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i. German and Austrian Empire provinces not united since Holy Roman Empire a. After Peace of Westphalia – Austria/Prussia dominated ii. Prussia under Frederick the Great pushed Industrial Revolution a. Supported education – talented workforce b. Events toward unification iii. William I in 1861 appoints Otto von Bismarck prime minister a. Goal – build the military b. Consolidating the region under Prussia’s authority i. Defeated Austria, convinced Europe to not help ii. More wars to bring in other German regions iii. Brings in Catholic German states through war 1. Unite against France in 1870 iv. King William II then emperor of the German Empire a. Second Reich – “second empire” b. First Reich – “Holy Roman Empire” c. Effects i. Germany quickly industrializes a. Strong economic/political power ii. William II forced Bismarck to give up role a. Becomes undisputed emperor in 1888 b. Built huge navy c. Pursued colonial ambitions in Africa and Asia iii. Germany becomes world power a. By 1914, thought they could take on anyone g.

Movements of political reform i. Gradual Move Toward Representative Government 1. 2nd half of century moved toward representative govt 2. Why? a. Industrialization, modernization, urbanization, population growth i. Too many issues for one man to handle 3. Even in less democratic nations, power still spread to advisers, agencies, ministries and institutions ii. Reform and Democracy in Great Britain 1. Liberal and Conservative parties agreed to expand suffrage a. Second and Third Reform Acts – 1867/1885 – universal suffrage 2. Problems still existed a. Aristocracy trying to retain privileges b. Growing middle class has ambitions of higher status c. Enormous working class striving for equality i. Labour Party ends up replacing liberal (middle class) party d. Irish home rule i. Should North – split Catholic/Protestant remain British or Irish ii. Should Ireland be set free iii. Democracy in France 1. Louis Napoleon renamed himself Napoleon III a. Cancelled out some of the post-1848 liberties b. Deposed after losing Franco-Prussian war of 1871 2. 1871 onward – France becomes democratic republic – universal suffrage a. Fourth Republic b. Still had problems i. Corruption and financial scandal ii. Dreyfus Affair – Jewish officer accused of selling secrets to Germ a. Exposed anti-Semitism b. Pitted left vs. right – innocent vs. guilty iv. Unification of Italy and Germany 1. Showed power of nationalism – more powerful than demand for democracy 2. Unified through combination of war and diplomatic intrigue/maneuvering a. Garibaldi – Italy b. Von Bismarck - Germany v. Austria-Hungary 1. More conservative, but moved away from autocracy

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