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MATERIAL MATTERS_ Ceramics / Terra Cotta Carbon-Based Materials Polymers [ETFE] Metals

ARCH 3012_Spring 2013 Southern Polytechnic State University School of Architecture Michael Carroll, Assistant Professor, mcarrol2@spsu.edu


MATERIAL MATTERS_Ceramics/Terra Cotta


santa caterina market (1997-2005)_ barcelona, spain _ enric miralles toni cumella (ceramica cumella _ ceramic fabricator)

REHABILITATION OF SANTA CATERINA MARKET Barcelona, 1997-2005 National Award of Generalitat de Catalunya 2001 Spanish Ceramic Awards ASCER 2005 – Architectural Prize


santa caterina market (1997-2005)


Design concept references the spatial circumstances of the surrounding residential buildings and plazas in the design. The main feature of the construction project is a geometrically ingenious roof structure made of colorfully glazed stone tiles by Ceramica Cumella. The ceramic tiles, fired at high temperature with bright, transparent glazes reflect the shape and colors of the surroundings. Viewed from above the roof structure has the appearance of a Tetris-pattern flying carpet. The roof's clear color macro-mosaic takes its shapes and colors of the fruit and vegetables on sale there.

santa caterina market (1997-2005)_ barcelona, spain _ enric miralles


santa caterina market (1997-2005)_ barcelona, spain _ enric miralles


Toni Cumella_Ceramica Cumella_Restoration of Park Quell In Parc GĂźell, the "trencadĂ­s" (mosaic made from broken tiles) is one of the fundamental finishing materials and, without a doubt, the most emblematic. But the material it is made from, enameled baked clay, is inadequate for exposure to the elements.


CERAMICA CUMELLA: SHAPING IDEAS AA Gallery 29/9/2012 - 27/10/2012 Exhibitions are open Monday to Friday 10:00–19:00, Saturday 10:00–15:00, unless otherwise stated The artistic and scientific innovations emerging from the studio of Toni Cumella reveal that ceramics are highly versatile 21st century materials. Focusing on the 4 main fabrication processes in use at Ceramica Cumella – extruding, casting, pressing and revolving – Shaping Ideas presents the work of Toni Cumella and the application of his ceramics in some of contemporary architecture’s most significant projects. Born in 1951, the son of ceramicist Antoni Cumella, Toni Cumella studied industrial engineering at Barcelona University before dedicating himself entirely to ceramics in 1970. After the death of his father in 1985 Cumella redirected the focus of the studio Ceramica Cumella towards the development of architectural projects and large-scale artworks, working closely with Studio PER (Cristian Cirici, Pep Bonet, Oscar Tusquets, Enric Steegman and Lluis Clotet), Enric Sòria and Jordi Garcés. Between 1989 and 1992 the studio undertook its first two major architectural commissions: the restoration of Gaudi’s Casa Batlló (with architect Josep Botey) and the restoration of Gaudi’s Parc Güell (with architects Elíes Torres & Martinez Lapena), which firmly established Ceramica Cumella as a centre of expertise in the field. Subsequent collaborations developed at the studio include Enric Miralles and Benedetta Tagliabue’s Park Diagonal Mar and Parc Dels Colors followed by the Santa Caterina Market in 2005, Jean Nouvel’s Placa Sardana, Alejandro Zaera-Polo’s  Spanish Pavilion at Expo 2005, the Law Courts in Terrassa and the Catalan Police Headquarters in El Vendrell with Josep Botey, and Enric Ruiz-Geli’s Villa Nurbs in 2009. Currently underway at the studio are new projects with Renzo Piano, Kengo Kuma and Amanda Levete.


British Museum AA

st. giles high street (2010)_ london_renzo piano

PROJECT

renzo piano is an architect that advocates the use terracota and ceramics in architectural design

of

Renzo Piano has specified ceramic or terracotta cladding for a number of his buildings, starting with two projects in Paris: the IRCAM building (a European institute for electroacoustical music, finished in 1977) and the Rue de Meaux housing complex (1989-1991). Some other well known terracotta and curtain wall projects by Renzo are the Potsdamer Platz skyscraper in Berlin and the New York Times building in New York. Both use extruded ceramic pieces as sunshade elements, a.k.a baguettes. The approach in London is more complex, since terracotta has been selected here both for the front and the back elements of the facade.


st. giles high street (2010)_ london_renzo piano


134,000 green, orange, lime and yellow glazed terracotta tiles cover the faรงades in 13 irregularly oriented vertical panels on the external perimeter.


_There are 18 different terracotta extrusion profiles in six different colours. _The extrusions are pressed from a highly sophisticated mix of different types of clay, subsequently dried for several days, and then burned at high temperature for around 24 hours. _After being cut to size, the ceramic material is dipped and the pieces are burnt a second time.


The faรงades are hung on an internal chassis carrier system (a similar system is in use in another Piano development on Berlin's Potsdamer Platz). The faรงades are expected to be effectively self-cleaning and immune to fading. The colours of the faรงades are evoked in the design of many of the development's interior fittings, such as liftdoor reveals, handrails and lift displays.


The ceramic elements on the building, fabricated by NBK in Germany, were mounted on facade units produced by Schneider Fassadenbau at their factory in Wroclaw, Poland. Schneider had some previous experience with combined terracotta and glass-aluminium unitized systems. NBK and Schneider worked together a set of detail connections between the terracotta profiles and the aluminium elements behind them. Terracotta profiles completely cover the unit outside face, so that the curtain wall looks like an opaque facade punched by windows (fix units at the offices, opening vents at the housing). The inside face of the panels is clad with white painted aluminium profiles and sheets, no ceramic being present at this side.


new york times_ NYC_renzo piano

52 storeys and 1,046 ft (319m) high, The New York Times Building is one of New York's greenest skyscrapers. It has a co-generation plant that supplies 40% of the power requirements for the Times Company and its advanced daylight optimisation system produces overall Times Company energy savings of 30%. Maximum transparency made possible with curtain wall facade + brise soleil ‘suncoat’ _ ceramics_burnt earth hanging in the sky


new york times_ NYC_renzo piano


new york times_ NYC_renzo piano


I

A

B

E

C

F

D

a. glazed ceramic tubes with internal aluminum connection b. painted aluminum vertical strut c. painted aluminum horizontal strut d. steel suspension rod e. low-iron insulating glass w, low-e coating f. painted extruded aluminum unit frame g. painted aluminum spandrel panel h. automated internal shade i. raised floor over concrete slab on deck j. suspended ceiling

G H

new york times_ NYC_renzo piano


The complexity comes from the skin, the surface of the building actually vibrating, working with the weather,” Renzo Piano, the architect, said in 2001. Likening it to a “fabric of ceramic,” he called the screens a “suncoat” — as opposed to a raincoat — that would cut the transmission of light and heat into the interior, thereby permitting the use of clear, rather than tinted, glass. Ceramic rods had to pass test of structure_water absorption_frost resistance (the client noticed the use of ceramic rods being used as rollers in a kiln for the manufacture of sewer pipes_final design was an adaption of these rollers). Ceramics made from high grade aluminum silicate.


The exterior ceramic rods work with the building's large glass window panes and photosensor-controlled interior blinds to improve efficiency in a variety of areas. Designed with help from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the thin ceramic tubes actually help reduce the building's cooling (energy) loads, while the automated roller-shades help manage potential glare problems, and maximize the opportunity for daylight and views


The glazed facade of the tower has a brise soleil 186,000 ceramic rods which link in with a dimmable lighting system. Brise-soleil made of horizontal rods to project 18 inches from the curtain wall Each rod is 1 5/8 inches in diameter, The slenderness of the ceramic rods and their spacing brings glimpses of the city right into the office space while cutting heat load 30 percent and energy costs 13 percent Each rod measures 4 feet 10 inches; there is a total of 894,000 feet of ceramic tubing on the exterior of the building. That is the approximate distance from New York City to Providence, R.I.


In those areas where there are no rods, a subtle ceramic frit pattern was applied. One example_ Alumco Glass silk-screened ceramic frit glasses for architectural and commercial use. The process involves screen printing ceramic frit paint onto the glass and fusing it onto the surface during the toughening or heat strengthening process. The result is a tough decorative glass. Full Ceramic frit is a roller coated glass with a solid colour. Design Ceramic frit is screen printed glass with a pattern or design


MATERIAL MATTERS_Carbon-Based Materials


Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is an extremely strong and light. Although carbon fiber can be relatively expensive, it has many applications in aerospace and automotive fields. The compound is also used in sailboats, modern bicycles, and motorcycles. The high cost of carbon fiber is mitigated by the material's unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio, and low weight is essential for high-performance automobile racing. Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) has over the past two decades become an increasingly notable material used in structural engineering applications _ Its tensile strength is more than 10 times mild steel.

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer


The Carbon Tower Prototype is a 40-story mixed-use high-rise _ studies conducted by Arup suggest that, if built, the tower would the lightest and strongest building of its type. Peter Testa is Principal-in-Charge of Design at TESTA/WEISER and founding director of the MIT Emergent Design Group (EDG). At TESTA/WEISER he leads a wide range of projects including the Carbon Tower, recognized as one of the most significant applications of advanced composite materials and robotics in architecture. Since 2004 he has been a member of the SCI-Arc Graduate and Post-Graduate Design Faculty teaching XLAB advanced design studios and seminars.

Peter Testa _ Carbon Tower


The project is a prototype 40-story skyscraper made entirely of composite materials, mostly carbon fiber. Such man-made composites, which also include better-known materials like fiberglass and Kevlar, are increasingly used in industry and for consumer goods—in everything from airplane fuselages to tennis rackets—because they are strong, lightweight, and easily molded into an almost endless variety of shapes.


In tension, carbon fiber is five times stronger than steel—their use in buildings has been rare. Testa, though, is convinced that composites will radically transform architecture during the next decade or two. His carbon skyscraper, which he likes to describe as a “woven building,” is designed to be not just less muscle-bound than the skyscrapers in which Americans work today but also more beautiful, environmentally friendly, and cheap to build.


Testa’s carbon tower is the product of ongoing research in computer-aided engineering and material science _ The basic form > cylindrical building 40 stories high by 40 carbon-fiber strands, about 1 inch wide and nearly 650 feet long, that are arrayed in a crosshatch, pattern. Filling in the structure between floors is an advanced glass substitute (at least Testa’s current favorite is ETFE, a kind of transparent foil). A pair of ramps on the exterior of the building offers circulation and further stabilizes the structure.


Spiral ramps (above) offer both emergency egress and lateral bracing. As this section illustrates, the interior space is open, allowing for displacement ventilation throughout the building, which minimizes energy consumption. A lightweight ETFE membrane replaces the traditional curtain wall.


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW The BMW Guggenheim Lab is the first building designed with a structural framework composed of carbon fiber.


Lightweight and compact, with a structural skeleton built of carbon fiber, the mobile structure for the first cycle of the BMW Guggenheim Lab has been designed by the Tokyo architecture firm Atelier Bow-Wow as a “traveling toolbox.�

BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


The structure’s lower half is a present-day version of the Mediterranean loggia, an open space that can easily be configured to accommodate the Lab’s various programs. The upper part of the structure houses a flexible rigging system and is wrapped in a semitransparent mesh. Through this external skin, visitors are able to catch glimpses of the extensive apparatus of “tools” that may be lowered or raised from the canopy according to the Lab’s programming needs... transforming the ground space into a formal lecture setting, a stage for a celebratory gathering, or a workshop with tables for hands-on experiments.


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


BMW Guggenheim Lab_Atelier BOW-WOW


Weighing in at just 14lbs., the truss is light enough for a six year old child to lift and carry! Made completely of Dragonplate carbon fiber materials, these types of light-weight structures are highly portable and versatile.

Dragon Plate Carbon Fiber Materials


Carbon Fiber I-Beam DragonPlate carbon fiber I-beams are extremely strong in bending and shear loading. The combination of unidirectional and 0°/90° plain weave on the top and bottom flanges give the I-beam its high bending strength. Utilizing a 45° orientation in the webbing allows the I-beam to have exceptional shear strength, as well as properly transmitting loads between the top and bottom flanges. DragonPlate's I-beam construction allows for an extremely thin, lightweight I-beam to obtain the same effect as a thicker, heavier pultruded I-beam. Carbon fiber I-beams can offer similar properties in bending and shear as sandwich panels with the same thickness, but without the added weight from unnecessary core material. Textured finish on the top and bottom of I-beams make for bonding to thin panels to create an extremely stiff and strong structure.

T

STANDARD SIZES J 1” 2”

T

H

0.038” ± 0.015” 1.08” ± 0.015” 0.038” ± 0.015” 2.09” ± 0.015”

Lengths: 48” or 24” (-0, +.25)

WEIGHT (lbs/ft)

W 0.75” +0.125”/-0 1.50” +0.125”/-0 Finish:

0.06 0.11

H

J

Web: Matte Flanges: Matte Inside Textured Top/Bottom W

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Dragon Plate Carbon Fiber Materials Properties of Carbon Fiber


Delta7 manufactures unique and ultra-light carbon fiber frame bikes using IsoTruss速 grid structures to offer a lightweight and efficient alternative to traditional wood, steel, aluminum and composite structures. The three-dimensional, yet relatively simple geometry of IsoTruss速 grid structure provides substantial resistance to local and global column buckling, while lending itself to cost effective fabrication using batch or automated continuous manufacturing techniques. IsoTruss extrapolates the traditional 2-D triangle based truss to a 3-D truss made up of pyramids formed by isosceles triangles.

IsoTruss _ Delta 7 Manufacturers


C-GRID is a patented carbon-fiber grid reinforcing technology and can be used in place of or with steel mesh and light rebar including composite bar. It’s made by bonding ultra-high-strength carbon tows with an epoxy resin to improve durability, enhance structural performance, and reduce weight. The product is noncorrosive and provides excellent crack control properties. Carbon fiber can be placed near the finished surface to optimize structural tension properties and minimize crack spread and crack width. C-GRIDŽ can be used in place of, or along with steel mesh and light rebar. Unlike steel, carbon grid can be placed just below the finished surface eliminating the concrete cover requirement. By contrast, several inches of concrete would be required to protect steel mesh from corrosion and to prevent rust stains from bleeding through to the finished surface.

Carbon Fiber Grid _ Reinforcement


The problem of corrosion in precast concrete is often attributed to the steel rebar reinforcement; steel being a corrodible material, it is especially vulnerable during the curing and drying process, when it is locked into an environment that is very wet. AltusGroup, a national organization composed of 13 precast companies, and Chomarat, a producer of carbon fiber grids, answered by replacing the steel rebar in concrete with a carbon fiber grid. The grid is thinner and lighter than the steel, and it requires less concrete to cover it. The result: thinner, lighter panels (up to 75 percent lighter architectural wall panels) and increased insulation, because the carbon fiber doesn't conduct heat or cold. This new material already has been used in architectural and insulated sandwich wall panels.

Carbon Fiber Grid _ Reinforcement


MATERIAL MATTERS_POLYMERS_Plastics/Polycarbonate/ETFE


POLYMER _

Natural polymeric materials > shellac, amber, wool, silk and natural rubber A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, which is the main constituent of wood and paper. The list of synthetic polymers includes synthetic rubber, Bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, silicone, and many more.


Cellophane House_ kieran timberlake associates http://kierantimberlake.com/home/index.html


Book >

smartwrap: the mass customizable print faรงade, 2003 + cellophane house kieran timberlake associates

james timberlake

stephen kieran

Refabricating Architecture: How Manufacturing Methodologies are Poised to Transform Building Construction, 2003


Smartwrap is the building envelope of the future: it is made up of several layers - including a substrate, printed and laminated layers - all of which are roll-coated into a single composite film. together, they have the capacity of providing shelter, climate control, lighting and information display, and power.

smartwrap _ super-thin, printed, performative skin SmartWrap weighs approximately 1/100 as much as the masonry wall.


The working prototype of SmartWrap that was displayed in the pavilion is a wall of film made up of the thermoplastic polymers (PET), phase change materials (PCMs), glass LEDs, thin-film photovoltaics, and simulated batteries, wired by silkscreened silver conducting ink.

This is combined with a second layer of PET with aerogel pockets separated by an entrapped air barrier.

The effective thermal resistance (insulating value) of the working prototype is about the same as a conventional concrete block and brick bearing wall.


cellophane house: kieran timberlake associates


Home Delivery/MOMA, NYC/2008


cellophane house: kieran timberlake associates


Kullman Buildings Corp.; F.J. Sciame Construction Co., Inc.; CVM Engineers; Budco Enterprises, Inc.; Arup; Arup Lighting; Sch端co USA; Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions; Bosch Rexroth distributed by Airline Hydraulics Corporation; Sky King Skylights; 3form; DuPont Teijin Films; PowerFilm; Valcucine; 3M Window FilmsTM PR 70 Prestige Series; Miele; Duravit; AF New York; Universal Services Associates, Inc.; Capital Plastics Company, Inc.; Craftweld Fabrication Company Inc.; A&B / McKeon Glass, Inc.; Czarnowski; Total Plastics, Inc.; Maspeth Welding, Inc.; Burgess Steel; JE Berkowitz, LP and Oldcastle; CPI Daylighting, Inc.; Greenheck, distributed by Del Ren Associates; ICI Paints; Burnett Products Company, Inc.


enric ruiz-geliŠCloud 9

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


MOST RELEVANT DATA

CREDITS

. 3.572 M2 PLOT AREA

Promotors of the building EL CONSORCI de la ZONA FRANCA

. 23.104 M2 CONSTRUCTED AREA . 20.791.486 Euros BUDGET . 27 MILIONS Euros INVESTMENT FROM THE CONSORCI . JANUARY 2009: COMPLETE DATE . 2.500 M2 ETFE FAÇADE

Principal Architect ENRIC RUIZ GELI, CLOUD 9 Structure BOMA S.L., AGUSTÍ OBIOL

. 20 % ENERGY SAVINGS WITH ETFE SOLAR FILTERS

Installations PGIGrup, DAVID TUSSET

. 42 POINTS OF A MAXIMUM 57 POINTS ACCORDING TO THE DECREE ON ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND ENERGY ECO-EFFICIENCY FOR BUILDINGS

Technical Direction Técnics-G3, J.M. FORTEZA

. AUDITORIUM FOR 300 PEOPLE . 201 PARKING SPACES; 26 MOTORBIKES SPACES; 4 DISABLED PARKING SPACES

Project Manager CAST, ÀNGEL ROTEA

. 2.418 PEOPLE: MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY . 2 ACCESSIBLE FAÇADES Promoters

Architecture ENRIC RUIZ GELI

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9

Structure

Instalations

pgigrup

Technical Direction Project Manager


INDEX

MEDIA-TIC Poble Nou : Post Industrial Architecture The Digital Pedrera ETFE : Monomaterial Energy Eco-efficiency

enric ruiz-geli©Cloud 9

Performative Architecture : Nitrogen Uniform

Digital Pedrera

Now, in the Information era, architecture has to be a technological platform, in which bits, connectivity, new materials, and nanotechnology are important... . Connections are more important than materials. We are living in an electronic, immaterial world, in which what is important is the design of the network, not its physical size. The CLOUD 9 MEDIA-TIC project is a digital architecture, constructed using CAD-CAM digital processes. . The façade of the MEDIA-TIC does not represent industrial, series construction, instead it evolves and represents digital construction, the construction of information. It is a contemporary building that allows for the construction of a very complex façade. We are creating “The Digital Pedrera” at 22@Barcelona.

Cloud 9

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9_ Enric Ruiz Geli


Furthermore, it is anti-adherent, which prevents it becoming dirty and requiring cleaning maintenance. At the same time, it does not lose its characteristics of elasticity, transparency or strength over time. ETFE cladding is inflatable, with up to three air chambers. This not only improves thermal insulation, but also makes it possible to create shade by means of the pneumatic system. The first layer is transparent, the second (middle)and third layers have a reverse pattern design which, when inflated and joined together, create shade, or in other words a single opaque layer. When the second and third layers are joined, creating shade, the inflatable section only has one air chamber. This is the DIAPHRAGM configuration. .

enric ruiz-geliŠCloud 9

Text

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Solar Protection is necessary in order to achieve an eco-efficient building. 2,500m2 of ETFE cladding, the MEDIA-TIC building will enable energy savings of 20% ETFE is a hybrid material

enric ruiz-geliŠCloud 9

(Ethylene Tetra Fluoro Ethylene) with very special characteristics_self-cleaning (Teflon) super thin, super light, selfextinguishing material, printable surface, can be fabricated as pillows inflated with air + other gases (nitrogen).

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


enric ruiz-geliŠCloud 9

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


NITROGEN FOG_ PERFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE ETFE cladding is used for the south-west-facing façade, which is exposed to six hours of sunlight daily. A different application of ETFE is used, it is known as the 'lenticular' solution – where two layers of the plastic are inflated and filled with nitrogen. In this method, the air density of the particles creates a cloud-like solar filter.

Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


Media TIC, Barcelona_Cloud 9


MATERIAL MATTERS_METALS


Golden Gate Park de Young Museum

deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron_2005


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron_2005


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


Herzog & de Meuron developed the idea of a variably perforated screen exterior which would mirror the green foliage and forestry of the surrounding Golden Gate Park, San Francisco's central park. The architects worked with Zahner whose engineers and software specialists developed a system which would allow unique perforation and patterned dimples, variably sized and placed thoughout the exterior. This included over 8000 unique panels whose collective whole formed the pattern of light through trees literally. This was the first iteration of the Zahner Interpretive Relational Algorithmic Process, or the ZIRA™ Process.

deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


Above left, the surface of the 'Children's Entry' was created using imagery from a photograph provided by the architects (right). The vantage point of the photograph looks up into a sky obscured by trees.

The architects came up with a photo taken pointed up through the trees, and in several parts of the museum, light filters through the perforated system of holes, revealing shadows similar in shape and form to those of actual trees. The ZIRA™ Process streamlined this complex series of variable holes in the copper, allowing engineers to run chosen imagery through the algorithmic system, translating it to the thousands of copper plates. At the time, this mosaic algorithmic process was emerging, it was unheard of in the world of architecture _ Zahner hired software developers and engineers to assist in this technological advancement.

deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


Herzog + deMeuron originally called for a light golden-hued appearance for the museum L. William Zahner (fabricator) ensured that over time the copper would transition from it's bright golden red, to a dark brown, to a black, and finally, it would slowly emerge into earthy greens in order for the museum to blend in it’s forested surroundings...

deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron_2005


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


deYoung Museum_Herzog deMeuron


Note: Trapezoidal Panels on Tower


Panels > 12’ x 2.5’ rectangular panels 130,000 sq.ft. of copper


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


On the naturally ventilated floors, a computerized system known as the building automated system (BAS) , opens and closes windows, vents and sunscreens in response to temperature within the building as well as external environmental conditions. At the southeast elevation, a perforated metal sunscreen protects the glass facade from excess solar heat gain; at the northwest elevation, a series of fixed vertical fins in translucent glass are attached to an exterior catwalk, breaking the sun’s path to shade the glass.

SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


Alabama Metal Industries Corporation Diamond Perforated Metals > Provided Perforated Metal for South Facade Founded in Los Angeles in 1956, Diamond Perforated Metals, Inc. was the first major manufacturer of Perforated Metals on the West Coast of the USA

Perforations: from simple rounds, squares, slots, hexagons, to the more elaborate textured, embossed and even image transfer perforating Sheets or coils are fed into the perforating press. All scrap generated from the punching process is recycled. Most malleable materials can be perforated with mild steel, aluminium and stainless steel being the most common. However, more fashionable, precious metals such as brass, copper, gold and even platinum or titanium can all be turned into perforated metal. AMICO products can be anodized, powder coated or galvanized to help protect and add color to our base materials.

SF Federal Building_Morphosis


Amico_New Museum_NYC_SAANA


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


During the night, the BAS opens the windows to flush out heat buildup and allows the nighttime air to cool the building's concrete interior. Throughout the day the thermal mass of the exposed concrete columns, shear walls and wave-form ceilings help cool the occupants of the building.

SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


SF Federal Building_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


Part of the redevelopment of Paris' La Defense commercial district, the 1,000 foot tall 68 storey office building (just a little less than the Eiffel Tower), is slated for completion in 2015. The design features a 200 foot tall atrium, wind turbines and a high-performance double skin - designed to minimize solar overheating.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


the building will appear to have a web-like skin, draped over its organically shaped undulating form, with the gauze effect of a hairnet. On closer inspection the forms will appear more vibrant with massive crisscrossing steel beams supporting a perforated metal surface.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


The tower will employ a secondar y skin as a passive sunscreen layer, t hough not t hrough a conventional double glazed façade.T im Christ, t he principal for Morphosis on t he Phare Tower project, said t hat component is still in t he researc h phase. “It ’s what we call a high per formance exterior envelope.” The intention is to take as muc h of t he solar gain of f t he glass and still preser ve all of t he views to t he exterior. The metallic skin will act as a sunscreen on t he sout h, east and west elevations.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


Phare Tower_Morphosis


The complex structure and skin adapt to the tower’s nonstandard form while simultaneously responding to a range of complex, and often competing, physical and environmental considerations. Technologies integrated into the Phare Tower capture the wind for the production of energy and selectively minimize solar gain while maximizing glare-free daylight. Its highperformance skin transforms with changes in light, becoming opaque, translucent, or transparent from different angles and vantage points.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Mayne says it will be, “a prototype for a green building with a wind farm generating its own heating and cooling for five months of the year and a movable ‘double skin’ to cut the heat from direct sunlight…”

A visually distinctive wind farm crowns the tower and provides clean, alternative energy to power the fans that activate the building’s natural ventilation system. This fully selfsufficient system will cool the building for half of the year without using any outside energy sources or any supplemental heating or cooling. A metaphorical garden in the sky, this crown of wind turbines harvests energy and provides a powerful symbol of committed environmental stewardship.


The team is experimenting wit h a number of exterior shading devices, including per forated metal screens, to balance how muc h daylight t hey allow into t he space wit hout contributing to t he heat-load; t he most likely candidate is a woven stainless-steel product produced in Germany on large looms.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Traditionally, for optimal sun shading, brise soleil louvers are angled perpendicular to t he direction of t he sun’s pat h, as calculated on t he summer solstice. Yet t he complexity of t he tower ’s cur ving east-, west-, and sout h-facing facades, combined wit h t he diagonal orientation of t he panels, requires a unique angle for eac h of t he f ive t housand stainless steel mesh panels to ac hieve optimal sun shading.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


The team is experimenting wit h a number of exterior shading devices, including per forated metal screens, to balance how muc h daylight t hey allow into t he space wit hout contributing to t he heat-load; t he most likely candidate is a woven stainless-steel product produced in Germany on large looms.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


A curvilinear second skin of diagonal stainless steel mesh panels wraps the tower’s continuous south, east, and west glazed façades to minimize heat gain and glare and maximize energy efficiency.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


Both the form and the orientation of the building respond to the path of the sun; the south façade’s curvilinear double skin minimizes heat gain and glare, while the flat, clear-glazed north façade maximizes interior exposures to year-round natural daylight. A brise soleil wraps the tower’s continuous South, East, and West glazed façades. This double-membrane façade system improves both energy efficiency and worker comfort, by reducing the solar heat gain and minimizing glare, while maintaining panoramic views and affording natural light to the office spaces.

Phare Tower_Morphosis


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2/18/13 5:01 PM

Materials Library Registration

Southern Polytechnic State University Your school email address will be your Username. You will need to check your email as part of the registration process. Email Password Confirm Password

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