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1861 Emperor Franz Josef shared power with parliament Struggled on how much power to give to ethnic minorities a. Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Italians, Hungarians b. Minorities want autonomy – self-determination c. 1867 – Largest minority forced Austrians to give power i. Augsleich – “compromise” – becomes Austria-Hungary vi. Germany 1. Had to make concessions to growing working class a. Trade unions and socialism growing in power/influence 2. Universal suffrage for Reichstag a. But…upper class votes weighed more than lower-class votes 3. Laws for employment benefits a. unemployment insurance b. disability insurance c. pensions d. shorter work day e. Some workers actually better off than western world vii. Russia 1. Remained most autocratic 2. No constitution, and until 1905 – no elected body 3. Following embarrassing defeat in Crimean War – 1853-856 a. Tsar Alexander II forced to implement liberal reforms i. Modernize Russia ii. Emancipation of serfs in 1861 iii. Lightened censorship iv. Widened powers of local government v. 1881 – Alexander II assassinated by radical terrorists b. Future tsars reversed policies 4. 1905 – Uprising forces Nicholas II to share power with Duma a. But…Nicholas II ignored or disbanded Duma – neutered viii. Japan 1. Tokugawa Shogunate in the 18th century a. Ruled by Tokugawa clan – seized control in 1600s b. Technically authority with emperor, reality with shogunate c. Top of society – samurai – warrior class d. Early successes i. Helped centralize Japan ii. Transformed from warring collection of states to peaceful country e. Problems i. Highly dictatorial ii. Stratified society with no chance for social mobility iii. Few personal freedoms – people left out of politics iv. Isolated self from rest of the world a. Only relations with Korea, some China, Dutch – Nagasaki 2. Meiji Restoration a. Meiji Restoration of 1868 began Japan’s modern age i. Irony – rebellion anti-Western in nature, but a. Must embrace West to survive/compete ii. Revolution from above a. Meiji’s govt radically alters politics, economics, social b. Politics i. Abolishes feudalism a. Samurai have positions of power b. No hereditary privileges c. Stop payment to samurai d. Samurai couldn’t wear swords ii. Formal law code – Civil Code of 1898 drawn up iii. Constitution of 1890 – elected parliament – Diet a. Suffrage quite low – 5% - property qualifications b. Emperor still has power over Diet c. Created oligarchy – rule by Meiji and advisors d. Less restrictive, but hardly representative e. Women ignored – second class citizens