Issuu on Google+

February 2009 Uniclass L521 Cl/SfB (47)

N

GUIDE TO ROOFING SYSTEMS PAGES 1-17


CONTENTS

02

46

Know-How Introduction to Redland Training and Innovation Sustainability Dry-Fixing Advantages Effective Ventilation DesignMaster, SpecMaster FixMaster & QuantMaster EcoMaster & ViewMaster www.redland.co.uk

Profile Range 2 4 6 10 11 14 16 17

18

46 48 50 52 54 56 57 58 59 60 61

62

Slate Range Choice at a glance Natural Slate Cambrian Slate Landmark Slate Saxon Richmond Stonewold II Mini Stonewold MockBond Mini Stonewold

Choice at a glance Old Hollow Clay Pantile Cathedral Clay Pantile Landmark Double Pantile Landmark Double Roman Grovebury 50 Double Roman Regent Renown Norfolk Pantile 49 Tile

18 20 22 24 26 28 29 30 31

Metal Range Redland Metal Roofing

62

64 Solar Range Solar Water Heating Systems

64

32

68

Plain Tile Range

Essential Roof Components

Choice at a glance Rosemary Clay Classic Rosemary Clay Craftsman Heathland Downland Plain Tile DuoPlain

32 34 36 38 40 42 44

Choice at a glance Underlays Eaves Systems Verge Systems Hip Systems Valley Systems Abutment Systems Safety Hook Ridge Systems Ventilation Tiles Ornamentals Fittings Colour Range

68 70 72 74 78 84 86 89 90 100 106 108

Product Codes Performance and Appearance Index

110 118 120


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:20

Page 2

Redland is a brand of the worldwide Monier Group. With operations in 46 countries and over 200 production sites, Monier is the leading worldwide supplier of pitched roofing materials. Operating in the UK and Ireland, our goal is to deliver high-quality roofing solutions that perfectly meet our customers’ expectations.

Redland draws on the expertise and experience gathered from more than 85 years as an industry leader. Our range of tiles, slates, renewable energy systems, fittings and accessories, combined with market-leading technical support services, enable us to deliver total pitched roofing solutions you can rely on.

“At Redland it is our aim to deliver high-quality roofs that are easy to specify, buy, install and own.”

“easy to specify” We provide services to help the specifier design and specify a pitched roof. Our roofing know-how allows us to guarantee performance and remove the specifier’s design liability.

“easy to buy” Our products are widely available, our well trained staff are easy to contact, we know our products and we understand customer needs.We aim to deliver on time and in full.

“easy to install” Our roofing know-how has enabled us to design products that are easy to install and fit together to form a roof system. Our fixing instructions are clear, and we provide customer support to help overcome difficult technical problems.

“easy to own” When correctly fixed our roofs do not fail.They last for a long time. If they should fail, we will replace the products free of charge and include any costs for labour and scaffolding. Our guarantees are relevant and credible.

For further information on Redland: Visit www.redland.co.uk or telephone our Customer Service Hotline on 08705 601000 2 KNOW-HOW

KNOW-HOW 3


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:20

Page 4

THE RIGHT STUFF When you deal with us you are dealing with people whose capability is unmatched in the industry. You can be sure that the advice you receive from our sales office, warehouse or logistics personnel is based on a passion for excellence in roofing systems. ST 4 Solar Water Heating System

Our Wind Tunnel – purpose built for testing roofing performance

INNOVATIVE THINKING At Redland we pride ourselves on our continuous development programme for new and enhanced products and services. Our roofing know-how from local and international markets, along with our extensive research and development facilities, creativity and a passion for innovation means that we can offer systems at the forefront of roofing technology.

Technical Solutions Hotline

The Training and Resource Centre

Our Technical Solutions Hotline provides you with access to a wealth of roofing expertise and a comprehensive package of technical services.With their in-depth knowledge of our products and the wider aspects of roofing, the Redland Technical Solutions team is uniquely qualified to assist you with your project.

Underpinning our roofing expertise is our purpose-built Training and Resource Centre, where Redland personnel, customers and specifiers regularly undertake in-depth classroom and practical ‘hands on’ training. Since the Training and Resource Centre was established, thousands of people have received training within our state-of-theart workshops and conference rooms.

Continuing Professional Development We are a member of the RIBA CPD providers network and offer a range of CPD seminars designed to help specifiers identify potential roofing problems and provide practical solutions.

In addition to products that enhance the roof ’s function, we have also developed products such as Rapid Vented Ridge and Rapid Hip that are quick and easy to install, reducing the completion time on site.These systems provide a visually appealing, weathertight roof.

Besides roofing systems, we continue to develop our market-leading technical services. Our website has been further enhanced. It now contains over 5,000 downloadable CAD drawings and includes the innovative ViewMaster service: online software that allows you to select different tiles and colours in order to visualise the appearance of the roof.

Rapid Vented Ridge – Universal System

We also provide training to achieve professional Licentiate or Associate membership of the Institute of Roofing. Each ‘fastrack’ course takes just 10 days (over a 10 week period).

For further information on Technical Solutions: See pages 14-16 Technical Solutions Hotline 08708 702595 Email technical.redland@monier.com Redland is recognised as an Investor in People, meeting a wide range of criteria on managing staff training, development and communication issues

4 KNOW-HOW

Thanks to Redland’s long-standing experience and expertise in the area of training, it holds a position on the National Roof Training Committee, which was formed from the Roofing Industry Alliance (RIA) initiative, in order to help improve skill levels and professionalism within the industry.

For further information on our training courses: visit www.redland.co.uk/training e-mail training.redland@monier.com telephone our Training and Resource Centre on 01285 863545 For CPD modules at your premises: telephone our Customer Service Hotline on 08705 601000

KNOW-HOW 5


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:21

Page 6

SUSTAINABILITY OUR GOALS AND VALUES

REDUCING OUR FOOTPRINT

Sustainable construction requires consideration of not only the environmental impacts of construction but also the social and economic impacts as well. Reducing the built environment’s impact on carbon dioxide and other emissions to help tackle climate change and pollution, the efficient use of scarce resources, and improving health and safety represent just some of the challenges facing the construction industry. As a responsible manufacturer, Redland is committed to helping meet these challenges. Drawing upon its heritage, Redland is a name that can be trusted to help meet the contemporary challenges of sustainable construction. Since its foundation in 1919 Redland has dedicated itself to meeting the challenges faced by the construction industry. In 1926 Redland played an integral part in the construction of post-war Britain, supplying concrete roof tiles that were desperately needed in the absence of coal-fired clay tiles that were unavailable due to the general strike. A generation later Redland was instrumental in re-roofing London, with its mass-

produced Redland 49 concrete tile, establishing itself as a staple of the London landscape. With its Queen’s Award-Winning Cambrian Slate launched in the mid1980s – a product ahead of its time in terms of its high recycled waste content – Redland demonstrated that a traditional slate roof appearance could be achieved with a more cost-effective single lapped tile. In 1997 – before the Kyoto international agreement on reducing carbon dioxide emissions was signed – Redland was the first roof tile

manufacturer to launch a roofintegrated photovoltaic solar panel for generating electricity from a renewable source. Redland’s goal is to be the preferred supplier for its customers in terms of meeting their sustainable roofing needs while reducing our environmental and other impacts. To achieve this goal Redland invests significantly every year in our core values of roofing know-how, industrial excellence and customer focus.

Cambrian Slate

As well as working with the Environment Agency to help protect and improve the environment, Redland operates an environmental policy and management system across all its sites in the UK and Ireland, covering energy efficiency, waste minimisation, water efficiency and pollution reduction. Our continuous improvement process ensures that the embodied environmental impacts of Redland products are minimised.

• Raw materials – Our concrete, clay and Cambrian products are manufactured from raw materials that are over 80% (by volume) sourced from suppliers operating to the ISO 14001 environmental management standard. Redland is working with its supply chain to increase these percentages. • Energy efficiency – Every year we benchmark all our UK plants against over 200 Monier Group roofing plants around the world, to help improve energy efficiencies and learn from sharing best practice. Our UK plants currently rank among the best in the world as we constantly strive to further minimise our impact on the environment. • Recycling waste material at our plants – The recycling of broken concrete and clay tiles and waste mortar for use in our tile production continues to increase, thus minimising the amount of waste solids having to be removed from site. Polymer coatings are recycled at all concrete plants where used. Cambrian Slate itself includes a minimum of 60% recycled Welsh slate taken from slate waste piles.

Furthermore, our Cambrian plant has reduced its reject rate, with only 1% of total raw materials going to landfill. • Waste water recycling and treatment – Surplus water used during production is recycled and used in the manufacturing of other products. We have also installed water treatment plants and/or settlement lagoons at plants to ensure that any water runoff is correctly treated before it enters into the water courses. • Packaging – We annually review our packaging and the energy used to wrap our products. Supplier packaging is recycled wherever possible.We have also introduced a pallet returns system where our customers are encouraged to return the wooden pallets on which our products were packaged. These pallets are then reused for future product packaging. We currently reuse 100,000 pallets per year.

• Logistics – Our 8 plants and 4 depots are strategically positioned throughout the UK to reduce the amount of transportation of products around the country, thereby reducing congestion and pollution. Our haulier sees the use of biofuel as a major step forward in reducing their carbon footprint and currently have 750 of their 8000 vehicles running on a 50:50 standard diesel to biofuels mix. • Recycling used product at the end of its life – All our concrete tiles can be recycled for use as aggregate in building applications such as roads and paths, and all our plastic components are also fully recyclable. Clay tiles can be reused.

Making Redland tiles in the 1920's

“meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” 6 KNOW-HOW

KNOW-HOW 7


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:22

Page 8

SUSTAINABILITY ROOFING MATERIALS Fossil fuel energy use, and the carbon dioxide emissions produced as a result, is thought to be the single largest threat to our planet. In the UK about 50% of all energy use results from the construction and operation of buildings. Although the embodied energy of building products is less significant than the energy used to operate buildings, the focus on reducing the impact of building products is likely to increase. The manufacture of building products generates various environmental impacts in terms of energy, waste, water use and pollution. Although the sustainability of building products is difficult to quantify, the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) has become the standard tool in the UK for quantifying the overall embodied environmental impact of building materials, the building elements (roofs, walls, floors, windows, etc) they make up, and buildings as a whole. The BRE produce a guide using BREEAM called the Green Guide to Specification, which summarises the full life cycle impact of building elements (roofs, walls, floors, etc), depending on the materials used as part of standard construction details.The current Green Guide grades these elements on an A+, A, B, C, D, E scale where A+ represents the lowest environmental impact and E the highest.

• Redland Concrete and Clay Tiles As members of the Concrete Tile Manufacturers Association and Clay Roof Tile Council, data supplied for Redland concrete and clay roof tiles enabled the 2008 BRE Green Guide to Specification to award the highest A+ rating (lowest environmental impact) for generic concrete interlocking and plain tiles in all roof constructions. Clay tiles achieve either an A+ or A rating depending on roof construction. • Redland Cambrian Slates are the most eco-friendly resin slates available.The 2008 Green Guide to Specification awards generic resin slates an A rating when part of standard roof constructions.

8

8 KNOW-HOW

• Redland Natural Slate – Redland supplies only the highest quality natural slates from Spain and Argentina through a partnership agreement with slate specialists SSQ Group. Generic natural slate from the UK achieves an A rating in the 2008 BRE Green Guide to Specification for standard roof constructions. • Redland Metal Roofing – Redland’s metal roofing range of coated steel profiled sheet products is manufactured within strict environmental targets. The 2008 Green Guide to Specification awards generic coated steel profiled sheet products an A rating for common constructions such as double skin construction. Steel can also be recycled an unlimited number of times without losing its quality.

RENEWABLE ENERGY For a typical building only 10% of the energy it has consumed over its lifetime is a result of its construction. Approximately 90% of energy consumption results from the provision of heat and power.To reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions therefore requires buildings that are energy efficient in use. However, to operate a building without producing carbon dioxide emissions requires renewable, zero carbon sources of energy to provide both heat and power. Harnessing solar energy is one of the most attractive means of generating zero carbon, renewable energy for use in buildings, and the roof is the ideal surface for solar energy collection.

ST 4 Solar Water Heating System

The solar water heating roof panel system from Redland has been specifically designed by the Redland roofing experts for integration into pitched roofs.The solar water heating system generates domestic hot water and when connected to the household hot water system, can significantly reduce consumption of natural gas or other fossil fuels.The system is supplied with a standard hydraulic control kit containing controls, valves, pump, sensors and expansion vessel, as well as a fixing system that allows seamless, guaranteed secure and weathertight integration into the roof surface. The Redland solar water heating system can also be used for space heating or swimming pools.

KNOW-HOW 9


ONCE DRY-FIXED,THEY STAY FIXED

EFFECTIVE VENTILATION

Redland leads the way in the development of mechanical or ‘dry-fix’ roofing systems to provide neat, maintenance-free and cost effective roofing solutions that will stay put no matter what the weather brings.

Good roof design does not just mean choosing the right tile or slate. The protection of the supporting structure from the harmful effects of condensation is equally important.The proven method for preventing condensation is through the use of effective roof ventilation.

Our dry-fix systems eliminate the need for mortar bedding ridge, hips and verges, and have a number of advantages: • Fully tested against the elements to secure the roof in severe weather conditions • Eliminate problems of mortar failure due to poor workmanship • Maintenance-free • Quick and easy to fix with no special tools required • Can be laid even when bad weather is expected • Incorporate ventilation at the ridge • Compatible with most tiles and slates • Comply with BS 5534 requirements for mechanical fixing, and BS 5250 for ventilation Like all of our products, the durability of our dry-fix systems has been extensively tested under all climatic conditions, from the UV rays of the blazing sun to sub-zero temperatures. They are also laid on roofs in our purpose built wind tunnel to assess their performance against the UK and Ireland’s most severe storm conditions.This thorough approach has enabled us to achieve Agrément Certification for the majority of our dry fixed systems. Based upon our industry leading know-how we are able to guarantee that a complete Redland roof covering will remain secure and weathertight for 15 years.

Condensation in roof spaces has become an increasing problem for several reasons. Part L of the building regulations is driving up standards for the airtightness of dwellings at the same time as encouraging use of increased levels of insulation. These changes in building standards – to reduce energy consumption – coupled with householders’ increasing use of appliances such as dishwashers and tumble dryers, have contributed to the increasing presence of water vapour in colder roof spaces. BS 5250, Code of practice for control of condensation in buildings, sets out best practice recommendations for managing condensation risk in roofs and complying with Part C of the building regulations. Specification of the most appropriate form of roof ventilation depends largely on how airtight the ceiling is. Broadly speaking, ventilation solutions can be divided into those designed for roof constructions with a well-sealed ceiling (Breathing Roof Solutions) and those where the ceiling airtightness is not as good (Traditional Ventilation Solutions). Well-sealed ceilings With traditional construction methods it is not possible to guarantee a completely sealed ceiling. It is also not possible to guarantee that the ceiling will remain sealed for the design life of the building.

With care over design and good workmanship, however, it is possible to achieve a well-sealed ceiling such that less ventilation is needed than provided by traditional ventilation solutions. BS 9250:2007, Code of practice for design of the airtightness of ceilings in pitched roofs, describes both the detailed requirements and robust details for achieving a well-sealed ceiling. Requirements include the presence of well-sealed pipe and cable penetrations including light fittings, in addition to a well-sealed loft hatch. Redland’s range of Breathing Roof solutions provide the optimum specification when a well-sealed ceiling is installed.

Storm damage can be prevented by using our dry-fix systems.

For further information on dry-fix systems refer to the following pages: Verge Hip

10 KNOW-HOW

74 - 77 78 - 83

Abutment 86 - 87 Ridge 90 - 99

KNOW-HOW 11


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

16:18

Page 12

Breathing Roof Solutions The diagrams below show a summary of the products we provide to satisfy the requirements of BS 5250 5mm

Insulation at Ceiling Joist Level – Well Sealed Ceiling • Standard duo-pitch roof with Spirtech 250 underlay • Underlay Support Tray at eaves

5mm

REDLAND BREATHING ROOF SOLUTIONS Redland’s range of Breathing Roof solutions provides specifiers with simple, robust and guaranteed BS 5250-compliant specifications, designed to meet changes in building standards. When used in conjunction with a well-sealed ceiling Redland Breathing Roof solutions combine all the benefits of a vapour permeable underlay with the reliability and security of a dry-fix ventilated ridge system to control condensation risk, even under severe conditions such as when newly built dwellings are drying out. Redland Breathing Roof solutions use Spirtech 250 vapour permeable underlay laid short at the ridge, in combination with Dry or Rapid Vented Ridge to provide a secure, weathertight system against both storm damage and roof condensation. A fundamental requirement of Breathing Roof solutions is the achievement of a well-sealed ceiling. Failure to achieve this level of ceiling airtightness significantly increases the risk of roof condensation.

Performance Redland is able to provide a complete 15 Year Roof System Guarantee for its Breathing Roof solutions and, when part of a SpecMaster project (see page 15), a full 15 Year SpecMaster Guarantee covering design liability as well. Benefits • Suitable for most roof designs • Guaranteed weathertightness • Dry-fix technology ensures guaranteed, securely fixed ridge tiles • Improved energy-efficiency resulting from reduced heat loss through the roof • Single point of manufacturer responsibility, from the underlay to the tile • No eaves ventilation product required, simplifying eaves details • High-level ventilation ensures water vapour loads are managed effectively

Top Edge Abutment Ventilation Unit (see page 87)

Rapid Vented Ridge (see page 92) DryVent Ridge (see page 90)

5mm

Insulation at Ceiling Joist Level – Well Sealed Ceiling • Lean-to or mono-pitch roof with Spirtech 250 underlay • Underlay Support Tray at eaves

Rapid Ridge (see page 92) Dry Ridge (see page 90)

Rapid Vented Ridge (see page 92) DryVent Ridge (see page 90)

Insulation at Rafter Level – Well Sealed Ceiling • Duo-pitch roof with a 50mm air gap between insulation and Spirtech 250 underlay • Underlay Support Tray at eaves

Insulation at Rafter Level – Well Sealed Ceiling with Vapour Control Layer • Duo-pitch roof with a 50mm air gap between insulation and Spirtech 250 underlay • Underlay Support Tray at eaves

Traditional Ventilation Solutions The diagrams below show a summary of the products we provide to satisfy the requirements of BS 5250 5mm

Rapid Vented Ridge (see page 92) DryVent Ridge (see page 90)

Top Edge Abutment Ventilation Unit (see page 87)

RedVent Eaves (see page 73)

10mm

10mm

Insulation at Ceiling Joist Level – • Standard duo-pitch roof with Veltitech underlay • Where rafter pitch is 15º or less the low-level ventilation gaps must be increased from 10mm to 25mm. High-level ventilation is required on rafter pitches above 35˚ and/or at spans more than 10m

Rapid Vented Ridge (see page 92) DryVent Ridge (see page 90)

5mm

ThruVent or RedLine Ventilation Tile (see page 100-105)

5mm

RedVent Eaves (see page 73)

10mm

Insulation at Ceiling Joist Level – • Lean-to or mono-pitch roof with Veltitech underlay • Where rafter pitch is 15º or less the low-level ventilation gaps must be increased from 10mm to 25mm

Rapid Vented Ridge (see page 92) DryVent Ridge (see page 90)

5mm

5mm RedVent 25 (see page 73)

RedVent Eaves (see page 73)

10mm

Breathing Roof systems are covered by the comprehensive Redland 15 Year Roof System Guarantee when used with Redland tiles, slates, fittings and accessories.

12 KNOW-HOW

10mm

Insulation at Ceiling Joist Level – • Duo-pitch roof with dividing walls with Veltitech underlay • Where rafter pitch is 15º or less the low-level ventilation gaps must be increased from 10mm to 25mm.

25mm

25mm

Insulation at Rafter Level – • Duo-pitch roof with a ventilated 50mm air gap between insulation and Veltitech underlay • Underlay Support Tray at eaves

KNOW-HOW 13


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:24

Page 14

TIME SAVING, FLEXIBILITY, PEACE OF MIND Redland has developed a comprehensive range of FREE technical services that will save you time and give you peace of mind that your project is in safe hands.

DesignMaster

QuantMaster

A comprehensive CAD library of over 5,000 quality roofing drawings

A roof materials quantity estimating service

• • • •

• Quantifies all roof materials including tiling battens and leadwork • Eliminates potential costs of over-ordering or downtime resulting from under–ordering • To obtain a QuantMaster send your drawings to Redland Technical Solutions

Saves time preparing working drawings Prevents risk of incorrect application Drawings available in both DWG and DXF formats Each drawing includes a complementary NBS-based specification clause • Available for download at www.redland.co.uk/designmaster or DesignMaster CD-ROM available

FixMaster

SpecMaster

Redland’s fixing specification service tailored to customers’ needs

A complete guaranteed roof specification service

• Removes the potential for roof failure

• Relieves the burden of the specification writing process

• Offers the choice of either a fixing specification tailored to a specific roof design and location or a generic fixing specification

• Tailored specification clauses in NBS-based format

• Full assessment of the impact of all nearby man-made and natural topographical features and complies with all British standards • To obtain a tailored fixing specification: Complete an online data sheet at www.redland.co.uk/fixmaster or contact the Technical Solutions Hotline • To obtain a generic fixing specification: Download zonal fixing specifications for all our tiles from www.redland.co.uk/literature

• Fully compliant with all relevant British Standards • 15 year design liability guaranteed for all roofs designed and built in accordance with SpecMaster • New build and re-roofing projects • Provides peace of mind for you and your clients • To obtain a SpecMaster: complete an online data sheet at www.redland.co.uk/specmaster or contact the Technical Solutions Hotline

Workmanship Warranty

NEW

Independently insured cover for the workmanship element of your SpecMaster project is now available via Redland's partnership with Auditing Workmanship & Materials Ltd. Contact Redland Technical Solutions for more information.

For further information on Technical Solutions: Technical Solutions Hotline 08708 702595 Email: technical.redland@monier.com Redland Technical Solutions, Monier Ltd, Broadway Lane, South Cerney, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 5UH

14 KNOW-HOW

KNOW-HOW 15


RED1094_GTRS_GB_Intro.qxd

3/2/09

14:24

Page 16

www.redland.co.uk

SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY GETTING YOU CONFUSED?

Our website is the most information-rich roofing site online, and provides invaluable help in the selection and specification of our roofing materials.Whether it’s help with product selection, the ability to download CAD drawings or just a comprehensive source of information you require, this site will soon become a firm favourite.

EcoMaster A complete guaranteed specification service for projects involving Redland renewable energy systems • Relieves the burden of the specification process for Redland solar water heating systems

• 15 year roof system guarantee for all roofs designed and built in accordance with EcoMaster

• Calculation of estimated energy benefit of Redland solar water heating installation

• Specific product guarantees for renewable energy systems

• Fully compliant with all relevant British Standards, Good Practice Guides and Building Regulations

• To obtain an EcoMaster: complete an on-line datasheet at www.redland.co.uk/ecomaster or contact the Technical Solutions Hotline

• Access to an approved installer network

• Provides peace of mind for you and your clients

STRUGGLING TO VISUALISE YOUR NEW ROOF?

• The ability to download CAD drawings, literature and BBA certificates • ViewMaster allows you to see how different tiles and colours alter the appearance of the roof • Product finder, a searchable database for products by colour and finish • Photo gallery, an easy-to-navigate database of all our tiles and slates in use on actual projects

• Technical sections on tiles, slates, fittings and accessories as well as FAQs • Online forms to request fixing and roofing specifications • Colour swatches and photographs of all our tile profiles

• Online request facility for literature and tile samples • Section on CPD and training courses available • News section with the latest information on our products and services

ViewMaster The online software that enables you to ‘try before you buy’

1

Go to ViewMaster and choose the house type that best resembles yours.

2

Choose a tile type and tile colour.

ViewMaster is a quick and easy way to see how different Redland product combinations look when laid on a roof.

3

Then click on ridge type and make your selection.

To access ViewMaster visit: www.redland.co.uk/viewmaster

4

Finally you have the option to select a solar water heating system.

Images tailored to your specific roof and property can also be obtained from selected merchants and contractors. For further information contact Technical Solutions.

1

16 KNOW-HOW

2

You can click ‘reset all criteria’ at any point and start again to view different product combinations.

3

4

KNOW-HOW 17


173