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ii. Japan, Germany, Italy, Portuguese, French, British, US, Russians 5. Fall of China a. Internal rebellions i. White Lotus Rebellions – Buddhist anti taxes/corruption ii. Taping Rebellion – nationalist Chinese a. Second deadliest war in world history b. 20-30 million lives lost c. “Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace” – taiping d. Hong Xiuquan fails civil service i. Thinks he’s Jesus’s brother e. Resented taxes, arbitrary rule, foreign rule f. Eventually defeated i. Competent Qing generals ii. Ever-Victorious Army – run by American a. Then British general b. External losses i. Korea claims independence – 1876 ii. Vietnam goes to French – 1883 – Sino-French War iii. 1895 Japan defeats China – Sino-Japanese War a. Japan takes Taiwan b. Has Europeanesque trading rights c. Took over Korean peninsula c. European spheres of influence i. France, Germany, Russia, Britain ii. Not colonies – set up – military businesses, invested in a. business, transportation, communication d. US wants peace of the action – Open Door Policy i. China open to all of the world – OK…Europe and US e. Attempted reform with the self-strengthening movement i. Encouraged Western investment ii. Modernized the Chinese army 6. Boxer Rebellion a. Boxers – Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists i. Anti-Manch, anti-European, anti-Christian ii. “Boxers” – martial arts experts b. Goal – drive Europeans and Japanese out of China i. Most of anger directed at Beijing ii. Foreign residents and foreign legations c. Tactics – guerilla warfare against Christian missionaries/embassies d. Easily defeated once Europeans/Japanese sent in reinforcements e. Forced to sign Boxer Protocol – payments to Japanese/Europeans 7. China starts to fall apart a. Foot binding abolished 1901 b. 1905 – Chinese examination system ended c. Attempts at reform i. 1905 – Empress Cixi formed a committee to discuss constitution ii. Last Emperor – Henry Puyi – local assemblies i. Election for national assembly planned for 1910 c. 1911 – Government toppled Europe in Southeast Asia i. Britain takes Burma, Malay peninsula (Singapore), northern Borneo, Australia ii. Dutch take Indoneseia iii. Philippines controlled by Spain then US iv. France took over Indochina – Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam v. Germany Pacific islands as naval posts Europe in Africa i. Africa held little interest to Europeans prior to Industrial Revolution 1. Though North of Sahara – Egypt especially – had interest/historical impact 2. Vast interior unknown to outside world 3. 1880-1910 able to take over “Dark Continent” in “Scramble for Africa” a. Almost brought Europe to war b. Berlin Conference – 1884-1885 set up rules c. By 1910 only Liberia – guaranteed by the US and Ethiopia free