aboul As Ibn Rabie who had been take prisoner during the Badr war.(23) The other field in which women were present was the military and defensive preparations. LAthough women were not obliged to take part in primary jihad, nevertheless they made efforts in other areas including logistics, encorugaing men to fight and propaganda against the enemy and wherever necessity arose they would fight. An instance was the presence of Oum Ammarah in the Ohod battle where she was supposed to give water to Islam's fighters but she defended the prophet's life when she saw him under attack. She was said to have dropped the water bag and taken up a sword to defend the prophet. Oum Ammarah's bravery would become well-known later after Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) related what

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

sound reason based on the Quran and sunnah. One example was the presence of Soudeh the daughter of Amaratibn al-Asak who went to complaint against Bosr ibn ABi Artah at the court of Muawiyah. Soudeh criticized Bosr there and urged Muawiyah to depose him over his failure to respect the rights of people. This she did only for the sake of promotion of virtue and prohibition of vice. Women had the political rights to give sanctuary to polytheists and to free prisoners and they also had the right of intercession and could save those who were condemned to death and could free them from slavery. One example is Zeynab, the daughter of the Prophet

349


had happened at that battle. The prophet said, "Wherever I would go whether to the left or the right, I would see her fighting". History records show it took one year before her wounds would be healed and she bore the signs of her sacrifice until the end of her life. In the Moat Battle, Safiah, the prophet's aunt, had the same performance in fighting against the Jews of Bani Ghoraidhah. (24) Women's participation in gatherings and meetings was another symbol of their political presence in the society. They were active

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

not only in religious rituals like Hajj and prayers at mosques and Friday Prayers and the prayers of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha, but went to visit the prophet and ask him for help. With regard to employment, satisfying the needs of people, garment-weaving, dressmaking, breastfeeding, commerce, medicine, surgery and other services, women were high active.

350

Parameters of women's allegiance in the political philosophy and its effect in safeguarding their identity Human history is replete with conflicts, discrimination and humiliation when it comes to its instrumental interaction with women whether during the ignorance era in the past or in the modern day. She has always been ignored by the politicians and dominant powers when it comes to politics and involvement in deciding their political fate. She has in the end loses her identity and power and has been reduced to the level of a tool. She and her children have suffered the brunt of the political conflict and there are many recorded instances. Accordingly, in some of the Quranic verses pertaining to the right to decide one's fate and involvement in political and social rights such as the verse relating to the women's allegiance, emphasis is placed on the right and on the moral competence and mental and practical integrity of women and existence of human and moral values is considered as a condition for


the realization of political allegiance. Meanwhile, her individual identity is considered being contingent on her social commitment. This is aimed at keeping her from turning into a tool in the hands of politicians and at preventing incompetence and inefficient people as well as sexual perverts and hypocrites from entering any political allegiance. This is the very realization of politics along with religion as well as with honor and religious dignity. It gives both men and women a spirit of freedom in a religious society and describes the comprehensiveness of the political figure of Muslim woman in the social and political arena as an independent and active, and not a passive, element. The woman safeguards her human identity while she makes efforts in the social arena. God says in the Holy Quran: َ‫«يَا أَيُّهَا النَّ بِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَ أَنْ ال يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَال يَسْررِقْنَ وَال يَرزْنِين‬ ٍ‫وَال يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْالدَهُنَّ وَال يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَريْنَ أَيْردِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِرنَّ وَال يَعْصِرينَكَ فِري مَعْررُوف‬ " O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter,then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (25) This verse was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Her) after the conquering of Mecca. When men came to bid allegiance to the prophet, he, as historical records say (26), accepted their allegiance provided that they believed and took part in jihad.2 However, when women came to bid allegiance to the prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Her), the verse was revealed and they had to meet 6 conditions if they wanted their allegiance to

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

»َّ‫فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُن‬

351


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

be accepted. Although women are not required to take part in primary jihad, but here new conditions would replace the original ones. Such conditions would double the effort of the Muslim women through reflecting in social issues and on the other hand would show her responsibility and role-playing in different aspects of social and private life. These criteria are not restrictions, but they would only expand the responsibilities of women and their effectiveness in different aspects of life. The clarification of main conditions and the

352

high number of them in this verse is expressive of Islam's full attention to the political place of Muslim women in human society. The verse first stresses the need for being immune to polytheism and the need for rejecting any violation of the life and property and dignity and honor and chaste of a generation and an individual in social behavior and rejecting any libel and also practical obedience to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon her). These were the conditions the prophet set for bidding allegiance to women. Despite the fact that other surats like Fath speak in detail about allegiance per se, nevertheless the emphasis of the verse 12 of Surat Mumtahana on the allegiance to women who had been present in the Al-Ridhwan allegiance shows the commitment of the Islamic government and the members of the society to inner and outer integrity and honesty because if women actively move apparently, but they fail to pay enough attention to the issue of safeguarding their self, they and their society will be exposed to threats. We however should admit that on the social ethics scale, all social rules aim to safeguard the deserved place of women both in private life and in the society. Therefore, avoiding sexy behavior, excessive use of cosmetics and makeup and sexy tone of voice as well as trying to be pious in social interactions and such principles as hijab, separation of the family from society and setting rules concerning related people and refusing to allow unrelated people into


one's private life, forging civil and penal laws as well as political and international rules and regulations and also the principle of independence and Islamic honor‌ all these are aimed at rejecting any effort to view humans as tools whether they are men or women and respecting freedom of human beings so that they will turn into pleasure objects and instruments to achieve power and profits with regard to this Quranic verse: "To Allah We belong, and to Him is our return." (27)

Parties and Light (Nur), in addition to absolute and general verses whose rules apply to all human beings, all show that God has paid full attention to the dignity and honor of women and to boosting their place in society. The leader of the Islamic revolution of Iran Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei who has always been a flag bearer of Islamic honor in the world have stressed on different occasions the comprehensiveness of the religious view about women. Ayatollah Khamenei says: "A Muslim woman is the one who would one the one hand safeguard and protect her religion, her hijab, her woman-ness, and all he delicacies, tenderheartedness, and softness, and on the other hand defend her rights and move forward in the field of spirituality, science and research as well as closeness to Allah". The leader goes

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Islam's frequent support of women in Quranic surats an verses indicates that no other s ideology and system cannot compare with it this respect and regarding the fulfillment of the spiritual and material, social and political, and international rights of women. This is because in Islam science and wisdom, true mysticism and vigilance, justice and comprehensiveness, proportion between nature and shariah, all these guarantee the guidance and prosperity of humans in this world and in the hereafter. The fact that such special surats as Women, Divorce, Maryam, etc. and main parts of other surats like Mumtahana, Mujadala, Tahrim, the Cow, Al Imran,

353


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

on to say: "An Islamic women is the one who move on the right path, pinpoint the target correctly, and is ready to make sacrifices in this way. Such a woman creates magnificence and glory‌Today's women need a role model. If the role model is Hazrat Zeynab and Hazrat Fatemeh (Peace Be Upon Them), her job would be correct understanding, vigilance during understanding of situations and doing the best things even when it calls for making sacrifices and calls for standing by her principles to the end for the purpose of

354

fulfilling the heavy duties God has put on the shoulders of human beings." (28) Speaking on the challenges facing human beings, Ayatollah Motahari says: "The difference between the school of divine prophets and human schools is that the prophets have come to give spiritual freedom to human beings besides social freedom. It's this spiritual freedom that is more valuable than anything else‌it's even sacred and social freedom is impossible without spiritual freedom. This is the true problem of the human society today, that it wants to give social freedom, but it fails, that is, it cannot, go after spiritual freedom". (29) Ayatollah Motahari also says on the social presence of women and also their ethical vigilance: "Woman is indebted to her special sexual temper for her indirect constructive role throughout history, that is, her piety, shame and refusal to mix with men. Wherever she ha failed to observe refusal to mix with men and her piety and has thus slipped into the abyss of triviality, she has lost her historical role. It's indeed true when it's said about women that shame saves its rewards and as a result it boost man's courage and prompt her to take very significant measures and the force beneath a calm surface pour out as a result." (30) That's the point where we can see why the Holy Quran stresses the moral values of women when it comes to their political identity.


Third Area: Islam and fulfillment of the rights and responsibilities of women at the international level The most significant difference between the legal system of Islam with that of others is that God makes Islam responsible for the protection of human dignity on this earth and here is where the Quranic verses frequently depict women in divine religions as glorious and magnificent creatures who have played a lasting role in human society not only in their own times but throughout history.

Revelations, and was one of the devout (servants)." (31); The leader of Iran's Islamic revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei says about the verses: "Woman are pioneers in the spiritual movements of human beings towards developments. When the Holy Quran wants to give the faithful examples, it speaks about woman; where faith, Islam, patience, integrity, jihad for human and Islamic values is being discussed, it says:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

While giving examples of political and social role models, the Holy Quran also unveils the fate of women who stood up against tyrannical rulers and set themselves as role models for all free man and woman. Verses 11 and 12 of Surat says: "And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: "O my Lord! Build for me, in nearness to Thee, a mansion in the Garden, and save me from Pharaoh and his doings, and save me from those that do wrong". "And Mary the daughter of 'Imran, who guarded her chastity; and We breathed into (her body) of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His

ِ‫«إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُرؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَراتِ وَالْقَرانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَراتِ وَالصَّرادِقِينَ وَالصَّرادِقَات‬ ِ‫وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَردِِّقَاتِ وَالصَّرائِمِينَ وَالصَّرائِمَات‬ »‫وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا‬ "For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who

355


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah.s praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward." (32) The verse lists 10 titles for moral values…men and women move forward in this field shoulder to shoulder. The verse names both of them. The idol, paternalism, which has been worshipped by men during the ignorance era and even by women, Islam breaks this idol…westerners are 1300 years behind Islam in this regard." (33) The late Allameh Majlesi and Ibn Ashoub in Managheb say about Quranic women: "God unveils moral features of 12 women in the Holy Quran explicitly or implicitly and gives each of these women a characteristic in a symbolic matter." Allameh Majlesi says: "God mentions 12 women in the Holy Quran explicitly, each of whom is addressed with the true word; for example, Eve with regard to repentance, Assiyah with regard to enthusiasm, daughters of Shoaib with regard to shame, Belghais with regard to Khadijah with regard to altruism and Fatemeh with regard to infallibility."(34) To counter perversions and discriminations throughout history, the Hold Quran mentions such people so they will serve as theoretical role models with regard to mission and responsibility. On the other hand, it obliges women in practice to fulfill their international missions. It first invites them to enter into dialogue based on mutual respect and on the protection of dignity and security even with an interaction based aimed at boosting knowledge and rationality: "Say: ‫« قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَال نَعْبُدَ إِال اللَّرهَ وَال نُشْررِكَ بِرهِ شَريْئًا وَال‬ »ِ‫يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّه‬ 356

"O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah. That we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords


and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say ye: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah.s Will)." In such verses, emphasis is placed on common human understanding and on creating unity and coordination based monotheism and rejection of domination, absolutism, polytheism and global oppressions. On the other hand, in practice, it invites the Muslim world to altruism and observance of fairness and justice while dealing with others so that such interaction will convince human beings to realize the righteousness of Islam and embrace it. Hence, the Surat Mumtahana decides the limits of international interaction, saying: ‫« ال يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَرارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَررُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِرطُوا‬ »َ‫إِلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِين‬

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

"Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just." (36) as you can see, this verse tells us to be friendly with those nations who do not intend to harm us and do not intend to fight against our religious and ideology and launch aggression against your land. In our interactions with such nations, we should treat them kindly and justly because as the Holy Quran says, Allah loves those who are just. However, if they intend to be hostile to you, to fight you over your monotheistic ideology and to threaten your national security, then you are obliged to confront them so they cannot achieve their oppressive goal. One the other hand, one of our main missions is to defend the oppressed and the weak, which has prompted Muslim nations to prudently respond to the enemies who are armed to their teeth and threaten our territorial integrity and independence. Look at this deploring question in Surat Women, Verse 75:

357


‫«وَمَا لَكُمْ ال تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِِّجَالِ وَالنِِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُرونَ رَبَّنَرا‬

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

»‫أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ نَصِيرًا‬

358

"And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)?- Men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!" (37) The verse calls on the Muslim world to rapidly and decisively react in order to defend the oppressed, men, women and children and all those whose land and lives are targeted by aggression. Today, the key international challenge facing Islamic nations is that the arrogant powers are doing their utmost and using all their resources to undermine Muslim nations and confront them. The global arrogance prepared the ground to humiliate, threaten and exploit the Muslim nations centuries ago to the extent that it tasked numerous organizations and bodies with monitoring and dominating the whole world under the pretext of defending freedom, human rights, women and democracy. The international bodies were formed in recent centuries with the aim of achieving the very colonialist objectives. The emergence of such schools as Marxism, Liberalism, Darwinism and Freudism was aimed at dominating the world. However, they faced numerous chalelnegd after the victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979. Afterwards, they annexed the notion of globalization and global village to their previous plots and did what they could to show Islam as incompetent and inefficient. But the recent developments in the Muslim world and the wave of Islamic Awakening in the Middle East and other parts of the world proved that their schemes have been futile. That was the point where they decided to directly confront the Islamic world despite they claims about human rights. Although attacking residential areas and civilians is banned under international


conventions and all countries are obliged to protect women and children, the arrogant powers pounded such Islamic nations as Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan. Today, the wave of Islamic Awakening is a teeth-breaking response to all these plots. In this collective movement, several issues should be taken into account. We should first fully consider the political principles of Islam at the international level and then we should try to put it into practice while avoiding any divisions and differences over trivial issues and while

"Religious rule means a well-lit path and clear lifestyle free of any vagueness and stagnancy‌.and Sahriah is called Shariah because basically it looks like water. (38) In fact, the flow of water of life depends on the realization of the true meaning of religion. The requirement for this meaning is dynamism and consistency, transparency and movement, development and evolution." Therefore, when we say principles and tenets of dynamism and consistency in Shariah, we mean rules and equations that are based on monotheism and have been proved by firm proof and credible evidence. Putting these principles into practice is the source of movement and development. This will put the human life into motion aside from any deviation, fanaticism, stagnancy and eclecticism by relying on a comprehensive method and the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

stressing the basic and pivotal points in this path. Hence, in this section, we will take a look at some of the tenets of Islamic Awakening movement from the viewpoint of Wahiyani. The principles of dymanism and consistency of Islamic Awakening from the viewpoint of Wahiyani The essence of Shariah, which means offering a lifestyle, constitutes values, dynamism and consistency. This beautiful meaning of Shariah, which is like the flow of life in nature, fosters the truth of life: movement and development based on righteousness and values. Therefore, Laqwi'in say while defining the word:

359


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

realization of the goals of God. Thus, life will have a true meaning and human societies will find their interests free of any selfish desires and tendencies. Such an important task cannot be fulfilled by anyone but Islam because any type of development and dynamism that is not revolving around servitude to God and monotheism will automatically result in stagnancy and corruption and egoistic desires. An in-depth study of the Quranic verses and hadiths makes it clear that from among the monotheistic laws, belief in the principle of

360

monotheism in actions is based on God's rule and any effort beyond the principles amount sotto polytheism. Therefore, the tenet "The command rests with none but Allah. He declares the truth, and He is the best of judges." Given the fact that the objectives and destinations are clear and they are supported by well-documented religious rules, Islam gives the Muslim men and women guarantee and trust that any reliance on unfounded human rules ideologies that are based on mere materialistic principles cannot meet the needs of their society. On the other hand, despite the claims made by social schools that originate from human thinking, these schools will never be able to streamline mankind's identity with a unified set of principles because pluralism in hypotheses and objectives by itself causes differences in social ideas. The Islamic legislature system gives a comprehensive definition of the collective personality of the Islamic Ummah that is characterized particularly by dynamism and consistency. This section focuses on the point and its effect on the Islamic Awakening movement. The features of a dynamic Ummah- In the end of the Surat Victory, God speaks of the features of His last Prophet and the Ummah, saying:


َ‫«مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِ ينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَ الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْال مِن‬ ِ‫اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أََْرِ السُّجُودِ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّروْرَاةِ وَمَرثَلُهُمْ فِري ا نْجِيرل‬ »َ‫كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَى عَلَ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّار‬ "Muhammad is the apostle of Allah. and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them." (39) The verse first describes the features of the Islamic Ummah and the followers of the prophet and then goes on to speak of their perseverance and clout as well as richness of their thinking and culture and their efficiency and dynamism. The main features of such an Ummah are as follows: A-They have renounced the culture of the enemies of God and are bent on developing and promoting their rich culture because of their following in the footsteps of God's prophets. B-They have blocked the way to any relationship with the enemy that is based on domination and are steadfast with utmost perseverance in realizing the divine culture. The members of the Ummah are kind to one another and are united. This integration brings friendship and compassion among them, which itself brings dignity and anger and disappoints the enemies. C-Their worship is their very politics and their politics is their very worship. They are worshippers of night and lions of day and have no dependencies in light of their servitude to God and reliance on the blessing and kindness of God. This servitude gives them special magnificence to their faces.

361


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

D-They are outstanding among other nations and their example is like that of a dynamic society, self-reliant, dynamic, consistent, growing, lively and changing for the better continuously. Their independence and self-reliance makes their enemies more and more angry and their predecessors surprised. E-God ahs promised such an Ummah prosperity, victory and success due to these features. F-They make the best of their few resources to the extent that

362

strangers first doubt their capabilities, but when they see the end result of their work, they become angry and get jealous. The other verse is the last verse of the Surat Hajj, which we referred to in the foregoing. It is one of the most moving and motivating verses that push people to towards achieving lofty human goals at the international level. It outlines ways of turning Islamic principles into a set of applied methods and putting into practice the divine values during the process of intra-faith planning, which Ummah will then try to extend this process as the privileged Ummah that is responsible to promulgate the Islamic values to other nations. Hence, God the Almighty is making s set of basic demands from us: A-The mission known as "And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive" in the path of God demands that the Islamic Ummah pursues the basic goals and cause of Islam with diligence and regular planning and that the Muslim woman convey the message. B-The requirement for "He has chosen you" means that the Islamic Ummah has been chosen is an effort proportionate with the inclusiveness and eternity of the Ummah. C-The effort should be made without any hurry or delay or excessiveness or negligence or suffering and it should be moderate as He "has imposed no difficulties on you in religion".


D-This school is basically monotheistic and has founders like Abraham (Peace Be Upon Him) and it follows in the footsteps of "your father Abraham" who »‫«ملِّه ابيكم ابراهيم هو سمّيكم المسلمين‬

system. F-The requirement for privileged Ummah who are addressed with this verse »‫" «قکاناا شهياء علی النّوس‬and ye be witnesses for mankind!" (42) is the realization of the merits of a religious society and paving the way for growth and flourishing of women based on divine values. G-As long as men and women are not confident in their necessary capabilities and efficiencies and as long as a set of beliefs based on religious faith and action are not internalized in them, they will not be able to be active at the international level. H-The content of this verse and similar verses like those of the Surats Age, Victory, Conquer, Mumtahana, Hashr, etc. show that in the Islamic legislative system has a transforming and development-

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

"has named you Muslims". (40) So following in the footsteps of Abraham (Peace Be Upon Him) and his righteous successor the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) is a wise move and a symbolic development based on the theoretical and practical principles of the Hanif religion, that is Islam, in our times. E-The religious legislative system merely is not theoretical and does not offer a set of policies that lack any practical examples. On the contrary, it has the best practical examples to teach theoretical principles. The principle of divine leadership and meritocracy of the true example has come in "the Messenger may be a witness for you" (41). It indicates attention to behavior and upward jurisprudenceorientation, the understanding of absolute value criteria in the prophet's sunnah and ways and those of his successors. Any negligence of this matter is unforgivable in the Islamic legislative

363


oriented capability which other systems lack. Therefore, the islamci Ummah should make good and symbolic use of this system and as Ayatollah Motahair says: "The dynamic nature and consistency of the Islamic rules should be put into effect with our efforts. This legislative system is unparalleled in terms of providing models". Statements from the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (Peace Be Upon Him) and Fatemeh (Peace Be Upon Her) ِ‫ و يَزدادُ الظالم فيه‬،‫ يُعَدّ فيهِ المحسن مسيئا‬،‫ و زمنٍ كنود‬،‫ إنِّا قد اصبحنا في دهرٍ عنود‬،‫« أيهّا النِّاس‬

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

»‫ و ال نتخوّفُ قارعهً حتي تِحُلِّ بنا‬،‫ و ال نسئلُ عما جَهِلنا‬،‫ ال تنتفعُ بما علِمنا‬،‫عتوّا‬

364

"O People! We are living at a time that is belligerent and hostile… in which many fail to express gratitude for divine blessings and righteousness and falsehood are mixed so as to make phenomenon look upside down in such a way that an altruistic person seems ugly and the oppressor increases his oppression and defiance [while] we fail to use our scientific resources and we ask questions that we do not need to know and we fail to fulfill our mission in preparation for the incident that will come down pounding us and we do not do anything before it really happens". (43) This is a statement from the emir of speech and the scholar of expression, the Commander of the Faithful, the one who is aware of the hidden, the Imam of those close to God whose message's comprehensiveness and his words' sweetness always make sweeten the mouth of the freemen and satiate the soul of those seeking truth and moves towards God's shariah. Imam Ali (Peace Be Upon Him) invites people to be vigilant, to plan for the future, prevent something bad from happening before it happens, prevent rather than treat, being active and not passive, and prevent before having to stave off [something bad]. This message gives Muslims prudence and sharpness of sight and invites them to look things with comprehensively and think deeply.


It also tasks Islamic scholars with a special mission in interacting with their contemporary challenges. Ali's wife Fatemeh (Peace Be Upon her) who is the symbol of infallibility speaks of women's mission at this age: "O Servants of Allah! Who are the flag bearers of the commands and bans of God and are carriers of religion and revelation, you are the righteousness trustees and conveyors thereof to other Ummahs." In this hadith, Fatemeh is addressing all religious people until the Day of Judgment, those who are

the early societies or in the modern day and she will once again realize her mission in the human history. As she is the chosen person in the Islamic Ummah to teach the truths of life, she must make every effort in this way and be an example in expanding and promoting the values and laying the groundwork of the humaneIslamic society, just as the Holy Quran says:

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

responsible for conveying the message to other nations and are the flag bearers of the divine message in the world. Today, which is the age of the Islamic Awakening of nations, the Muslim woman, by relying on the inexhaustible power of God and by following in the footsteps of Islam's role models and by invoking the rich Islamic culture, needs a vigilant move and also a sincere return to the essence of religion and careful study of religious texts and Islamic documents. On the other hand, she is the flag bearer of awakening so she can choose the best path from among the wrong and blocked ways and those of fanaticism and eclecticism whether in

ْ‫«وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُم‬ "And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you".1Then, she ought to complete her mission at the international level following the Islamic Awakening movement. She should pave the way for Islamic livelihood, dynamism and consistency in the world and turn from passive into an active human being by following in the footsteps of

365


true examples in Islam. The Muslim woman today is an epitome of resistance and glory of faith; therefore, she should take necessary steps with regard to knowledge and action, planning and prudence, Islamic power and honor as well as her global mission. Ayatollah Motahari says: "As a matter of fact, if an eternal law want to dominate all the different aspects of life and give solutions to all problems and solve all of them in one or another way, it should somehow have access to dynamism and flexibility. It should not be

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

inflexible so that it can overcome this problem. In our resources, all secrets and keys, Islam's logical spirit and its full reliance on human's nature and that of society and the world exist." (45)

366

Conclusion A-Today, the Islamic Awakening movement is indebted to the endeavors of men and women whose hearts have beaten for centuries for the sake of creating momentum and development in other nations. Now everything is prepared and you and I are the inheritors of this great movement in the world. Therefore, any waste of opportunity and negligence on our part is currently an unforgivable sin. B-The requirement for development, evolution, dynamism and consistency, which are among the basic principles of the legislative system, is the revival of the true Islamic thinking and ideology from within and answering questions regarding ambiguities from outside. Women are true missionaries and culture-makers in this field. D-Now that after centuries, the way has been paved for the Islamic Awakening movement, it's necessary that Muslim women use all existing facilities and capacities in Islamic world for taking actions without any hurry or delay. E-Given the spiritual and moral vacuum as well as that of human values in the modern world and the richness and consistency of the Islamic culture, one of the missions of Muslim women is to offer a


comprehensive global example based on value-added principles such as dignity, honor, independence and freedom as well as belief in God and insistence on righteousness and the efficient Islamic rules and equations. F-For the purpose of designing an inclusive example by the Muslim world and the Muslim woman, it's necessary that we study the factors in causing all social and historical deviations during Islam's history against women particularly in the past three centuries,

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

which has been the age of a rise in domination with a modern pattern and hypocrisy using foreign media. We need a careful planning and should take collective steps. Islamic scholars should attend seminars to this end so the previous disasters never take place. G- The global status quo is such that human societies are in a quest for human identity through gaining access to the true Islamic knowledge with Muslim woman as a practical example. This calls for regular scientific efforts particularly in the field of humanities and communications by all Islamic centers.

367


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

Footnotes:

368

1. Member of the Department for Women Studies at Tarbiat-e-Modarres University 2. Women, 75 3. The Cow, 256 4. Ameli, V. 17 5. The Cow, 143 6. The Hypocrites, 8 7. Women, 141 8. Mumtahana, 1 9. Saff, 9 10. Qasas, 5 11. Women, 34 12. Women, 34 13. Masnad Ahmed, Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, v. 5, p. 275, Beharol Anwar, v. 43, p. 20 14. Kanzol Ommal, 45th v., p. 399 15. Mostadrak al-wasael, 15th v., p. 115 16. Rak: E'lamonnesa, Omar Reza Kahaleh, al-Tabaghat al-Kobra, Ibn Sa'ad, 8th v., 17. Moretza Motahari, 15 Essays, pp. 17 and 18 18. "Woman and restoring her true identity", a selection of supreme leader's remarks, p. 59 19. Rak: E'lamonnesa, Omar Reza Kahaleh, al-Tabaghat al-Kobra, Ibn Sa'ad, 8th v., 20. "A survey on the historical journey of woman", Shahin Irvani 21. Zabihollah Mahllati, Riyahain al-Shariah, 5th v., pp. 85 and 86 22. Al-Kamel Fettarikh, Ibn Athir Ezzeddin, 1st v., p. 498 23. Soheila Jalali Kondori, quoted by Iban hesham History, 2nd v. , p. 264 24. Soheila Jalali Kondori, quoted by Women's declaration, 5 th v. , p. 75 and Iban hesham History, 3rd v. , p. 252 25. Mumtahana 12 26. Majmaolbayan, 9th v., p. 279, Gharbati, al-Jameol Ahkam al-Quran and in al-Manshur of Soyouti in the footnote of the verse. 27. The Cow, 156 28. Woman and restoration of true Identity, A Selection of Ayatollah Khamenei's Comments, p. 66 29. Morteza Motahari, Spiritual Freedom, p. 20 30. Morteza Motahari, Colelction of Works, 19th v., p. 371 31. Banning, 11 and 12 32. The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces, 35 33. Woman from the Viewpoint of the Supreme Leader, p. 203 34. Majlesi, Beharolanwar, 43rd v., p. 78 35. Al Imran, 64 36. Mumtahana, 8 37. Women, 75 38. Raqib Isfahani, "Al-Mofradat" 39. The Victory 29 40. Hajj, 78 41. Hajj, 78 42. The Cow 42 43. Nahjolbalagheh, Sermon 32, Chapter 1 44. Hajj, 57 45. Morteza Motahari, End of prophethood, Qom, Sadra, 1975, pp. 71 and 72


"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

References 1-The Holy Quran 2-Nahjolbalagheh, translated by Mohammad Dashti, Seyyed Kazem Mohammadi, Mo'oude Islam Publciations, Qom, 1990 3-In Athir, Ezzeddin Abolhassan Ali Ibn Abilkaram, "Al-Kamel Fittarikh", Dar Ehya al-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, 1994 4-Amed Ibn Hanbal, Masnad, 5th v., first edition, Dar-ol-Kotob Elmiah, 1989 5-Mohammd Ibn Sa'ad, "Letabaghat Kobra", 2nd and 8th vv., Darosader, Beirut, 1989 6-Shahin Iravani, "An Analysis of the Historical Past of Women", first edition, Darya Publications, Tehran, Spring of 200 7-Soheila Jalai Kondori, "Muslim Woman, Isolation or Social presence", first edition, Al-Zahra University Publications, 2004 8-Mohammd Ibn Hassan Ibn Ali Horr Ameli, "hsia Resources for Learning Shariah Laws", 16th and 17th vv., first edition, Al Al-bait Ibnstitutte, Qom, lunar year 1409 9-Sheikh Abu Ali al-Fazl ibn al-Hassan Al-Tabarsi, "Majma al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Quran", Dar ul-Ehya al-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, 2000 10-Abolghassem Hossein Ibn Mohammad Ibn Mofdhal (Ragheb Isfahani), "Singulars of Quranic Expressions", Razawi School 11-Mohammad Dashti, "Culture of Hazrat Fatemeh's Remarks", fifteenth edition, International Printing and Publication House, 2009 12-Woman From the Viewpoint of the Supreme Leader, Edited by the office of the Supreme Leader, Bitarafan Publications, 8th edition, 2006 13-Omar Reza Kahaleh, "Women's Declaration", ninth edition, vv. 1-6, AlRisalah Institute, Beirut, 1982 14-Mohammad Bagher Majlessi, "Beharolanwar, third edition, Dar ul-Ehya al-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, lunar year 1403 15-Zabihollah Mahallati, Riyahayn al-Sharifayn, Dar ul-Kotob Eslami, Tehran 16-Moretza Motahari, "Social Freedom", Sadra Publications, 28th edition, Qom, October and November of 2004 17-Moretza Motahari, "Fifteen Chapters", Sadra Publications, first edition, Tehran, January of 2001 18-Moretza Motahari, "End of Prophethood", Sadra Publications, 2000 19-Mirza Hossein, "Mostadrak al-Vasael and Mostanbet al-Masael, first edition, Beirut, Bita 20-"Notes of Ayatollha Motahari", 7th v., second edition, Sadra Publications, Tehran and Qom, August 2003 21-Woman and restoration of true Identity, A Selection of Ayatollah Khamenei's Comments, third edition, Islamic revolution Publications, winter of 2011 22-Al-Motaghi al-Hindi, "Kanza l-Ommal fi Sonan al-Aghval val-Afaal, Beirut, Al-Risalah Institute, lunar year 1405

369


Jurisprudential Fundamentals of Women’s Presence in Social, Political, and Executive Positions, and Their Role in the Achievements of Popular Revolutions 

Seyyed Mehdi Narimani Zaman Abadi1

Abstract Engagement in political, social and executive areas is a demanding task that involves peoples’ destiny and requirements. Failure in doing this duty causes damages and defects. The present article attempts to review different arguments proposed by Moslems over woman’s engagement or passiveness in the political, social and executive areas. After a review of these arguments concerning permitting or prohibiting women from engagement, we realize that there is no "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

reason for prohibiting women from such engagement. However, the important issue is that Moslem woman must fulfill her duties on the basis of the Islamic ethics and regard the important problems as precedent over the unimportant one. To study the society from a onedimensional point of view will lead society to overstatement or understatement. In the contemporary Arab world, women’s engagement is so effective because their engagement in different stages of law-making will pave the way for the Moslem woman’s prosperity in the future, preventing any cupidity of the benefitseekers. Keywords Revolutionary woman, politics, society, Shiite Fiqh, Sunni Fiqh 370

1.PHD student in Fiqh and Islamic Law Basics


Introduction The humans, whether man or woman, are equal in the Holy Religion in many aspects, some of which are attained through detailed study of the Qur’an and Hadeeth, including: 1) The God has created men and women from the same soul (light), having them blessed with equal humanity ranks and closeness to himself, where the superiority for every one of them has been related to their piety. The God has emphasized on this fact that both man and woman have been created from the same human: 1 2

ً‫الَّذِي خَلَقَكمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَة وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالًا كثِيراً وَ نِساء‬

‫اللِّهُ جَعَلَ لَكمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكمْ أَزْواجاً وَ جَعَلَ لَكمْ مِنْ أَزْواجِكمْ بَنِينَ وَ حَفَدَة وَ رَزَقَكمْ مِنَ الطَّيبات‬ 2) The God placed them both in Heaven at the beginning of the 3

‫يا آدَمُ اسْكنْ أَنْتَ وَ زَوْجُك الْجَنَّة فَكال مِنْ حَيثُ شِئْتُما‬

But the Satan tempted and deceived them both, and it is not that Satan was closer to woman than man, and Satan was not more dominant on woman than man. 4

ٍ‫فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيطانُ لِيبْدِي لَهُما ما وُورِي عَنْهُما مِنْ سَوْآتِهِما … فَدَلِّاهُما بِغُرُور‬

In this way, the Satan made them demoted from their rank by

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

creation:

deceiving them.

1 . The Lord who created you from a single Person, created, of like nature, his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women 2 . And Allah has made for you mates from among yourselves, and has made for you, from your mates, sons and grandsons, and has provided you with good things. 3. And O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the garden and eat there from wherever you will 4. But Satan whispered evil suggestions to them so that he might make known to them what was hidden from them of their shame

371


3) The God has pledged the Heaven for all the pious, whether man or woman, while pledging Hell for the wicked, without discriminating between man and woman: . 1‫إِنَّ الْأَبْرارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ وَ إِنَّ الْفُجّارَ لَفِي جَحِي ٍم‬ The Lord has also pledged the Heaven for any of the genders who do right actions: .2‫وَ مَنْ يعْمَلْ مِنَ الصّالِحاتِ مِنْ ذَكرٍ أَوْ أُنْثي وَ هُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولئِك يدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّة‬ There has been equality between men and women in ration, spirit and creation and they have been entrusted with such a big task that even the mountains were incapable of carrying3. The equality in creation of men and women has been to worship and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

recognize the God.4

372

4) The God has not preferred any differences in the retribution of benefactions for men and women: َ‫إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَ الْمُ سْلِماتِ وَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِناتِ وَ الْقانِتِينَ وَ الْقانِتاتِ وَ الصّادِقِينَ وَ الصّادِقاتِ و‬ َ‫الصّررابِرِينَ وَ الصّررابِراتِ وَ الْخاشِ رعِينَ وَ الْخاشِررعاتِ وَ الْمُتَصَ رداقِينَ وَ الْمُتَصَ رداقاتِ وَ الصّررائِمِينَ و‬ َ‫الصّائِماتِ وَ الْحافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَ الْحافِظاتِ وَ الذِّاكرِينَ اللِّهَ كثِيراً وَ الذِّاكراتِ أَعَدَّ اللِّهُ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَة و‬ 5ً‫أَجْراً عَظِيما‬ 1. As for the righteous, they will be in Bliss; and the wicked— they will be in the Fire. 2. But whose does good works, whether male or female, and is a believer, such shall enter Heaven 3. Ahzaab, 72 4. Zaariat, 65 5. Surely, men who submit themselves to God and women who submit themselves to Him, and believing men and believing women, and obedient men and obedient women and truthful men and truthful women, and men steadfast in their faith and steadfast women, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men


5) The God has introduced the man and woman as each other’s compliment and company, every one of each is imperfect unless joins the other, and its imperfection will not disappear but by joining the other: 1َّ‫ هُنَّ لِلوس لَکمْ وَ أَنْتُمْ لِلوس لَهُن‬Each of them is a garment for the other to complement each other. Considering the equality of men and women in human identity, we come to the conclusion that woman, just like man, possesses all aspects of human spirits. In fact, they are both from the same spirit, with capabilities to progress and transcend. Of course, physically and mentally, there are differences recited by the psychologists: difference in height, weight, body mass, volume of the head, brain, heart, blood, strength of the bones, muscles, nerves, and other internal organs and the quintuple senses.2 On this issue, Doctor Clive Dolson writes: “The women naturally intend to work under the supervision of and necessary for others. I believe that these two mental characteristics in women are originated from their natural essence, where women follow emotions, while men follow ration. It has been

who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their chastity and women who guard their chastity, and men who remember Allah much and women who remember Him — Allah has prepared for all of them forgiveness and a great reward. Ahzaab, 35 1. They are a garment for you, and you are a garment for them, Baqarah, 187 2. For further information, see: Hosein Lotf Abadi, Psychology of Growth; Muhammad Hakimi, Defending Woman’s Rights; Berg Auto Klein, Social Psychology, translated by Ali Muhammad Kaardaan, Andishe Pub. 1: 313; Will Durant, The Pleasures of Philosophy, translated by Abbas Zaryab, Islamic Revolution Education and Publication Org., 139; Roger Pyres, Berg Auto Klein, Social Psychology, 1: 313; Morteza Motahari, Legal System of Woman’s Rights in Islam, 165; Ne’matullah Salehi Najaf Abadi, Woman’s Judgment in Islamic Jurisprudence together with some more articles, 18; Muhammad Hadi Ma’refat, Hussein Ali Montazeri, Jurisprudential Fundamentals in Islamic Government, 2: 107.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

someone else. They also like to feel that their presence is effective

373


seen in many cases that women are intelligently not only equal with men, but sometimes better than men. But their blind spot is their intense emotions which overcome their perceptions. Men always think more scientifically, judge better, organize better, and lead better than women. (This is a design by the nature and women cannot change it in anyway). As women are more sensitive, they must accept the fact that they need men’s supervision in their life�.1 It must be reminded that such difference has been contrived in order to improve the global issues, causing no superiority or virtue for oneself, where none of the two can feel ostentation or scold the other for a particular temperament. Considering the conducts of the innocent Imams (PBUT) on presence of women in political and social activities, women are not

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

only allowed to have political activities, but sometimes it is compulsory for them to do so as Hazrat Zahra (PBUH) and Hazrat Zeynab (PBUH) did. What is important here is that the Muslim woman must adjust her responsibilities based on Islamic ethical principles and prefers the expediencies of the more important affair. Regarding the issues from only one dimension will lead to extremism. The Muslim woman must not cause disorder in her family life and ignore her family with the excuse of political activities. The husband and the children have rights, as she has rights against them. After preserving such rights, she can accept out of home activities. 1) Primary principles to form the government Before starting the main discussion, it is necessary to present 374

some introduction together with a few principles, so that in case 1. Morteza Motahari, Legal System of Woman’s Rights in Islam, 183.


there is no ban for woman’s presence in social, political, and executive positions; we could refer to those principles. Forming any government has some primary rational principles, many of which have been declared through Qur’an verses and Ahl-ul Bait (PBUT) narratives. A few of these primary principles will be discusses. It is worth of mention that these principles include everyone (including man and woman) and they are up to forty, but some of them which are applied in this article are as follows: 1. Freedom of thought 2. The human being social 3. Executing the rights 4. Immediate advocate of the rights 5. The principle to justly treat with all the citizens 6. Awareness and supervision of rulers’ performances 7. Efficiency and intrinsic and independent adequacy 9. Determining the fate 10. Dominance of the law 11. Justice 12. Esteem and superiority of the rank 13. Governance of the most elite person 14. Political activity 15. Trading

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

8. Fidelity to principles and values

16. Preserving the humans rights 17. Participating in executive and social affairs 18. Absence of wardenship right over others 19. Consulting with the society1 375

1. See: Hossein Ali Montazeri, Dirasaat Fee Velayat al-Faqeeh va Fiqh ul-Dolat il-Islamiyah, 1: 30; id. Nizam il-Hukm fel-Islam: 8.


Different governments must be established based on these primary principles. In Islamic governments and systems, the only way to ignore such principles is to bring a firm religious reason which can allow the exclusion of those principles. Therefore, after it is proven that women’s political participation has no bans, we will discuss the reasons provided by those who disagree with women’s participation in different affairs. 2) Reasons to allow women’s participation in social and political affairs In this part of the article, we mention the reasons to allow women into political activities, so that the inaccessibility by some on the presence of women in different arenas is falsified and they cannot

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

claim that women’s physical presence in social affairs is against the religion. Women’s participation in political arena is among the rational principles of forming a government and it is never banned by Islam. In many religious instructions, it is not only allowed, but emphasized. There are evidence in this regard found from the Book and the Tradition (Sunnah), some of which are discussed: a) Necessity of enjoining virtue and preventing vice One of the important mandates of Islam is “enjoining virtue and preventing vice” which means a public supervision in the society. All the Muslims must feel responsibility towards each other and enjoin the virtues and prevent the vice. By following such a task, the society will step in a right path and the ignorant will be guided. Basically, one of the characteristics of Islam’s education system is 376

“public supervision” principle. That is in contrary with the Western unbridled freedom system; in Islamic societies all are responsible.


Since people are like the ferry passengers and if they make a whole at a corner of the ferry, everyone will be drowned. As the God says: 1ِ‫وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِياءُ بَعْضٍ يأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَينْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكر‬ Considering this verse, the responsibility of enjoining the virtue and preventing the vice has been lain on all Muslim men and women. Since the God presumes this level of friendship and responsibility as constant for everyone. On the other hand, it is clear that one of the examples of enjoining virtue and preventing vice is the political issues which are political virtue and political vice. Therefore, every Muslim man and woman is entitled to enjoin his religious brother or sister to do political virtue and prevent him/her from doing political vice. It is evident that recognizing the political virtue from vice must also be done according to Islamic means; meanwhile all the conditions and stages of enjoining virtue and b) Necessity of effort in Muslims’ affairs Great Prophet (PBUH) prescribes: The one, who passes dawn to dusk without effort to solve Muslims’ problems, is not one of them.3 Muslims’ problems and affairs definitely include their political problems too. The narrative by the Prophet also includes women as it says everyone, and not only men! Therefore, not only the Muslim man and woman can deal with

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

preventing vice must be respected.2

each other’s political affairs, but they are needed to be so, otherwise, they will not be considered Muslims. c) Necessity of studying and education 1 . And the believers, men and women, are friends one of another. They enjoin virtue and prevent vice. (Tauba, 71) 2. In order to know the conditions and stages, see: Khomeini, Tahrir-ul Wasilah, Kitab il-Amr bil-Ma’roof wa-nahy anil-Munkar 3. “‫ ”من اصلح و امسي و لم يهتم حومار الوسلوان فلاس منهم‬Koleini, Kaafi, 2, 163

377


Studying and education have been considered necessary through many narratives for both men and women. For instance, the Great Prophet (PBUH) prescribes: “Gaining knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim man and woman.”1 On the other hand we see that in some narratives, it has been recommended to take journeys to gain knowledge and science and many blessings have been introduced for such an action. For instance, the Great Prophet (PBUH) prescribes: “Follow

knowledge

and

science,

even

in

China”2

Or in a poem related to Amir-ul Mo’menin (PBUH) we see: “In loneliness, follow dignity and take journeys as journey has five advantages; removing misery, gaining bread, knowledge and

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

traditions, and company with the elites”3 Undoubtedly, the generality of journey for studying includes the Muslim women who are tasked with studying. The woman has tasked individually to gain knowledge and science, and even has to travel. If she does not act to her knowledge and is not bound with its destinations; gaining knowledge will then be futile. Therefore, in narrative instructions, the knowledge without act has been reprehended. Hence, in some of these instructions, people are warned against ignoring actions based on their knowledge. Imam Ali (PBUH) prescribes: “Knowledge is action’s company; the one who knows must act upon his/her knowledge; knowledge seeks action, if action comes 378

1. “‫ ”طلب الًلم فايضو علي کا مسلم و مسلوو‬Jamal id-in Helli, Uddat-o-Da’ei , Nijah-o-Sa’ei: 72. 2. “‫ ”اطلب الًلم ولا حولصان‬Ibn Abee Jomhour Ihsaee, Awalio-La’ali al-Aziziyah, 4: 70. 3 .Mirza Noori, Mustadrak ul-Wasayel, al-Wasayel, 8: 115.


after knowledge the science will remain, but if you do not act upon the knowledge, the knowledge and science will diminish.”1 d) The Innocents’ (PBUT) conduct One of the grounds, on which Islam fought against, was Arabs’ barbarism towards women. The rotten thoughts and superstitions had remained among many newly Muslim converts. The thoughts not only banned women from social and political activities, but even denied her as a thorough human and considered her more as an article than a human! Although the Great Prophet (PBUH) could not find enough time to accomplish Islam’s supreme destinations towards women (because Islam was a novel phenomenon and the Muslims faced many struggles2), in many cases we witness the presence of women in political, social, and military arena during Prophet(PBUH)’s and Imam Ali(PBUH)’s reigns, including: 1) The first person who had faith in the Great Prophet (PBUH) Prophet was a noble lady from Hejaz Peninsula3 whose move is interpreted as a political activity. 2) Hazrat Khadijah (PBUH) had also economic activities and trading which were never disagreed by the Great Prophet (PBUH), but was encouraged in many cases, as it was sources of income for Islam.4

1. “‫ ”الًلم مقاون حولًوا فون علم عوا و الًلم يهتف حولًوا فإن أيوحه و إف ارقبا عنه‬Imam Ali (PBUH), Nahj-ul-Balaqah: 480 2. Prophet (PBUH) attended 18 Qazwah (wars with his own presence) and there were also 80 Saraya (wars which Prophet did not attend), that is, every year Muslims in Medina had averagely 10 wars with the polytheists (including both Qazwah and Saraya). Ibn Katheer, A-Seerah al-Nabawiyah, 2: 352. 3. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwar, 18, p. 221. 4. Id. 16, pp. 20, 21, 22, 71; 19, p. 63; 43, p. 131; Abbas Qomi, Safinat-ul-Buhar, Maddah “Khadaj”

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

was Hazrat Khadijah (PBUH). She was in fact the starter of faith in

379


3) Entering covenant with women after conquering Mecca1. As seen, in none of the cases the Prophet has not banned women from entering covenants, but in cases he has made it necessary for them. Even in verses of Qur’an it has been clearly mentioned: َ‫يا أَيهَا النَّبي إِذَا جآءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنتُ يبايعْنَكَ عَليآ أَن الَّ يشْرِكْنَ بِاللِّه ِ شَيئا وَ ال يسْرِقْنَ وَ ال يزْنِينَ و‬ ٍ‫ال يقْتُلْنَ أَوْلدَهُنَّ و ال يأْتِينَ بِبُهتنٍ يفْتَرِينَهُ بَرينَ أَيردِيهِنَّ و أَرْجُلِهِرنَّ و ال يعْصِرينَكَ فري مَعْررُوف‬ 2ٌ‫فَبايعْهُنَّ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحيم‬ This is while if he did not enter covenant with women, there would be no negative reaction, considering those days’ barbarism thoughts and ignorance towards women. It would even probably lead to the more progress of Islam! It means that the circumstances did not make the Prophet do so, but he was willing to do that.3 "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

4) The Ansaar women entering covenant with the Prophet

380

(PBUH) before Hijrat in the second Aqabah4 is another example of women’s participation in social and political affairs. 5) One of the groups migrated to Medina after Prophet’s Hijrat, was a board consisting of four persons including a man named Ali ibn Abee Taleb (PBUH) together with three women named Fatimah bint Muhammad (PBUH), Fatimah bint Assad, and Fatimah bint

1. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwar, 21: 98; Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, alTabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 222 to 460. 2. O Prophet! when believing women come to thee, taking the oath of allegiance at thy hands that they will not associate anything with Allah, and that they will not steal, and will not commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor bring forth a scandalous charge which they themselves have deliberately forged, nor disobey thee in what is right, then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to forgive them. Verily, Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful. (Mumtahanah, 12) 3. In order to find more information on women whom the Prophet (PBUH) entered covenant with, see Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 222 to 460. 4. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar, 15: 370; Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 222 to 460.


Abdul Mutalleb1. It clearly shows the permission for women to participate in political and social arenas. 6) Migration of women without their husbands from Mecca to Medina2 is another instance that proves women’s participation in political and social affairs. The interesting point is that the prophet (PBUH) not only scolded them, but encouraged them to do so through tactics! 7) Women’s covenant with the Prophet (PBUH) in Hadibiyah Peace Process3 is another typical example of women’s political participation. 8) The God’s explicit order to the Great Prophet (PBUH) that during Mubahelah, the two sides must take part with their wives; and the emphasis for the presence of the women are another reasons to prove that the religion encourages the presence and participation of women in social and political arena. The God orders his Prophet

ِ‫َقُلْ تَعالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْناءَنا وَ أَبْناءَكمْ وَ نِساءَنا وَ نِساءَكمْ وَ أَنْفُسَنا وَ أَنْفُسَكمْ ُْمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَرتَ اللَّره‬ 4‫عَلَي الْكاذِبين‬ Of course, Hazrat Zahra’s presence is another important point in this incident. She, who was willing to be covered and not to appear in the society, was tasked to participate in such an incident.

1. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar, 19: 64. 2. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar, id. 19: 350, 20: 373, 43: 10; Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 276 to 313 3. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar, 38: 219; Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 222 to 460 4.Say to him, ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and our people and your people; then let us pray fervently and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie.’ Al-Imran, 61

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

(PBUH):

381


9) Prophet (PBUH) asking for women’s covenant on Qadeer Khom Day1 is another case of women’s participation in political affairs. 10) Active presence of women in different wars is another evidence of their political and social participation Anas ibn Malik says: Whenever the Prophet (PBUH) intended to go for a war, Umm Saleem gathered a group of women to distribute water and treat the wounds.2 11) Many women suffered physical and mental tortures for the sake of Islam, all the cases of which have not been recorded in the history. Some of them include: Zunayrah3, and Qaziyah the daughter of Sa’ad4. Some of the ladies were even martyred the first one of whom was Sumayah bint Khobaat (Yasser’s wife and Ammar’s

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

mother)5. Undoubtedly the participation of women have been much

382

1. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar 37, p. 140; 33, p. 165; 42, p. 201; 86; Allameh Amini, Abdul Hossein, al-Qadeer, 1, p. 9; Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, alTabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 222 to 460. 2 . Suleyman abee Dawood Sejestani, Sunan abee Dawood, Kitab ul-Jihad, Hadeeth 2531. Some of these women include: Umm Rameethah or Umm Ramathah, the daughter of Amr ibn Heesham Abdul Mutaleb (in conquering Kheybar); (Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 227) Umm Eeman Barakah, the daughter of Tha’labah (in Haneen, Uhud & Kheybar) (Muhammad al-Hassun and Umm alaa Mashkoor, A’laam u-Nissa’ al-Mu’minaat, 251); Hamanah, the daughter of Jahash ibn Ri’aab ibn Ya’mar (in Uhud) (Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 241); Umm Habib, the granddaughter of Aas Quraishi (in Yarmook) (Ibn Asaaker, The History of Damascus City, 70: 207); Leyla Qaffari (in Jamal) (Muhammad al-Hassun and Umm alaa Mashkoor, A’laam u-Nissa’ al-Mu’minaat, 608); Urwaa, the daughter of Harith ibn Abdul Mutaleb (id. 99); Zeynab bint Khuzaymah (in Badr) (Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 115); also the ladies who attended Seffayn War, including: Umm ul-bara’a bint Safwaan (id. 130); Umm ul-Khayr bint Huraysh Bariqiyah (id. 144); Umm Sanaan Muzhajiyah (id. 163); Bikarah Hilaliyah (id. 256); Zarqah bint Uday (id. 366); Soodah bint Ammarah Hamedaani (id. 450): Akrashah bint al-Atnash (id. 474) 3. Ibn Abdulbar, al-Istee’ab, 4: 1848. 4. Muhammad ibn Sa’ad, al-Tabaqaat il-Kubraa, 8: 374 5. See: Muhammad al-Hassun and Umm alaa Mashkoor, A’laam u-Nissa’ alMu’minaat, 449.


more than this, despite barbaric bigotries; but we cannot mention all of them.1 As many of these cases were witnessed by the Innocents and there were no bans by them, but might have been under their direct or indirect confirmations; they have helped promote such types of participations. It can be concluded that in the Holy Religion, there is no ban for women’s political participation. Some verses even emphasize their presence in exclusively manly arenas with no prohibition. For instance, the story of Shu’ayb’s (PBUH) daughters who were grazers, are confirmed by two prophets, in which the case is clearly reflected.2 In these verses, going to desert, participating with men in shepherding and talking to Moses (PBUH) are instances of women’s activities out of the house. Meanwhile, Shu’ayb’s daughters refrained from socializing with men and their bashfulness when Moses came, show that they preserved chastity and covers. special companions of Imam Sahib ul-Amr (may God speed his

1. For further study, refer to: Muhammad al-Hassun and Umm alaa Mashkoor, A’laam u-Nissa’ al-Mu’minaat (Sakinah bint Hossein, the Chairwoman of Hosseini Poetry Association) ‫علَاهِ أُمَّو مِنَ النَّوسِ يسْقُانَ وَوَيَيَ مِنْ نُونِ ِهمُ امْاَأقَانِ قَذُونَانِ َولَ مَو قَطْلُکوَو َولَتَو‬ َ َ‫ َولَوَّو وَرَنَ مَوءَ مَيْينَ وَيَي‬.1 ْ‫لَو َنسْقِي َتَّي يصْيِرَ الاِّعَوءُ وَأَحُانَو شَاخ کلِاا * َفسَقَي لَهُوَو ثُمَّ قَاَلَّي ِإلَي الفِّاِّ فَقَولَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لِوَو أَنْزَ ْلتَ ِإلَي مِن‬ ُُ َ‫علَي اسْتِبْاوءٍ َوَلتْ إِنَّ أَحِي ييْعُاک لِاِْزِيک أَيْاَ مَو سَقَاتَ لَنَو َفلَوَّو يَوء‬ َ ‫قَااٍ فَقِاا * فََِوءَ ْقهُ إِ ْيَاهُوَو قَ ْوشِي‬ َ‫صصَ َولَ لَو قَخَفْ نََِاْتَ مِنَ الْقَ ْامِ الفَّولِوِان‬ َ َ‫علَاهِ الْق‬ َ َّ‫َو َص‬ (Ghasas, 23-25) And when he arrived at the water of Midian, he found there a party of men, watering their flocks. And he found beside them two women keeping back their flocks. He said, ‘What is the matter with you?’ They replied, ‘We cannot water our flocks until the shepherds take away their flocks, and our father is a very old man.’ So he watered their flocks for them. Then he turned aside into the shade, and said, ‘My Lord, I am in need of whatever good Thou mayest send down to me.’ And one of the two women came to him, walking bashfully. She said, ‘My father calls thee that he may reward thee for thy having watered our flocks for us.’ So when he came to him and told him the story, he said, ‘Fear not; thou hast escaped from the unjust people.’

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

It must be mentioned that the presence of women among the

383


appearance) also proves that women’s participation in different affairs has no prohibition. Imam Baqir (PBUH) prescribes: “I swear to God that the companions of Imam Mahdi (may God speed his appearance) are three hundred and thirteen, fifty of whom are faithful women.”1 3) Examples of women’s participation in executive arenas The Almighty God tells the story of Belqays were a hoopoe brings a message from a land with a woman as the head of the state. God never mentions that as a negative point2. The Prophet Solomon also does not prohibit such a thing! One cannot claim that God is just telling the story, since if presence of a woman in power were in contrary with religion, it would be mentioned at first, or it would not be mentioned that a woman was the queen. So the silence by the

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

religion in telling this story is an approval. More examples of women’s responsibilities in Muslim society are mentioned. Although in some cases they have not been directly confirmed by the Innocents (PBUT), as mentioned before, the absence of prohibition can be considered a kind of confirmation for these activities. 1) Umm Haani, instead of a group of Muslims, gave asylum to some pagans and the Great Prophet (PBUH) confirmed it by saying: “Oh! Umm Haani! Whom you give asylum, we give asylum.”3 2) The Prophet (PBUH) consulted with Umm Salamah in the Hadibiyah Peace Process, and acted upon her opinion on sacrifice and shaving the heads which was correct.1

384

1. Abul Hassan Marandi, Majma’ul Nourain, 328. 2. See the Holy Qur’an, Naml: 23 to 44. In these verses God mentions many points, and even this woman is praised for some of her works. Also, in cases God criticizes her for being among the pagans, but she’s never scolded for being a ruler. This silence can approve women’s participation in executive affairs. 3. Abdullah ibn Bahram Daremi, Sunan Daremi, 2: 234.


3) Sudah the daughter of Ammar ibn al-Asak Hamedani, whose story is among the noble and well-known stories of the history, had high social intelligence and she considered it necessary to participate in politics. During two processes, she delivered letters by the then Caliphs, Amir-ul Mo’menin (PBUH) and Mu’awiyah, to the ousted rulers.2 4) The Prophet (PBUH) appointed Samraa’ the daughter of Nuhayk Assadi to be responsible for Hasabah (Mecca market). She enjoined the men and women to virtue and prevented them from vice, and once when someone disobeyed here, she punished him by whipping.3 5) Umar ibn Khattab appointed Umm Sulayman Shifa’ or Umm Shifa’ the daughter of Abdullah ibn Qarat ibn Razaah ibn Uday ibn Ka’ab il-Adooyah to the responsibility for Hasabah4 in Medina Bazaar.1 "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

1. Muhammad Abd-ul Ra’oof Manawi, Fayz ul-Qadeer Sharh il-Jami’I il-Saqeer, 4: 347. 2. Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Buhar ul-Anwaar, 41: 120. 3. Haythami, Majma’ul Zawayid, 9: 264; Tabaraani, al-Mu’jam ul-Kabeer, 24: 311; ibn Abdu l-Bar, al-Istee’ab, 4: 1863; Muhammad Taqi Tastari, Qaamoos ulRijaal, 12: 279; Safadi, al-Waafi bil Wafiyaat, 15: 274; Miqreezi, Imtaa’ ulAsmaa’, 9: 395. It is mentioned that Ayatollah Montazeri writes on this quote: “Some claim the incident happened during Umar reign; Qaazi ibn Sa’eed has also claimed that this was supervision in a specific task for women affairs.” (Hossein Ali Montazeri, Dirasaat Fi Vilayat-ul Faqeeh wa Fiqh ul-Dowlat il-Islamiyah, 2: 265). Some have even tried to deny the Hadeeth. (ibn Arabi, Ahkaam il-Qur’an, 3: 482; Qartabi, Tafseer al-Qartabi, 13: 183: Meqreezi, Imta’ ul-Asmaa’ Bima-nabi (PBUH) Min Ahwaal wal-Amwaal wal-Hifdati wal-Mata’a, 9: 395) But these justifications are against the explicit quotation of the history which has been mentioned in different history and Fiqh books. 4. The affairs which the religion does not want to be suspended and the felicity and health of the society depend on them. Meanwhile the responsibility is not assigned to a specific person and is called Wajib Kafa’ei. If all those in charge cop-out, they will all be sinful and punished. Just like enjoining virtue and preventing vice, defending Islam and Muslims, preserving the youth against ethical deviations, judgment, governance, and carrying out the mandates, keeping

385


6) Urwaa the daughter of Ahmad ruled Yemen for decades. She is an example of a righteous ruler who manages and commands well. Many books have been written on her wisdom, and virtues.2 4) Criticizing the reasons of the dissidents Among the Muslims, some have extremist views on presence of women in social, political, and executive posts, claiming that they have gained such views through Islamic educations. We briefly discuss some of these reasons. The most important reason in the requirement of masculinity in different issues such as custody and government is the Holy verse: 3

ْ‫الرِّجالُ قَوّامُونَ عَلَي النِّساءِ بِما فَضَّلَ اللِّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلي بَعْضٍ وَ بِما أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوالِهِم‬

In analyzing and defining the verse, there are two general viewpoints. The first one, which is common among the precedent "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

interpreters and jurists, says the verse tries to define men’s tasks not

386

their superiority4; but on the other hand, major interpreters and jurists believe that the verse affirms men’s superiority over women, whether at home or in the society.5 the public entailments, preserving the properties of the orphans without custody, etc. And since the person does these things for the sake of God, so they are called Hasabiyah. (Muhammad Fazel Lankaraani, Jame’ul-Masa’il, 2: 67) 1. Ibn Arabi, Ahkaam ul-Qur’an, 3: 482; Qartabi, Tafseer al-Qartabi, 13: 183; Miqreezi, Imta’ ul-Asmaa’ Bima-nabi (PBUH) Min Ahwaal wal-Amwaal walHifdati wal-Mata’a, 9: 395; Abdu l-Haykataani, al-Tarateeb ul-Idariyah fee Niizam ul-Hokumat ul-Nabawiyah, 1: 285. 2. To study more, see: Kheir ul-Din Zarakli, al-A’alaam, 1: 172, 289, and 305; vol. 3, p. 279; Husn ol-Amin, al-Isma’iliun wal Moqoul wa Nasir ul-din Toosi, p. 86. 4. Men are guardians over women because Allah has made some of them excel others, and because they (men) spend of their wealth. (Nesa’, 34) 5. Ibn Baraaj, al-Muhazzab, 2: 225; Qartabi Muhammad ibn Ahmad, al-Jame’ ulHukkam al-Qur’an, 5: 168; Najafi Khomeini, Muhammad Javad, Tafseer Asaan, 3: 217; Abdullah Javadi Amoli, Woman in the Mirror of Dignity and Grace: 391. 6. Feydh Kaashani, Tafseer Saafi, 1: 353; Fakhr ul-din Tareehi, Majma’ ulBahrain: 486; Qartabi, al-Jamii’ ul-hukkam al-Qur’an, 5, p. 168; ibn Katheer, Tafseer ibn Katheer, 1, p. 465; Fakhr Raazi, Tafseer Kabir, 10, p. 88; Javad Kazemi, Masalik ul-Afhaam, 3: 257; Muhammad Hossein Tabatabaei, al-Meezan


Of the major supporters of the first viewpoint are Sheikh Toosi and Qazi ibn Baraaj. Sheikh-o-Taa’eifa-t-ul-Imamiyah interprets the verse as: “‫ ِ"الرِّجالُ َقوّامُونَ عَلَي النِّساء‬means the husbands must try to pay their wives’ rights.”1 And among the supporters of the second viewpoint, we can mention the following quotes. Zamakhshari says: “This is a reason that custody has been given to men due to their attainment. This is not true that due to external power and predominance, men have gained dominance and rule over women by force, but they are guardian to women ‫َضلَ اللّه‬ َّ ‫بِما ف‬. The verse expresses the reason of attainment, saying it is one of the mandates based on document and reason.”2 One of the contemporaries quotes the interpreters and jurists who take the verse general, not for the husbands, and writes: dominance of man over his wife. Because firstly, the verse has been sent on family problems; and secondly, the verse style (considering the sentence ‫بِما َأنْفَقُوا‬

as they must pay the dowry and alimony to

the wives) shows men’s dominance over his wife. On the other hand, we could not be committed that since the man has intrinsic wisdom and pays his wife’s alimony, he is dominant over all the women even the foreign ones. And if we doubt, merely doubting and probability

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

“It seems that through this verse nothing can be understood but

is enough to deny generalization of the verse… If, according to Tafseer al-Meezan, we say the general reason causes the

Fee Tafseer il-Qur’an, 4: 343; Muhammad Hossein Hosseini Tehrani, Vilayat Faqeeh in Islamic Government, 3: 148. 1. Sheikh Toosi, al-Mabsoot Fee Fiqh ul-Imamiyah, 4: 324. 2. Zamakhshari, Tafseer ul-kashaaf, 1: 505.

387


generalization of the mandate, we should then take the general, unless its contrary is proven. In response, we say that firstly, on the second reason (the sentence ْ‫)وَ بِما َأنْفَقُوا ِمنْ أَمْواِلهِم‬, there is no generality, since man’s alimony has nothing to do with other women, and secondly, taking the general and ignoring the exceptions (specializing the majority and excluding the majority from the mandate) is necessary, because no man has superiority over other women but in governing or judging.”1 It must be reminded that other verses2 have also been adduced on this issue, but since their reasoning is weaker than the abovementioned verse, they are not discussed.

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

2) Narrative Reasons

388

1. Hossein Ali Montazeri, Jurisprudential Foundations of Islamic Governing, 2: 117; for further reading see: Abdullah Javadi Amoli, Woman in the Mirror of Dignity and Grace: 366; Fazlullah, Muhammad Hossein, Maqaalah (Shakhsiyat ulMarat ul-Qur’aniyah Wa Daurah-al-Islamiyah Fee Harakat il-Hayaat), al-Ittihad ul-Lubnaniya Li-Talabat ul-Muslimeen, Majallat ul-Manteq, no. 60, p. 11. 2. ‫علَاهِنَّ نَرَيَو وَ الّلهُ عَزِيز َکام‬ َ ِ‫علَاهِنَّ حِولْوًَْاُوفِ وَ لِلاِّيول‬ َ ‫“ وَ لَهُنَّ مِجْاُ الَّذِف‬And they (the women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in equity; but men have a rank above them. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Baqarah, 228) There are two theories about this verse. The first theory: the God is defining one of the tasks of the husband. (Miqdad ibn Abdullah Sauwari, Kinz ul-Irfaan Fee Fiqh il-Qur’an, 2: 258; Sayed Amir Abul-Fath Hesseini Jorjani, Tafseer Shaahi, 2: 433; Kazemi, Masaalik ul-Afhaam ilaa Aayat il-Ahkaam, 4: 52; Fakhruddin Tareehi, Majma’ulBahrain, 2: 298; Sayed Muhammad Hossein Hosseini Hamedaani, Anwaar Derakhshaan, 2: 231; Sayed Abdulkareem Moosawi Ardebili, Fiqh ul-Qazaa’, 1: 92; Aasefi, Muhammad Mehdi, Ahl Bayt (PBUT) Jurisprudence Magazine (Persian) “Woman and Political, Judicial Custody”, 42: 57; to study more see: Ja’far Sobhani, Nizam ul-Qazaa’ Wal-Shahaadah Fi-Shariat-il-Islamiyat il-Qaraa’, 1: 60; Muhammad Ali Esma’elpour Qomshe’I, Al-Baraahin ul-Wazihaat, 1: 31) The second theory: This verse expresses the superiority of masculine over females. (Fakhr Raazi, Tafseer Kabeer, 6, p. 95; Qutb udin Raavandi, Fiqh ul-Qur’an, 2: 187; Muhammad Hossein Hosseini Tehrani, Vilayat Faqeeh in Islamic Government, 3: 160.


We then deal, in two groups, with the narratives that might be quoted on ban on women’s presence in executive positions. Then we will criticize and analyze them in whole. 2.1. Shia narratives 2.1.1. Amir ul-Mo’menin (PBUH): “There will be a time when …the government will be run by women’s consultancy, children’s command, and management of the eunuchs.”1 2.1.2. Amir ul-Mo’menin (PBUH): “Refrain from consulting with women, as their opinion is imperfect and their decision is unstable. When seeing them, wear them with the Hijab of your look, as Hijab preserves them healthier. Going out of home for them is just like you let unknown people into them. If you can manage them in a way that they do not know anyone but you, do it. Do not give them responsibilities more than they can take it. Woman is like a spray not a champion”.2 are inferior to men, both in faith and in wisdom. The reason for their faith to be weaker is their dismissal from praying and fasting during their menstruation. But the reason for their inferior wisdom is that witnessing by two women equals witnessing by one man. So refrain from bad women and take care of the good ones. Never surrender them in good deeds, because you will have to obey them in bad deeds too.”3

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers

2.1.3. Amir ul-Mo’menin (PBUH): “Oh People! Surely women

2.2 Sunni narratives 2.2.1. Abi Bakarah: “When they informed the Prophet (PBUH) that Kasra’s daughter has been given the throne in Fars, he

1. Imam Ali (PBUH), Nahj ul-Balaqah, Sermon 102. 2. Id. Letter 31 3. Id. Sermon 80

389


prescribed: the people who choose a woman as their chief, will never find salvation.”1 2.2.2. The Great Prophet (PBUH): “When your leaders are the best of you, the richest are the most generous of you, and your affairs are done by consulting; living on earth is much better for you than living in the soil. But when your leasers are the worst of you, and the richest are the stingiest, and affairs are done by women, then the soil is much better for you than on the ground.”2 2.3 Evaluating Narrative Reasons By studying the above-mentioned narratives, a number of general problems arise, some of which include: 1. The document and witness to most of these narratives are textually weak.3 Even the concepts of some of the narratives

"Proceedings of the First International Conference on Women and Islamic Awakening"Selected Papers