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a. Cholera/tuberculosis ii. Water and air pollution horrific a. Modern sewage systems rare b. Heating through coal and wood K. Increased general level of prosperity a. At first, industrialization –generates incredible wealth quickly, but it sticks to a few people i. First 50 years only middle class really benefit b. In 1850, when Industrial Revolution essentially over – working class starts to benefit i. Benefits start to widen out – slow process ii. Need reform V. Changes in social and gender structure A. Industrial Revolution 1. Changes Gender a. Poor women who had taken care of home/worked in fields shifted to 1. factories/sweatshops 2. putting out system – little time/space for domestic work 3. Actually had more “opportunity” than middle/upper class a. But I doubt they’d be too excited 4. Still paid less than men 5. By end of century, most working women were single 6. Reform laws limited working hours of women 7. Women lost manufacturing jobs of the domestic (putting out) system a. Expected to return to role as homemaker/childcare provider b. Upper class women 1. More wealth/more servants to manage 2. Less influence/power outside the home than in previous eras c. New group – middle class housewives 1. Lived on outskirts of cities – with servant or two 2. Husbands went to work in white-collar jobs 3. Like upper class women, isolated from the work world 4. Relegated to afternoon social calls/drinking tea 5. Victorian Age idealized women a. Manners/etiquette counted b. Nothing distasteful should be seen by women 6. Contradiction between what was appropriate for middle class and the realities of the lower class pushed middle class to demand change – led movements 7. As men earn money, women return to traditional roles a. Power diminishes 8. This is the group that starts organizing to demand rights/suffrage 9. New culture of consumption meant to free up women to pursue activities outside of home a. Sewing machines, clocks, stoves, refrigerators, ovens d. Factory laborers 1. Have to work long hours and fulfill traditional role as caretaker for husband, children, home e. Social mobility – ability to move from one class to the next 1. middle class expands 2. standard of living improves f. Turned husband into wage earner and wife into homemaker 2. Changes social class a. New aristocrats 1. Those who became rich based on industrial success 2. Old money vs. new money 3. Wealth based on Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations a. Private ownership b. Middle class 1. managers, accountants, ministers, lawyers, doctors, skilled professionals c. Working class 1. factory workers + peasant farmers 2. New twist – now the massive lower class is working side by side – urbanization 3. Able to daily see the huge class discrepancy a. Saw elite gain wealth at their expense