3. “Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect.” iii. Civil service exam iv. Eliminated inhumane cultural practices 1. Sati – burning widows alive 2. Thuggee – ritual assassination of travelers – Kali 3. Harsh treatment of untouchables v. Reduced level of sectarian strife d.
Europe in Southeast Asia i. By 1900, only small portion of Southeast Asia not controlled by Europe ii. National resistance movements beginning to form 1. For the time being, unable to move foreign masters 2. Laid foundation for freedom movements that would expel foreigners after WWII iii. Southeast Asia before 1800 1. Only major regions controlled by Europe – Philippines and Indonesia a. British influence in Malay peninsula b. Portuguese controlled part of Timor – Indonesia c. Indonesia – controlled by Dutch East India Company i. Handed responsibility over to upper-class natives 1. Western-educated iv. Malaya and Singapore 1. Rich in rubber, tin, oil, copper, iron, aluminum ore 2. Singapore – Stamford Raffles – trading center and fortress, naval base a. With India and Hong Kong, one of Britain’s most prized possessions v. French Conquest of Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia 1. France needs to stop Britain from having uninterrupted control of Asia a. Britain takes over Burma 2. 1879-1859 – pressured Nguyen dynasty to accept foreign rule a. Most profitable natural resources – tin, rubber, chrome, oil, bauxite 3. Government related to that of British a. More religious than British – conversion i. Local elite of upper-class, Westernized natives b. Exploited economy – a la British c. la mission civilisatrice – modern technology and science to the colonies d. more willing to resort to repression and violence to maintain order vi. Thailand 1. Remained independent due to leadership and good luck a. King Mongkut and King Chulalongkorn (The King and I) i. Modernized monarchs – introduced industrialization/Western reforms b. Geographic setting i. lay between British Burma and French Indochina ii. Mutually agreed informally to let it be buffer zone vii. US Annexation of the Philippines 1. In Spanish American War of 1898 – Americans + Natives overthrew Spanish 2. Debate in Europe over what to do with Philippines a. Turn into US colony i. Prevent from falling into hands of Japanese ii. Superb naval base in Pacific iii. Way station with China iv. “Moral” obligation to help poor yellow brothers 3. Pattern of practical selfishness + condescending idealism 4. Savage war in jungles for US to maintain colony a. Emilio Aguinaldo now turns against Americans – bloody battle Europe in China i. Much of Chinese history remained isolationist 1. Frequently traded, but didn’t make exploring a priority 2. Napoleon saw China as “sleeping dragon” – untapped population, size, resources 3. Expanded by conquering neighbors, but didn’t take expansion beyond region 4. Backwardness – unwillingness to modernize/industrialize left vulnerable a. Deluded sense of grandeur/past accomplishments 5. Allowed European traders to trade only in port city of Canton a. Established strict limitations on what could be bought or sold