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75th Anniversary Commemorative Edition

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PEARL

HARBOR The attack itself, minute by minute The mood of a nation plunged into war

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3 THE ATTACK ITSELF

A minute-by-minute look at what happened in Hawaii Dec. 7, 1941.

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NEWS OF WAR

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36

INTERNMENT

COULD IT HAPPEN AGAIN?

World War II is often characterized as the great crusade against tyranny. That’s hard to reconcile with the treatment of Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast, more than 100,000 of whom were uprooted from their homes and sent to internment camps.

When the U.S. unleashed “shock and awe” against the regime of Saddam Hussein in 1993, the assault was broadcast live. Not so in 1941, when it took hours for news of the Pearl Harbor attack to reach American homes.

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ISOLATIONISM

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CHRISTMAS 1941

World War II officially began in September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, but the United States did not enter the war for more than two years. After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. sprang into action. What was life like before America entered the war?

Coming just 18 days after the attack, this was a holiday unlike any other. For many Americans, it was the last time they would be together.

ONLINE Visit www.houmatoday.com or www.dailycomet.com to view the digital version of REMEMBERING: A DAY OF INFAMY.

38 LEARNING MORE Recommended reading, viewing, memorials to visit

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MOBILIZATION

Although the United States had had a draft since 1940, the armed forces remained small. That changed swiftly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when thousands of draft boards sprang up around the country, and millions of men were conscripted for military service.

What would such a surprise attack look like now? What keeps our national security forces up at night?

34

HOUMA PLAYS ROLE IN WAR EFFORT The local Naval Air Station housed blimps that patrolled the Gulf for German submarines.

TRIVIA Test your knowledge

43 NAMES OF THOSE KILLED

BLIPPAR Throughout this section we are using an app called Blippar to direct you to online content via your smartphone. 1. Download the free app in the Apple App Store or Google Play, for Android phones and tablets. 2. When you see these icons near a story or photo, open the app and point your smart device’s camera at the STEP ONE STEP TWO STEP THREE page. DOWNLOAD FILL SCREEN BLIPP IMAGE 3. Blippar will bring up BLIPPAR APP WITH IMAGE INTO LIFE related digital content on your phone or tablet. For example, open the Blippar app and hover your phone over the text of FDR’s Christmas Eve speech on Page 23. Audio of the speech should start playing on your device.


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THE ATTACK

ITSELF ‘Sunday in Hell’ author details two hours on Pearl Harbor that changed history

The U.S. Navy battleships USS West Virginia (sunken at left) and USS Tennessee shrouded in smoke after the Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor. WIKIPEDIA

Use the Blippar app to open a video of Bill McWilliams interviewing Pearl Harbor survivors. SEE INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGE 2

The following is an excerpt from the book “Sunday in Hell: Pearl Harbor Minute by Minute” by Bill McWilliams. Copyright (c) 2011 by Bill McWilliams. Reprinted with the permission of Open Road Integrated Media, Inc.


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O

n Thursday, 4 December, the U.S. Navy’s guarded, highly classified radio receiving station in Cheltonham, Maryland, intercepted a Japanese overseas “News” broadcast from Station JAP (Tokyo) on 11980 kilocycles. The broadcast began at 8:30 a.m., corresponding to 1:30 a.m. in Hawaii, and 10:30 p.m., 5 December, in Tokyo. The broadcast was probably in Wabun, the One of the 29 Japanese Japanese equivalent of Morse Code, and aircraft lost on Dec. 7, was originally written in syllabic katakana this ‘Val’ dive bomber characters, a vastly simpler and phonetic trails flames from its form of written Japanese. It was recorded in right wing. THE NATIONAL Cheltonham on a special typewriter, develWWII MuseuM oped by the Navy, which typed the Roman-letter equivalents of the Japanese characters. The Winds Message broadcasts, which Japanese embassies all over the world had been alerted to listen to in a 19 November coded message, was forwarded to the Navy Department by TWX (teletype exchange) from the teletype-transmitter in the “Intercept” receiving room at Cheltenham to “WA91,” the page-printer located beside the GY Watch Officer’s desk in the Navy Department Communication Intelligence Unit under the command of Navy Captain Lawrence F. Safford. U.S. Army Air Forces aircraft destroyed by Japanese raiders at Wheeler Air Field Dec. 7. WIkIPEDIA The 4 December message was one of the last key intelligence intercepts the Navy was decoding and translating, Saturday evenings on Oahu were billiards, and 3.2 beer. Called by some in attempts to determine Japanese intentions and plans normally filled with relaxed revelry, “The Battle of Music,” “The Battle of the during their deteriorating diplomatic relations and negosprinkled with “happy hours” in the Bands” featured Navy bands primartiations with the United States. There was some delay local hotel lounges and bars, dinners ily from “capital ships” home ported in and uncertainty in decoding and translating the mesat restaurants and clubs, dances, floor Pearl Harbor and those attached to shore sage, which, as indicated in the Japanese government’s shows, quiet gatherings with families installations in Hawaii. Four bands were 19 November message, would be contained in the Tokyo and friends, and walks on the beaches. to compete in each round of the tournanews broadcasts’ weather reports. After considerable On the military installations, in the offiment with one winner per round selected discussion of the 4 December intercept, senior Naval Intelcers’ clubs, enlisted recreation centers, to perform in the final competition ligence officers concluded the message meant an imminent and other locations on bases and posts, rounds. The (USS) Arizona band won the break in diplomatic relations with Great Britain, at least, similar activities occur. first round in September, and several of and probably the United States – since the embassies had Tracing its origins to the early 1900s, its members attended this night, to listen received instructions to destroy their codes. Code destructhe Navy’s School of Music opened in to their future “competition” – tonight’s tion and replacement was a routine procedure at regular, Washington, D.C. in 1935 and operated winner. specified intervals throughout the year, but ominously, the in conjunction with the U.S. Navy Band. Each band performed a swing number, most recent order to destroy codes didn’t fit the normal Students enrolled in the school in this era a ballad and one specialty tune, then pattern of Japanese behavior in managing their most secret were interviewed in advance, selected played for the jitterbug contest. Comcodes. for attendance, graduated in complete peting this final night of the elimination But unknown to American intelligence another more ensembles, and transferred aboard ship. round, were only three bands. As the ominous message had been sent to the combined fleet At Pearl Harbor, a crowd gathered men stomped and cheered, bands from at 0730 hours on 2 December, Tokyo time, Monday, 1 at the new Bloch Recreation Center the battleships Pennsylvania (BB-38) and December in Washington and Hawaii. Sent by Admiral the night of 6 December 1941 for “The Tennessee, and the fleet support ship, Yamamoto’s chief of Naval General Staff, Rear Admiral Battle of the Bands,” the last elimination Argonne (AG-31), fought it out to go to Matome Ugaki, it was to become one of the most famous round of a Pacific Fleet music tournathe finals. The Pennsylvania band won, messages in naval history. “Climb Mount Niitaka, 1208.” ment begun the previous 13 September everybody sang “God Bless America,” It signaled that X-Day – the day to execute the Japanese and held every two weeks, with the final and the evening wound up with dancing. war plan – was 0000 December 8, Japan time. Nagumo’s competition planned for 20 DecemWhen the crowd filed out at midnight, task force received the information at 2000 hours, and ber. The Bloch Recreation Center was many argued that the best band of the at this hour was about 940 miles almost directly north a place designed to give the enlisted tournament thus far was the Arizona’s. of Midway, well beyond the arc of U.S. reconnaissance man every kind of relaxation the Navy The threat of hostilities on Oahu flights. felt proper – music, boxing, bowling, seemed farfetched to all but a few.


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GordonGordon W. Prange, W. Prange, in “At Dawn in “At Dawn Planes and Planes a and a We Slept,” recorded recorded the chain theofchain of hangar burning hangar burningWe Slept,” events that events followed that followed the deployment the deployme at the Ford at the Ford of the Japanese Empires’ Empires’ midgetmidget Island Naval Island Naval of the Japanese submarines early the early morning the morning of 7 of 7 Air Station’s Air Station’s submarines December: “A waning “A waning moon peeked moon peeke seaplaneseaplane base, base,December: throughthrough the broken the broken overcast overcast to glim-to glim during orduring imme-or immethe waters on the waters off Pearl off Harbor. Pearl Harbor diately after diately after mer on mer milesofsouth entrance of entrance About ‘1 3/4south the air raid. the The air raid. TheAbout ‘1 3/4 miles the minesweepers the minesweepers CondorCondor ruined wings ruined ofwings ofbuoys,’buoys,’ and Crossbill plied their plied mechanical their mechanica a PBY Catalina a PBY Catalinaand Crossbill brooms. At 0342At something 0342 something in the in the patrol plane patrol areplane arebrooms. darkness ‘about fifty ‘about yards fiftyahead yardsoff ahead o at left and at in left and in darkness bow’ port attracted bow’ attracted the attenthe attenthe center. the THE center. THEthe portthe

tion of Ensign RussellRussell G. McCloy, G. McCloy, NATIONAL NATIONAL WWII WWIItion of Ensign MuseuMMuseuM

Condor’s Condor’s OfficerOfficer of the Deck. of theHe Deck. He called to called Quartermaster to Quartermaster SecondSecond Class Cl R.C. Uttrick R.C. Uttrick and asked andhim asked what him hewhat he thought. thought. UttrickUttrick peered peered throughthrough bin- bi ocularsoculars and said, and ‘That’s said, ‘That’s a periscope, a periscop sir, andsir, there andaren’t theresupposed aren’t supposed to be to be any subs any in subs this area.’” in this area.’” ***

***

In just 90 In just minutes 90 minutes the Japanese the Japanese had h launched launched 350 aircraft 350 aircraft toward toward their their Use theUse Blippar the Blippar targets.targets. app to open app to open The Zeroes’ The Zeroes’ (fast, highly (fast,maneuhighly maneunewsreel newsreel footagefootageverable,verable, heavily-armed heavily-armed fighters, fighters, of the attack, of the attack, also called alsoZekes) calledfirst, Zekes) low-altitude first, low-altitud passes at passes Kaneohe at Kaneohe were were played in played moviein moviestrafingstrafing and theand effects the of effects the remainof the remai theaterstheaters in in deadly,deadly, ing 32 in ing the 32 first in the wave first would wave prove would prove December December 1941. 1941. devastating devastating everywhere everywhere that mornthat morn SEE INSTRUCTIONS SEE INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGE 2 ON PAGE 2 ing. Each ing. carried Each carried two rapid-fire two rapid-fire 20-mm20-mm canons,canons, one in the oneleading in the leading edge ofedge eachof wing, eachand wing, twoand 7.7-mm two 7.7-mm machine machine guns mounted guns mounted on the nose on the nose of the fighter, of the fighter, in the engine in the cowling. engine cowling To increase To increase the amount the amount of damage of damage caused caused during their during strafing their strafing runs, the runs, t Japanese Japanese loaded their loaded ammunition their ammunition in the following in the following order: two order: armor two armor piercing, piercing, one tracer; one two tracer; armor twopiercarmor pie ing, oneing, tracer; one two tracer; armor twopiercing, armor piercing one incendiary. one incendiary. With this With loading this loading the bullets the would bulletsnot would onlynot kill, only butkill, but would shred wouldthin shred metal, thinpierce metal,light pierce toligh moderately moderately thick armor, thick armor, gasolinegasoline and a oil tanks, oildo tanks, fataldo damage fatal damage to vehicles, to vehicl engines, engines, aircraftaircraft and anti-aircraft and anti-aircraft guns – guns and start – and fires. start fires. In the first In the eight first minutes eight minutes of the air of the a assault assault on Oahu, onthe Oahu, Zekes thewere Zekes comwere co mencing mencing the near-total the near-total destruction destruction of


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The Japanese carrier Akagi prepares to launch airplanes in the second attack wave Dec. 7, 1941. PHOTOs COuRTesY THe NATIONAL WWII MuseuM

the Navy’s long range patrol capability on the island. Follow-on attacks by Zekes and horizontal bombing Kates (equipped with torpedoes) and additional fighters in the second wave would bring more death and destruction to Kaneohe Naval Air Station. Along the beach in Waimanalo to the southeast of Kaneohe, all was serene at Bellows Field until about dawn, when the acting first sergeant ran into the tent area to rouse the

sleeping men, yelling that Kaneohe had been ‘blown all to hell.’ Corporal McKinley thought he was crazy and just turned over in his bed. At 0810, someone called from Hickam Field and asked for a fire truck because they ‘were in flames.’ A return call disclosed … they had been attacked, so the Bellows fire chief left for Hickam with the fire truck. While the men of the 86th rushed to defend against the next onslaught, the three 44th fighter pilots were

determined to get into the air as soon as possible. Squadron maintenance men scrambled to disperse, fuel and arm their aircraft. Time was of the essence. In another half hour, the second wave’s attack would bring much more than a single Zeke fighter strafing Bellows Field on one pass. Though none from the 86th died at Bellows Field that day, and only three were wounded on a field still under construction, two more of their number received wounds

in the Japanese assault on Hickam Field - and two of the 44th’s three pilots would die at Bellows, with the other wounded in desperate, vain, raging attempts to get airborne and strike back at the now-declared enemy. The worst was in progress elsewhere, far worse. Between dawn, when the 86th’s acting first sergeant told of Kaneohe’s attack, 0810 hours, when the call for a fire truck came from Hickam, and 0830, when the Zeke roared through on a strafing


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charged charged low across low the across water thefrom water from the southeast the southeast and east, and after east, passafter passing at 50 ing feet at 50 altitude feet altitude southeast southeast of of HickamHickam Field’s Field’s hangarhangar line, and line, and past thepast south theand south north andends north ofends of Ford Island Ford across Island the across harbor the harbor from from the west the toward west toward the main thedock main and dock and ships inships the north in theharbor, north harbor, while other while ot torpedo-bombers torpedo-bombers pressing pressing in fromin from the eastthe and east southeast and southeast unleashed unleashed devastating devastating attacksattacks on the battleon the battleships and ships other andships otherinships the harbor. in the harbor Val dive Val bombers, dive bombers, with a two-man with a two-man crew ofcrew pilotof and pilot radioman/ and radioman/ gunner,gunne and Kate and horizontal Kate horizontal bombers bombers from from the northeast the northeast and southwest and southwest almostalmo simultaneously simultaneously launched launched shattershattering dive-bomb ing dive-bomb and fighter and fighter attacksattacks on aircraft on aircraft and hangar and hangar facilities facilities on Hickam on Hickam Field, Ford Field, Island, Ford Island, and and nearbynearby MarineMarine Corps’ Corps’ Mooring Mooring Mast Ma Field atField Ewa at - while Ewa -to while the northto the northwest, Wheeler west, Wheeler Field took Field staggering took staggerin blows beginning blows beginning moments moments following followi the assault the assault on NASon Kaneohe NAS Kaneohe Bay. Bay. Wheeler Wheeler Field, struck Field, shortly struck shortly before 0800, before was 0800, home wasfor home the for the Hawaiian Hawaiian Air Force’s Air Force’s entire pursuit entire pursu (interceptor) (interceptor) force, which force, was which thewas the 14th Pursuit 14th Pursuit Wing, composed Wing, composed of of the 15ththe and 15th 18th and Pursuit 18th Pursuit Groups. Groups. A A successful successful attack on attack Wheeler on Wheeler would wou virtually virtually assure air assure superiority. air superiority. The Th Japanese Japanese took Wheeler took Wheeler Field comField comtorpedoes, torpedoes, bombs,bombs, cannoncannon fire andfire and *** *** pletelypletely by surprise, by surprise, as theyas did they every did eve machine machine gun bullets gun bullets tore into tore theinto the other installation other installation on Oahu. on No Oahu. oneNo one Startled, Startled, at-first-uncertain at-first-uncertain and andattackers’ attackers’ primary primary target, target, the Pacific the Pacific on the ground on the ground sightedsighted the oncomthe oncomFleet, setting Fleet, setting off thunderous off thunderous explo- explodisbelieving disbelieving men onmen the ground on the ground and and ing Valing dive Val bombers dive bombers until they until they sions, starting numerous numerous fires, and fires, and aboardaboard ships, all ships, disciplined all disciplined and and sions, starting made their made final their turn final forturn the for attack. the attack huge, all-consuming infernoinferno on onAircraftAircraft trainedtrained to respond to respond in a crisis, in aand crisis, and a huge,aall-consuming and maintenance and maintenance facilities facilitie the battleship Arizona, Arizona, the men the onmen on fight, were fight,momentarily were momentarily puzzled. puzzled.the battleship along the along flight theline flight were linethe were primary the prima Army Air Army Force, Air Navy Force,and Navy Marine and Marinetargets.targets. Then they Then saw they bombs saw bombs or torpedoes or torpedoes SupplySupply depots,depots, barracks barracks and a Corps airfields Corps airfields suffered suffered their own their ownpeople people released, released, the white-hot the white-hot blinking blinking of of anywhere anywhere in the vicinity in the vicinity of of machine machine guns and guns 20-mm and 20-mm canons,canons, brand of brand hell.of Before hell. Before one hour one and hour andthese targets, these targets, were secondary were secondary but but forty-five forty-five minutes minutes passed,passed, total total also received the flash the offlash orange of orange insigniainsignia - “meat- “meatalso received devastating devastating blows. blows. The T balls” -balls” on the- underside on the underside of wings of wingsArmy Air Army Force Aircasualties Force casualties on Oahu on Oahu pass, hell pass, was hell visiting was visiting the island theof island of Japanese Japanese pilots were pilotstoo were welltoo trained well train or theofsides fuselages, of fuselages, heard aheard a climbed climbed to 163 killed, to 163 336 killed, wounded, 336 wounded, Oahu. Wheeler Oahu. Wheeler Field, the Field, home theof home ofor the sides to waste totheir waste bombs their bombs and ammuniand ammuni few shouted few shouted warnings, warnings, the roarthe of roar ofand 43 and missing. 43 missing. Of these, OfHickam these, Hickamtion ontion the Hawaiian the Hawaiian Air Force’s Air Force’s air andair fleet and fleet insignificant on insignificant targets.targets. One One low flying lowairplanes, flying airplanes, and theand violent the violent Field’s Field’s losses were losses121 were killed, 121 274 killed, 274 bomb did defense, defense, the 14th the Pursuit 14th Pursuit Wing, was Wing, was bomb land did in land the front in theyard front ofyard a of explosions explosions of bombs of bombs or torpedoes or torpedoes in wounded, in wounded, and 37 and missing. 37 missing. Out of 231 Out of house, 231 the firstthe Army firstAir Army Force Airfield Force struck field struck house, but it was butthe it was result theof result a miss of a mi the stunning the stunning few moments few moments before beforeHawaiian Hawaiian Air Force Airaircraft, Force aircraft, 64 were 64 were on Oahu. on By Oahu. 0900, By when 0900,the when second the second rather then rather a deliberate then a deliberate attack on attack the on t reality reality struck home. struck In home. the normal In the normaldestroyed, destroyed, 93 damaged 93 damaged and only and only housing wave struck wave Bellows struck Bellows and completed and completed housing area. area. preparations for Sunday for Sunday morn- morn- 74 were74left were in repairable left in repairable condi-condi- The multi-direction their work theiron work Kaneohe, on Kaneohe, the fierce the fiercepreparations The multi-direction attacksattacks by the by t tion. Hangars at bothat Hickam both Hickam and andbombers ing breakfast, ing breakfast, churchchurch services, services, a a tion. Hangars Japanese Japanese attack on attack Pearl onHarbor Pearl Harbor and and bombers and fighters and fighters added confuadded confu weekend of liberty, of liberty, lowered lowered crew crewWheeler Wheeler were severely were severely damaged. damaged. An An and other military other military installations installations on the on theweekend sion sion chaos andto chaos the abject to thefear abject and fear an manning, manning, absence absence of warning, of warning, aircraftaircraft repair station repair station in Hickam’s in Hickam’sterror of island had island become had become a never-to-bea never-to-beterror defenseless of defenseless men scrambling men scrambl Hawaiian Air Depot Air was Depot completely was completely and lowand defense low defense alert condition, alert condition, Hawaiian forgotten, forgotten, bloody,bloody, American American national national for cover forand cover weapons and weapons to defend to defend destroyed. 12 Kate12 torpedo-bombers Kate torpedo-bombers disasterdisaster quicklyquickly flourished. flourished. While Whiledestroyed. disaster. disaster. A Japanese A Japanese midget midget submarine submarine after having after having been raised been raised by the U.S. by the U.S. Navy at the Navy at the Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor Navy Yard Navy in Yard in December December 1941. 1941.


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USS Nevada afire off the Ford Island seaplane base, with her bow pointed up-channel. The volume of fire and smoke is actually from USS Shaw, which is burning in the floating dry dock YFD-2 in the left background. WIkIPEDIA

themselves against an enemy bent on destruction of the field’s mission capability. Observations and recollections of events differed widely among those on the receiving end of the destructive weapons tearing Wheeler Field apart. According to some, the first place hit was the gas storage dump on the southwest corner of the base, where all of Wheeler’s flammables such as gas, turpentine, and lacquer were kept. Most witnesses, however, reported that the first bomb struck Hangar 1, where the base engineering shops were located. The tremendous blast blew out skylights, and clouds of smoke billowed upward, making it appear the entire hangar was lifted off its foundation. The explosion decimated the sheet metal, electrical, and paint shops in the front half of the hangar, but spared the machine and wood shops, and tool room, which were protected by a concrete-block, dividing wall. 20 The bomb that hit Hangar 3 had struck the hangar sheltering the central ammunition storage area, where, because of the Hawaiian Department’s Alert One status, the

ammunition unloaded from airalmost straight up. A P-36 exploded, craft, including rounds pulled from hurling flaming debris upon a nearby machine gun belts, had been stored. tent, setting it ablaze. The hangar’s exploding ammuniAt times there were over 30 tion, going off like firecrackers in the fighters and dive bombers attackflames, severely limited the ability ing Wheeler from every direction, a to defend Wheeler Field against the tactic used on every target complex continuing air attack. on Oahu. The well-planned and Immediately behind the completed executed tactic was designed not first wave of dive bombing attacks only to destroy fighter opposition on came the bombers, back again jointhe ground and ships in the harbor, ing the fighters in follow-on, but to confuse and overwhelm low level strafing attacks. The gunners who might try to mount 72nd Pursuit Squadron tent an effective antiaircraft defense. area between While aiming and Hangars 2 and firing in one direc3 came under tion at an airborne heavy attack. target, approachThe new P-40 ing fighter pilots By the time alerts were fighter planes pressing attacks at shouted, torpedoes were in low altitude could were being blown to bits, see and cut down the water. No time to react their burning the defenders from and more Kates parts scattering another direction. followed behind, coming along the ramp At the Marines’ in all directions, Mooring Mast at the largest, most setting other Field, Ewa (proexposed targets among the planes on fire. nounced Eva), battleships: Oklahoma, One P-40 fell in on the southwest two pieces, its coastal plain of West Virginia, Arizona, prop pointing Oahu, near Barbers

Nevada, and California.

Point, the first wave hit as the Japanese began their deadly assault on Ford Island and the ships in Pearl Harbor. At 0740, when Fuchida’s air armada closed to within a few miles of Kahuku Point, the forty-three Zekes split away from the rest of the formation, swinging out north and west of Wheeler Field, the headquarters of the Hawaiian Air Force’s 18th Pursuit Wing. Passing further south, at about 0745 the Soryu and Hiryu divisions executed a hard, diving turn to port and headed north toward Wheeler. Eleven Zekes from Shokaku and Zuikaku simultaneously left the formation and flew east, crossing over Oahu north of Pearl Harbor to attack NAS Kaneohe Bay. Eighteen Zekes from Akagi and Kaga headed toward what the Japanese called Babasu Pointo Hikojo (Barbers Point Airdrome) - Ewa Mooring Mast Field. By the time alerts were shouted, torpedoes were in the water. No time to react and more Kates followed behind, coming at the largest, most exposed targets among the battleships: Oklahoma, West Virginia, Arizona, Nevada, and California.


Surprise attack Surprise attack launched a surprise attack on on thethe United On December December7,7,1941, 1941,the theEmpire EmpireofofJapan Japan launched a surprise attack United The U.S. lost 2,335 military personnel in in States’ Pacific PacificNaval NavalFleet FleetatatPearl PearlHarbor. Harbor. The U.S. lost 2,335 military personnel the attack, 1,178 were wounded. TheThe next dayday the attack, as aswell wellas as68 68civilians, civilians,and andanother another 1,178 were wounded. next President Franklin Congress forfor and received declaration President FranklinDelano DelanoRoosevelt Rooseveltasked asked Congress and received declaration of war and Italy declared warwar on the U.S., of war against againstJapan. Japan.Three Threedays dayslater, later,Germany Germany and Italy declared on the U.S., marking the World War II. II. marking the entry entryof ofthe theUnited UnitedStates Statesinto into World War

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TWO WAVES TWO WAVES

First wave: First wave: 183 aircraft 183 aircraft The Japanese attack The Japanese attack proceeded in two proceeded in two waves consisting of 353of 353 waves consisting aircraft targeting the the aircraft targeting fleetfleet at Pearl Harbor at Pearl Harbor and other targets and other targets throughout Oahu.Oahu. H a l e i w a throughout Haleiwa

O AOHAU H U KaneoheKaneohe Naval Air Station Naval Air Station

W h e eW l ehr e e l e r Field Field

PPEEAARRL L HHAAR RB B OO RR

PPEEAARRLL CCI ITTYY

Detail Detail area area

Ew a Ew a

Raleigh Raleigh Utah Utah

FO RD FO R DI SILSALNADN D N AVA L A I R S TAT I O N da N A V A L A I R S T A T I O N N evNaev ada

Curtiss Curtiss

Arizona A r i z o n a Ve s t a l Ve s t a l Te n n e s s e e Te n n e s s e e We s t Maryland We s t Virginia Maryland P Virginia I R IP Oklahoma Oklahoma ST R R S T California I A IR California

Sunk Sunk damaged Heavily Heavily damaged Moderately damaged Moderately damaged Undamaged Undamaged

B AT T L E S H I P LESHIP B ARTOTW ROW

A

Shaw Shaw

Second wave: Second wav 170 aircraft 170 aircra

B e l l owBseFl lioew l ds F i e l d Honolulu Honolulu

JAPANESE AIRCRAFT USEDUSED IN THE JAPANESE AIRCRAFT IN ATTACK THE ATTACK

Aichi 3A2 Val Type 99 Aichi 3A2 Val Type 99 Dive bomber Dive bomber Crew: 2 Crew: 2 Bombs: 2 (132 lb), 1 (551 lb) Bombs: 2 (132 lb), 1 (551 lb)

Oglala Helena Oglala Helena

Nakajima B5N2 Kate Type 97 Nakajima B5N2 Kate Type 97 Torpedo bomber Torpedo bomber Crew: 2 or 3 Crew: 2 or 3 Bombs: 1 (18 inch) Torpedo Bombs: 1 (18 inch) Torpedo or 1 (1,100 lb) bomb or 1 (1,100 lb) bomb

Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Cassin Downes Cassin Downes

NOT A TOTAL LOSS NOT A TOTAL LOSS The Japanese had hoped to decimate the U.S.

Halm Halm JAPAN JAPAN 129 129 Submarines

Submarines

Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeke or Zero FighterMitsubishi plane A6M2 Zeke or Fighter plane Crew: 1 Crew: Bombs: 2 (1321 lb) Bombs: 2 (132 lb)

Thewith Japanese hadso hoped to decimate the U.S. fleet the attack it couldn’t interfere with fleet with the attack so it couldn’t interfere their advance through the Western Pacific, but with their advance through the Western Pacific, three aircraft carriers were not in port at the but three carriers were not in port athelp the time andaircraft were spared. Those carriers would timethe andJapanese were spared. Those carriers would help defeat navy at the Battle of Midway the Japanese navy at the Battle of Midway sixdefeat months later. six months later.

6

6 29 29

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES* UNITED STATES UNITED STATES CASUALTIES AND LOSSES* 2,403 Deaths 2,403 Deaths Ships 19 lost/damaged Ships Auxiliaries (4) Cruisers (3) Destroyers (3) 19 lost/damaged Auxiliaries (4) Cruisers (3) Destroyers (3) Aircraft 169 Aircraft 169

Sources: The National World War II Museum; National Geographic; The Pacific Aviation Museum

Battleships (8)

Battleships (8)

1,177 died on the USS1,177 Arizona died on the USS Arizona

*Totals vary depending on source. These totals arevary taken from the on so *Totals depending National Worldtotals War IIare Museum. These taken from t

National World War II Museum GATEHOUSE MEDIA


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NEWS OF WAR

SOUND & FURY By Brian Rosenwald

Special to GateHouse Media

When the unthinkable happened on Dec. 7, 1941, social media was more than 60 years in the future, phones existed solely for voice calls, and television was in its infancy. The government, not ordinary citizens, rang the alarm about the assault upon Pearl Harbor, and most Americans, many disbelieving, heard the news from radio, word of mouth and newspaper extras. Americans glued themselves to their radios in the days following. The networks broadcast for 34 hours straight. On Dec. 8, a record of between 79 and 81 percent of Americans listened to President Roosevelt request that Congress declare war. The next night, a whopping 60 to 90 million Americans, the largest audience to date, heard him deliver a fireside chat on the predicament confronting the country.

w Today we learn about breaking news instantaneously. One tweet becomes a torrent as we struggle to grasp the enormity of what we’ve read. Our phones buzz incessantly with news alerts and texts from friends and family. Within minutes we can watch nonstop coverage on a dozen television networks, not to mention digital platforms. We discover what happened in little blips, sometimes incorrect, as journalists rush to share what they know and average Joes contribute cellphone video and observations from the scene.

t 941, fron ec. 10, 1 D . e h th tc a r p e all ov ing Dis us Even War was b m lu o the C page of

Newspapers couldn’t match radio’s ability to provide instantaneous information and to ‘transport’ Americans to happenings around the globe.

w Before social media, television dominated breaking news coverage. Most Americans beyond their teenage years remember witnessing the World Trade Center towers collapsing on that tragic morning in 2001. An older generation recalls the sight of CBS newsman Walter Cronkite, clearly grappling with his emotions, removing his spectacles and informing the nation of the death of President Kennedy. w Yet for all that television seared those images into our minds, the medium only dominated breaking news for a relatively short time. Television didn’t

take off until the late 1940s and early 1950s. Television networks emerged in 1947 and 1948, and the number of television stations exploded in the early 1950s. As recently as 1948, only 0.4 percent of homes had televisions (by 1958 that number would climb to 83.2 percent). w While television eventually usurped radio’s primacy as America’s broadcast news source, during the late 1930s and the early 1940s, it was radio that surpassed newspapers in covering breaking news. Newspapers couldn’t match radio’s ability to provide instantaneous information and to “transport” Americans to happenings around the globe. w As tensions heightened in Europe in the late 1930s, path-breaking correspondents like CBS’ Edward R. Murrow shared the sounds of war and familiarized Americans with the people and ideas propelling the conflict. Americans listened to speeches from Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and other European leaders. Harnessing shortwave transmissions, an expanding stable of correspondents and stringers, and a burgeoning pool of commentators, radio tackled the biggest stories live as they unfolded.


PEARL PEARL HARBOR HARBOR // 11 11/ 11 PEARL HARBOR

ww On Onthat thatfateful fatefulSunday, Sunday,Japanese Japanesebombs bombs started startedpelting peltingPearl PearlHarbor Harborshortly shortlybefore before88a.m. a.m. Hawaii HawaiiStandard StandardTime. Time.By By8:04, 8:04,KGMB KGMBin inHonoHonolulu lulujettisoned jettisonedregular regularprogramming programmingto toair airan an announcement announcementbeckoning beckoningall allmilitary militarypersonnel personnel to toreport reportimmediately immediatelyfor forduty. duty.The Thestation stationkept kept repeating repeatingthis thiscall, call,with withcompetitor competitorKMU KMUsoon soon joining joiningin. in.

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hysteria hysteriaand andbecause becausethey theynever neverbroadcast broadcastnonnonsports sportsnews. news. ww Similarly, Similarly,while whileradio radiolisteners listenersto tothe theGiantsGiantsDodgers Dodgersgame gameheard heardthe thenews newsfirst, first,the the50,051 50,051 fans fansat atthe thePolo PoloGrounds Groundsremained remainedclueless cluelesseven even as asaabuzz buzzgrew grewwith witheach eachannouncement announcementsumsummoning moningVIPs VIPsto toaabox-office box-officetelephone. telephone.Only Onlyafter after the thecold colddrove droveNew NewYork YorkTimes Timesscribe scribeHarrison Harrison Salisbury Salisburyand andhis hiswife wifefrom fromthe thestadium stadiumand andto toaa friend’s friend’sflat flatfor foraadrink drinkdid didthey theydiscover discoverthe thenews. news. That Thatnight, night,in inAustin, Austin,Texas, Texas,Luis LuisCalderon Calderonheard heard newsboys’ newsboys’calls callsof of“extra, “extra,extra” extra”and, and,wanting wanting to toknow knowwhat whatthey theymeant, meant,learned learnedthat thatwar warhad had commenced commencedwhen whenhe hestopped stoppedto tobuy buyaa paper. paper.

ww At At1:47 1:47p.m. p.m.Eastern, Eastern,roughly roughlyaahalf halfhour hourafter after the thebarrage barragebegan, began,Navy NavySecretary SecretaryFrank FrankKnox Knox alerted alertedPresident PresidentRoosevelt. Roosevelt.FDR FDRreacted reactedwith with disbelief. disbelief.He Hecalled calledPress PressSecretary SecretaryStephen StephenEarly, Early, still stillat athome homereading readingthe theSunday Sundaypapers papersin inhis his bathrobe, bathrobe,and andat at2:22 2:22p.m. p.m.EST, EST,Early Early phoned phonedthe thethree threewire wireservices serviceswith with aabulletin bulletinnotifying notifyingAmericans Americansof of ww The Thenews newsstunned stunnedAmericans; Americans;many many the theincursion. incursion.At At2:36, 2:36,still stillat athome home instinctively instinctivelyassumed assumedthat thatititmust mustbe be (some (somereporters reportersactually actuallybeat beatEarly Early aahoax. hoax.A ALos LosAngeles AngelesTimes Timesreporter reporter to tothe theWhite WhiteHouse), House),Early Earlyerroneerronedispatched dispatchedto toan anArmy Armypost poststopped stoppedin in ously ouslyinformed informedthe thewire wireservices servicesthat that aadiner dinerto toexchange exchangebills billsfor forchange changeto to the theJapanese Japanesehad hadbombarded bombardedManila, Manila, Use Usethe theBlippar Blippar make makephone phonecalls. calls.When Whenhe herevealed revealed Philippines, Philippines,as aswell. well. the thenews newsto tothe thediner’s diner’spatrons, patrons,they they app appto tohear hearthe the ww The Thescheduled schedulednetwork networkradio radio suspected suspectedaagag. gag.Once Onceon onthe theArmy Armypost, post, radio radiobroadcast broadcast programming programmingthat thatwintery winteryafternoon afternoon the the reporter reporter again again encountered encountered increincrebulletin bulletinon onthe the included includedaaNew NewYork YorkPhilharmonic Philharmonic dulity dulityand andskepticism skepticismfrom fromsoldiers soldierswho who attack attack from from Dec. Dec. concert concerton onCBS, CBS,aaBrooklyn BrooklynDodgDodghad hadyet yetto tohear hearabout aboutthe theassault. assault. 7, 7,1941 1941.. ers-New ers-NewYork YorkGiants Giantsfootball footballgame game SEE SEEINSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONSON ONPAGE PAGE22 ww On Onthe thebeach beachin inSanta SantaMonica, Monica,volvolon onMutual MutualBroadcasting BroadcastingSystem, System,and and leyball leyballplayers playersignored ignoredaaradio radiolistener’s listener’s the the“University “Universityof ofChicago ChicagoRoundRoundhebrought broughthis hisradio radio urgent urgentcries criesuntil untilhe table” table”on onNBC NBCRed Red(RCA (RCAoperated operated over overand andthey theyheard heardthe thebulletin bulletin two twonetworks, networks,NBC NBCRed Redand andNBC NBC withtheir theirown ownears. ears.Mutual’s Mutual’sinitial initialdispatch dispatch Blue). Blue).Between Between2:25 2:25and and2:31 2:31ET, ET,all allfour fournetworks networks with prompted promptedan anirate iratecall callto tothe theswitchboard switchboardfrom from interrupted interruptedprogramming programmingto toshare sharewhat whatlittle little aalistener listenerwho whoprotested protestedanother another“stunt” “stunt”like like information informationthey theyhad. had. Orson OrsonWelles’ Welles’“War “Warof ofthe theWorlds,” Worlds,”which whichhad had ww Even Eventhough thoughmore morethan than80 80percent percentof ofhousehousepanicked panickedher. her. holds holdshad hadradios radiosin in1941, 1941,many manyAmericans Americansweren’t weren’t Onceconvinced convincedof ofits itsveracity, veracity,the thenews newsindelindeltuned tunedin inthat thatSunday Sundayafternoon, afternoon,and andlearned learnedabout about ww Once ibly iblyetched etcheditself itselfinto intoAmericans’ Americans’minds. minds.Decades Decades the theattack attackfrom fromneighbors, neighbors,friends friendsand andrelatives, relatives, later latertheir theiractivities activitiesfrom fromthat thatday dayremained remainedvivid. vivid. who whobreathlessly breathlesslyqueried queriedwhether whetherthey theyhad hadheard heard A Apasserby passerbyinformed informedfuture futurePresident PresidentGeorge George the thenews news— —sometimes sometimeshours hoursafter afterthe thefact. fact. H.W. H.W.Bush, Bush,then thenaa17-year-old 17-year-oldstudent studentat atPhilPhilww The The27,102 27,102attending attendingthe theclash clashbetween betweenthe the lips lipsAndover AndoverAcademy Academyin inMassachusetts, Massachusetts,as ashe he Washington WashingtonRedskins Redskinsand andthe thePhiladelphia PhiladelphiaEagles Eagles walked walkedby byCochran CochranChapel Chapelwith withaafriend. friend.By Byday’s day’s at atGriffith GriffithStadium, Stadium,for forinstance, instance,only onlylearned learned end, end,the theinfuriated infuriatedBush Bushhad hadresolved resolvedto tojoin jointhe the about aboutPearl PearlHarbor Harborbecause becausenews newstrickled trickledout out fight fightas assoon soonas aspossible. possible.In Inaa2014 2014interview, interview, from fromthe thepress pressbox. box.Between Betweenplays playsthe thestadium stadium George GeorgeAllen, Allen,who whoflew flewB-52s B-52sduring duringthe thewar, war, loudspeaker loudspeakerimplored imploredvarious variousdignitaries dignitariesand and recounted recountedhearing hearingthe thenews newsin inthe thecar carwith withhis his newspapermen newspapermento toreport reportto toduty dutyimmediately, immediately, family. family.On Ontheir theirway wayhome, home,Allen’s Allen’sfamily familypicked picked but butstadium stadiumand andRedskins Redskinsmanagement managementrefused refused up upfour fourservicemen servicemenon onthe theside sideof ofthe thehighway highway returnto totheir theirbase. base. to toannounce announcethe thenews newsboth bothfor forfear fearof ofigniting igniting scurrying scurryingto toreturn


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w The radio networks launched virtually unprecedented coverage in the wake of the attack. Only the Munich crisis of 1938 and the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 had provided even somewhat comparable occasions for radio journalists. As such, things that seem unimaginable to modern sensibilities occurred in the hours after the bombing. w CBS immediately tapped their network of stringers and affiliates across the world, including in Honolulu and Manila, to provide news, insight and analysis. Yet, the network also persisted in airing its previously scheduled orchestra concert and evening entertainment programming, albeit with constant interruptions. Merely delaying or interrupting the day’s commercial programming represented innovation and even gumption. w The onset of war also meant strict censorship rapidly snapping into place. NBC broadcast live reports from a correspondent and eyewitnesses in the hours after the attack — though the military took over the shortwave circuit two minutes into the first report. Subsequently, however, information became scarce, parceled out by the White House only once it could be explicitly verified and posed no risk of providing aid or comfort to the enemy. Radio was no stranger to censorship — European war dispatches had to receive clearance from government censors. In fact, CBS raised its stringer in Manila 90 minutes after the attack on Pearl Harbor, but he got cut off the air, presumably by censors. w In the days after Dec. 7, mystery shrouded the attack and its toll. Reporters felt severely hamstrung — a Dec. 11 United Press International news agency piece noted “censorship permits a cautious description of the attack.” By happenstance, voluntary

radio censorship prevented the public from immediately learning the grim details of the destruction wrought. w CBS’ Murrow and his wife had dinner plans with the Roosevelts the night of Dec. 7. After the attack, Eleanor Roosevelt insisted on keeping their plans, reasoning that they all had to eat regardless. FDR skipped the meal, but he met with Murrow after midnight, confiding the devastating toll taken by the attack. While Murrow puzzled over whether their conversation occurred on or off the record, he never recounted it for listeners. Two days later, in spite of promises to the press, Roosevelt withheld these details from his fireside chat to avoid providing the enemy with information.

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PEARL HARBOR / 13 PEARL HARBOR / 13

Radio journalists pioneered elements of breaking news coverage ... that would shape how television, and later digital media, chronicled the most consequential stories in real time. w Americans also consulted newspapers for information — Chicagoans scarfed up “war extra” editions as quickly as trucks could unload them – but Pearl Harbor was radio’s moment. Radio journalists pioneered elements of breaking news coverage in the late 1930s and early 1940s that would shape how television, and later digital media, chronicled the most consequential stories in real time. w Radio’s coverage of the strike against Pearl Harbor suffered from the same maladies that plague modern breaking news coverage — misinformation, confusion, network personnel scrambling into place and analysts speculating about hazy facts. Nonetheless, it symbolized a quantum leap from past practices, and enabled Americans to learn more about

the incursion and world reaction more quickly and intimately than would have been possible before the radio age. – Brian Rosenwald is a fellow at the Robert A Fox Leadership Program at the University of Pennsylvania and an instructor at Penn. He also conducts research for the Slate podcast “Whistlestop” and a book companion to the podcast. His doctoral dissertation, “Mount Rushmore: The Rise of Talk Radio and Its Impact on Politics and Public Policy,” is becoming a book for Harvard University Press. He has also written for CNN.com, Politico, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Baltimore Sun, The Daily Beast, and Time Magazine’s history blog, and contributed insight to pieces for media including The Wall Street Journal and Buzzfeed. He has appeared on radio and television programs including “The Michael Smerconish Program,” “Stand Up! with Pete Dominick,” “The Leslie Marshall Show” and “BackStory with the American History Guys.”


14/ PEARL / PEARL HARBOR 14 HARBOR

MOBILIZATION

THE ‘SLEEPING GIANT’

WAKES The US responds to the reality of war By Rob Citino Special to GateHouse Media

“What a difference a day makes, Twenty-four little hours ...” Turn on a radio back in the 1940s and you might have heard the song “What a Difference a Day Makes.” It’s not the most memorable tune of the era, and its lyrics were never going to win a literary award (“It’s heaven when you ... find romance on your menu”). Still, even the simplest song lyric can hit a listener hard. Americans hearing Bing Crosby sing “What a Difference a Day Makes” on his wartime Kraft Radio Hour might have grasped a deeper meaning. All of them had been through a recent, traumatic experience. If ever a single day had made a difference in their lives, it was Dec. 7, 1941. Pearl Harbor not only plunged the United States into war, but changed the country forever. It divided the life of every living American into a “before” and an “after,” and few of them would ever forget where they where when they heard the news.

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he Japanese attack on Pearl was at first bewildering. Those who were there remember the shock: aircraft careening in, attacking, then banking away to reveal the big red circle on their wings, the mark of the Rising Sun. Sailors on ships in nearby waters got the chilling radiogram, labeled “urgent”: AIR RAID ON PEARL HARBOR X THIS IS NOT DRILL. Back at home, a lot of Americans didn’t even know where Pearl Harbor was, or what it was, for that matter. Remember, Hawaii wasn’t a state yet, not until 1959. Indeed, you read from time to time of a child who, on hearing that Japan had bombed Pearl Harbor, asked, “Who’s she?” But things quickly clarified. Already that evening, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt – by now well into his unprecedented third term in office – was dictating a message to a joint session of Congress, a message he would deliver the next day. “Yesterday,” he wrote, “December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” The President didn’t bother with a lot of details. He didn’t stop to explain to the American people that Pearl Harbor was an advanced American naval base in the Hawaiian Islands, or to lay out a blow-by-blow account of the Japanese attack. No, this was big picture stuff. What was Pearl Harbor? It was “America.” And what had happened there? An attack, committed “suddenly and deliberately.” It was an act of “infamy,” he said, nothing less than a crime.


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By By the the numbers numbers When When the the European European war war began began in in earnest earnest on on Sept. Sept. 1, 1, 1939, 1939, with with the the German German invainvasion sion of of Poland, Poland, the the U.S. U.S. Army Army had had 190,000 190,000 soldiers, soldiers, the the 17th-largest 17th-largest force force in in the the world world (just (just behind behind the the small small nation nation of of Romania). Romania). By By 1945, 1945, itit was was 8.3 8.3 million. million. Presidential Presidential production production goals goals set set in in January January 1942 1942 were were staggering. staggering. FDR FDR might might have have deliberately deliberately set set them them at at impossibly impossibly high high target target levels levels so so that that he he could could get get the the highhighest est possible possible production: production: 1942: 1942: 60,000 60,000 aircraft aircraft 1943: 1943: 125,000 125,000 aircraft aircraft Actual Actual US US aircraft aircraft production: production: 1939 1939 2,141 2,141 1940 1940 6,068 6,068 1941 1941 19,433 19,433 1942 1942 47,836 47,836 1943 1943 85,898 85,898 1944 1944 96,318 96,318 1945 1945 46,001 46,001 Total: Total: 303,695 303,695 Medium Medium tank tank production production (including (including the the M4 M4 Sherman, Sherman, our our signature signature wartime wartime tank): tank): 1940 1940 66 1941 1941 1,430 1,430 1942 1942 15,720 15,720 1943 1943 28,164 28,164 1944 1944 15,489 15,489 1945 1945 8,055 8,055 Total: Total: 68,864 68,864

– – Rob Rob Citino Citino

No Noone onecould couldread readthe thepopular popularor orpolitical politicalmood moodlike likeFDR. FDR. He Heasked askedCongress Congressfor foraadeclaration declarationof ofwar, war,dated datedprecisely preciselyto to the themoment momentof ofthe theJapanese Japaneseattack. attack.The TheU.S. U.S.hadn’t hadn’tstarted started the thewar, war,FDR FDRpointed pointedout. out.Japan Japanhad. had.The TheSenate Senateagreed agreed unanimously unanimously– –82-0 82-0in infact. fact.The Thevote votein inthe theHouse Houseof ofRepRepresentatives resentativeswas wasall allbut butunanimous, unanimous,388-1. 388-1.Pacifist PacifistJeanette Jeanette Rankin Rankinof ofMontana Montanavoted votedno, no,just justas asshe shehad hadvoted votedagainst against going goingto towar warwith withGermany Germanyin in1917. 1917. And Andthat thatquickly, quickly,America Americawas wasat atwar. war.A Asingle singleday daybefore, before, any anyrepresentative representativeor orSenator Senatorvoting votingto tosend sendthe thecountry country to towar warmight mighthave havebeen beentarred tarredor orfeathered. feathered.War Warhad hadbeen been raging ragingin inEurope Europeand andAsia Asiafor foryears, years,Hitler’s Hitler’sarmies armieshad had Britain Britainat atbay bayand andwere weregouging gougingdeep deepinto intoRussia, Russia,and andthe the Japanese Japanesewarlords warlordswere werewaging wagingaamurderous murderouswar warin inChina. China. Americans Americanswere wereall allover overthe theplace placein inhow howto torespond. respond.Some, Some,aasmall small number, number,wanted wantedto toget getin inititdirectly, directly,with withtroops; troops;others, others,aalarger larger group, group,were werefor forgetting gettingititin inindirectly, indirectly,by bysupplying supplyingBritain Britainwith with ships shipsand andweapons, weapons,for forexample. example.The Thelargest largestnumber, number,however, however,were were “isolationists.” “isolationists.”The Thebest bestthing thingthe theU.S. U.S.could coulddo, do,they theyfelt, felt,was wasto to stay stayout outof ofthe thewar waraltogether. altogether.The Thecountry countryhad hadalready alreadyfought foughtone one world worldwar, war,they theynoted, noted,and andhad hadnothing nothingto toshow showfor forit. it.Protected Protectedby by its itsGod-given God-givenoceans oceanson onboth bothsides, sides,America Americacould couldand andshould shouldsit sit this thisone oneout. out. The Thefirst firstbomb bombat atPearl Pearlexploded explodedthat thatnotion, notion,and andended endedthe theisoisolationist lationistmovement movementforever. forever.Our Ourenemies enemieshad hadproven proventhat thatthe theocean ocean could couldbe beaahighway, highway,not notaabarrier, barrier,and andhad hadmade madeititclear clearthat thateven evenifif Americans Americansweren’t weren’tinterested interestedin inwar, war,war warwas wasinterested interestedin inthem. them. The TheJapanese Japanesemilitarists militariststhought thoughtthat thatthey theywere werelaunching launchingaasurprise surprise blow blowon onaadivided dividedpeople peoplewho whowould wouldnever nevercome cometogether togetherto toform form aacommon commonfront. front.Instead, Instead,the theattack attackon onPearl Pearlunited unitedthe theAmerican American people peopleas asnever neverbefore. before.Virtually Virtuallyevery everycitizen citizenliving livingin inour oursprawlsprawling, ing,diverse diverserepublic republicshared sharedthe thesame samedesire: desire:to toshow showthe theJapanese Japanese that thatthe the“highway” “highway”ran ranin inboth bothdirections. directions.American Americanpublic publicopinion, opinion, almost almostunanimously, unanimously,came cameto toaaconclusion: conclusion:This Thiswar warcould couldonly onlyend end in inone oneway way– –with withU.S. U.S.forces forcessitting sittingin inTokyo. Tokyo. War Waragainst againstJapan Japan(and (andsoon soonGermany, Germany,as aswell) well)was wasby bydefinition definition aaglobal globalone, one,and andfighting fightingacross acrossthe theglobe globerequired requiredaanew newkind kindof of America. America.The TheU.S. U.S.was wasan anindustrial industrialand andfinancial financialgiant, giant,yes, yes,but butfew few would wouldhave havedescribed describedititas asaagreat greatmilitary militarypower. power.Japanese JapaneseAdmiAdmiral ralIsoruku IsorukuYamamoto Yamamotofamously famouslydescribed describedAmerica Americaas asaa“sleeping “sleeping giant,” giant,”but butperhaps perhaps“sleepy” “sleepy”is ismore morelike likeit. it.A Alarge largechunk chunkof ofthe the population populationstill stilllived livedon onthe thefarm, farm,statistics statisticsfor forhigh highschool schoolgraduation graduation were wereshockingly shockinglylow lowby bytoday’s today’sstandards, standards,and andmillions millionsof ofAmericans Americans didn’t didn’teven evenhave havebasic basicmodern modernamenities amenitieslike likeelectricity electricityor orrunning running water. water.

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16 / PEARL 16 / PEARL HARBOR HARBOR 16 / PEARL HARBOR

The Great The Great Depression Depression had bit hadhard bit hard into the intosocial the social fabricfabric over over 70,000 70,000 Americans Americans fromfrom World World War War II areIIstill arelisted still listed of theofcountry, the country, as well, as well, ruining ruining liveslives and shattering and shattering fami-fami- as MIA. as MIA. lies. The lies.U.S. The U.S. military military was puny, was puny, spending spending less on less arms on arms thanthan minor minor European European states states like Romania. like Romania. MostMost Americans Americans The departure The departure of most of most of theofcountry’s the country’s young young men men likedliked it that it way, that way, in fact. in fact. No standing No standing army, army, no constant no constant meant meant that other that other groups groups had to had step to in step and inman and man the the skirmishes skirmishes withwith our neighbors, our neighbors, a civila society civil society dedicated dedicated factories. factories. Check Check that:that: not “man.” not “man.” By war’s By war’s end, end, over over 19 19 to peaceful to peaceful pursuits: pursuits: ThatThat was America’s was America’s self-image self-image in in million million American American women women werewere in theinworkforce. the workforce. ManyMany had had 1941.1941. MuchMuch of theofworld the world agreed. agreed. No less Noan less authority an authority thanthanmoved moved over over fromfrom the traditional the traditional rolesroles of “women’s of “women’s Reichsmarshal Reichsmarshal Heinrich Heinrich Goering, Goering, the chief the chief of theofGerman the German work” work” as domestic as domestic servants servants or waitresses or waitresses into war into war air force, air force, declared declared that Americans that Americans might might be able be to able produce to produce plants, plants, manning manning the lathes, the lathes, drillsdrills and punch-presses and punch-presses consumer consumer gizmos gizmos like “refrigerators like “refrigerators and razor and razor blades,” blades,” but butthat formed that formed the backbone the backbone of modern of modern war producwar produccertainly certainly not an not arsenal an arsenal for modern for modern war. war. tion.tion. Alongside Alongside themthem werewere the millions the millions of women of women who who entered entered the workforce the workforce for the forfirst the time, first time, leaving leaving And now, And now, suddenly, suddenly, it wasittime was time for the forgiant the giant to wake to wake hearth hearth and home and home to roll tosteel, roll steel, bore bore out rifle out barrels rifle barrels up, work up, work out, and out,put andon put some on some muscle. muscle. WithWith the country the country and screw and screw fusesfuses ontoonto artillery artillery shells. shells. RosieRosie the Riveter the Riveter enraged enraged over over PearlPearl Harbor, Harbor, few questioned few questioned the complete the complete was the wasnew the American new American icon:icon: wearing wearing blue blue coveralls, coveralls, redesign redesign of American of American society. society. Young Young men men marched marched off off hair tied hairup tied inup a scarf, in a scarf, bicepbicep flexed. flexed. “We“We can do can it!” dowas it!” was in theinhundreds the hundreds of thousands, of thousands, and soon and soon the millions. the millions. A A her slogan. her slogan. Like Like the rest theof rest post-Pearl of post-Pearl Harbor Harbor America, America, grandgrand totaltotal of 15 of million 15 million Americans Americans eventually eventually traded traded theirtheirRosieRosie had the hadeye theof eye theoftiger. the tiger. civilian civilian garb garb for the foruniform, the uniform, and this andin this a country in a country withwith a a totaltotal population population of just of135 justmillion 135 million (less (less thanthan half its half size itsof size of PearlPearl Harbor Harbor was awas turning a turning pointpoint for another for another groupgroup who who today). today). Millions Millions of boys of boys fromfrom Cleveland Cleveland and Des andMoines Des Moines had traditionally had traditionally beenbeen outsiders: outsiders: African African Americans. Americans. TotalTotal and Paducah and Paducah journeyed journeyed to places to places they they had never had never heardheard war required war required the military the military and the andeconomy the economy to beto firing be firing on on of before, of before, shipping shipping out to out islands to islands in theinSouth the South Pacific Pacific like like all cylinders, all cylinders, and that andmeant that meant putting putting everyevery possible possible AmeriAmeriGuadalcanal Guadalcanal or Saipan, or Saipan, or toor bloody to bloody Kasserine Kasserine Pass Pass in in can into caneither into either a uniform a uniform or a factory. or a factory. Discrimination Discrimination and and North North Africa. Africa. SomeSome flew flew bomber bomber missions missions over over Germany Germany racism, racism, long long tolerated, tolerated, suddenly suddenly became became a monkey a monkey wrench wrench or Japan, or Japan, somesome hit the hitbeach the beach at Normandy, at Normandy, others others crewed crewed in theinwar theeffort. war effort. Moreover, Moreover, how how couldcould democratic democratic America America the gigantic the gigantic new U.S. new U.S. NavyNavy shipsships roaming roaming the seven the seven seas.seas. condemn condemn Germany Germany and Japan and Japan for their for their racistracist policies policies whilewhile The faTmheoufas mous ’ ’ Millions Millions worked worked withwith the supply the supply troops troops abroad, abroad, making making openly openly discriminating discriminating against against its own its own at home? at home? ManyMany Afri-Afri-‘Rosie‘RthoesieRivtheeteRriveter g g coruera ncoura sure sure the bullets, the bullets, bombs bombs and bread and bread got forward got forward to theto the can Americans can Americans spokespoke openly openly of theof“double the “double victory” victory” they they posterpoesnte fighting fighting troops. troops. Hundreds Hundreds of thousands of thousands of them of them died,died, and andwerewere seeking: seeking: against against the Axis the Axis abroad abroad and against and against secondsecond- ing woinmgewnotomeanidto aid ffoarrt.effort. millions millions would would be wounded be wounded or missing or missing in action. in action. Indeed, Indeed, classclass citizenship citizenship in their in their own own country. country. areew the wth IAIPEDIA EDIk WIkIPW

PearlPearl Harbor Harbor transformed transformed the United the United States States into into one vast one vast armed armed camp. camp. Millions Millions of of soldiers, soldiers, sailors sailors and airmen and airmen fought fought at the atfront. the front. Many Many moremore millions millions of workers of workers at home at home – – black, black, white, white, men,men, women women – built – built the guns, the guns, tankstanks and aircraft and aircraft needed needed for victory. for victory. Industry Industry completely completely reinvented reinvented itself. itself. Underwood Underwood Typewriter Typewriter Company Company shifted shifted overover to producing to producing M1 Carbine M1 Carbine rifles; rifles; Kaiser Kaiser Shipyards Shipyards figured figured out how out how to build to build a transport a transport vessel vessel in a single in a single week, week, the famous the famous “Liberty “Liberty Ship”; Ship”; and Ford and Ford Motors Motors keptkept pacepace at itsatsprawling its sprawling Willow Willow Run Run PlantPlant in Ypsilanti, in Ypsilanti, Michigan Michigan (dubbed (dubbed “the“the Grand Grand Canyon Canyon of the ofmechanized the mechanized world”), world”), by by churning churning out aout four-engine a four-engine B-24B-24 bomber bomber everyevery hour.hour. The global The global war unleashed war unleashed on Dec. on Dec. 7, 1941, 7, 1941, demanded demanded nothing nothing less.less. Sure,Sure, otherother daysdays havehave beenbeen critical critical to American to American history. history. The country The country wouldn’t wouldn’t existexist without without July 4, July 1776, 4, 1776, and the and the grisly grisly events events of Sept. of Sept. 11, 2001, 11, 2001, still haunt still haunt our collective our collective psyche. psyche. Neither Neither of those of those daysdays had had the dramatic, the dramatic, long-lasting long-lasting impact impact of Pearl of Pearl Harbor, Harbor, however. however. Those Those “twenty-four “twenty-four littlelittle hours” hours” changed changed U.S.U.S. priorities priorities permanently, permanently, set the setcountry the country on the onpath the path to global to global power, power, and perhaps and perhaps gavegave it a glimpse it a glimpse of itself of itself as “aas more “a more perfect perfect union” union” for all foritsallcitizens. its citizens. – Dr.–Rob Dr. Citino Rob Citino is theisSamuel the Samuel Zemurray Zemurray StoneStone senior senior historian historian at The at National The National World World WarWar II Museum II Museum in New in New Orleans, Orleans, Louisiana. Louisiana.


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ISOLATIONISM

WHEN WAR CAME

TO US Sentiment in America before Pearl Harbor was decidedly anti-war

By Ron Milam, Ph.D. Special to GateHouse Media

President George Washington warned the American people to “steer clear of permanent alliances,” and to “extend foreign commercial relations that could be mutually beneficial while maintaining as little political connection as possible.” These words were written in his farewell address to the nation as he watched Europe engage in wars that his own cabinet members had publically taken diverse positions about, causing friction within his administration and creating concern among warring nations. His warnings have often been cited as the beginning of isolationism by both elected officials and by the American public.


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Fast-forward over 100 years, and Americans were still heeding Washington’s words as Europe continued to fight “small” wars over ideology and geography. President Woodrow Wilson kept America out of World War I for three years because he did not want to send American boys to fight what he considered to be a European war. When he reversed his position in April 1917 by asking Congress to declare war to make the world “safe for democracy,” his decision was criticized by many peace organizations and industrial leaders such as Henry Ford. And while American soldiers did affect the outcome of the war in France and Britain’s favor, the American people were not supportive of the decision, particularly when watching American boys return home with terrible wounds and lung damage from battlefield exposure to poison gas. Isolationism set in as polls indicated most Americans believed fighting “the war to end all wars” was a mistake, and some even believed that “merchants of death” had wanted American involvement in the war so that they could profit from selling war materials. Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge sought to decrease the likelihood of another “great war” by negotiating limits to the size of naval armaments at the 1921-22 Washington Naval Conference. If the world’s powers – America, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy – could restrict their post-war construction of battleships to an agreed upon tonnage and gun size, perhaps the reduction in ship size would lead to less belligerence on the seas. Virtually all parties broke the treaty by 1935 as hostilities began in Asia with Japan’s invasion of China. While most historians mark the beginning of World War II as 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, Japan had already conquered the Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931, and began to invade other provinces in 1937 when both Shanghai and Nanking were attacked. President Franklin Roosevelt wrote critical letters addressing this aggression, particularly when the American river gunboat the USS Panay was sunk by Japanese aircraft while attempting to rescue survivors of Nanking. But the American people were not supportive of going to war with Japan, even though military planners had anticipated such a conflict by designing War Plan Orange as early as 1924. With the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 still in effect, it is unlikely that Americans would have supported

President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease bill to give aid to Britain and China in 1941. WIkIPEDIA

further involvement in the Sino-Japanese War. Furthermore, with the American economy having been severely affected by the Depression and unemployed citizens standing in bread lines, events in Asia were not at the top of their priority list. They were, however, paying some attention to the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany. With the memory of World War I still fresh, there was not a movement toward involvement as long as America itself was not being attacked. As President Roosevelt launched his New Deal to improve the living conditions of the American people, many congressional leaders became concerned about the various conflicts erupting around the world. In 1935, Italy conquered Ethiopia and proclaimed fascism as the new form of government most likely to succeed in Europe. With Benito Mussolini allying with Hitler, there was a growing concern by the president that America would have to take a more aggressive approach to world affairs. However, the isolationist movement began to influence members of Congress, who believed that the best course of action to avoid wars was to pass neutrality acts that would have the effect of limiting America’s role in

For more information Sources used in this work include: • saul K. Padover, “The Washington Papers: Basic Selections From the Public and Private Writings of George Washington,” (New York: Easton Press, 1989). • George C. Herring, “From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776,” (New York: Oxford University Press. 2008) • david M. Kennedy, “Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War,” (New York: Oxford Press, 1999)


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what what was was perceived perceived to to be be regional regional conflicts. conflicts. Since Since the the president president authority authority to to “sell, “sell, transfer, transfer, exchange, exchange, lease, lease, lend, lend, or or otherwise otherwise needed needed many many of of these these isolationists isolationists to to support support his his domestic domestic policies, policies, dispose dispose of of any any war war material material to to any any nation nation whose whose defense defense was was such such as as the the enactment enactment of of the the Social Social Security Security Act Act and and the the Federal Federal deemed deemed vital vital to to the the defense defense of of the the United United States.” States.” And And to to assure assure Deposit Deposit Insurance Insurance Corporation Corporation Act, Act, he he allowed allowed aa series series of of neutralneutralthe the isolationists isolationists that that this this was was truly truly aa patriotic patriotic gesture, gesture, the the bill bill was was ity ity acts acts to to be be passed. passed. While While there there were were many many internationalists internationalists who who designated designated as as HR1776. HR1776. believed believed America America had had aa role role to to play play in in these these disputes, disputes, they they were were British British ships ships were were towed towed to to American American shipyards shipyards to to be be repaired repaired outnumbered outnumbered by by aa wide wide array array of of conservatives, conservatives, industrialists industrialists and and before before re-entering re-entering service, service, and and American American vessels vessels were were “loaned” “loaned” peace peace activists activists who who believed believed that that American American intervention intervention would would to to England England with with commitments commitments to to return return them them to to the the United United lead lead to to participation participation in in what what could could eventually eventually become become aa new new world world States States after after the the war. war. The The “lend-lease” “lend-lease” program program aided aided Britain’s Britain’s war. war. war war effort effort and and minimally minimally satisfied satisfied both both the the isolationists isolationists and and the the In In 1938, 1938, Hitler Hitler negotiated negotiated an an agreement agreement with with European European leaders leaders internationalists. internationalists. to to allow allow Germany Germany to to annex annex the the Sudetenland Sudetenland areas areas of of CzechoslovaCzechoslovaBut But President President Roosevelt Roosevelt knew knew that that Japan Japan needed needed oil oil and and war war kia. kia. President President Roosevelt Roosevelt supported supported British British Prime Prime Minister Minister Neville Neville material material in in the the Pacific Pacific to to continue continue its its goal goal of of Southeast Southeast Asian Asian domidomiChamberlain’s Chamberlain’s acceptance acceptance of of the the Munich Munich Agreement, Agreement, even even though though nance. nance. Only Only the the United United States States could could stop stop Japan’s Japan’s conquest conquest of of the the there there were were cabinet cabinet memmemBritish British Commonwealth Commonwealth bers bers who who predicted predicted Hitler’s Hitler’s possessions possessions of of Singapore Singapore long-range long-range plan plan to to be be much much and and Hong Hong Kong, Kong, Malaya Malaya more more expansive. expansive. When When and and other other islands, islands, as as well well Germany Germany then then occupied occupied the the as as the the Philippines, Philippines, French French rest rest of of Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovakia, then then Indochina Indochina and and China. China. Poland, Poland, then then France, France, and and The The United United States States Navy’s Navy’s began began the the bombing bombing of of BritBritPacific Pacific Fleet Fleet stood stood in in the the ain, ain, America America had had to to at at least least way way of of Japan’s Japan’s aggression, aggression, become become concerned concerned about about aa particularly particularly since since it it had had Second Second World World War. War. recently recently been been relocated relocated But But isolationists isolationists were were from from San San Diego, Diego, CaliforCaliforstill still successful successful in in keeping keeping nia, nia, to to the the Hawaiian Hawaiian Island Island America America out out of of both both Asian Asian of of Oahu. Oahu. and and European European conflicts. conflicts. An An On On Dec. Dec. 7, 7, 1941, 1941, the the America America First First Committee Committee Japanese Japanese attack attack on on the the fleet fleet movement movement began began across across at at Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor would would be be the the country country in in 1940, 1940, led led by by an an event event that that would would finally finally businessmen, businessmen, leftists leftists and and bring bring the the interests interests of of both both celebrities celebrities such such as as Charles Charles the the internationalists internationalists and and Lindberg. Lindberg. While While there there the the isolationists isolationists together. together. was was also also aa group group of of interinterAmerica America would would declare declare war war nationalists nationalists that that formed formed on on Japan Japan the the next next day, day, and and the the Committee Committee to to Defend Defend Germany Germany and and Italy Italy would would America America by by Aiding Aiding the the Allies Allies declare declare war war on on the the United United Water-cooled Water-cooled machine machine guns guns just just arrived arrived from from the the U.S. U.S. under under Lend-Lease Lend-Lease are are checked checked at at an an in in 1940, 1940, the the isolationists isolationists States. States. With With this this attack, attack, ordnance ordnance depot depot in in England. England. WIkIPEDIA WIkIPEDIA were were successful successful in in keeping keeping the the attitudes attitudes and and theories theories America America out out of of what what was was about about economics, economics, morality morality now now becoming becoming World World War War II. II. and and politics politics were were replaced replaced President President Roosevelt Roosevelt ran ran for for aa third third term term in in 1940, 1940, and and even even though though by by concern concern for for the the defense defense of of the the homeland. homeland. he he was was actively actively working working with with Britain Britain to to help help them them in in their their lone lone action action against against Nazism Nazism and and fascism, fascism, his his campaign campaign rhetoric rhetoric was was still still – – Ron Ron Milam, Milam, Ph.D., Ph.D., is is an an associate associate professor professor of of history, history, aa Fulbright Fulbright supporting supporting the the isolationists: isolationists: “I “I have have said said this this before before but but II shall shall Scholar Scholar to to the the Socialist Socialist Republic Republic of of Vietnam, Vietnam, and and the the faculty faculty advisor advisor say say it it again again and and again. again. Your Your boys boys are are not not going going to to be be sent sent into into any any to to the the Veteran’s Veteran’s Association Association at at Texas Texas Tech Tech University University in in Lubbock. Lubbock. He He foreign foreign wars.” wars.” The The new new British British Prime Prime Minister, Minister, Winston Winston Churchill, Churchill, serves serves on on the the Content Content Advisory Advisory Committee Committee tasked tasked with with writing writing the the knew knew that that only only America America could could stop stop Hitler’s Hitler’s movement movement toward toward history history of of the the Vietnam Vietnam War War for for the the new new Education Education Center Center at at The The Wall Wall European European domination, domination, and and he he appealed appealed to to the the president president in in aa very very in in Washington, Washington, D.C., D.C., and and is is aa combat combat veteran veteran of of the the Vietnam Vietnam War. War. personal personal way. way. Recognizing Recognizing America’s America’s vast vast industrial industrial machine, machine, Milam Milam is is the the author author of of “Not “Not aa Gentleman’s Gentleman’s War: War: an an Inside Inside View View of of Churchill Churchill asked asked for for help help that that would would not not require require American American boys boys to to Junior Junior Officers Officers in in the the Vietnam Vietnam War” War” and and is is working working on on two two book book fight fight aa foreign foreign war, war, but but allow allow America America to to support support Britain Britain through through projects: projects: “The “The Siege Siege of of Phu Phu Nhon: Nhon: Montagnards Montagnards and and Americans Americans as as rebuilding rebuilding its its naval naval armaments. armaments. Allies Allies in in Battle” Battle” and and “Cambodia “Cambodia and and Kent Kent State: State: Killing Killing in in the the Jungle Jungle President President Roosevelt Roosevelt sent sent aa bill bill to to Congress Congress that that gave gave him him the the and and on on the the College College Campuses.” Campuses.”


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CHRISTMAS 1941

‘A UNITED PEOPLE,

GIRDED FOR BATTLE’ War casts a pall over Christmas 1941 By Stanley Weintraub Special to GateHouse Media

Coming just 18 days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Christmas 1941 was a holiday unlike any other. For many Americans, it was the last time they would be together. In Stanley Weintraub’s “Pearl Harbor Christmas: A World at War, December 1941,” he describes the mood of the nation at the time, and President Roosevelt’s determination to keep to tradition.


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AA

fter much fter much politics-as-usual politics-as-usual debate debate about about the appropriate the appropriate age for agedraft for draft registration, registration, Congress Congress on Dec. on Dec. 19, 1941, 19, 1941, had timidly had timidly settled settled on 20 onfor 20inducfor induction tion and 18 and for18registration. for registration. On both On both the Atlantic the Atlantic and Pacific and Pacific coasts, coasts, the services the services had hurriedly had hurriedly set set anti-aircraft anti-aircraft gunsguns on the onroofs the roofs of buildings of buildings and and alongside alongside docks. docks. Some Some weapons weapons werewere obsolete, obsolete, others others wooden wooden fakes, fakes, therethere to instill to instill spurious spurious confidence. confidence. Sentries, Sentries, oftenoften bearing bearing 1918-vin1918-vintagetage rifles, rifles, werewere posted posted at railway at railway stations stations and and armaments armaments factories. factories. Although Although the only the only interinterloperloper likelylikely overover the American the American skiesskies at Christmas at Christmas was likely was likely to beto Santa be Santa Claus Claus withwith his sleigh his sleigh and and reindeer, reindeer, a 24-hour a 24-hour sky watch sky watch in the inNorththe Northeast east was ordered was ordered for the forholidays the holidays by Brigadier by Brigadier General General JohnJohn C. MacDonnell, C. MacDonnell, air-raid air-raid warning warning chiefchief for 43,000 for 43,000 volunteer volunteer civilian civilian observers. observers. “Experience “Experience in war,” in war,” he declared, he declared, “has“has taught taught that that advantage advantage is taken is taken of relaxation of relaxation in vigilance in vigilance to strike to strike when when and where and where the blow the blow is least is least expected.” expected.” Lights Lights remained remained on almost on almost everywhere. TheThe hit book hit book for foreverywhere. Anxiety Anxiety on the onPacific the Pacific Christmas Christmas giving, giving, coastcoast about about Japanese Japanese air air at a at hefty a hefty $2.50, $2.50,raids,raids, President Roosevelt Roosevelt addresses addresses the crowd the crowd at theatChristmas the Christmas tree lighting tree lighting ceremony ceremony from from the White the White HouseHouse SouthSouth Portico Portico on Dec. on Dec. however however absurd, absurd, President 24, 1941. 24, 1941. British British Prime Prime Minister Minister Winston Winston Churchill Churchill can be can seen be seen on the on right. the right. PHOTOS PHOTOS VIA WIkIPEDIA VIA WIkIPEDIA waswas Edna Edna Ferber’ Ferber’ s had s already had already panicked panicked San San Francisco, Francisco, thanks thanks to the to the Reconstruction-era Reconstruction-era paranoia paranoia of Fourth of Fourth Army Army proliferating proliferating war contracts war contracts and aand burgeoning a burgeoning recruiting recruiting stations stations nationwide, nationwide, the army the army was was romance romance “Saratoga “Saratoga commander commander Lieutenant Lieutenant army army and navy. and navy. Christmas Christmas trees trees were were plentiplentioffering offering smart smart khaki khaki garb garb at no at cost no cost whatever whatever to to Trunk. Trunk. ” For” For the the General General JohnJohn DeWitt DeWitt at Fort at Fort ful, seldom ful, seldom priced priced at more at more thanthan a dollar a dollar or two, or two, enlistees.) enlistees.) Henri Henri Bendel Bendel featured featured silk stockings silk stockings same same price, price, warwarOrd.Ord. Every Every Japanese Japanese fisherfisher-and in and the intraditional the traditional holiday holiday spectacle spectacle at Radio at Radio at $1.25 at $1.25 a pair; a pair; stockings stockings in the incurrent the current wonder wonder turned turned up distantly up distantly manman and vegetable and vegetable farmer farmer CityCity Music Music Hall Hall in New in New York, York, the star-spangled the star-spangledweave, weave, nylon, nylon, sold sold for $1.65. for $1.65. By the Byfollowing the following yet bombastically yet bombastically alongalong the coast the coast was suswas sus- Rockettes, Rockettes, in mechanical in mechanical unison, unison, high-stepped high-stepped Christmas Christmas nylons nylons would would be almost be almost unobtainunobtainpected of covertly of covertly warning warningawayaway any war any gloom. war gloom. In newspapers In newspapers across across the the able.able. The fabric The fabric would would be the bestuff the stuff of parachutes. of parachutes. in a in two-disc a two-disc set setpected nonexistent enemy enemy aircraft, aircraft,nation nation the Japanese the Japanese werewere thwarted thwarted in the in“Terry the “Terry Among Among the long-prepared the long-prepared Christmas Christmas toy toy of Tchaikovsky’ of Tchaikovsky’ s snonexistent and the andhysteria the hysteria resulted resulted and the and Pirates” the Pirates” comic comic strip, strip, and in and film in film Gary Gary glut, glut, shops shops across across America America advertised advertised a remotea remote“1812 “1812 Overture, Overture, ” ”in theinrelocation the relocation of the of the Cooper Cooper as Sergeant as Sergeant YorkYork was defeating was defeating the Gerthe Ger-control control bombing bombing planeplane at $1.98, at $1.98, which which ran along ran along performed performed by by NewNew Year’s Year’s Day Day RoseRose BowlBowlmansmans single-handedly single-handedly in the inearlier the earlier world world war.war. a suspended a suspended wirewire to attack to attack a battleship. a battleship. The The Artur Artur Rodzinski Rodzinskiextravaganza extravaganza fromfrom CaliforCalifor- The hit Thebook hit book for Christmas for Christmas giving, giving, at a hefty at a hefty Japanese Japanese highhigh seas seas KidoKido ButaiButai had not hadneeded not needed nia to nia somnolent to somnolent Durham, Durham, $2.50, andand the Cleveland the Cleveland $2.50, was Edna was Edna Ferber’s Ferber’s Reconstruction-era Reconstruction-era suspended suspended wireswires at Pearl at Pearl Harbor, Harbor, nor in nor the in the North Carolina, Carolina, where where romance romance “Saratoga “Saratoga Trunk.” Trunk.” For the Forsame the same price, price,Philippines, Philippines, Malaya, Malaya, or Hong or Hong Kong. Kong. The Royal The Royal Orchestra. Orchestra. North DukeDuke University University would would playplaywar turned war turned up distantly up distantly yet bombastically yet bombastically in in Navy’s Navy’s principal principal warships warships on the onPacific the Pacific Rim Rim Oregon Oregon State. State. a two-disc a two-disc set ofset Tchaikovsky’s of Tchaikovsky’s “1812“1812 OverOver- werewere at the atbottom the bottom of the ofGulf the Gulf of Siam, of Siam, and and On war On maps war maps in the inpress, the press, limited limited to much to much ture,” ture,” performed performed by Artur by Artur Rodzinski Rodzinski and the and the the depleted the depleted Pacific Pacific Fleet, Fleet, withwith seven seven battlebattleless than less than the actual the actual facts, facts, a dismal a dismal Christmas Christmas Cleveland Cleveland Orchestra. Orchestra. In New In New YorkYork gift crates gift crates shipsships sunksunk or disabled or disabled at their at their anchorages, anchorages, had had loomed, loomed, but itbut diditnot didappear not appear that that way way in shop in shop of oranges of oranges and grapefruit and grapefruit fromfrom Florida Florida werewere onlyonly two destroyers two destroyers available available to patrol to patrol the long the long windows windows across across America. America. Enhanced Enhanced by holiday by holiday $2.79 $2.79 at Bloomingdale’s. at Bloomingdale’s. A new A new FordFord or Chevor Chev- coastline coastline between between Vancouver Vancouver and San and Diego. San Diego. As As lights, lights, the street the street lamps lamps and store and store fronts fronts glit-glit- rolet,rolet, bothboth soonsoon to beto unobtainable, be unobtainable, cost cost $900. $900. British British Prime Prime Minster Minster Winston Winston Churchill Churchill would would tered, tered, and aand plethora a plethora of merchandise of merchandise longlong Hattie Hattie Carnegie’s Carnegie’s designer designer dresses dresses began began at at put it, put “Over it, “Over all this all vast this vast expanse expanse of waters of waters Japan Japan vanished vanished fromfrom highhigh streets streets in Britain in Britain awaited awaited $15. The $15. upscale The upscale Rogers Rogers PeetPeet menswear menswear storestore was supreme, was supreme, and we andeverywhere we everywhere [were] [were] weakweak shoppers shoppers nownow benefiting benefiting fromfrom jobs jobs created created by by offered offered suitssuits and topcoats and topcoats fromfrom a steep a steep $38. $38. (At (At and naked.” and naked.”


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or security in wartime the Secret Service proposed to have the formidable national Christmas tree erected in Lafayette Park, a seven-acre expanse across Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House, as the event Dec. 24, 1941, would draw thousands of unidentifiable persons. The President insisted that tradition required the White House lawn. Within the patrolled iron-picket fence around the White House grounds, only those specifically invited would get close to the participants on the South Portico. Even so, guards warned, “No cameras, no packages.” A tent outside the two gates had At the lighting been set up as a packceremonies in age checking station, 1940, realizing but some visitors refused to give up that war was approaching from their places in line at the 4 o’clock opensomewhere, and ing and dropped their perhaps soon, the Christmas bundles President had told at the fence, hoping the crowd that they would find them The Christmas meal menu for remaining personnel at Pearl Harbor, 1941. WIkIPEDIA it was welcome again afterward. The could watch to return in 1941 uninvited 1941 “if we are all still here.” Many were from beyond — and ‘if we are all still under a crescent moon back. here.’ Many were thousands were already Christmas Eve 1941 was the only public occasion when Roosevelt and Churchill gathering in the early back. spoke from the same platform. As they winter twilight. gathered with guests and the White House Was a brilliantly lit staff in the East Room an hour before the hazard being created at ceremonies at 5, the Marine Band on the odds with unenforced wartime brownSouth Lawn struck up holiday music, outs? The White House was assured that beginning with “Joy to the World,” no enemy could penetrate Washington accompanied by choirs from nearby airspace. Also, Christmas Eve traditions churches. Outranking the Prime Minister were exempted in the interest of national confidence. Despite restrictions involving in the party were stately, beautiful Crown Princess Marthe of occupied Norway and landmarks, the red aircraft-warning light her princely husband, the future King 550 feet atop the Washington Monument Olav V. Marthe, whom FDR adored, was remained aglow and could be seen from one of the rare women he kissed whenever the White House lawn. At the lighting they met. With her children, she had been ceremonies in 1940, realizing that war offered a temporary White House resiwas approaching from somewhere, and dence after fleeing Norway, until she could perhaps soon, the President had told the find an American home, which she did crowd that it was welcome to return in

nearby in Maryland. In what seemed like a royal gesture, each White House employee was presented with a signed photograph of Franklin and Eleanor. When the sunset gun at Fort Myer, across the Potomac, boomed, the band began “Hail to the Chief,” and the President, on the arm of an aide, was escorted slowly out to the south balcony with Mrs. Roosevelt and the Prime Minister. Following them, the White House party, many shivering in the chill evening, watched as FDR pressed a button lighting the big evergreen at the lower slope of the lawn. The crowd applauded, their eyes especially on Churchill. Then the Rev. Joseph Corrigan, rector of Catholic University in northeast Washington, delivered a brief invocation tailored to the times. “Hear a united people, girded for battle” he began, looking up, “dedicate themselves to the peace of Christmas.” He confessed “strangeness” in such a contradiction in words, yet “All the material resources with which Thou has blessed our native land, we consecrate to the dread tasks of war.” It was what Churchill wanted to hear and the reason he had come. Radio carried their voices across the country and abroad. As the Christmas lights glowed, Roosevelt spoke directly to the event. “It is in the spirit of peace and good will, and with particular thoughtfulness of those, our sons and brothers, who serve in our armed forces on land and sea, near and far — those who serve and endure for us — that we light our Christmas candles now across this continent from one coast to the other on this Christmas evening.” Now, he added, “my associate, my old and good friend” wanted to speak to Washingtonians and to the world. No one in hearing distance had any doubt as to who that was, especially once his rolling, almost antique, voice echoed across the lights and shadows. “This is a strange Christmas eve,” Churchill began:


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This telegram was sent by Richard and Harold Hall to their parents wishing them a Merry Christmas following the attack on Pearl Harbor.

‘Let the children have their night of fun and laughter. Let the gifts of Father Christmas delight their play. Let us grown-ups share to the full in their unstinted pleasures before we turn again to the stern task and the formidable years that lie before us ...’

FLICKR/USMC Archives

Almost the whole world is locked in deadly struggle, and with the most terrible weapons which science Use the Blippar can devise, the nations advance upon each app to open other. Ill would it be video of FDR for us this Christmasand Churchill’s tide if we were not sure Christmas Eve that no greed for the 1941 speeches. land or wealth of any other people, no vulgar SEE INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGE 2 ambition, no morbid lust for material gain at the expense of others has led us to the field. Here, in the midst of war, raging and soaring over all the lands and seas, creeping nearer to our hearts and our homes, here, amid the tumult, we have tonight the peace of the spirit in each cottage home and in each generous heart. There, we may cast aside for this night at least the cares and dangers which beset us, and make for our children an evening of happiness in a world of storm. Here, then,

for one night only, each home throughout the English-speaking world should be a brightly lighted island of happiness and peace. While far from his own hearth and family, he continued, “Yet I cannot truthfully say that I feel far from home.” He referred to his kinship with his audiences, listening rapt on the White House lawn, and nationwide: Whether it be ties of blood on my mother’s side, or the friendships I have developed here over many years of active life, or the commanding sentiment of comradeship in the common cause of great peoples who speak the same language, who kneel at the same altars, and, to a very large extent, pursue the same ideals, I cannot feel myself a stranger here at the centre and at the summit of the United States. I feel a sense of unity and fraternal association which, added to the kindliness of your welcome, convinces me that I have a right to sit at your fireside and share your Christmas joys.

It was, he conceded, “a strange Christmas eve,” with war “raging and roaring over all the lands and seas, creeping nearer to our hearts and homes.” Nevertheless, the PM concluded, using the English equivalent for Santa, Let the children have their night of fun and laughter. Let the gifts of Father Christmas delight their play. Let us grown-ups share to the full in their unstinted pleasures before we turn again to the stern task and the formidable years that lie before us, resolved that by our sacrifice and daring, these same children shall not be robbed of their inheritance or denied their right to live in a free and decent world. And so, in God’s mercy, a happy Christmas to you all. – Adapted excerpt from “Pearl Harbor Christmas: A World at War, December 1941” by Stanley Weintraub. Copyright © 2011. Available from Da Capo Press, an imprint of Perseus Books, LLC, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group, Inc.


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Streaming live to classrooms on the anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attacks, this interactive webcast brings 5th-to-8th graders on an unforgettable journey into history, guided by students just like them. Student reporters will host segments from Hawaii and The National WWII Museum in New Orleans, touring the sites of the attack, handling WWII artifacts, and interviewing eyewitnesses who were kids themselves at the time of the attack.

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WHY REGISTER FOR THE ELECTRONIC FIELD TRIP? • For students, by students— Ideal for grades 5-8 • Interactive—live Q&A and polls let viewers shape the program in real time • Free to registered classrooms • No special equipment required— just an internet connection • Two times to watch on December 7 • Only three days left to register— sign up today!

PRESENTED BY:

Additional Sponsors and Donors: The Dudley and Constance Godfrey Foundation in honor of Dudley J. Godfrey Jr.'s WWII service in the Pacific • The Dale E. and Janice Davis Johnston Family Foundation in honor of Dr. Earle Richard Davis and his WWII service on the USS Tranquillity, Pacific • Lillian and Jimmy Maurin • The Joe W. and Dorothy Dorsett Brown Foundation


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OR D FO ER B RS YD PE CIAECE L P MBE RIC R 3 ING 1st !

it’s not just a brick. it’sadtheir story. WITH A BRICK AT THE NATIONAL WWII MUSEUM , you can create a lasting tribute to loved ones who served their country. To learn how you can honor your hero, visit ww2brick6.org. BRICK TEXT

Remembering Pearl Harbor

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Mrs. Mr. Ms. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Address _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ City _______________________________________________________________ State ________________ Zip ________________ Telephone (Day) _________________________ (Evening) ________________________ PLEASE RESERVE MY PERSONALIZED BRICK(S) Number of Victory Bricks _______ at $200 each. Add a Tribute Book at $50 each _________________ Total $ _________________ Please make check or money order payable to: The National WWII Museum. Card # ____________________ Exp. ___________ Signature _________________________________________ Check/Money Order

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FORMS MUST BE RECEIVED ON OR BEFORE 12/31/16. Fax orders to 504-527-6088 or mail to: The National WWII Museum, Road to Victory Brick Program, 945 Magazine Street, New Orleans, LA 70130.

877-813-3329 ext. 500

bricks@nationalww2museum.org

The brick program at The National WWII Museum celebrates the American Spirit as well as the shared appreciation for the Allied effort during World War II. The Museum reserves the right to refuse to engrave any messages or material it deems inappropriate, such as personal contact information, political statements, suggestive wording, and messages that might be considered offensive to those who served and sacrificed during the WWII era.


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By John Sucich More Content Now

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hat kind of a country was the United States in 1941? The year stands out for more than just the attack on Pearl Harbor. In the baseball world 1941 saw two feats accomplished that have yet to be matched: Joe DiMaggio hit in a record 56 straight games, and Ted Williams became the last major leaguer to hit .400 or better, with a .406 batting average for the season. The early 1940s left a cultural mark in other ways, too. Here’s some more about what it was like to live at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked:

w Work By the end of the 1930s President Roosevelt’s New Deal had come to an end, as Congress grew resistant to introducing more new programs. But programs like the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA), coupled with the war boom to come after Dec. 7, 1941, succeeded in bringing the country out of the Great Depression. • In 1940 the workforce was about 53 million people, with about 5 million people unemployed. When the United States entered the war the problem quickly shifted to there not being enough workers. The working week was lengthened, 14- to 17-yearolds were allowed to work, and more women were employed as a result. • The majority belief before the United States entered World War II was that a woman who worked when her husband also had a job was taking a job from another man. There was support for laws that would prohibit women from working if her husband made more than $1,600 in a year. That all changed after 1941, when women were asked to help with the war effort. • Many of the jobs that became available in the early 1940s were to support the war, including building weaponry, aircraft and other vehicles. A worker with the TVA made about 50 cents an hour, or $20 a week, while public school teachers, miners and manufacturers made approximately $30 a week (or about $1,500 in a year). Doctors and lawyers made an average salary of $5,000 a year. The highest paid ballplayer was Hank Greenberg of the Detroit Tigers, at $55,000 a year, while Gary Cooper was the highest-paid movie star at about $500,000 in salary.

• Religion was a factor in the lives of many Americans in the 1930s and 1940s, but it wasn’t always in an active role. • Christians were the majority, with the Roman Catholic Church its largest denomination. There was a significant Jewish population in New York City. • Many families had religious artifacts and observed religious practices such as no meat on Fridays, but not everyone attended religious services.

w Transportation • The decade of the 1940s was the dawning of the automobile age. Travel across the country in a car was difficult, though – many major highways were a decade away, at least. But for many middle

Wind” were both released in 1939, the latter of which starred Clark Gable. Gable was married to Carole Lombard in 1939, forming an original Hollywood “it” couple before Lombard died in a plane crash in early 1942 after a trip promoting war bonds.

w Music Some of the most popular movies produced some of the most popular songs of the time, like “When You Wish Upon A Star” from “Pinocchio” and “Somewhere Over The Rainbow” from “The Wizard of Oz,” but people were listening to many kinds of music on the radio: • Jazz from the likes of Glenn Miller and Duke Ellington. • Classical music performances were broadcast across the country. • Singing stars such as Bing Crosby, the Andrews Sisters and Frank Sinatra thrilled audiences, and the jukebox reached peak popularity, with dancing to big band music one of the most popular activities of the day.

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LIFE 1941 class families a car was becoming more common. • For wider travel people still relied on the railroad. Airplane travel was new and expensive, and the railroads were what Americans were used to. A one-way trip on the train from Chicago to Los Angeles could take less than 40 hours.

w Movies During the 1940s, with the United States fully immersed in World War II, movies were very much centered on war. But the time period sometimes called “the golden age of film” also saw some all-time classics released: • “Citizen Kane” (1941) • “The Philadelphia Story” (1941) • After the release of its first feature-length animated film, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1937), Disney also released “Pinocchio” (1940), “Fantasia” (1940), “Dumbo” (1941) and “Bambi” (1942). • “The Wizard of Oz” and “Gone With The

w Radio shows The radio wasn’t just for music. Families gathered around to listen to serials, comedies, FDR’s “fireside chats” and, especially after the Pearl Harbor attack, reports from the war. Some of the more popular radio shows of the time were: • “The Shadow” • “The Guiding Light” • “Ma Perkins” • “Superman” • “The Lone Ranger”

w Toys The 1940s saw the creation of some of the most popular toys in history, including the Slinky and Silly Putty, both of which were accidental discoveries made during the war effort. Before they came along, though, kids were playing with: • Dolls and doll houses • Toy guns • Tiddlywinks • Mainstays like electrically powered model trains – Information for this article was gathered from “Daily Life In The United States 19201940” by David E. Kyvig, “America 1941” by Ross Gregory and “A Cultural History of the United States: The 1940s” by Michael V. Uschan


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INTERNMENT

Tom Kobayashi, photographed at the Manzanar Relocation Center, California, 1943

DARK CHAPTER A

PHOTOS: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

One of Pearl Harbor’s most immediate aftereffects was the internment of Japanese Americans in the US

By Melissa Erickson

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he internment of Japanese Americans after Pearl Harbor is a dark chapter in American history, but one that we can learn from as the country again struggles with religious and ethnic tensions. “Remember and learn,” said George Takei, the actor best known as Mr. Sulu from the original “Star Trek” who spent four years as an internee

with his family. Earlier this year, politicians called for bans on Muslims or Syrians from entering the U.S., placing the security of the nation over the rights of individuals who are targeted simply because of the way they look, said historian Franklin Odo, founding director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Asian Pacific American Program and former acting chief of the Asian division at the Library of

Congress. Citing the post-Pearl Harbor internment of American citizens, politicians said things like, “If we need to lock them up, we’ve done it before,” and “If the government did this in the past, it must have been a good idea,” Odo said. “Politicians are particularly adept at gauging and exploiting the fears of the populace, and so it is in some ways no surprise that we are seeing the ugly specter of racial and religious profiling arise again,” Takei said. “There are striking similarities because, frankly, the same fears are as easily stoked today as in World War II. Human nature does not change so quickly. The important thing to understand today is not that these similarities exist, but rather that we as a people learn from our history. Our people’s democracy can do great things but, at the same time, fallible humans can make disastrous mistakes.”


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Line Line crew crew at at work work in in Manzanar Manzanar

nderstanding nderstanding how how the the United United States States worked worked itself itself into into a panic a panic that that ledled toto sequestering sequestering Japanese Japanese and and Americans Americans born born toto Japanese Japanese immigrants immigrants after after the the bombing bombing ofof Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor requires requires a long a long look look back back atat America’s America’s history history ofof anti-Asian anti-Asian racism, racism, Odo Odo said. said. More More than than a century a century before before World World War War II,II, Chinese Chinese people people came came toto America America toto work work inin the the gold gold fields fields and and toto build build railroads. railroads. WelWelcomed comed asas a source a source ofof labor, labor, the the country country stopped stopped short short ofof letting letting them them become become citizens. citizens. The The Chinese Chinese Exclusion Exclusion Act Act ofof 1882 1882 was was the the first first time time inin American American history history that that anan ethnic ethnic oror racial racial group group was was restricted restricted from from immigrating immigrating inin anan effort effort toto maintain maintain the the country’s country’s white white racial racial purity. purity. “That “That racism racism carried carried over over toto the the Japanese,” Japanese,” the the next next group group ofof Asians Asians toto make make their their way way toto America, America, Odo Odo said. said. Asians Asians were were seen seen asas “so “so foreign, foreign, soso other, other, that that they they could could not not assimilate,” assimilate,” Odo Odo said. said. America America needed needed cheap cheap labor labor and and the the Japanese Japanese provided provided that, that, especially especially inin the the Hawaiian Hawaiian islands islands where where they they were were recruited recruited toto work work onon the the sugar sugar plantations. plantations. ByBy 1900, 1900, most most ofof the the workforce workforce onon the the plantations plantations was was Japanese, Japanese, Odo Odo said. said. ByBy Dec. Dec. 7, 7, 1941, 1941, Japanese Japanese accounted accounted forfor close close toto 4040 percent percent ofof the the total total population population ofof the the Hawaiian Hawaiian islands, islands, Odo Odo said. said. President President Franklin Franklin D.D. Roosevelt Roosevelt is is warmly warmly remembered remembered today, today, but but “he “he was was a racist,” a racist,” Odo Odo said. said. “We “We know know from from hishis writings. writings. HeHe had had friends friends inin Japan, Japan, and and that that was was where where hehe thought thought JapaneseJapaneseAmericans Americans should should gogo —— back back toto Japan,” Japan,” Odo Odo said. said. Before Before social social media media and and television, television, our our idea idea ofof what what kind kind ofof people people the the Japanese Japanese were were came came from from newspapers, newspapers, magazines, magazines, the the radio radio and and dime dime novels novels where where they they were were depicted depicted asas “evil “evil and and cruel,” cruel,” Odo Odo said. said. “The “The press press was was flagrantly flagrantly anti-Japanese anti-Japanese and and actively actively stirred stirred upup anti-Japanese anti-Japanese sentiment sentiment byby waving waving the the threat threat ofof a Yellow a Yellow Peril,” Peril,” the the sentiment sentiment that that Asians Asians were were a physical a physical and and economic economic threat threat toto the the West, West, said said Rotner Rotner Sakamoto. Sakamoto. AsAs a nation, a nation, Japan Japan had had been been building building upup asas a military a military power power inin the the Pacific. Pacific. Japan Japan defeated defeated China China inin the the First First Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War War inin 1895 1895 and and Russia Russia inin the the Russo-Japanese Russo-Japanese War War inin 1905, 1905, Odo Odo said. said. “When “When Japan Japan invaded invaded Manchuria Manchuria inin 1931 1931 and and the the Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War War erupted erupted inin 1937, 1937, anti-Japanese anti-Japanese emotions emotions flared flared further. further. Japanese Japanese aggression aggression abroad abroad was was perceived perceived asas ominous ominous atat home. home. ByBy the the time time Japan Japan attacked attacked Pearl Pearl Harbor, Harbor, the the soil soil had had been been tilled tilled forfor anan extreme extreme reaction reaction towards towards ethnic ethnic Japanese Japanese inin the the United United States,” States,” said said Rotner Rotner Sakamoto. Sakamoto. “Before “Before World World War War II II there there was was more more than than 4040 years years ofof thinking thinking Japan Japan is is rising rising inin power. power. The The Japanese Japanese were were seen seen asas inferior inferior but but the the country country could could bebe a possible a possible military military rival rival inin the the Pacific. Pacific. The The thought thought was was that that Japan Japan could could never never launch launch a successful a successful attack attack onon America,” America,” Odo Odo said. said. Needless Needless toto say, say, the the surprise surprise military military strike strike that that devastated devastated the the naval naval base base atat Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor changed changed people’s people’s minds. minds. “The “The Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor attack attack was was successful, successful, and and it was it was a big a big shock shock and and a major a major blow blow toto America’s America’s sense sense ofof security,” security,” Odo Odo said. said. The The following following day, day, the the United United States States declared declared war war onon Japan Japan and and joined joined World World War War II.II.


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About Aboutthese thesephotos photos “The “Thephilosopher philosopherGeorge GeorgeSantayana Santayanawrote, wrote, ‘Those ‘Thosewho whocannot cannotremember rememberthe thepast pastare are condemned condemnedtotorepeat repeatit.’it.’I don’t I don’tbelieve believethat that history historyrepeats repeatsitself, itself,but butthere thereare arediscernible discernible patterns patternsthat thatemerge emergeover overtime. time.If Ifweweperceive perceive and andcomprehend comprehendthem, them,wewehave haveananopportunity opportunity totosidestep sidesteptragic tragicand anddeplorable deplorablemistakes. mistakes. Learning Learningabout abouta adark darkchapter chapterofofour ournation’s nation’s past pastshould shouldnot notbring bringdespair, despair,but butrather ratherclarity clarity and andlight.” light.” – Pamela – Pamela Rotner Rotner sakamoto, sakamoto, author author of of “Midnight “Midnight in in broad broad Daylight: Daylight: A Japanese A Japanese American American Family Family Caught Caught Between Between Two Two Worlds,” Worlds,” the the true true story story of of a family a family that that found found itself itself onon opposite opposite sides sides during during World World War War II II

II

t was t was hard, hard, almost almost impossible, impossible, forfor people people toto believe believe Japan Japan could could have have carried carried out out the the attack, attack, Use Use thethe Blippar Blippar Odo Odo said. said. app app to to see see thethe “There “There must must have have been been a ‘fifth a ‘fifth column,’ column,’ JapaJapanese nese immigrants immigrants who who told told the the planes planes where where toto go,go, fullfull Ansel Ansel Adams Adams spies spies who who created created anan unfair unfair playing playing field,” field,” hehe said. said. collection collection viavia This This profound profound suspicion suspicion ledled toto a hysteria, a hysteria, especially especially thethe Library Library of of onon the the West West Coast, Coast, and and cries cries forfor the the Japanese Japanese toto bebe Congress. Congress. locked locked up. up. The The stigma stigma was was stoked stoked byby inflammatory inflammatory news news stories, stories, pressure pressure groups groups and and even even the the United United SEESEE INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS ON ON PAGE PAGE 2 2 States States government, government, Odo Odo said. said. “After “After the the fact, fact, it became it became known known that that there there were were many many nefarious nefarious forces forces urging urging internment internment ofof Japanese-Americans. Japanese-Americans. Some Some were were driven driven byby political political ambition ambition —— something something that that today today holds holds particular particular currency,” currency,” Takei Takei said. said. Earl Earl Warren, Warren, who who would would later later become become governor governor ofof California California and and chief chief justice justice ofof the the Supreme Supreme Court, Court, was was then then anan up-and-coming up-and-coming politician politician and and the the attorney attorney general general ofof California. California. Warren Warren “saw “saw that that the the ‘lock ‘lock upup the the Japanese’ Japanese’ movement movement was was raging raging inin California. California. HeHe knew knew better better but but hehe decided decided toto seize seize the the leadership leadership ofof this this movement. movement. HeHe built built hishis platform platform onon anti-Japaanti-Japanese nese hysteria hysteria and and made made the the statement statement that that the the fact fact that that nono acts acts ofof espionage espionage oror sabotage sabotage had had been been committed committed byby Japanese Japanese Americans Americans was was ominous ominous because because the the ‘Japanese ‘Japanese areare inscrutable.’ inscrutable.’ HeHe said said that that it it would would bebe ‘prudent’ ‘prudent’ toto lock lock upup the the Japanese Japanese before before they they diddid anything. anything. We We were were damned damned either either way,” way,” Takei Takei said. said. “I“I like like toto believe believe that, that, later later inin life, life, Chief Chief Justice Justice Warren Warren regretted regretted what what hehe had had done done toto allall ofof us,us, and and spent spent hishis tenure tenure onon the the Supreme Supreme Court Court repenting repenting forfor the the sins sins ofof hishis early early political political career.” career.” People People thought thought that that Japanese Japanese immigrants immigrants and and Americans Americans born born toto Japanese Japanese immigrants immigrants (called (called “Nisei”) “Nisei”) had had aided aided the the Japanese Japanese milimilitary tary and and would would dodo it again. it again.

In In 1943, 1943, Ansel Ansel Adams, Adams, America’s America’s most most wellwellknown known photographer, photographer, documented documented the the ManManzanar zanar War War Relocation Relocation Center Center in in California California and and the the Japanese-Americans Japanese-Americans interned interned there there during during World World War War II. II. When When offerofferinging the the collection collection to to the the Library Library of of Congress Congress in in 1965, 1965, Adams Adams said said in in a a letter, letter, “The “The purpose purpose of of mymy work work was was to to show show how how these these people, people, suffering suffering under under a great a great injustice, injustice, and and loss loss of of property, property, busibusinesses nesses and and professions, professions, had had overcome overcome the the sense sense of of defeat defeat and and dispair dispair [sic] [sic] byby building building forfor themselves themselves a a vital vital community community in in anan arid arid (but (but magnificent) magnificent) environenvironment....All ment....All in in all,all, I think I think this this Manzanar Manzanar Collection Collection is is anan important important historical historical docudocument, ment, and and I trust I trust it can it can bebe put put to to good good use.” use.”

Mess Mess line, line, noon noon

“Since “Sincethey theycouldn’t couldn’ttell tellthe thegood goodfrom fromthe thebad, bad, who whois isloyal loyaltotoAmerica Americaand andwho whois isloyal loyaltoto Japan, Japan,they theyhad hadtotolock lockthem themallallup.” up.” – historian – historian Franklin Franklin Odo Odo


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Loading bus, leaving Manzanar for relocation

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n Feb. 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which called for the internment of all Japanese Americans from the West Coast with the exclusion of Hawaii. “It’s baffling” that Japanese Americans living in Hawaii “where the attack happened and America was most vulnerable” were excluded, said Odo, who was 2 years old at the time and living in Honolulu. “If I had lived in California or Oregon, I would have had to go,” he said. Japanese Americans were such a large part of the workforce in Hawaii “it became impossible to lock them up,” Odo said. “Order 9066 was posted on telephone poles with instructions to take only what you can carry and report when notified to a location to be taken away,” said Mary Murakami of Bethesda, Maryland, who was born in Los Angeles and was living with her family in San Francisco’s Japantown in 1942. Murakami spent her junior high and high school years interned. While the Japanese were reporting to be interned, government-ordered curfews were set up. “My father and sister could not go to work. My brother could not attend high school and myself no junior high school. My family sold everything,” Murakami said. It was a time of great fear. There were rumors that children would be taken away from parents. “My parents shared our family history with us and had a family picture taken just in case,” Murakami said. The internment shared shocking similarities with what was happening all over Europe. “The strongest memory I have is of the day armed soldiers marched up our driveway, carrying rifles with bayonets and pounded upon our door, ordering us out. I remember my mother’s tears as we were forced to leave our home, with only what we could carry with us,” Takei said. “My siblings and I were all Americans, born and raised in Los Angeles. My mother was born in Sacramento and my father was a San Franciscan, yet we were being sent from our home for the crime of

looking like the people who had bombed Pearl Harbor.” Things happened fast and “120,000 people are a lot to put away,” Odo said. The first temporary camps were set up in large open spaces such as fairgrounds, race tracks and stadiums. “For weeks we had to live in a horse stable at the local racetrack while the camps were still under construction. My parents tried valiantly to shield us from the horror of what was happening, and for that they are my heroes,” Takei said. “I think often of my father, who felt the greatest anguish and pain of that imprisonment as the unspoken protector of our family. He felt so powerless to help what was happening to his family, to all he had worked so hard for throughout his life. It was truly a devastating blow.” Murakami’s family reported to the Tanforan Race Track near San Francisco where a “lucky family had a room in temporary barracks in inner track, while others lived in horse stalls. There was no schooling for the children and the food was terrible,” she said. When a permanent camp was ready in October 1942 her family was taken in old train cars with shades drawn to Topaz Permanent Camp in Topaz, Utah. “We lived in black-tarred barracks surrounded by barbed wires and guard towers. It was a hard life for three years for everyone, especially our parents. Our family lost everything. There were very basic schools, food and accommodations,” Murakami said.

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awsuits were filed beginning in 1942 first against the race-based curfews and later against the internment, but the courts ruled that the denial of civil rights based on race and national origin were legal, Odo said. Plaintiff Mitsuye Endo was chosen as “the perfect person” to challenge Executive Order 9066 because she was an Americanized, assimilated Nisei who spoke only English and no Japanese and had a brother in the United States Army, Odo said. On Dec. 18, 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the government could not continue to detain a citizen who was “concededly loyal” to the United States. Japanese Americans could begin returning to the West Coast, but “they had nowhere to


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Tractor repair: Driver Benji Iguchi, Mechanic Henry Hanawa, Manzanar Relocation Center, California Mary Murakami (center), with her ESL students in Washington, D.C. PHOTO COURTESY MARY MuRAKAMI

go. They had lost their homes, their farms. Many were terrified to leave the camps. They faced racial discrimination. They couldn’t find jobs,” Odo said. “When the war ended, the gates of the camps were opened wide. Just like that. We were left impoverished. Each internee was handed nothing more than a one-way ticket to wherever in the U.S. they wanted to go and $25 — to rebuild a life with only that,” Takei said. While Japan certainly had spies in the United States, “there was zero proof” that any of the people interned had committed treason, Odo said. Not a single act of espionage was ever found to have been committed. “Yes, internment was politically motivated, definitely.

There were no spies among us. Seventy-five percent of us were born in the United States,” Murakami said. After a long campaign, in 1988 President Ronald Reagan offered an official apology and $20,000 in redress to the internees who were still living. “But by then many who had suffered the most had already passed away,” Takei said. “About half of them, 60,000 were still alive,” Odo said. “So much time had passed. The money did not help us because we were established middle class so we donated the bulk of it to the start of the Japanese American Memorial in Washington D.C. to Patriotism, which is located a few blocks from the Capitol. The letter was uplifting to know that only in a democracy can we receive that letter,” Murakami said.

“The internment camps around the country were all located in places no one else would ever choose to live: the wastelands of Wyoming, the searing deserts of Arizona and, where we’d been sent, the fetid swamplands of Arkansas. We went from a comfortable middle class home in Los Angeles to a single, tar-paper-lined barrack in Arkansas, with no running water and no privacy at all. We ate in a mess hall and were fed horrific fare, including things like cow brains, which no child in America was accustomed to eating.” – actor and activist George Takei

Internment story in theaters Dec. 13 George Takei’s musical “Allegiance” will screen in theaters nationwide for one night only on Tuesday, Dec. 13, at 7:30 local time. Inspired by Takei’s true-life experiences, “Allegiance” is the story of Sam kimura (Takei), transported back nearly six decades to when his younger self (Telly Leung, “Glee”) and his sister kei (Tony Award-winner Lea Salonga) fought to stay connected to their heritage, their family and themselves after Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II. It’s a multigenerational tale with two love stories. In the demeaning conditions of internment during World War II, Takei said he and his family made do to the best of their ability.

“We persevered. Somehow, through all that horror, we survived, we thrived and we held together. There was a Japanese word we all lived by, ‘Gaman,’ which means ‘to endure, with dignity and fortitude,” said Takei. “I am among the last survivors of the internment, and it has been my life’s mission to ensure that we never forget and never repeat the mistakes of the past,” said Takei. The screening begins with an introduction from Takei and special behind-the-scenes footage and interviews. Tickets can be purchased at FathomEvents.com or at participating theater box offices.

– By Melissa Erickson


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Standing on the step at the entrance of a dwelling are Louise Tami Nakamura, holding the hand of Mrs. Naguchi, and Joyce Yuki Nakamura

The 442nd:

FighTing For Their Freedom

By Melissa Erickson

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hile many of their families were interned during World War II, thousands of Japanese-American men proved their loyalty to the United States by serving in combat, most famously as part of the 442nd Regiment of the U.S. Army. The 442nd is the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of American warfare. As part of the 442nd, “the 100th Infantry Battalion was a segregated Nisei (Americans born of Japanese immigrant parents) unit which preceded the 442nd to the Italian front,” said Terry Shima of Gaithersburg,

Maryland. Born in Hawaii, Shima was drafted into the U.S. Army on Oct. 12, 1944, as a replacement for the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. He arrived in Italy on VE Day, May 8, 1945, and joined the 442nd at the Garda Airport in northern Italy assigned to its public relations office. “What people should know about the 442nd and the men who served in the Military Intelligence Service is that they served to help win the war and to prove their loyalty — the only ethnic group that fought in World War II for this reason,” Shima said. “Many of these men volunteered while they were confined to internment camps.”


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From aliens to heroes About 14,000 men served in the 442nd unit and its 100th battalion, earning 9,486 Purple Hearts and 21 Medals of Honor. The Nisei unit fought in Italy, France and Germany. Their motto was “Go For Broke,” which is Hawaiian Pidgin English and means “risk your total holdings, throw in your total resources, total commitment in one roll of the dice,” Shima said. “The Nisei had something to prove, their loyalty. They were willing to risk everything, their lives, to achieve their goal. “When World War II broke out, the draft classification of Japanese Americans was changed from 1-A (eligible for military duty) to 4-C (alien, unfit for military duty). We were offended and insulted that our government viewed us as alien, which was tantamount to being disowned by our government. We were taught that defending your nation in time of war is the responsibility of every citizen. Nisei, individually and in groups, petitioned the government to allow them to serve in combat to prove their loyalty,” said Shima, whose brother served in the 100 Battalion. In response to these petitions and for other reasons, Washington waived the ban on enlistments and issued the call for volunteers for the 442nd unit. “When the 442nd completed training and arrived in Italy in June 1944, the 100th had been there for Terry Shima nine months fighting up the boot of Italy. The 100th sustained such huge casualties that the press labeled them the ‘Purple Heart Battalion.’ The 100th merged into the 442nd becoming, in effect, the 1st Battalion of the 442nd. They were allowed to keep the 100th unit designation in recognition of their combat performance,” Shima said.

Creating leaders The late U.S. Sen. Daniel K. Inouye is perhaps the most well-known of the 442nd and was a WWII Medal of Honor recipient. Inouye served from 2010 to 2012 as president pro tempore of the Senate, a position that put him third in line for the presidency. “Only 70 years ago this same Nisei was assigned draft classification 4-C, alien, unfit for military duty,” Shima said. The effect of the Nisei performance in World War II was significant for future generations of Americans, Shima said: “I believe the combat performance record of the 442nd and the combat performance record of the Tuskegee Airmen, to whom Truman used almost the same words (you fought the enemy abroad and prejudice at home) helped create the climate for post-World War II reforms beginning with the desegregation of the armed forces. These reforms leveled the playing field for minorities to compete for any job and rank.”

Pictures, letters and mementoes on top of a phonograph in the Yonemitsu home, Manzanar Relocation Center. While many of their families were interned during World War II, thousands of Japanese-American men proved their loyalty to the United States by serving in combat.

JAPANESE AMERICANS IN THE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE Much less celebrated than the JapaneseAmerican combat soldiers of the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, those who served in the Military Intelligence service were no less critical to winning the war. In November 1941 as the potential for armed conflict grew between Japan and the United States, the U.S. Army recruited a select group of thousands of Japanese Americans who could speak the language of the enemy, said historian Franklin Odo, founding director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Asian Pacific American Program and former acting chief of the Asian division at the Library of Congress. They were trained at the Presidio in San Francisco and in camps in Minnesota. During the war against Japan, soldierlinguists of the Military Intelligence service served in every battle and campaign. They were able to translate captured documents to show troop movements, monitor enemy transmissions and interrogate prisoners of war, Odo said. They also served as cultural ambassadors who were able to convince Japanese troops to surrender or give up prisoners of war, he said. “They were really valuable because the Japanese didn’t encode their messages,

believing that Americans couldn’t figure out the complex Japanese language,” Odo said. During the war their work was a closely guarded secret and continued to be classified for decades afterward, keeping them out of history’s spotlight, Odo said. Their job was extremely dangerous, often serving on the front lines where they needed to avoid friendly fire by Americans who had trouble distinguishing them from Japanese troops. If captured by Japanese troops they faced execution as traitors. One of their greatest contributions was decoding the intelligence that led to the death of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the strategist and architect of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Odo said. After code breakers identified his flight plans, American Army fliers were able to shoot his plane out of the sky in April 1943. After Yamamoto’s death, the Japanese never won another naval battle. By September 1945, they had translated 18,000 captured enemy documents, printed 16,000 propaganda leaflets and interrogated more than 10,000 Japanese prisoners of war. After the war, Military Intelligence service members played crucial roles in the occupation of Japan and as interpreters in war crimes trials. – By Melissa Erickson


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Houma plays role in war effort The base’s administration building was completed in June 1943.

L

by Emma Discher Staff Writer

ike everyone around at the time, C.J. Christ remembers where he was and what he was doing when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. “I had been out getting the cows out of the pasture and my sister, who was a little bit younger than I, was sitting on the fence at the gate and she said, ‘Hawaii has

just been bombed,’ ” Christ, who was 13 at the time, recalls. “Nobody knew what Pearl Harbor was.” Christ, president and a founder of the Regional Military Museum in Houma, has dedicated much of his life to researching the area’s connections to and involvement in World War II, including the efforts to keep the Gulf of Mexico safe for marine traffic.


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Houma played a role in that effort as home to a Naval Air Station that housed blimps which patrolled the Gulf for German submarines that could threaten marine traffic, including merchant ships heading into and out of the Mississippi River. “German submarines came into the Gulf of Mexico and started torpedoing our ships, mostly tankers coming out of refineries all along the coast,” Christ said. “So it was immediately obvious that we had to protect our tankers from being sunk by the German submarines.” Airplanes had been used for the job, but blimps were ideal as they can slow down

and even stop to get a better look at the water below, Christ said. Many locals also felt the impact of the ensuing wars as millions of young men and women enlisted or were drafted. Christ’s older brother quickly left home for the Navy and his younger sister started nursing school after the bombing. “My sister had been trying to get into … nursing school in New Orleans and she was too young,” Christ said. “They immediately realized that they were going to need more nurses and they lowered the enlistment age. She immediately enlisted in nursing school.” The blimp base, commissioned May 1,

1943, was distinguished by its massive blimp hangar, which measured about 200 feet high, 1,000 feet long and 300 feet wide. Its two 50-ton doors slid on rails to open and close, and some records say it was the largest wooden structure in the world during its existence. In 1947, the base was turned over to the city of Houma and now is the site of the Houma-Terrebonne Airport and its industrial park, Terrebonne Parish’s Vocational Technical High School, the School for Exceptional Children and Terrebonne ARC, which serves residents with mental or physical handicaps.

The base’s main gate on March 27, 1944.

Sailors prepare for memorial service on April 29, 1944. The service was for nine men killed after a blimp went down in the Gulf of Mexico during a storm 10 days earlier.


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LESSONS LEARNED The U.S. Navy battleship USS California sinks alongside Ford Island at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Dec. 7, 1941. WIKIPEDIA

COULD IT

HAPPEN AGAIN? What would a modern Pearl Harbor look like? By Deena C. Bouknight

A

More Content Now

round 8 a.m. in Hawaii Dec. 7, 1941 – a seemingly normal Sunday morning of rest and worship – all hell broke loose when hundreds of Japanese fighter planes unloaded an arsenal on U.S. Naval Station Pearl Harbor and Hickam Army Airfield. It was the date, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt would prophesy, that would “live in infamy.” Even though this generation experienced a greater attack on American soil in terms of casualties – 9/11’s 2,996 to Pearl Harbor’s 2,403 – what happened that infamous December day continues to be a topic of discussion and analysis. Although both the attacks on Pearl Harbor and on the World Trade Center and Pentagon were deemed “surprises,” experts studying hindsight point to the writing on the wall. Relations with the Japanese were a powder keg since they had been ostracized during negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. The Asian country was odd man out in a room full of Europeans. In a 2015 World News Trust article titled “What Can Pearl Harbor Teach Us about 9/11 and Other ‘Surprises,’” New York writer Michael Zezima points out that “Pearl Harbor was roughly two decades in the making.”

Following on the heels of the Versailles snub was the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that Japanese immigrants were ineligible for citizenship; they were not allowed to own property, and finally they essentially would not be allowed to immigrate to the U.S. – period – due to the Exclusion Act in 1924. More followed to bristle the Japanese prior to 1941. Yet, as we remember and memorialize what happened at Pearl Harbor 75 years ago with museum tours and ceremonies, can we prepare for and ultimately avoid another large-scale attack on our homeland? Sebastian Gorka, Ph.D., professor, author and vice president for national security support at the Institute of World Politics, Washington, D.C., wrote in September for Military Review an article titled “How America Will be Attacked.” In it he explains both irregular and unconventional warfare, and how adversaries are thinking differently – and so should we. He ends his lengthy article with this statement: “The sooner our strategists and policymakers recognize and acknowledge this, the better able they will be to develop relevant counters and hone our own indirect and nonkinetic modes of attack to better secure our republic and all Americans in what has become a decidedly unstable and ever more dangerous world.”


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This Thisisiswhat whatthree threeother otherexperts expertshad hadtotosay: say: Q: Q:What Whatlessons lessonsdid didwe we learn learnfrom fromthe thePearl PearlHarbor Harbor attack attackthat thatcan canbe beapplied appliedtoto U.S. U.S.national nationalsecurity securitytoday? today? Eric EricDavis, Davis,pilot, pilot,special special agent agentand andSWAT SWATfor forthe the FBI: FBI:Expect Expectthe theunexpected. unexpected. Don’t Don’tput putallallofofyour youreggs eggsininone one basket. basket.Train Trainreligiously. religiously. David DavidHodge, Hodge,retired retiredNavy Navy and andcurrent currentcommunity community relations relationsmanager, manager,Public Public Affairs Affairsfor forJoint JointBase BasePearl Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Harbor-Hickam,Hawaii: Hawaii: Preparedness; Preparedness;don’t don’tlet letyour your guard guarddown. down.Spend Spendallallthe thetime time training. training. Pat PatJones, Jones,Garrison GarrisonPublic Public Affairs AffairsOfficer, Officer,Fort FortJackson, Jackson, South SouthCarolina: Carolina:Every Everymajor major incident incidentthat thathas hashappened happened we’ve we’velearned learnedfrom. from.We Wemake make adjustments adjustments……we weadapt. adapt.But But the thefirst firstthing thingwe wedid didlearn learnisisthat that we wedid didnot nothave haveananarmy armylarge large enough enoughtotodefend defendourselves. ourselves. After AfterPearl PearlHarbor Harborthere therewas wasa a huge hugesurge surgeininresources. resources.And And now nowlook lookatateverything everythingthat thathas has transpired transpiredregarding regardingsecurity. security.

force forcemultiplier multiplierfor forthe theenemy. enemy.ItIt would wouldtake takegreat greatpolitical politicalwill willtoto fight fightthis thistype typeofofoperation operationininanan effective effectivemanner. manner. Jones: Jones:We Wecannot cannotknow, know,but but every everytime timethere thereisisananincident incident we wehave havehad hadtotostep stepup upsecurity. security. AtAtFort FortJackson, Jackson,there thereisis100 100 percent percentsecurity securityatatthe thegate gatenow. now. IfIfyou youare arenot notananIDIDcardholder, cardholder, there thereisisa avetting vettingprocess. process.This This isisa aresult resultofofterrorist terroristattacks. attacks. Changes Changesinineven evengetting gettingonto ontothe the base baseare area aresult resultofof9/11. 9/11.SecuSecurity rityjust justneeds needstotoget gettighter tighterand and tighter tighter……Pearl PearlHarbor Harborwas wasthe the first firsttototeach teachususthat. that.

Q: Q:What Whatare arethe themost most significant significantthreats threatstotothe the security securityofofour ournation? nation? Davis: Davis:Radical RadicalIslamic Islamic terrorists terroristswho whoare arecitizens; citizens; degradation degradationofofpride prideinincountry, country, history, history,traditions; traditions;and andloss lossofof respect respectfor forthe therule ruleofoflaw. law. Hodge: Hodge:We Weneed needtotonever never give giveup upon onworking workingtotoestablish establish peaceful peacefulrelationships; relationships;we wehave have learned learnedmuch muchfrom fromour ourformer former enemies, enemies,the theJapanese, Japanese,and andthey they Q: Q:What Whatwould wouldan anattack attack have havebecome becomeimportant importantpartpartby byaaforeign foreignmilitary militaryforce force ners. ners.We Wealso alsoneed needtotoalways always look looklike liketoday? today? bebetrained trainedand andprepared preparedfor for Davis: Davis:InInmy myopinion, opinion,anan anything anythingsosothat thatwe weare arealways always attack attackbybya aforeign foreignmilitary military ready readytotoprotect protectAmerica Americaininthe the would wouldmost mostlikely likelybebeininthe the future. future.And, And,totomaintain maintainmorale morale form formofofa alow-intensity low-intensityinsurinsur……letting lettingnothing nothingtake takethe the gency gencyoperation. operation.Our Ourmilitary military wind windout outofofour oursails. sails.America America isisdesigned designedtotofight fightand andwin win came cameback backstronger strongerafter afterPearl Pearl large-scale large-scaleconflicts. conflicts.We Weare are Harbor; Harbor;we weneed needtotoalways always extremely extremelyeffective effectiveatatdestroydestroy- remember rememberthat. that. ing ingmaterials materialsand andinfrastructure infrastructure Jones: Jones:One Oneisiscyber-related. cyber-related. ofofa acountry. country.However, However,ififthe the We Wehave havetotofocus focuson oncybersecyberseconflict conflictwere weretototake takeplace placeon on curity. curity.Also, Also,not notbeing beingprepared prepared American Americansoil, soil,many manyofofour ourmost most and andtrained. trained.Fort FortJackson Jacksonisisthe the advanced advancedweapons weaponsplatforms platforms largest largesttraining traininginstallation installationinin would wouldbebehamstrung. hamstrung.AAlowlowthe theArmy; Army;our ourprimary primarypurpose purpose intensity intensityinsurgency insurgencyoperation operation isistraining. training.We Wetrain train5454percent percent would wouldbring bringthe thefighting fightingtoto ofofthe theforce. force.AAfull fullbattalion battalion our ourcities, cities,neighborhoods neighborhoodsand and can cangraduate graduateasasmany manyasas1,200 1,200 schools. schools.InInthis thisscenario, scenario,itit soldiers, soldiers,and andthere thereisisa apopulapopulabecomes becomesvery verydifficult difficulttotodifdiftion tionon onthe thebase baseofofabout about10,000 10,000 ferentiate ferentiateenemy enemysoldiers soldiersfrom from soldiers. soldiers.Things Thingsare area alot lotdifferdiffercivilians. civilians.This Thisuncertainty, uncertainty, ent entthan thanthey theywere werepre-WWII. pre-WWII. coupled coupledwith withefforts effortstotolimit limit But Butwe wecan canalways alwaysmake makesure surewe we collateral collateraldamage, damage,would wouldact actasasa a are aretrained trainedand andprepared. prepared.

InInmy myopinion, opinion,an anattack attackby byaa foreign foreignmilitary militarywould wouldmost mostlikely likely be beininthe theform formofofaalow-intensity low-intensity insurgency insurgencyoperation. operation.Our Ourmilitary military isisdesigned designedtotofight fightand andwin winlargelargescale scaleconflicts. conflicts. Eric EricDavis, Davis,pilot, pilot,special specialagent agent and andSWAT SWATfor forthe theFBI FBI

The TheUSS USSShaw Shawexplodes explodesduring duringthe theJapanese Japaneseraid raidononPearl Pearl Harbor HarborDec. Dec.7,7,1941. 1941.WIkIPEDIA WIkIPEDIA


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HISTORY

WHERE TO LEARN MORE By John Sucich More Content Now

If all of the attention surrounding the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor makes you want some more information, here are a few suggestions to further your knowledge:

AMAZON.COM

books • “Winston Churchill’s Memoirs of the Second World War,” from 1959, offers a unique perspective on the attack at Pearl Harbor and the days that followed. The chapters “Pearl Harbour!” and “A Voyage Amid World War” give the English Prime Minister’s experience when he received news of the attack and then almost immediately traveled to Washington to address the U.S. Congress. The boat trip to America, Churchill’s time with FDR and stay at the White House – including Christmas 1941 – make for an interesting read about what was happening thousands of miles away from Pearl Harbor. • Considered by many to be one of the more objective accounts of the attack, “At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor” features thorough research gathered over more than 30 years by author Gordon W. Prange. The book was one of the first accounts of the Pearl Harbor attack to tell the story from the Japanese point of view as much as the American side. The book also has a sequel, “Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History,” which features more of Prange’s work put together posthumously by Donald Goldstein and Katherine Dillon, with a focus more on the reaction to the attacks as well as how the attack could have happened. • A wider view of the meaning of Pearl Harbor is offered in “A Date Which Will Live: Pearl Harbor In American Memory,” by Emily S. Rosenberg. In the book, Rosenberg examines how Americans remember or think about the national tragedy. The book, which came out in 2003, also includes the author’s thoughts on how Americans will likely remember Sept. 11, 2001, in a way similar to how the attack on Pearl Harbor has been remembered.

movies • “Tora! Tora! Tora!” is considered by many to be the definitive movie about the attack on Pearl Harbor. The 1970 release was not favorably reviewed at the time, but its mostly accurate portrayal of the events surrounding and including the attack have resonated with viewers and helped educate them about Pearl Harbor. • On the 50th anniversary of the attacks, ABC News collaborated with a Japanese television station to produce “Pearl Harbor: Two Hours That Changed The World.” The documentary, narrated by David Brinkley, includes first-hand accounts of the attack from both sides, as well as archived photographs from Japan and the United States. • If you’re looking for a fictional tale tangentially related to the attack, 1953’s “From Here To Eternity” is set in Hawaii in the days leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. The movie, which includes stars Burt Lancaster, Deborah Kerr, Donna Reed and Frank Sinatra, won eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture. AMAZON.COM/YOUTUBE


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Pearl Harbor Visitor Center

PHOTOS: PACIFICHISTORICPARkS.ORG

• A hidden gem located 20 miles west of Boston in Natick, Massachusetts, the Museum of World War II touts the world’s most comprehensive collection of documents and artifacts related to World War II. • For the 75th anniversary of Pearl Harbor the museum features an exhibit called “The 75th Anniversary of Pearl Harbor: Why We Still Remember,” featuring more than 100 artifacts. The exhibit includes the first telegram announcing the attack, the formal declaration of war by Japan on the United States, and pieces of Japanese planes shot down over Pearl Harbor. • The Museum of World War II hosts scheduled visits Tuesdays through Saturdays, with information about how to set up a tour available at http://museumofworldwarii.org/visit.html.

PHOTO: MUSEUMOFWORLDWARII.ORG

• The Pearl Harbor Visitor Center in Aiea, Hawaii, includes four historic sites: the USS Arizona Memorial, the USS Bowfin Submarine Park, the Battleship Missouri Memorial and the Pacific Aviation Museum. • The Visitor Center is home to two museums: the Road To War Museum, which details the events leading up to Dec. 7, 1941, and the Attack Museum, which covers the morning of the attack through the end of the war. There is also information in between the museums about the history of Pearl Harbor itself. • The center, which neighbors Honolulu International Airport, is open from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. seven days a week, but the various sites have different hours and ticketing options. Visit www.pearlharbor historicsites.org/plan-your-visit for more information.

Museum of World War II Boston

The National WWII Museum New Orleans USS Arizona Memorial

• The USS Arizona was one of the battleships sunk in the attack on Pearl Harbor. The memorial (also known as World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument) was built above the sunken ship, which remains in the water. It honors the memory of those who died in the attack. • Visiting the memorial is free, but you need a timed ticket for the roughly 1 hour, 15 minute program, which includes a video and boat ride to and from the memorial.

• Congress designated this – founded as the D-Day Museum in 2000 – the official WWII museum of the United States in 2003. • The museum’s website features an impressive array of digital collections on Pearl Harbor, including oral and video histories and historic photo galleries. Go to ww2online.org and search for Pearl Harbor. • Opening in June 2017, the “Arsenal of Democracy” exhibit will tell the story of the road to World War II and the Home Front, drawing on personal narratives and evocative artifacts to highlight facets of WWII-era American life through PHOTO: NATIONALWW2MUSEUM.ORG an experiential narrative. Visitors will experience history as it unfolds through nine immersive galleries, including America Besieged, featuring a wraparound screen to convey the shock and impact of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and War Affects Every Home, a reconstructed 1940s home interior goes inside the setting where average Americans grew victory gardens, collected for scrap drives and gathered around the radio to learn of the war’s progress. • Find out more about exhibits and tours at http://www.nationalww2museum.org/visit/index. html


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PEARL HARBOR TRIVIA

DID YOU KNOW? A Japanese midget submarine after having been raised by the U.S. Navy at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard in December 1941. WIkIPEDIA

By John Sucich More Content Now

A

s a major event in world history, the attack on Pearl Harbor is steeped in all kinds of trivia. You can spend years dissecting the who, what, where, when and why of the morning of Dec. 7, 1941 – not to mention the time leading up to that date and the results after. How well do you know some of that information? Here are 15 questions to test your Pearl Harbor knowledge:

1

The name Pearl Harbor was given to the area by native Hawaiians due to the prominence of pearl-producing oysters. The Hawaiian name was “Wai Momi”, which translates to what? Wai Momi means pearl waters

3

2

4

Who was the commander of the Japanese fleet that attacked Pearl Harbor? Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo’s fleet departed Japan in late November and observed strict radio silence in order to keep the attack a surprise.

Three aircraft carriers of the U.S. Pacific Fleet were absent at the time of the attack. What were the names of those ships? The USS Enterprise, USS Lexington, and USS Saratoga were all away from Pearl Harbor at the time of the attack.

Use the Blippar app to open an interactive version of this quiz online. SEE INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGE 2

When the attacks took place, professional football games were taking place in what three American cities? Chicago, New York, and Washington, D.C., were all hosting NFL games. The Chicago Cardinals defeated the Chicago Bears that day, the New York Giants lost to the Brooklyn Dodgers, and Washington defeated the Philadelphia Eagles.

5

Who was President Roosevelt’s press secretary when he delivered his famous speech asking Congress for a declaration of war against Japan, including the famous quote “a date which will live in infamy,” on Dec. 8, 1941? Stephen Early, who knew FDR for more than 30 years and helped create the president’s “Fireside Chats”.


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66

Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor became became thethe permanent permanent home home of of thethe U.S. U.S. Pacific Pacific Fleet Fleet in 1940, in 1940, in an in an attempt attempt to to intimidate intimidate Japan, Japan, which which waswas increasing increasing its its prespresence ence in the in the Pacific. Pacific. Where Where waswas thethe Pacific Pacific Fleet Fleet based based before before Pearl Pearl Harbor? Harbor? The The Pacific Pacific Fleet Fleet was was based based on on thethe west west coasts coasts of California of California andand Washington, Washington, in in places places likelike San San Diego, Diego, Long Long Beach, Beach, San San FranFrancisco, cisco, andand Bremerton. Bremerton.

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TheThe United United States States SenSenateate voted voted 82 82 to 0tofor 0 for thethe declaration declaration of war, of war, andand thethe House House of Represenof Representatives tatives voted voted 388388 to 1. to 1. Who Who diddid thethe lone lone dis-dissenting senting vote vote belong belong to?to? Jeannette Jeannette Rankin Rankin (R (R – – Montana), Montana), a devoted a devoted pacifist, pacifist, also also voted voted against against World World War War I inI in 1917. 1917.

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It was It was December December 8th,8th, thethe dayday after after Pearl Pearl Harbor, Harbor, when when thethe United United States States declared declared warwar against against Japan. Japan. When When diddid thethe country country declare declare warwar against against Germany Germany andand Italy? Italy? Dec. Dec. 11, 11, 1941, 1941, hours hours after after thethe Axis Axis nations nations both both declared declared warwar against against thethe United United States. States.

TheThe wrecked wrecked destroyers destroyers USSUSS Downes Downes andand USSUSS Cassin Cassin in Drydock in Drydock OneOne at the at the Pearl Pearl Harbor Harbor Navy Navy Yard, Yard, soon soon after after the the endend of the of the Japanese Japanese air attack. air attack. Cassin Cassin hashas capsized capsized against against Downes. Downes. USSUSS Pennsylvania Pennsylvania is astern, is astern, occupying occupying the the restrest of the of the drydock. drydock. TheThe smoke smoke is from is from the the sunken sunken andand burning burning USSUSS Arizona, Arizona, outout of view of view behind behind Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. WIkIPEDIA WIkIPEDIA

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9) Who 9) Who waswas made made commander commander of the of the Pacific Pacific Fleet Fleet following following thethe attack attack on on Pearl Pearl Harbor? Harbor? Admiral Admiral Chester Chester W. W. Nimitz Nimitz was was elevated elevated to the to the position position before before thethe endend of of December December 1941. 1941.

10 10

How How many many Navy Navy men men received received thethe Medal Medal of Honor of Honor for for their their heroic heroic actions actions during during thethe attack attack on on Pearl Pearl Harbor? Harbor? 15 15 men men were were awarded awarded thethe medal, medal, thethe nation’s nation’s highest highest award award forfor valor. valor.


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11

Which of the following was NOT a ship attacked at Pearl Harbor?: a) Oklahoma b) Nevada c) kansas d) California c) Kansas was not a ship attacked at Pearl Harbor. The other three were all battleships sunk in the attack.

12

Which military leaders in Hawaii were relieved of their command after the attack? Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Lieutenant General Walter C. Short.

13

Photograph taken from a Japanese plane during the torpedo attack on ships moored on both sides of Ford Island shortly after the beginning of the Pearl Harbor attack. View looks about east, with the supply depot, submarine base and fuel tank farm in the right center distance.

Which Supreme Court justice led the initial investigation into the attack on Pearl Harbor? Owen Roberts

WIKIPEDIA

14

How many Japanese aircraft carriers were in the fleet that attacked Pearl Harbor? The Japanese planes launched from six aircraft carriers that came to a stop about 200 miles north of Pearl Harbor.

15

Japan suffered relatively few casualties. How many Japanese planes were destroyed during the attack on Pearl Harbor? 29


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THOSE THOSEKILLED KILLEDIN INTHE THEATTACK ATTACK Here Herewe welist listthe thenames namesofofall all2,403 2,403soldiers soldiersand andcivilians civilians(listed (listedwith withtheir theirage) age)killed killedininthe theDec. Dec.7,7,1941, 1941, attack attackon onPearl PearlHarbor. Harbor.They Theyare arelisted listedalphabetically, alphabetically,categorized categorizedby bytheir theirlocation. location.Source: Source:PearlHarbor.org PearlHarbor.org • Ford • Ford Island Island Naval Naval AirAir Station Station

ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Howard Howard Taisey Taisey ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Irwin Irwin Corinthis Corinthis ANDERSON, James James Pickins Pickins Jr.Jr. CROFT, CROFT, Theodore Theodore (Ted) (Ted) Wheeler Wheeler ANDERSON, ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Lawrence Lawrence Donald Donald ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Robert Robert Adair Adair • Kaneohe • Kaneohe Naval Naval AirAir Station Station ANDREWS, ANDREWS, Brainerd Brainerd Wells Wells ANGLE, ANGLE, Earnest Earnest Hersea Hersea BROWN, BROWN, Walter Walter Scott Scott ANTHONY, ANTHONY, Glenn Glenn Samuel Samuel BUCKLEY, BUCKLEY, John John Daniel Daniel APLIN, APLIN, James James Raymond Raymond DOSICK, DOSICK, Stanley Stanley Daniel Daniel APPLE, APPLE, Robert Robert William William FORMOE, FORMOE, Clarence Clarence Melvin Melvin APREA, APREA, Frank Frank Anthony Anthony FOSS, FOSS, Rodney Rodney Shelton Shelton ARLEDGE, ARLEDGE, Eston Eston FOX, FOX, Lee Lee Jr.Jr. ARNAUD, ARNAUD, Achilles Achilles GRIFFIN, GRIFFIN, Daniel Daniel Thornburg Thornburg ARNEBERG, ARNEBERG, William William Robert Robert HOOKANO, HOOKANO, Kamiko, Kamiko, age age 3535 ARNOLD, ARNOLD, Claude Claude Duran Duran Jr.Jr. INGRAM, INGRAM, George George Washington Washington ARNOLD, ARNOLD, Thell Thell LAWRENCE, LAWRENCE, Charles Charles ARRANT, ARRANT, John John Anderson Anderson LEE, LEE, Isaac Isaac William, William, age age 2121 ARVIDSON, ARVIDSON, Carl Carl Harry Harry MANNING, MANNING, Milburn Milburn Alex Alex ASHMORE, ASHMORE, Wilburn Wilburn James James NEWMAN, NEWMAN, Laxton Laxton Gail Gail ATCHISON, ATCHISON, John John Calvin Calvin OTTERSTETTER, OTTERSTETTER, Carl Carl William William ATKINS, ATKINS, Gerald Gerald Arthur Arthur PORTERFIELD, PORTERFIELD, Robert Robert Kirk Kirk AUSTIN, AUSTIN, Laverne Laverne Alfred Alfred ROBINSON, ROBINSON, James James Henry Henry AUTRY, AUTRY, Eligah Eligah T. T. Jr.Jr. SMARTT, SMARTT, Joseph Joseph Gillespie Gillespie AVES, AVES, Willard Willard Charles Charles UHLMANN, UHLMANN, Robert Robert W.W. AYDELL, AYDELL, Miller Miller Xavier Xavier WATSON, WATSON, Raphael Raphael August August AYERS, AYERS, Dee Dee Cumpie Cumpie WEAVER, WEAVER, Luther Luther Dayton Dayton BADILLA, Manuel Manuel Domonic Domonic • •Midway MidwayIsland IslandNaval NavalAirAir BADILLA, BAILEY, BAILEY, George George Richmond Richmond Station Station BAIRD, BAIRD, Billy Billy Bryon Bryon BAJORIMS, BAJORIMS, Joseph Joseph CANNON, CANNON, George George H.H. BAKER, BAKER, Robert Robert Dewey Dewey KRAKER, KRAKER, Donald Donald J. J. BALL, BALL, William William V. V. MORRELL, MORRELL, Elmer Elmer R.R. BANDY, BANDY, Wayne Wayne Lynn Lynn (Buck) (Buck) TUTTLE, TUTTLE, Ralph Ralph E. E. BANGERT, BANGERT, John John Henry Henry BARAGA, Joseph Joseph • Naval • Naval Mobile Mobile Hospital Hospital Number Number BARAGA, BARDON, BARDON, Charles Charles Thomas Thomas 22 BARKER, BARKER, Loren Loren Joe Joe BARNER, BARNER, Walter Walter Ray Ray THUMAN, THUMAN, John John Henry Henry BARNES, BARNES, Charles Charles Edward Edward BARNES, BARNES, Delmar Delmar Hayes Hayes • Pearl • Pearl Harbor Harbor Naval Naval Hospital Hospital BARNETT, BARNETT, William William Thermon Thermon BARTLETT, BARTLETT, David David William William RUSSETT, RUSSETT, Arthur Arthur William William BARTLETT, BARTLETT, Paul Paul Clement Clement BATES, BATES, Edward Edward Munroe Munroe Jr.Jr. • USS • USS Arizona Arizona BATES, BATES, Robert Robert Alvin Alvin BATOR, BATOR, Edward Edward AARON, AARON, Hubert Hubert Charles Charles Titus Titus BAUER, Harold Harold Walter Walter A BAEBRECRRCO RM OM B IBEI,E ,S aSm am u eule l BAUER, BEATON, BEATON, Freddie Freddie Adolphus Adolphus BEAUMONT, BEAUMONT, James James Ammon Ammon ADAMS, ADAMS, Robert Robert Franklin Franklin BECK, BECK, George George Richard Richard ADKISON, ADKISON, James James Dillion Dillion BECKER, BECKER, Marvin Marvin Otto Otto AGUIRRE, AGUIRRE, Reyner Reyner Aceves Aceves BECKER, BECKER, Wesley Wesley Paulson Paulson AGUON, AGUON, Gregorio Gregorio San San N.N. BEDFORD, BEDFORD, Purdy Purdy Renaker Renaker AHERN, AHERN, Richard Richard James James BEERMAN, Henry Henry Carl Carl ALBEROVSKY, ALBEROVSKY, Francis Francis Severin Severin BEERMAN, BEGGS, BEGGS, Harold Harold Eugene Eugene ALBRIGHT, ALBRIGHT, Galen Galen Winston Winston BELL, BELL, Hershel Hershel Homer Homer ALEXANDER, ALEXANDER, Elvis Elvis Author Author BELL, BELL, Richard Richard Leroy Leroy ALLEN, ALLEN, Robert Robert Lee Lee BELLAMY, BELLAMY, James James Curtis Curtis ALLEN, ALLEN, William William Clayborn Clayborn BELT, BELT, Everett Everett Ray Ray Jr.Jr. ALLEN, ALLEN, William William Lewis Lewis BENFORD, BENFORD, Sam Sam Austin Austin ALLEY, ALLEY, JayJay Edgar Edgar BENNETT, BENNETT, William William Edmond Edmond Jr.Jr. ALLISON, ALLISON, Andrew Andrew K.K. BENSON, BENSON, James James Thomas Thomas ALLISON, ALLISON, J. T. J. T. BERGIN, BERGIN, Roger Roger Joseph Joseph ALTEN, ALTEN, Ernest Ernest Mathew Mathew BERKANSKI, BERKANSKI, Albert Albert Charles Charles AMON, AMON, Frederick Frederick Purdy Purdy BERNARD, BERNARD, Frank Frank Peter Peter AMUNDSON, AMUNDSON, Leo Leo DeVere DeVere BERRY, BERRY, Gordon Gordon Eugene Eugene ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Charles Charles Titus Titus BERRY, BERRY, James James Winford Winford ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Delbert Delbert Jake Jake BERSCH, BERSCH, Arthur Arthur Anthony Anthony ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Donald Donald William William BERTIE, BERTIE, George George Allan Allan Jr.Jr. ANDERSON, ANDERSON, Harry Harry

BIBBY, BIBBY, Charles Charles Henry Henry BICKEL, BICKEL, Kenneth Kenneth Robert Robert BICKNELL, BICKNELL, Dale Dale Deen Deen BIRCHER, BIRCHER, Frederick Frederick Robert Robert BIRDSELL, BIRDSELL, Rayon Rayon Delois Delois BIRGE, BIRGE, George George Albert Albert BISHOP, BISHOP, Grover Grover Barron Barron BISHOP, BISHOP, Millard Millard Charles Charles BISHOP, BISHOP, Wesley Wesley horner horner Jr.Jr. BLACK, BLACK, James James Theron Theron BLAIS, BLAIS, Albert Albert Edward Edward BLAKE, BLAKE, James James Monroe Monroe BLANCHARD, BLANCHARD, Albert Albert Richard Richard BLANKENSHIP, BLANKENSHIP, Theron Theron A.A. BLANTON, BLANTON, Atticus Atticus Lee Lee BLIEFFERT, BLIEFFERT, Richmond Richmond Frederick Frederick BLOCK, BLOCK, Ivan Ivan Lee Lee BLOUNT, BLOUNT, Wayman Wayman Boney Boney BOGGESS, BOGGESS, Roy Roy Eugene Eugene BOHLENDER, BOHLENDER, Sam Sam BOLLING, BOLLING, Gerald Gerald Revese Revese BOLLING, BOLLING, Walter Walter Karr Karr BOND, BOND, Burnis Burnis Leroy Leroy BONEBRAKE, BONEBRAKE, Buford Buford Earl Earl BONFIGLIO, BONFIGLIO, William William John John BOOTH, BOOTH, Robert Robert Sinclair Sinclair Jr.Jr. BOOZE, BOOZE, Asbury Asbury Legare Legare BORGER, BORGER, Richard Richard BOROVICH, BOROVICH, Joseph Joseph John John BORUSKY, BORUSKY, Edwin Edwin Charles Charles BOSLEY, BOSLEY, Kenneth Kenneth Leroy Leroy BOVIALL, BOVIALL, Walter Walter Robert Robert BOWMAN, BOWMAN, Howard Howard Alton Alton BOYD, BOYD, Charles Charles Andrew Andrew BOYDSTUN, BOYDSTUN, Don Don Jasper Jasper BOYDSTUN, BOYDSTUN, R.R. L. L. BRABBZSON, BRABBZSON,Oran OranMerrill Merrill (Buttercup) (Buttercup) BRADLEY, BRADLEY, Bruce Bruce Dean Dean BRAKKE, BRAKKE, Kenneth Kenneth Gay Gay BRICKLEY, BRICKLEY, Eugene Eugene BRIDGES, BRIDGES, James James Leon Leon BRIDGES, BRIDGES, Paul Paul Hyatt Hyatt BRIDIE, BRIDIE, Robert Robert Maurice Maurice BRIGNOLE, BRIGNOLE, Erminio Erminio Joseph Joseph BRITTAN, BRITTAN, Charles Charles Edward Edward BROADHEAD, BROADHEAD, Johnnie Johnnie Cecil Cecil BROCK, BROCK, Walter Walter Pershing Pershing BROMLEY, BROMLEY, George George Edward Edward BROMLEY, BROMLEY, Jimmie Jimmie BROOKS, BROOKS, Robert Robert Neal Neal BROOME, BROOME, Loy Loy Raymond Raymond BROONER, BROONER, Allen Allen Ottis Ottis BROPHY, BROPHY, Myron Myron Alonzo Alonzo BROWN, BROWN, Charles Charles Martin Martin BROWN, BROWN, Elwyn Elwyn Leroy Leroy BROWN, BROWN, Frank Frank George George BROWN, BROWN, Richard Richard Corbett Corbett BROWN, BROWN, William William Howard Howard BROWNE, BROWNE, Harry Harry Lamont Lamont BROWNING, BROWNING, Tilmon Tilmon David David BRUNE, BRUNE, James James William William BRYAN, BRYAN, Leland Leland Howard Howard BRYANT, BRYANT, Lloyd Lloyd Glenn Glenn BUCKLEY, BUCKLEY, Jack Jack C.C. BUDD, BUDD, Robert Robert Emile Emile BUHR, BUHR, Clarence Clarence Edward Edward BURDEN, BURDEN, Ralph Ralph Leon Leon BURDETTE, BURDETTE, Ralph Ralph Warren Warren BURKE, BURKE, Frank Frank Edmond Edmond Jr.Jr.

BURNETT, BURNETT, Charlie Charlie Leroy Leroy BURNS, BURNS, John John Edward Edward BUSICK, BUSICK, Dewey Dewey Olney Olney BUTCHER, BUTCHER, David David Adrian Adrian BUTLER, BUTLER, John John Dabney Dabney BYRD, BYRD, Charles Charles Dewitt Dewitt CABAY, CABAY, Louis Louis Clarence Clarence CADE, CADE, Richard Richard Esh Esh CALDWELL, CALDWELL, Charles Charles Jr.Jr. CALLAGHAN, CALLAGHAN, James James Thomas Thomas CAMDEN, CAMDEN, Raymond Raymond Edward Edward CAMM, CAMM, William William Fielden Fielden CAMPA, CAMPA, Ralph Ralph CAMPBELL, CAMPBELL, Burdette Burdette Charles Charles CAPLINGER, CAPLINGER, Donald Donald William William CAREY, CAREY, Francis Francis Lloyd Lloyd CARLISLE, CARLISLE, Robert Robert Wayne Wayne CARLSON, CARLSON, Harry Harry Ludwig Ludwig CARMACK, CARMACK, Harold Harold Milton Milton CARPENTER, CARPENTER, Robert Robert Nelson Nelson CARROLL, CARROLL, Robert Robert Lewis Lewis CARTER, CARTER, Burton Burton Lowell Lowell CARTER, CARTER, Paxton Paxton Turner Turner CASEY, CASEY, James James Warren Warren CASILAN, CASILAN, Epifanio Epifanio Miranda Miranda CASKEY, CASKEY, Clarence Clarence Merton Merton CASTLEBERRY, CASTLEBERRY, Claude Claude W.W. Jr.Jr. CATSOS, CATSOS, George George CHACE, CHACE, Raymond Raymond Vincent Vincent CHADWICK, CHADWICK, Charles Charles Bruce Bruce CHADWICK, CHADWICK, Harold Harold CHANDLER, CHANDLER, Donald Donald Ross Ross CHAPMAN, CHAPMAN, Naaman Naaman N.N. CHARLTON, CHARLTON, Charles Charles Nicholas Nicholas CHERNUCHA, CHERNUCHA, Harry Harry Gregory Gregory CHESTER, CHESTER, Edward Edward CHRISTENSEN, CHRISTENSEN, Elmer Elmer Emil Emil CHRISTENSEN, CHRISTENSEN, Lloyd Lloyd Raymond Raymond CHRISTIANSEN, CHRISTIANSEN,Edward EdwardLee Lee (Sonny) (Sonny) CIHLAR, CIHLAR, Lawrence Lawrence John John CLARK, CLARK, George George Francis Francis CLARK, CLARK, John John Crawford Crawford Todd Todd CLARK, CLARK, Malcolm Malcolm CLARK, CLARK, Robert Robert William William Jr.Jr. CLARKE, CLARKE, Robert Robert Eugene Eugene CLASH, CLASH, Donald Donald CLAYTON, CLAYTON, Robert Robert Roland Roland CLEMMENS, CLEMMENS, Claude Claude Albert Albert CLIFT, CLIFT, Ray Ray Emerson Emerson CLOUES, CLOUES, Edward Edward Blanchard Blanchard CLOUGH, CLOUGH, Edward Edward Hay Hay COBB, COBB, Ballard Ballard Burgher Burgher COBURN, COBURN, Walter Walter Overton Overton COCKRUM, COCKRUM, Kenneth Kenneth Earl Earl COFFIN, COFFIN, Robert Robert COFFMAN, COFFMAN, Marshall Marshall Herman Herman COLE, COLE, Charles Charles Warren Warren COLE, COLE, David David Lester Lester COLEGROVE, COLEGROVE, Willett Willett S. S. Jr.Jr. COLLIER, COLLIER, John John COLLIER, COLLIER, Linald Linald Long Long Jr.Jr. COLLINS, COLLINS, Austin Austin COLLINS, COLLINS, Billy Billy Murl Murl CONLIN, CONLIN, Bernard Bernard Eugene Eugene CONLIN, CONLIN, James James Leo Leo CONNELLY, CONNELLY, Richard Richard Earl Earl CONRAD, CONRAD, Homer Homer Milton Milton Jr.Jr. CONRAD, CONRAD, Robert Robert Frank Frank

CONRAD, CONRAD, Walter Walter Ralph Ralph COOPER, COOPER, Clarence Clarence Eugene Eugene COOPER, COOPER, Kenneth Kenneth Erven Erven CORCORAN, CORCORAN, Gerard Gerard John John COREY, COREY, Ernest Ernest Eugene Eugene CORNELIUS, CORNELIUS, P. P. W.W. CORNING, CORNING, Russell Russell Dale Dale COULTER, COULTER, Arthur Arthur Lee Lee COWAN, COWAN, William William COWDEN, COWDEN, Joel Joel Beman Beman COX, COX, Gerald Gerald Blinton Blinton (Jerry) (Jerry) COX, COX, William William Milford Milford CRAFT, CRAFT, Harley Harley Wade Wade CRAWLEY, CRAWLEY, Wallace Wallace Dewight Dewight CREMEENS, CREMEENS, Louis Louis Edward Edward CRISCUOLO, CRISCUOLO, Michael Michael CRISWELL, CRISWELL, Wilfred Wilfred John John CROWE, CROWE, Cecil Cecil Thomas Thomas CROWLEY, CROWLEY, Thomas Thomas Ewing Ewing CURRY, CURRY, William William Joseph Joseph CURTIS, CURTIS, Lloyd Lloyd B.B. CURTIS, CURTIS, Lyle Lyle Carl Carl CYBULSKI, CYBULSKI, Harold Harold Bernard Bernard CYCHOSZ, CYCHOSZ, Francis Francis Anton Anton CZARNECKI, CZARNECKI, Stanley Stanley CZEKAJSKI, CZEKAJSKI, Theophil Theophil DAHLHEIMER, DAHLHEIMER, Richard Richard Norbert Norbert DANIEL, DANIEL, Lloyd Lloyd Naxton Naxton DANIK, DANIK, Andrew Andrew Joseph Joseph DARCH, DARCH, Phillip Phillip Zane Zane DAUGHERTY, DAUGHERTY, Paul Paul Eugene Eugene DAVIS, DAVIS, John John Quitman Quitman DAVIS, DAVIS, Milton Milton Henry Henry DAVIS, DAVIS, Murle Murle Melvin Melvin DAVIS, DAVIS, Myrle Myrle Clarence Clarence DAVIS, DAVIS, Thomas Thomas Ray Ray DAVIS, DAVIS, Virgil Virgil Denton Denton DAVIS, DAVIS, Walter Walter Mindred Mindred DAWSON, DAWSON, James James Berkley Berkley DAY, DAY, William William John John DEDE ARMOUN, ARMOUN, Donald Donald Edwin Edwin DEDE CASTRO, CASTRO, Vicente Vicente DEAN, DEAN, Lyle Lyle Bernard Bernard DELONG, DELONG, Frederick Frederick Eugene Eugene DERITIS, DERITIS, Russell Russell Edwin Edwin DEWITT, DEWITT, John John James James DIAL, DIAL, John John Buchanan Buchanan DICK, DICK, Ralph Ralph R.R. DINE, DINE, John John George George DINEEN, DINEEN, Robert Robert Joseph Joseph DOBEY, DOBEY, Milton Milton Paul Paul Jr.Jr. DOHERTY, DOHERTY, George George Walter Walter DOHERTY, DOHERTY, John John Albert Albert DONOHUE, DONOHUE, Ned Ned Burton Burton DORITY, DORITY, John John Monroe Monroe DOUGHERTY, DOUGHERTY, Ralph Ralph McMc Clearn Clearn DOYLE, DOYLE, Wand Wand B.B. DREESBACH, DREESBACH, Herbert Herbert Allen Allen DRIVER, DRIVER, BillBill Lester Lester DUCREST, DUCREST, Louis Louis Felix Felix DUKE, DUKE, Robert Robert Edward Edward DULLUM, DULLUM, Jerald Jerald Fraser Fraser DUNAWAY, DUNAWAY, Kenneth Kenneth Leroy Leroy DUNHAM, DUNHAM, Elmer Elmer Marvin Marvin DUNNAM, DUNNAM, Robert Robert Wesley Wesley DUPREE, DUPREE, Arthur Arthur Joseph Joseph DURHAM, DURHAM, William William Teasdale Teasdale DURIO, DURIO, Russell Russell DUVEENE, DUVEENE, John John

FRANK, FRANK, Leroy Leroy George George FREDERICK, FREDERICK, Charles Charles Donald Donald FREE, FREE, Thomas Thomas Augusta Augusta EATON, EATON, Emory Emory Lowell Lowell FREE, FREE, William William Thomas Thomas EBEL, EBEL, Walter Walter Charles Charles FRENCH, FRENCH, John John Edmund Edmund EBERHART, EBERHART, Vincent Vincent Henry Henry FRIZZELL, FRIZZELL, Robert Robert Niven Niven ECHOLS, ECHOLS, Charles Charles Louis Louis Jr.Jr. ECHTERNKAMP, ECHTERNKAMP, Henry Henry Clarence Clarence FULTON, FULTON, Robert Robert Wilson Wilson EDMUNDS, EDMUNDS, Bruce Bruce Roosevelt Roosevelt FUNK, FUNK, Frank Frank Francis Francis EERNISSE, EERNISSE, William William Frederick Frederick FUNK, FUNK, Lawrence Lawrence Henry Henry EGNEW, EGNEW, Robert Robert Ross Ross EHLERT, EHLERT, Casper Casper GAGER, GAGER, Roy Roy Arthur Arthur EHRMANTRAUT, EHRMANTRAUT, Frank Frank Jr.Jr. GARGARO, GARGARO, Ernest Ernest Russell Russell GARLINGTON, GARLINGTON, Raymond Raymond Wesley Wesley ELLIS, ELLIS, Francis Francis Arnold Arnold Jr.Jr. GARRETT, GARRETT, Orville Orville Wilmer Wilmer ELLIS, ELLIS, Richard Richard Everrett Everrett GARTIN, GARTIN, Gerald Gerald Ernest Ernest ELLIS, ELLIS, Wilbur Wilbur Danner Danner GAUDETTE, GAUDETTE, William William Frank Frank ELWELL, ELWELL, Royal Royal GAULTNEY, GAULTNEY, Ralph Ralph Martin Martin EMBREY, EMBREY, BillBill Eugene Eugene GAZECKI, GAZECKI, Philip Philip Robert Robert EMERY, EMERY, Jack Jack Marvin Marvin GEBHARDT, GEBHARDT, Kenneth Kenneth Edward Edward EMERY, EMERY, John John Marvin Marvin GEER, GEER, Kenneth Kenneth Floyd Floyd EMERY, EMERY, Wesley Wesley Vernon Vernon GEISE, GEISE, Marvin Marvin Frederick Frederick ENGER, ENGER, Stanley Stanley Gordon Gordon GEMIENHARDT, GEMIENHARDT, Samuel Samuel Henry Henry Jr.Jr. ERICKSON, ERICKSON, Robert Robert GHOLSTON, GHOLSTON, Roscoe Roscoe ERSKINE, ERSKINE, Robert Robert Charles Charles GIBSON, GIBSON, Billy Billy Edwin Edwin ERWIN, ERWIN, Stanley Stanley Joe Joe GIESEN, GIESEN, Karl Karl Anthony Anthony ERWIN, ERWIN, Walton Walton Aluard Aluard GILL, GILL, Richard Richard Eugene Eugene ESTEP, ESTEP, Carl Carl James James GIOVENAZZO, GIOVENAZZO, Michael Michael James James ESTES, ESTES, Carl Carl Edwen Edwen GIVENS, GIVENS, Harold Harold Reuben Reuben ESTES, ESTES, Forrest Forrest Jesse Jesse GOBBIN, GOBBIN, Angelo Angelo ETCHASON, ETCHASON, Leslie Leslie Edgar Edgar GOFF, GOFF, Wiley Wiley Coy Coy EULBERG, EULBERG, Richard Richard Henry Henry GOMEZ, GOMEZ, Edward Edward Jr.Jr. EVANS, EVANS, David David Delton Delton GOOD, GOOD, Leland Leland EVANS, EVANS, Evan Evan Frederick Frederick GOODWIN, GOODWIN, William William Arthur Arthur EVANS, EVANS, Mickey Mickey Edward Edward GORDON, GORDON, Peter Peter Charles Charles Jr.Jr. EVANS, EVANS, Paul Paul Anthony Anthony GOSSELIN, GOSSELIN, Edward Edward Webb Webb EVANS, EVANS, William William Orville Orville GOSSELIN, GOSSELIN, Joseph Joseph Adjutor Adjutor EWELL, EWELL, Alfred Alfred Adam Adam GOULD, GOULD, Harry Harry Lee Lee EYED, EYED, George George GOVE, GOVE, Rupert Rupert Clair Clair GRANGER, GRANGER, Raymond Raymond Edward Edward FALLIS, FALLIS, Alvin Alvin E. E. GRANT, GRANT, Lawrence Lawrence Everett Everett FANSLER, FANSLER, Edgar Edgar Arthur Arthur GRAY, GRAY, Albert Albert James James FARMER, FARMER, John John Wilson Wilson FEGURGUR, FEGURGUR, Nicolas Nicolas San San Nicolas Nicolas GRAY, GRAY, Lawrence Lawrence Moore Moore FESS, FESS, John John Junior Junior GRAY, GRAY, William William James James Jr.Jr. FIELDS, FIELDS, Bernard Bernard GREEN, GREEN, Glen Glen Hubert Hubert FIELDS, FIELDS, Reliford Reliford GREENFIELD, GREENFIELD, Carroll Carroll Gale Gale FIFE, FIFE, Ralph Ralph Elmer Elmer GRIFFIN, GRIFFIN, Lawrence Lawrence J. J. FILKINS, FILKINS, George George Arthur Arthur GRIFFIN, GRIFFIN, Reese Reese Olin Olin FINCHER, FINCHER, Allen Allen Brady Brady GRIFFITHS, GRIFFITHS, Robert Robert Alfred Alfred FINCHER, FINCHER, Dexter Dexter Wilson Wilson GRISSINGER, GRISSINGER, Robert Robert Beryle Beryle FINLEY, FINLEY, Woodrow Woodrow Wilson Wilson GROSNICKLE, GROSNICKLE, Warren Warren Wilbert Wilbert FIRTH, FIRTH, Henry Henry Amis Amis GROSS, GROSS, Milton Milton Henry Henry GRUNDSTROM, GRUNDSTROM, Richard Richard Gunner Gunner FIRZGERALD, FIRZGERALD, Kent Kent Blake Blake GURLEY, GURLEY, Jesse Jesse Herbert Herbert FISCHER, FISCHER, Leslie Leslie Henry Henry FISHER, FISHER, Delbert Delbert Ray Ray HAAS, HAAS, Curtis Curtis Junior Junior (Curt) (Curt) FISHER, FISHER, James James Anderson Anderson HADEN, HADEN, Samuel Samuel William William FISHER, FISHER, Robert Robert Ray Ray HAFFNER, HAFFNER, Floyd Floyd Bates Bates FISK, FISK, Charles Charles Porter Porter IIIIII HAINES, HAINES, Robert Robert Wesley Wesley FITCH, FITCH, Simon Simon HALL, John John Rudolph Rudolph FITZSIMMONS, FITZSIMMONS, Eugene Eugene James James HALL, HALLORAN, HALLORAN, William William Ignatius Ignatius FLANNERY, FLANNERY, James James Lowell Lowell HAMEL, HAMEL, Don Don Edgar Edgar FLEETWOOD, FLEETWOOD, Donald Donald Eugene Eugene HAMILTON, HAMILTON, Clarence Clarence James James FLOEGE, FLOEGE, Frank Frank Norman Norman HAMILTON, HAMILTON, Edwin Edwin Carrell Carrell FLORY, FLORY, Max Max Edward Edward FONES, FONES, George George Everett Everett HAMILTON, HAMILTON, William William Holman Holman FORD, FORD, Jack Jack C.C. HAMMERUD, HAMMERUD, George George Winston Winston FORD, FORD, William William Walker Walker HAMPTON, HAMPTON, J DJ D FOREMAN, FOREMAN, Elmer Elmer Lee Lee HAMPTON, HAMPTON, Ted Ted WW Jr.Jr. FORTENBERRY, FORTENBERRY, Alvie Alvie Charles Charles HAMPTON, HAMPTON, Walter Walter Lewis Lewis FOWLER, FOWLER, George George Parten Parten HANNA, HANNA, David David Darling Darling FOX, FOX, Daniel Daniel Russell Russell HANSEN, HANSEN, Carlyle Carlyle B.B. DVORAK, DVORAK, Alvin Alvin Albert Albert


44 / PEARL HARBOR 40 / PEARL HARBOR

HANSEN, Harvey Ralph HANZEL, Edward Joseph HARDIN, Charles Eugene HARGRAVES, Kenneth William HARMON, William D. HARRINGTON, Keith Homer HARRIS, George Ellsworth HARRIS, Hiram Dennis HARRIS, James William HARRIS, Noble Burnice HARRIS, Peter John HARTLEY, Alvin HARTSOE, Max June HARTSON, Lonnie Moss HASL, James Thomas HAVERFIELD, James Wallace HAVINS, Harvey Linfille HAWKINS, Russell Dean HAYES, John Doran HAYES, Kenneth Merle HAYNES, Curtis James HAYS, William Henry HAZDOVAC, Jack Claudius HEAD, Frank Bernard HEATER, Verrell Roy HEATH, Alfred Grant HEBEL, Robert Lee HECKENDORN, Warren Guy HEDGER, Jess Laxton HEDRICK, Paul Henry HEELY, Leo Shinn HEIDT, Edward Joseph HEIDT, Wesley John HELM, Merritt Cameron HENDERSON, William Walter HENDRICKSEN, Frank HERRICK, Paul Edward HERRING, James Jumior HERRIOTT, Robert Asher Jr. HESS, Darrel Miller HESSDORFER, Anthony Joseph HIBBARD, Robert Arnold HICKMAN, Arthur Lee HICKS, Elmer Orville HICKS, Ralph Dueard HILL, Bartley Talor HILTON, Wilson Woodrow HINDMAN, Frank Weaver HODGES, Garris Vada HOELSCHER, Lester John HOLLAND, Claude Herbert Jr. HOLLENBACH, Paul Zepp HOLLIS, Ralph HOLLOWELL, George Sanford HOLMES, Lowell D. HOLZWORTH, Walter HOMER, Henry Vernon HOPE, Harold W. HOPKINS, Homer David HORN, Melvin Freeland HORRELL, Harvey Howard HORROCKS, James William HOSLER, John Emmet HOUSE, Clem Raymond HOUSEL, John James HOWARD, Elmo HOWARD, Rolan George HOWE, Darrell Robert HOWELL, Leroy HUBBARD, Haywood Jr. HUDNALL, Robert Chilton HUFF, Robert Glenn HUFFMAN, Clyde Franklin HUGHES, Bernard Thomas (Bee) HUGHES, Lewis Burton Jr. HUGHES, Marvin Austin

HUGHEY, James Clynton HUIE, Doyne Conley HULTMAN, Donald Standly HUNTER, Robert Fredrick HUNTINGTON, Henry Louis HURD, Willard Hardy HURLEY, Wendell Ray HUVAL, Ivan Joseph HUX, Leslie Creade HUYS, Arthur Albert HYDE, William Hughes IAK, Joseph Claude IBBTSON, Howard Burt INGALLS, Richard Fitch INGALLS, Theodore A INGRAHAM, David Archie ISHAM, Orville Adalbert ISOM, Luther James IVERSEN, Earl Henry IVERSEN, Norman Kenneth IVEY, Charles Andrew Jr. JACKSON, David Paul Jr. JACKSON, Robert Woods JAMES, John Burditt JANTE, Edwin Earl JANZ, Clifford Thurston JASTRZEMSKI, Edwin Charles JEANS, Victor Lawrence JEFFRIES, Keith JENKINS, Robert Henry Dawson JENSEN, Keith Marlow JERRISON, Donald D. JOHANN, Paul Frederick JOHNSON, David Andrew Jr. JOHNSON, Edmund Russell JOHNSON, John Russell JOHNSON, Samuel Earle JOHNSON, Sterling Conrad JOLLEY, Berry Stanley JONES, Daniel Pugh JONES, Edmon Ethmer JONES, Floyd Baxter JONES, Harry Cecil JONES, Henry Jr. JONES, Homer Lloyd JONES, Hugh Junior JONES, Leland JONES, Quincy Eugene JONES, Thomas Raymond JONES, Warren Allen JONES, Willard Worth JONES, Woodrow Wilson JOYCE, Calvin Wilbur JUDD, Albert John KAGARICE, Harold Lee KAISER, Robert Oscar KALINOWSKI, Henry KATT, Eugene Louis KEEN, Billy Mack KELLER, Paul Daniel KELLEY, James Dennis KELLOGG, Wilbur Leroy KELLY, Robert Lee KENISTON, Donald Lee KENISTON, Kenneth Howard KENNARD, Kenneth Frank KENNINGTON, Charles Cecil KENNINGTON, Milton Homer KENT, Texas Thomas Jr. KIDD, Isaac Campbell KIEHN, Ronald William KIESELBACH, Charles Ermin KING, Gordon Blane

KING, Leander Cleaveland KING, Lewis Meyer KING, Robert Nicholas Jr. KINNEY, Frederick William KINNEY, Gilbert Livingston KIRCHHOFF, Wilbur Albert KIRKPATRICK, Thomas Larcy KLANN, Edward KLINE, Robert Edwin KLOPP, Francis Lawrence KNIGHT, Robert Wagner KNUBEL, William Jr. KOCH, Walter Ernest KOENEKAMP, Clarence D. KOEPPE, Herman Oliver KOLAJAJCK, Brosig KONNICK, Albert Joseph KOSEC, John Anthony KOVAR, Robert KRAHN, James Albert KRAMB, James Henry KRAMB, John David KRAMER, Robert Rudolph KRAUSE, Fred Joseph KRISSMAN, Max Sam KRUGER, Richard Warren KRUPPA, Adolph Louis KUKUK, Howard Helgi KULA, Stanley KUSIE, Donald Joseph LA FRANCEA, William Richard LA MAR, Ralph B LA SALLE, Willard Dale LADERACH, Robert Paul LAKE, John Ervin Jr. LAKIN, Donald Lapier LAKIN, Joseph Jordan LAMB, George Samuel LANDMAN, Henry LANDRY, James Joseph Jr. LANE, Edward Wallace LANE, Mancel Curtis LANGE, Richard Charles LANGENWALTER, Orville J. LANOUETTE, Henry John LARSON, Leonard Carl LATTIN, Bleecker LEE, Carroll Volney Jr. LEE, Henry Lloyd LEEDY, David Alonzo LEGGETT, John Goldie LEGROS, Joseph McNeil LEIGH, Malcolm Hedrick LEIGHT, James Webster LEOPOLD, Robert Lawrence LESMEISTER, Steve Louie LEVAR, Frank LEWIS, Wayne Alman LEWISON, Neil Stanley LIGHTFOOT, Worth Ross LINBO, Gordon Ellsworth LINCOLN, John William LINDSAY, James E. LINDSAY, James Mitchell LINTON, George Edward LIPKE, Clarence William LIPPLE, John Anthony LISENBY, Daniel Edward LIVERS, Raymond Edward LIVERS, Wayne Nicholas LOCK, Douglas A. LOHMAN, Earl Wynne LOMAX, Frank Stuart LOMIBAO, Marciano LONG, Benjamin Franklin

LOUNSBURY, Thomas William LOUSTANAU, Charles Bernard LOVELAND, Frank Crook LOVSHIN, William Joseph LUCEY, Neil Jermiah LUNA, James Edward LUZIER, Ernest Burton LYNCH, Emmett Isaac (Rusty) LYNCH, James Robert Jr. LYNCH, William Joseph Jr. MADDOX, Raymond Dudley MADRID, Arthur John MAFNAS, Francisco Reyes MAGEE, Gerald James MALECKI, Frank Edward MALINOWSKI, John Stanley MALSON, Harry Lynn MANION, Edward Paul MANLOVE, Arthur Cleon MANN, William Edward MANNING, Leroy MANSKE, Robert Francis MARINICH, Steve Matt MARIS, Elwood Henry MARLING, Joseph Henry MARLOW, Urban Herschel MARSH, Benjamin Raymond Jr. MARSH, William Arthur MARSHALL, Thomas Donald MARTIN, Hugh Lee MARTIN, James Albert MARTIN, James Orrwell MARTIN, Luster Lee MASON, Byron Dalley MASTEL, Clyde Harold MASTERS, Dayton Monroe MASTERSON, Cleburne E. Carl MATHEIN, Harold Richard MATHISON, Charles Harris MATNEY, Vernon Merferd MATTOX, James Durant MAY, Louis Eugene MAYBEE, George Frederick MAYFIELD, Lester Ellsworth MAYO, Rex Haywood McCARRENS, James Francis McCARY, William Moore (Swede) McCLAFFERTY, John Charles McCLUNG, Harvey Manford McFADDIN, Lawrence James McGLASSON, Joe Otis McGRADY, Samme Willie Genes McGUIRE, Francis Raymond McHUGHES, John Breckenridge McINTOSH, Harry George McKINNIE, Russell McKOSKY, Michael Martin McPHERSON, John Blair MEANS, Louis MEARES, John Morgan MELSEN, George MENEFEE, James Austin MENO, Vicente Gogue MENZENSKI, Stanley Paul MERRILL, Howard Deal MILES, Oscar Wright MILLER, Chester John MILLER, Doyle Allen MILLER, Forrest Newton MILLER, George Stanley MILLER, Jessie Zimmer MILLER, John David MILLER, William Oscar MILLIGAN, Weldon Hawvey

MIMS, Robert Lang MINEAR, Richard J. Jr. MLINAR, Joseph MOLPUS, Richard Preston MONROE, Donald MONTGOMERY, Robert E. MOODY, Robert Edward MOORE, Douglas Carlton MOORE, Fred Kenneth MOORE, James Carlton MOORHOUSE, William Starks (Killer) MOORMAN, Russell Lee MORGAN, Wayne MORGAREIDGE, James Orries MORLEY, Eugene Elvis MORRIS, Owen Newton MORRISON, Earl Leroy MORSE, Edward Charles MORSE, Francis Jerome MORSE, George Robert MORSE, Norman Roi MOSS, Tommy Lee MOSTEK, Francis Clayton MOULTON, Gordon Eddy MUNCY, Claude MURDOCK, Charles Luther MURDOCK, Melvin Elijah MURPHY, James Joseph MURPHY, James Palmer MURPHY, Jessie Huell MURPHY, Thomas J. Jr. MYERS, James Gernie NAASZ, Erwin H. NADEL, Alexander Joseph NATIONS, James Garland NAYLOR, J D NEAL, Tom Dick NECESSARY, Charles Raymond NEIPP, Paul NELSON, Harl Coplin NELSON, Henry Clarence NELSON, Lawrence Adolphus NELSON, Richard Eugene NICHOLS, Alfred Rose NICHOLS, Bethel Allan NICHOLS, Clifford Leroy NICHOLS, Louis Duffie NICHOLSON, Glen Eldon NICHOLSON, hancel Grant NIDES, Thomas James NIELSEN, Floyd Theadore NOLATUBBY, Henry Ellis NOONAN, Robert Harold NOWOSACKI, Theodore Lucian NUSSER, Raymond Alfred NYE, Frank Erskine O’BRIEN, Joseph Bernard O’BRYAN, George David O’BRYAN, Joseph Benjamin OCHOSKI, Henry Francis OFF, Virgil Simon OGLE, Victor Willard OGLESBY, Lonnie Harris OLIVER, Raymond Brown OLSEN, Edward Kern OLSON, Glen Martin O’NEALL, Rex Eugene O’NEILL, William Thomas Jr. ORR, Dwight Jerome ORZECH, Stanislaus Joseph OSBORNE, Mervin Eugene OSTRANDER, Leland Grimstead OTT, Peter Dean

OWEN, Fredrick Halden OWENS, Richard Allen OWSLEY, Thomas Lea PACE, Amos Paul PARKES, Harry Edward PAROLI, Peter John PATTERSON, Clarence Rankin PATTERSON, Harold Lemuel PATTERSON, Richard Jr. PAULMAND, Hilery PAVINI, Bruno PAWLOWSKI, Raymond Paul PEARCE, Alonzo Jr. PEARSON, Norman Cecil PEARSON, Robert Stanley PEAVEY, William Howard PECKHAM, Howard William PEDROTTI, Francis James PEERY, Max Valdyne PELESCHAK, Michael PELTIER, John Arthur PENTON, Howard Lee PERKINS, George Ernest PETERSON, Albert H. Jr. PETERSON, Elroy Vernon PETERSON, Hardy Wilbur PETERSON, Roscoe Earl PETTIT, Charles Ross PETYAK, John Joseph PHELPS, George Edward PHILBIN, James Richard PIASECKI, Alexander Louis PIKE, Harvey Lee PIKE, Lewis Jackson PINKHAM, Albert Wesley PITCHER, Walter Giles POOL, Elmer Leo POOLE, Ralph Ernest POST, Darrell Albert POVESKO, George POWELL, Jack Speed POWELL, Thomas George POWER, Abner Franklin PRESSON, Wayne Harold PRICE, Arland Earl PRITCHETT, Robert Leo Jr. PUCKETT, Edwin Lester PUGH, John Jr. PUTNAM, Avis Boyd PUZIO, Edward QUARTO, Mike Joseph QUINATA, Jose Sanchez RADFORD, Neal Jason (Brick) RASMUSSEN, Arthur Severin RASMUSSON, George Vernon RATKOVICH, William RAWHOUSER, Glen Donald RAWSON, Clyde Jackson RAY, Harry Joseph REAVES, Casbie RECTOR, Clay Cooper REECE, John Jeffris REED, James Buchanan Jr. REED, Ray Ellison REGISTER, Paul James REINHOLD, Rudolph Herbert RESTIVO, Jack Martin REYNOLDS, Earl Arthur REYNOLDS, Jack Franklyn RHODES, Birb Richard RHODES, Mark Alexander RICE, William Albert RICH, Claude Edward

RICHAR, Raymond Lyle RICHARDSON, Warren John RICHISON, Fred Louis RICHTER, Albert Wallace RICO, Guadalupe Augustine RIDDEL, Eugene Edward RIGANTI, Fred RIGGINS, Gerald Herald RIVERA, Francisco Unpingoo ROBERTS, Dwight Fisk ROBERTS, Kenneth Franklin ROBERTS, McClellan Taylor ROBERTS, Walter Scott Jr. ROBERTS, Wilburn Carle ROBERTS, William Francis ROBERTSON, Edgar Jr. ROBERTSON, James Milton ROBINSON, Harold Thomas ROBINSON, James William ROBINSON, John James ROBINSON, Robert Warren ROBY, Raymond Arthur RODGERS, John Dayton ROEHM, Harry Turner ROGERS, Thomas Sprugeon ROMANO, Simon ROMBALSKI, Donald Roger ROMERO, Vladimir M. ROOT, Melvin Lenord ROSE, Chester Clay ROSENBERY, Orval Robert ROSS, Deane Lundy ROSS, William Fraser ROWE, Eugene Joseph ROWELL, Frank Malcom ROYALS, William Nicholas ROYER, Howard Dale ROZAR, John Frank ROZMUS, Joseph Stanley RUDDOCK, Cecil Roy RUGGERIO, William RUNCKEL, Robert Gleason RUNIAK, Nicholas RUSH, Richard Perry RUSHER, Orville Lester RUSKEY, Joseph John RUTKOWSKI, John Peter RUTTAN, Dale Andrew SAMPSON, Sherley Rolland SANDALL, Merrill Deith SANDERS, Eugene Thomas SANDERSON, James Harvey (Sandy) SANFORD, Thomas Steger SANTOS, Filomeno SATHER, William Ford SAVAGE, Walter Samuel Jr. SAVIN, Tom SAVINSKI, Michael SCHDOWSKI, Joseph SCHEUERLEIN, George Albert SCHILLER, Ernest SCHLUND, Elmer Pershing SCHMIDT Vernon Joseph SCHNEIDER, William Jacob SCHRANK, Harold Arthur SCHROEDER, Henry SCHUMAN, Herman Lincoln SCHURR, John SCILLEY, Harold Hugh SCOTT, A. J. SCOTT, Crawford Edward SCOTT, George Harrison SCRUGGS, Jack Leo (Scrooge) SEAMAN, Russell Otto


PEARL HARBOR / 41 / 45 PEARL HARBOR

SEELEY, William Eugene SEVIER, Charles Clifton SHANNON, William Alfred SHARBAUGH, Harry Robert SHARON, Lewis Purdie SHAW, Clyde Donald SHAW, Robert K. SHEFFER, George Robert SHERRILL, Warren Joseph SHERVEN, Richard Stanton SHIFFMAN, Harold Ely SHILEY, Paul Eugene SHIMER, Melvin Irvin SHIVE, Gordon Eshom SHIVE, Malcolm Holman SHIVELY, Benjamin Franklin SHORES, Irland Jr. SHUGART, Marvin John SIBLEY, Delmar Dale SIDDERS, Russell Lewis SIDELL, John Henry SILVEY, Jesse SIMENSEN, Carleton Elliott SIMON, Walter Hamilton SIMPSON, Albert Eugene SKEEN, Harvey Leroy SKILES, Charley Jackson Jr. SKILES, Eugene SLETTO, Earl Clifton SMALLEY, Jack G. SMART, George David SMESTAD, Halge Hojem SMITH, Albert Joseph SMITH, Earl Jr. SMITH, Earl Walter SMITH, Edward SMITH, Harry SMITH, John A. SMITH, John Edward SMITH, Luther Kent SMITH, Mack Lawrence SMITH, Marvin Ray SMITH, Orville Stanley SMITH, Walter Tharnel SNIFF, Jack Bertrand SOENS, Harold Mathias SOOTER, James Fredrick SORENSEN, Holger Earl SOUTH, Charles Braxton SPENCE, Merle Joe SPOTZ, Maurice Edwin SPREEMAN, Robert Lawrence SPRINGER, Charles Harold STALLINGS, Kermit Braxton STARKOVICH, Charles STARKOVICH, Joseph Jr. STAUDT, Alfred Parker STEFFAN, Joseph Philip STEIGLEDER, Lester Leroy STEINHOFF, Lloyd Delroy STEPHENS, Woodrow Wilson STEPHENSON, Hugh Donald STEVENS, Jack Hazelip STEVENS, Theodore R. STEVENSON, Frank Jake STEWART, Thomas Lester STILLINGS, Gerald Fay STOCKMAN, Harold William STOCKTON, Louis Alton STODDARD, William Edison STOPYRA, Julian John STORM, Laun Lee STOVALL, Richard Patt STRANGE, Charles Orval STRATTON, John Raymond SUGGS, William Alfred

SULSER, Frederick Franklin SUMMERS, Glen Allen SUMMERS, Harold Edgar SUMNER, Oren SUTTON, Clyde Westly SUTTON, George Woodrow SWIONTEK, Stanley Stephen SWISHER, Charles Elijah SYMONETTE, Henry SZABO, Theodore Stephen TAMBOLLEO, Victor Charles TANNER, Russell Allen TAPIE, EDward Casamiro TAPP, Lambert Ray TARG, John TAYLOR, Aaron Gust TAYLOR, Charles Benton TAYLOR, Harry Theodore TAYLOR, Robert Denzil TEELING, Charles Madison TEER, Allen Ray TENNELL, Raymond Clifford TERRELL, John Raymond THEILLER, Rudolph THOMAS, Houston O’Neal THOMAS, Randall James THOMAS, Stanley Horace THOMAS, Vincent Duron THOMPSON, Charles Leroy THOMPSON, Irven Edgar THOMPSON, Robert Gary THORMAN, John Christopher THORNTON, George Hayward TINER, Robert Reaves TISDALE, William Esley TRIPLETT, Thomas Edgar TROVATO, Tom TUCKER, Raymond Edward TUNTLAND, Earl Eugene TURNIPSEED, John Morgan TUSSEY, Lloyd Harold TYSON, Robert UHRENHOLDT, Andrew Curtis VALENTE, Richard Dominic VAN ATTA, Garland Wade VAN HORN, James Randolf VAN VALKENBURGH, Franklin VARCHOL, Brinley VAUGHAN, William Frank VEEDER, Gordon Elliott VELIA, Galen Steve VIEIRA, Alvaro Everett VOJTA, Walter Arnold VOSTI, Anthony August WAGNER, Mearl James WAINWRIGHT, Silas Alonzo WAIT, Wayland Lemoyne WALKER, Bill WALLACE, Houston Oliver WALLACE, James Frank WALLACE, Ralph Leroy WALLENSTIEN, Richard Henry WALTERS, Clarence Arthur WALTERS, William Spurgeon Jr. WALTHER, Edward Alfred WALTON, Alva Dowding WARD, Albert Lewis WARD, William E. WATKINS, Lenvil Leo WATSON, William Lafayette WATTS, Sherman Maurice WATTS, Victor Ed

WEAVER, Richard Walter WEBB, Carl Edward WEBSTER, Harold Dwayne WEEDEN, Carl Alfred WEIDELL, William Peter WEIER, Bernard Arthur WELLER, Ludwig Fredrick WELLS, Floyd Arthur WELLS, Harvey Anthony WELLS, Raymond Virgil Jr. WELLS, William Bennett WEST, Broadus Franklin WEST, Webster Paul WESTCOTT, William Percy Jr. WESTERFIELD, Ivan Ayers WESTIN, Donald Vern WESTLUND, Fred Edwin WHISLER, Gilbert Henry WHITAKER, John William Jr. WHITCOMB, Cecil Eugene WHITE, Charles William (Whitey) WHITE, James Clifton WHITE, Vernon Russell WHITE, Volmer Dowin WHITEHEAD, Ulmont Irving Jr. WHITLOCK, Paul Morgan WHITSON, Ernest Hubert Jr. (Ernie) WHITT, William Byron WHITTEMORE, Andrew Tiny WICK, Everett Morris WICKLUND, John Joseph WILCOX, Arnold Alfred WILL, Joseph William WILLETTE, Laddie James WILLIAMS, Adrian Delton WILLIAMS, Clyde Richard WILLIAMS, George Washington WILLIAMS, Jack Herman WILLIAMS, Laurence A WILLIAMSON, Randolph Jr. WILLIAMSON, William Dean WILLIS, Robert Kenneth Jr. WILSON, Bernard Martin WILSON, Comer A. WILSON, Hurschel Woodrow WILSON, John James WILSON, Neil Mataweny WILSON, Ray Milo WIMBERLY, Paul Edwin WINDISH, Robert James WINDLE, Robert England WINTER, Edward WITTENBERG, Russell Duane WOJTKIEWICZ, Frank Peter WOLF, George Alexanderson Jr. WOOD, Harold Baker WOOD, Horace Van WOOD, Roy Eugene WOODS, Vernon Wesley WOODS, William Anthony WOODWARD, Ardenne Allen WOODY, Harlan Fred WOOLF, Norman Bragg WRIGHT, Edward Henry WYCKOFF, Robert Leroy YATES, Elmer Elias YEATS, Charles Jr. YOMINE, Frank Peter YOUNG, Eric Reed YOUNG, Glendale Rex YOUNG, Jay Wesley YOUNG, Vivan Louis

ZEILER, John Virgel ZIEMBRICKE, Steve A. ZIMMERMAN, Fred ZIMMERMAN,Lloyd McDonald ZWARUN, Jr. Michael • USS California ADKINS, Howard Lucas ALLEN, Moses Anderson ALLEN, Thomas Benton BAILEY, Wilbur Houston BAKER, Glen BALL, James William BANDEMER, Harold William BAZETTI, Michael Louis BEAL, Albert Quentin BECKWITH, Thomas Stewart BLANKENSHIP, Henry Wilbur BLOUNT, John Andrew Jr. BOWDEN, Edward Daniel BOWERS, Robert K. BREWER, Robert Leroy BUSH, Samuel Jackson BUTLER, James Warren CARPENTER, Elmer Lemuel CARTER, Lloyd George CLARK, Cullen Benjamin COLE, Francis Eugene COOPER, Kenneth James CURTIS, Herbert S. Jr. CUTRER, Lloyd Henry DAVIS, Edward Hope DEETZ, John Wesley DOMPIER, Marshall Leonard DOUGLAS, Norman W. DUGGER, Guy DUKES, Billie Joe DURNING, Thomas Roy Jr. ERNEST, Robert William FARLEY, Alfred Jack FERGUSON, Marvin Lee Jr. GALASZEWSKI, Stanley C. GARCIA, Robert Stillman GARY, Thomas Jones GILBERT, George H. GILBERT, Tom HANSON, Helmer Ansel HENDERSON, Gilbert Allen HILDEBRAND, John A. Jr. HILLMAN, Merle Chester J. HOLLEY, Paul Elston JACOBS, Richard Fredrick JEFFREY, Ira W. JOHNSON, Melvin Grant JONES, Edward Watkin JONES, Ernest JONES, Herbert C. KAUFMAN, Harry KEENER, Arlie Glen KRAMER, Harry Wellington LANCASTER, John Thomas LARSEN, Donald C. V. LEE, Roy Elmer Jr. LEWIS, John Earl LONDON, James Edward

MANGES, Howard Ellis MARTIN, John Winter McGRAW, George V. McMEANS, Clyde Clifton McMURTREY, Aaron L. MILNER, James William MINTER, James Dewey MIRELLO, Bernard Joseph MONTGOMERY, William A. NELSON, Marlyn Wayne NEWTON, Wayne Edward PARKER, June Winton PAYNE, Kenneth Morris PENDARVIS, George E. PITTS, Lewis William Jr. PRZYBYSZ, Alexsander J. PULLEN, Roy Alfred RACISZ, Edward Stanley REEVES, Thomas J. RICHEY, Joseph L. RIPLEY, Edwin Herbert ROBERTS, Earl Reed ROSENTHAL, Alfred Aaron ROSS, Joe Boyce ROYSE, Frank Willard SAFFELL, Morris Franklin SCOTT, Robert Raymond SEARLE, Erwin Leroy SHELLY, Russell K. Jr. SHOOK, Shelby Charles SIMMONS, Frank Leroy SIMMONS, Tceollyar SMITH, Lloyd George STAFFORD, Gordon William STAPLER, Leo SWEANY, Charles E. SZURGOT, Edward Frank

MASTROTOTARO, Maurice MILBOURNE, Jesse Keith ORWICK, Dean Baker POWELL, William J. RICE, Wilson Albert ROSENAU, Howard Arthur SCHLECT, Benjamin SPERLING, Joseph • USS Dobbin BAKER, J. W. CARTER, Howard Frederick GROSS, Roy Arthur MARZE, Andrew Michael • USS Downes BAILEY, James Edward BROWN, Benjamin Lee CLAPP, Marvin John COLLINS, Thomas W. DALY, Edward Carlyle HITRIK, Albert Joseph JONES, George Edwin MARSHALL, John Andrew PUMMILL, Nolan Eugene SILVA, William Howard STRICKLAND, Perry William VINSON, James • USS Enterprise

TREANOR, Frank P. TURK, Pete

ALLEN, Eric Jr. COHN, Mitchell DUCOLON, Fred John GONZALES, Manuel HEBEL, Francis F. KOZELEK, Leonard Joseph MENGES, Herbert Hugo MILLER, William Cicero PIERCE, Sidney VOGT, John H. L. Jr. WILLIS, Walter M.

ULRICH, George Vernon

• USS Helena

VINING, George Eugene

ALBANESE, Salvatore J. ALDRIDGE, Thomas Elwood ARNESEN, Robert Arne BEARDSLEY, Loren Leigh BODECKER, Regis James CARTER, William John CISCO, Luther Elvin DAVIS, Allen Arthur DICKENS, Ernest Boggio DOBBINS, Richard Henry EDLING, Robert Norris ERBES, Leland Earl FLANNERY, Robert Joseph FUZI, Eugene Dash GARDNER, Arthur Joseph GREENWALD, Robert Donald HINES, Arvel Clay JOHNSON, Donald Walter JOHNSON, George Edward KUZEE, Ernest George LOVE, Carl Robert MAYO, Marvin William MINIX, Orville Ray MORINCELLI, Edo NAFF, Hugh Kenneth PENSYL, John Campbell POWERS, Joe O`Neil THOMPSON, Ralph William UHLIG, Edward Bruno

WALKER, David WALLEN, Earl Delbert WIANT, Thomas Solomon WILSON, Milton Sloss WODARSKI, Steven Joseph WYDILA, John Charles • USS Chew AGOLA, Mathew Joe WISE, Clarence Alvin • USS Curtiss CARO, Joseph I. DUKE, Lee Herwin EDMONDS, Clifton Earle FRAZIER, John William GANAS, Nickolas Steve GUY, George Hormer HARTLEY, Kenneth Jay HAVEN, Edward Stanley Jr. HAWKINS, Anthony Jr. HEMBREE, Thomas KING, Andrew LOWE, Robert S. MASSEY, James Edward

URBAN, John Joseph VASSAR, Benjamin Frank VENABLE, Hoge Cralle Jr. WOHL, Oswald Carl YUGOVICH, Michael Charles • USS Maryland BRIER, Claire Raymond CROW, Howard Daniel GINN, James Blackburn McCUTCHEON, Warren Harrell • USS Nevada ANDERSON, Arnold Leo AQUINO, Zoilo BINGHAM, James Robert BLEDSOE, Herman BRIGGS, Lyle Lee BRITTON, Thomas Alonzo CHRISTOPHER, Harold Jensen COOK, Joseph William CORBIN, Leon John COTNER, Leo Paul DAVIS, Frederick Curtis DUKES, Lonnie William ECHOLS, Edward Wesley EDWARDS, Harry Lee FADDIS, George Leon FUGATE, Kay Ivan GANTNER, Samuel Merritt GILES, Thomas Robert GOETSCH, Herman August GULLACHSON, Arthur K. HALLMARK, Johnnie W. HARKER, Charles Ward HEATH, Francis Colston HEIM, Gerald Leroy HILL, Edwin Joseph HUBNER, Edgar E. IRISH, Robert Clement JOHNSON, Flavous B.M. KING, Orvell Vaniel Jr. LAMONS, Kenneth Taft LIPE, Wilbur Thomas LUNSFORD, Jack Leon LUNTTA, John Kallervo MAFNAS, Andres Franquez MARTIN, Dale Lewis MAYFIELD, Frazier McGHEE, Lester Fred McGUCKIN, Edward L. MORRISSEY, Edward Francis NEUENDORF, William F. Jr. NORVELLE, Alwyn Berry PATTERSON, Elmer Marvin PECK, Eugene Edward ROBISON, Mark Clifton RONNING, Emil Oliver RUSHFORD, Harvey George SCHWARTING, Herbert C. SHAUM, Donald Robert SMITH, Keith Vodden SOLAR, Adolfo SPEAR, Herman Alder SPENCER, Delbert James STEMBROSKY, George Joseph STRICKLAND, Charles E. THUNHORST, Lee Vernon TRUJILLO, Richard Ignacio WALTON, Ivan Irwin


46 / PEARL HARBOR 42 42 //PEARL PEARL HARBOR HARBOR

••USS USSOklahoma Oklahoma ADKINS, ADKINS,Marvin MarvinBirch Birch ALDRIDGE, ALDRIDGE,Willard WillardHenry Henry ALEXANDER, ALEXANDER,Hugh HughR. R. ALLEN, ALLEN,Stanley StanleyW. W. ALLISON, ALLISON,Hal HalJake Jake ARICKX, ARICKX,Leon Leon ARMSTRONG, ARMSTRONG,Kenneth KennethBerton Berton ARTHURHOLZ, ARTHURHOLZ,Marley MarleyRichard Richard ARTLEY, ARTLEY,Daryle DaryleEdward Edward AULD, AULD,John JohnCuthbert Cuthbert AUSTIN, AUSTIN,John JohnArnold Arnold BACKMAN, BACKMAN,Walter WalterHoward Howard BAILEY, BAILEY,Gerald GeraldJohn John BAILEY, BAILEY,Robert RobertEdward Edward BALLANCE, BALLANCE,Wilbur WilburFrank Frank BANKS, BANKS,Layton LaytonThomas Thomas BARBER, BARBER,Leroy LeroyKenneth Kenneth BARBER, BARBER,Malcolm MalcolmJohn John BARBER, BARBER,Randolph RandolphHarold Harold BARNCORD, BARNCORD,Cecil CecilEverett Everett BARRETT, BARRETT,Wilbur WilburClayton Clayton BATES, BATES,Harold HaroldEugene Eugene BATTLES, BATTLES,Ralph RalphCurtis Curtis BAUM, BAUM,Earl EarlPaul Paul BEAN, BEAN,Howard HowardWarren Warren BELT, BELT,Walter WalterSidney SidneyJr. Jr. BENNETT, BENNETT,Robert RobertJames James BLACK, BLACK,Waldean Waldean BLACKBURN, BLACKBURN,Harding HardingCoolidge Coolidge BLANCHARD, BLANCHARD,William WilliamEugene Eugene BLAYLOCK, BLAYLOCK,Clarence ClarenceArvis Arvis BLITZ, BLITZ,Leo Leo BLITZ, BLITZ,Rudolph Rudolph BOCK, BOCK,John JohnGeorge GeorgeJr. Jr. BOEMER, BOEMER,Paul PaulLouis Louis BOOE, BOOE,James JamesBrazier Brazier BORING, BORING,James JamesBryce Bryce BOUDREAUX, BOUDREAUX,Ralph RalphMcHenry McHenry BOXRUCKER, BOXRUCKER,Lawrence LawrenceAnton Anton BOYNTON, BOYNTON,Raymond RaymondDevere Devere BRADLEY, BRADLEY,Carl CarlMerrill Merrill BRANDT, BRANDT,Oris OrisVernelle Vernelle BREEDLOVE, BREEDLOVE,Jack JackAsbury Asbury BREWER, BREWER,Randall RandallWalter Walter BROOKS, BROOKS,William William BROWN, BROWN,Wesley WesleyJames James BRUESEWITZ, BRUESEWITZ,William WilliamG. G. BUCHANAN, BUCHANAN,James JamesRufus Rufus BURCH, BURCH,Earl EarlGeorge George BURGER, BURGER,Oliver OliverKenneth Kenneth BURK, BURK,Millard MillardJr. Jr. BUTTS, BUTTS,Rodger RodgerCornelius Cornelius CALLAHAN, CALLAHAN,Archie ArchieJr. Jr. CAMERY, CAMERY,Raymond RaymondRalph Ralph CAMPBELL, CAMPBELL,William WilliamVane Vane CARGILE, CARGILE,Murry MurryRandolph Randolph CARNEY, CARNEY,Harold HaroldFrancis Francis CARROLL, CARROLL,Joseph JosephWilliam William CASINGER, CASINGER,Edward EdwardEugene Eugene CASOLA, CASOLA,Biacio Biacio CASTO, CASTO,Charles CharlesRay Ray CASTO, CASTO,Richard RichardEugene Eugene CHESHIRE, CHESHIRE,James JamesThomas Thomas CHESS, CHESS,Patrick PatrickLloyd Lloyd CLARK, CLARK,David DavidJr. Jr. CLAYTON, CLAYTON,Gerald GeraldLee Lee CLEMENT, CLEMENT,Hubert HubertPaul Paul CLIFFORD, CLIFFORD,Floyd FloydFrancis Francis COKE, COKE,George GeorgeAnderson Anderson COLLIER, COLLIER,Walter WalterLeon Leon COLLINS, COLLINS,James JamesEarl Earl CONNOLLY, CONNOLLY,John JohnGaynor Gaynor CONNOLLY, CONNOLLY,Keefe KeefeRichard Richard

CONWAY, CONWAY,Edward EdwardLeroy Leroy COOK, COOK,Grant GrantClark ClarkJr. Jr. CORN, CORN,Robert RobertLivingston Livingston CORZATT, CORZATT,Beoin BeoinHume Hume CRAIG, CRAIG,John JohnWilliam William CREMEAN, CREMEAN,Alva AlvaJ.J. CRIM, CRIM,Warren WarrenHarding Harding CROWDER, CROWDER,Samuel SamuelWarwick Warwick CURRY, CURRY,William WilliamMcKnight McKnight CYRIACK, CYRIACK,Glenn GlennGerald Gerald DARBY, DARBY,Marshall MarshallEugene EugeneJr. Jr. DAVENPORT, DAVENPORT,James JamesWatson WatsonJr. Jr. DAY, DAY,Francis FrancisDaniel Daniel DELLES, DELLES,Leslie LesliePhillip Phillip DERRINGTON, DERRINGTON,Ralph RalphAlva Alva DICK, DICK,Francis FrancisEdward Edward DILL, DILL,Leaman LeamanRobert Robert DOERNENBURG, DOERNENBURG,Kenneth KennethE.E. DONALD, DONALD,John JohnMalcolm Malcolm DORR, DORR,Carl CarlDavid David DOYLE, DOYLE,Bernard BernardVincent Vincent DREFAHL, DREFAHL,Elmer ElmerEdwin Edwin DRWALL, DRWALL,Stanislaw StanislawFrank Frank DUSSET, DUSSET,Cyril CyrilIsaac Isaac DYER, DYER,Buford BufordHarvey Harvey EAKES, EAKES,Wallace WallaceEldred Eldred EBERHARDT, EBERHARDT,Eugene EugeneKeller Keller EDMONSTON, EDMONSTON,David DavidBell Bell ELLIS, ELLIS,Earl EarlMaurice Maurice ELLISON, ELLISON,Bruce BruceHarry Harry ELLSBERRY, ELLSBERRY,Julius Julius ENGLAND, ENGLAND,John JohnCharles Charles FARFAN, FARFAN,Ignacio IgnacioCamacho Camacho FARMER, FARMER,Luther LutherJames James FECHO, FECHO,Lawrence LawrenceHerman Herman FERGUSON, FERGUSON,Charlton CharltonHanna Hanna FIELDS, FIELDS,Robert RobertAuswell Auswell FINNEGAN, FINNEGAN,William WilliamMichael Michael FLAHERTY, FLAHERTY,Francis FrancisCharles Charles FLANAGAN, FLANAGAN,James JamesMonroe Monroe FLORESE, FLORESE,Felicismo Felicismo FOLEY, FOLEY,Walter WalterCharles Charles FOOTE, FOOTE,George GeorgePerry Perry FORD, FORD,George GeorgeCalvin Calvin FRENCH, FRENCH,Joy JoyCarol Carol FURR, FURR,Tedd TeddMcKinley McKinley GALAJDIK, GALAJDIK,Michael Michael GARA, GARA,Martin MartinAnthony Anthony GARCIA, GARCIA,Jesus JesusFrancisco Francisco GARRIS, GARRIS,Eugene Eugene GAVER, GAVER,Henry HenryHamilton HamiltonJr. Jr. GEBSER, GEBSER,Paul PaulHeino Heino GELLER, GELLER,Leonard LeonardRichard Richard GEORGE, GEORGE,George GeorgeThemistocles Themistocles GIBSON, GIBSON,George GeorgeHarvey Harvey GIESA, GIESA,George GeorgeEdward Edward GIFFORD, GIFFORD,Quentin QuentinJohn John GILBERT, GILBERT,George George GILLETTE, GILLETTE,Warren WarrenClayton Clayton GILLIARD, GILLIARD,Benjamin BenjaminEdward Edward GLENN, GLENN,Arthur Arthur GOGGIN, GOGGIN,Daryl DarylHenry Henry GOLDWATER, GOLDWATER,Jack JackReginald Reginald GOMEZ, GOMEZ,Charles CharlesClay ClayJr. Jr. GOOCH, GOOCH,George GeorgeMerton Merton GOODWIN, GOODWIN,Clifford CliffordGeorge George GOODWIN, GOODWIN,Robert Robert GORDON, GORDON,Duff Duff GOWEY, GOWEY,Claude ClaudeOliver Oliver GRAHAM, GRAHAM,Wesley WesleyErnest Ernest GRANDPRE, GRANDPRE,Arthur ArthurM. M. GRIFFITH, GRIFFITH,Thomas ThomasEdward Edward GROSS, GROSS,Edgar EdgarDavid David

GROW, GROW,Vernon VernonNeslie Neslie GUISINGER, GUISINGER,Daniel DanielL.L.Jr. Jr. GURGANUS, GURGANUS,William WilliamIke Ike GUSIE, GUSIE,William WilliamFred Fred HALL, HALL,Hubert HubertPreston Preston HALL, HALL,Ted Ted HALTERMAN, HALTERMAN,Robert RobertEmile Emile HAM, HAM,Harold HaroldWilliam William HAMLIN, HAMLIN,Dale DaleReuben Reuben HANN, HANN,Eugene EugenePaul Paul HANNON, HANNON,Francis FrancisLeon Leon HANSON, HANSON,George George HARR, HARR,Robert RobertJoseph Joseph HARRIS, HARRIS,Charles CharlesHouston Houston HARRIS, HARRIS,Daniel DanielFletcher Fletcher HARRIS, HARRIS,Louis LouisEdward EdwardJr. Jr. HAYDEN, HAYDEN,Albert AlbertEugene Eugene HEAD, HEAD,Harold HaroldLloyd Lloyd HEADINGTON, HEADINGTON,Robert RobertWayne Wayne HELLSTERN, HELLSTERN,William WilliamFrancis Francis HELTON, HELTON,Floyd FloydDee Dee HENRICHSEN, HENRICHSEN,Jimmie JimmieLee Lee HENRY, HENRY,Otis OtisWellington Wellington HENSON, HENSON,William WilliamEd EdJr. Jr. HERBER, HERBER,Harvey HarveyChristopher Christopher HERBERT, HERBERT,George George HESLER, HESLER,Austin AustinHenry Henry HISKETT, HISKETT,Denis DenisHubert Hubert HITTORFF, HITTORFF,Joseph JosephParker ParkerJr. Jr. HOAG, HOAG,Frank FrankSamuel SamuelJr. Jr. HOARD, HOARD,Herbert HerbertJohn John HOFFMAN, HOFFMAN,Joseph JosephWarren Warren HOLM, HOLM,Kenneth KennethLaurence Laurence HOLMES, HOLMES,Harry HarryRandolph Randolph HOLMES, HOLMES,Robert RobertKimball Kimball HOLZHAUER, HOLZHAUER,James JamesWilliam William HOPKINS, HOPKINS,Edwin EdwinChester Chester HORD, HORD,Chester ChesterGeorge George HRYNIEWICZ, HRYNIEWICZ,Frank FrankA. A. HUDSON, HUDSON,Charles CharlesEugene Eugene HULTGREN, HULTGREN,Lorentz LorentzEmanuel Emanuel HUNTER, HUNTER,Robert RobertMelvin Melvin IVERSON, IVERSON,Claydon ClaydonIgnatius IgnatiusC. C. JACKSON, JACKSON,Willie Willie JACOBSON, JACOBSON,Herbert HerbertBarney Barney JAMES, JAMES,Challis ChallisRudolph Rudolph JARDING, JARDING,George GeorgeWilliam William JAYNE, JAYNE,Kenneth KennethLyle Lyle JENSEN, JENSEN,Theodore TheodoreQue Que JENSON, JENSON,Jesse JesseBennett Bennett JOHANNES, JOHANNES,Charles CharlesHomer Homer JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Billy BillyJames James JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Edward EdwardDale Dale JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Joseph JosephMorris Morris JOHNSTON, JOHNSTON,Jim JimHal Hal JONES, JONES,Charles CharlesAlan Alan JONES, JONES,Fred FredM. M. JONES, JONES,Jerry Jerry JORDAN, JORDAN,Julian JulianBethune Bethune JORDAN, JORDAN,Wesley WesleyVernie Vernie JURASHEN, JURASHEN,Thomas ThomasValentine Valentine KANE, KANE,Albert AlbertUtley Utley KARLI, KARLI,John JohnAlbert Albert KEATON, KEATON,Vernon VernonPaul Paul KEFFER, KEFFER,Howard HowardVerne Verne KEIL, KEIL,Ralph RalphHenry Henry KELLER, KELLER,Donald DonaldGarrett Garrett KELLEY, KELLEY,Joe JoeMarion Marion KEMPF, KEMPF,Warren WarrenJoseph Joseph KENINGER, KENINGER,Leo LeoThomas Thomas KENNEDY, KENNEDY,William WilliamHenry Henry KERESTES, KERESTES,Elmer ElmerTom Tom KESLER, KESLER,David DavidLeland Leland

KLASING, KLASING,William WilliamAugust August KNIPP, KNIPP,Verne VerneFrancis Francis KVALNES, KVALNES,Hans HansC. C. KVIDERA, KVIDERA,William WilliamLester Lester KYSER, KYSER,D. D.T.T. LARSEN, LARSEN,Elliott ElliottDeen Deen LAURIE, LAURIE,Johnnie JohnnieCornelius Cornelius LAWRENCE, LAWRENCE,Elmer ElmerPatterson Patterson LAWSON, LAWSON,Willard WillardIrvin Irvin LEHMAN, LEHMAN,Gerald GeraldGeorge George LEHMAN, LEHMAN,Myron MyronKenneth Kenneth LESCAULT, LESCAULT,Lionel LionelW. W. LINDSEY, LINDSEY,Harold HaroldWilliam William LINDSLEY, LINDSLEY,John JohnHerbert Herbert LIVINGSTON, LIVINGSTON,Alfred AlfredEugene Eugene LOCKWOOD, LOCKWOOD,Clarence ClarenceM. M. LOEBACH, LOEBACH,Adolph AdolphJohn John LUKE, LUKE,Vernon VernonThomas Thomas MABINE, MABINE,Octavius Octavius MAGERS, MAGERS,Howard HowardScott Scott MALEK, MALEK,Michael Michael MALFANTE, MALFANTE,Algeo AlgeoVictor Victor MANNING, MANNING,Walter WalterBenjamin Benjamin MASON, MASON,Henri HenriClay Clay MAULE, MAULE,Joseph JosephKeith Keith McCABE, McCABE,Edwin EdwinBonner Bonner McCLOUD, McCLOUD,Donald DonaldRobert Robert McDONALD, McDONALD,James JamesOliver Oliver McKEENAN, McKEENAN,Bert BertEugene Eugene McKISSACK, McKISSACK,Hale Hale McLAUGHLIN, McLAUGHLIN,Lloyd LloydElden Elden MELTON, MELTON,Earl EarlRudolph Rudolph MELTON, MELTON,Herbert HerbertFranklin Franklin MIDDLESWART, MIDDLESWART,John JohnFranklin Franklin MILES, MILES,Archie ArchieTheodore Theodore MITCHELL, MITCHELL,Wallace WallaceGregory Gregory MONTGOMERY, MONTGOMERY,Charles CharlesAndrew Andrew MULICK, MULICK,John JohnMark Mark MYERS, MYERS,Ray RayHarrison Harrison NAEGLE, NAEGLE,George GeorgeEugene Eugene NAIL, NAIL,Elmer ElmerDenton Denton NASH, NASH,Paul PaulAndrews Andrews NEHER, NEHER,Don DonOcle Ocle NEUENSCHWANDER, NEUENSCHWANDER,Arthur ArthurC. C. NEVILL, NEVILL,Sam SamDouglas Douglas NEWTON, NEWTON,Wilbur WilburFrancis Francis NICHOLS, NICHOLS,Carl Carl NICHOLS, NICHOLS,Harry HarryErnest Ernest NICOLES, NICOLES,Frank FrankEdward Edward NIELSEN, NIELSEN,Arnold ArnoldMadsen Madsen NIGG, NIGG,Laverne LaverneAlious Alious NIGHTINGALE, NIGHTINGALE,Joe JoeRaymond Raymond NIX, NIX,Charles CharlesEdward Edward OGLE, OGLE,Charles CharlesRalph Ralph O’GRADY, O’GRADY,Camillus CamillusM. M. OLSEN, OLSEN,Eli Eli OUTLAND, OUTLAND,Jarvis JarvisGodwin Godwin OVERLEY, OVERLEY,Lawrence LawrenceJack Jack OWSLEY, OWSLEY,Alphard AlphardStanley Stanley PACE, PACE,Millard MillardClarence Clarence PALIDES, PALIDES,James JamesJr. Jr. PALMER, PALMER,Calvin CalvinHarry Harry PALMER, PALMER,Wilferd WilferdDewey Dewey PARADIS, PARADIS,George GeorgeLawrence Lawrence PARKER, PARKER,Isaac Isaac PEAK, PEAK,Robert RobertHopkins Hopkins PEARCE, PEARCE,Dale DaleFerrell Ferrell PENNINGTON, PENNINGTON,Raymond Raymond PENTICO, PENTICO,Walter WalterRay Ray PEPE, PEPE,Stephen Stephen PERDUE, PERDUE,Charles CharlesFred Fred PETWAY, PETWAY,Wiley WileyJames James

PHILLIPS, PHILLIPS,Milo MiloElah Elah PHIPPS, PHIPPS,James JamesNorman Norman PIRTLE, PIRTLE,Gerald GeraldHomer Homer PISKURAN, PISKURAN,Rudolph RudolphVictor Victor POINDEXTER, POINDEXTER,Herbert HerbertJ.J.Jr. Jr. PREWITT, PREWITT,Brady BradyOliver Oliver PRIBBLE, PRIBBLE,Robert RobertLamb Lamb PRICE, PRICE,George GeorgeFranklin Franklin PRIDE, PRIDE,Lewis LewisBailey BaileyJr. Jr. PUE, PUE,Jasper JasperLangley LangleyJr. Jr. RAIMOND, RAIMOND,Paul PaulSmith Smith RAY, RAY,Eldon EldonCasper Casper REAGAN, REAGAN,Dan DanEdward Edward REGAN, REGAN,Leo LeoBasil Basil RICE, RICE,Irvin IrvinFranklin Franklin RICH, RICH,Porter PorterLeigh Leigh RIDENOUR, RIDENOUR,Clyde ClydeJr. Jr. RILEY, RILEY,David DavidJoseph Joseph ROACH, ROACH,Russell RussellClyde Clyde ROBERTSON, ROBERTSON,Joseph JosephMorris Morris ROESCH, ROESCH,Harold HaroldWilliam William ROGERS, ROGERS,Walter WalterBoone Boone ROUSE, ROUSE,Joseph JosephCarel Carel RUSE, RUSE,Charles CharlesLee Lee RYAN, RYAN,Edmund EdmundThomas Thomas

THOMPSON, THOMPSON,Charles CharlesWilliam William THOMPSON, THOMPSON,Clarence Clarence THOMPSON, THOMPSON,George GeorgeAllen Allen THOMPSON, THOMPSON,Irvin IrvinA. A.R. R. THOMPSON, THOMPSON,William WilliamManley Manley THOMSON, THOMSON,Richard RichardJoseph Joseph THORNTON, THORNTON,Cecil CecilHoward Howard THROMBLEY, THROMBLEY,Robert RobertLeroy Leroy TIDBALL, TIDBALL,David DavidFranklin Franklin TIMM, TIMM,Lloyd LloydRudolph Rudolph TINDALL, TINDALL,Lewis LewisFrank Frank TINI, TINI,Dante DanteSylvester Sylvester TIPTON, TIPTON,Henry HenryGlenn Glenn TITTERINGTON, TITTERINGTON,Everett EverettCecil Cecil TODD, TODD,Neal NealKenneth Kenneth TORTI, TORTI,Natale NataleIgnatius Ignatius TRANBARGER, TRANBARGER,Orval OrvalAustin Austin TRAPP, TRAPP,Harold HaroldFrank Frank TRAPP, TRAPP,William WilliamHerman Herman TREADWAY, TREADWAY,Shelby Shelby TUCKER, TUCKER,William WilliamDavid David TUMLINSON, TUMLINSON,Victor VictorPat Pat TURNER, TURNER,Billy Billy TUSHLA, TUSHLA,Louis LouisJames James UFFORD, UFFORD,Russell RussellOrville Orville

SADLOWSKI, SADLOWSKI,Roman RomanWalter Walter SAMPSON, SAMPSON,Kenneth KennethHarlan Harlan SANDERS, SANDERS,Dean DeanStanley Stanley SAUNDERS, SAUNDERS,Charles CharlesLouis Louis SAVAGE, SAVAGE,Lyal LyalJackson Jackson SAVIDGE, SAVIDGE,John JohnEdwin Edwin SAYLOR, SAYLOR,Paul PaulEdd Edd SCHLEITER, SCHLEITER,Walter WalterFay Fay SCHMIDT, SCHMIDT,Herman Herman SCHMITT, SCHMITT,Aloysius AloysiusHerman Herman SCHMITZ, SCHMITZ,Andrew AndrewJames James SCHOONOVER, SCHOONOVER,John JohnHarry Harry SCOTT, SCOTT,Bernard BernardOliver Oliver SEATON, SEATON,Chester ChesterErnest Ernest SEDERSTROM, SEDERSTROM,Verdi VerdiDelmore Delmore SELLON, SELLON,William WilliamLawrence Lawrence SEVERINSON, SEVERINSON,Everett EverettIven Iven SHAFER, SHAFER,William WilliamKenneth Kenneth SHANAHAN, SHANAHAN,William WilliamJames JamesJr. Jr. SHELDEN, SHELDEN,Edward EdwardJudson Judson SILVA, SILVA,William WilliamGarfield Garfield SKAGGS, SKAGGS,Eugene EugeneMitchell Mitchell SKILES, SKILES,Garold GaroldLeroy Leroy SLAPIKAS, SLAPIKAS,Edward EdwardFrank Frank SMITH, SMITH,Leonard LeonardFerdnay Ferdnay SMITH, SMITH,Merle MerleAndrew Andrew SMITH, SMITH,Roland RolandHampton Hampton SOLLIE, SOLLIE,Walter WalterHenry Henry SOLOMON, SOLOMON,James JamesCleve Cleve SPANGLER, SPANGLER,Maurice MauriceVerdon Verdon STAPLETON, STAPLETON,Kirby KirbyRoy Roy STEELY, STEELY,Ulis UlisClaude Claude STEIN, STEIN,Walter WalterClaude Claude STEINER, STEINER,Samuel SamuelCyrus Cyrus STERNS, STERNS,Charles CharlesM. M.Jr. Jr. STEWART, STEWART,Everett EverettR. R. STOCKDALE, STOCKDALE,Louis LouisS.S. STOTT, STOTT,Donald DonaldAlfred Alfred STOUT, STOUT,Robert RobertThomas Thomas STOUTEN, STOUTEN,James James SURRATT, SURRATT,Milton MiltonReece Reece SWANSON, SWANSON,Charles CharlesHarold Harold

VALLEY, VALLEY,Lowell LowellEarl Earl

TALBERT, TALBERT,Edward EdwardEverette Everette TANNER, TANNER,Rangner RangnerF.F.Jr. Jr. TAYLOR, TAYLOR,Charles CharlesRobert Robert TEMPLE, TEMPLE,Monroe Monroe TEMPLES, TEMPLES,Houston Houston TERHUNE, TERHUNE,Benjamin BenjaminC. C. THINNES, THINNES,Arthur ArthurRay Ray

••USS USSPennsylvania Pennsylvania

WADE, WADE,Durrell Durrell WAGONER, WAGONER,Lewis LewisLowell Lowell WALKER, WALKER,Harry HarryEarnest Earnest WALKOWIAK, WALKOWIAK,Robert RobertN. N. WALPOLE, WALPOLE,Eugene EugeneAnderson Anderson WALTERS, WALTERS,Charles CharlesEdward Edward WARD, WARD,James JamesRichard Richard WASIELEWSKI, WASIELEWSKI,Edward Edward WATSON, WATSON,Richard RichardLeon Leon WEBB, WEBB,James JamesCecil Cecil WELCH, WELCH,William WilliamEdward Edward WELLS, WELLS,Alfred AlfredFloyd Floyd WEST, WEST,Ernest ErnestRay Ray WHEELER, WHEELER,John JohnDennis Dennis WHITE, WHITE,Claude Claude WHITE, WHITE,Jack JackDewey Dewey WHITSON, WHITSON,Alton AltonWalter Walter WICKER, WICKER,Eugene EugeneWoodrow Woodrow WIEGAND, WIEGAND,Lloyd LloydPaul Paul WILCOX, WILCOX,George GeorgeJames JamesJr. Jr. WILLIAMS, WILLIAMS,Albert AlbertLuther Luther WILLIAMS, WILLIAMS,James JamesClifford Clifford WILLIAMS, WILLIAMS,Wilbur WilburSlade Slade WIMMER, WIMMER,Bernard BernardRamon Ramon WINDLE, WINDLE,Everett EverettGordon Gordon WINFIELD, WINFIELD,Starring StarringB. B. WISE, WISE,Rex RexElwood Elwood WOOD, WOOD,Frank Frank WOODS, WOODS,Lawrence LawrenceEldon Eldon WOODS, WOODS,Winfred WinfredOral Oral WORKMAN, WORKMAN,Creighton CreightonHale Hale WORTHAM, WORTHAM,John JohnLayman Layman WRIGHT, WRIGHT,Paul PaulRaymond Raymond WYMAN, WYMAN,Eldon EldonP.P. YOUNG, YOUNG,Martin MartinDaymond Daymond YOUNG, YOUNG,Robert RobertVerdun Verdun YURKO, YURKO,Joseph JosephJohn John ZVANSKY, ZVANSKY,Thomas Thomas

ARNOTT, ARNOTT,Robert RobertEverett Everett BAKER, BAKER,Henry HenryErnest ErnestJr. Jr. BARRON, BARRON,Thomas ThomasNoble Noble BRAGA, BRAGA,Charles CharlesJr. Jr. BREKKEN, BREKKEN,Evan EvanBenhart Benhart

BROWNE, BROWNE,Frederick FrederickArthur Arthur COMSTOCK, COMSTOCK,Harold HaroldKenneth Kenneth CRAIG, CRAIG,James JamesEdwin Edwin HAASE, HAASE,Clarence ClarenceFrederick Frederick McINTOSH, McINTOSH,Dencil DencilJeoffrey Jeoffrey MUHOFSKI, MUHOFSKI,Joseph JosephAlexander Alexander NATIONS, NATIONS,Morris MorrisEdward Edward OWENS, OWENS,James JamesPatrick Patrick PACE, PACE,Joseph JosephWilson Wilson PORTILLO, PORTILLO,Damian DamianMaraya Maraya RALL, RALL,Richard RichardRedner Redner RICE, RICE,William WilliamHurst Hurst SLIFER, SLIFER,Martin MartinRueben Rueben STEWART, STEWART,Floyd Floyd“D” “D” TOBIN, TOBIN,Patrick PatrickPhillip Phillip VANDERPOOL, VANDERPOOL,Payton PaytonL.L.Jr. Jr. VINCENT, VINCENT,Jesse JesseCharles CharlesJr. Jr. WADE, WADE,George GeorgeHollive HolliveJr. Jr. WATSON, WATSON,Claude ClaudeBridger BridgerJr. Jr. ••USS USSPruitt Pruitt KEITH, KEITH,George GeorgeRichard Richard ••USS USSShaw Shaw ANNUNZIATO, ANNUNZIATO,Frank FrankJohn John BILYI, BILYI,Anthony Anthony BOLEN, BOLEN,Albert AlbertJames James CARROLL, CARROLL,Guy GuyWayne Wayne EGBERT, EGBERT,Leon Leon FUGATE, FUGATE,Fred Fred GAUDRAULT, GAUDRAULT,Joseph JosephL.B. L.B. GOSNELL, GOSNELL,Paul PaulGustavus Gustavus JONES, JONES,Rodney RodneyWallace Wallace McALLEN, McALLEN,John JohnScott Scott McQUADE, McQUADE,Robert RobertCameron Cameron MOORE, MOORE,Clyde ClydeCarson Carson PARKS, PARKS,Chester ChesterLloyd Lloyd PENUEL, PENUEL,George GeorgeAmes AmesJr. Jr. PETZ, PETZ,Robert RobertAlbert Albert PLATSCHORRE, PLATSCHORRE,Daniel DanielP.P. QUIRK, QUIRK,Edward EdwardJoseph Joseph RAINBOLT, RAINBOLT,John JohnThomas Thomas RUSSELL, RUSSELL,Benjamin BenjaminNelson Nelson SPAETH, SPAETH,Johnnie JohnnieHerbert Herbert STIEF, STIEF,Frank FrankWilliam WilliamJr. Jr. TAYLOR, TAYLOR,Palmer PalmerLee Lee WESTBROOK, WESTBROOK,James JamesRoss Ross WILLIAMS, WILLIAMS,Clyde Clyde ••USS USSSicard Sicard HICKOK, HICKOK,Warren WarrenPaul Paul ••USS USSTennessee Tennessee ADAMS, ADAMS,Jesse JesseLeroy Leroy HUDGELL, HUDGELL,Alfred AlfredWilliam William MILLER, MILLER,J.B. J.B.Delane Delane ROE, ROE,Eugene EugeneOscar Oscar SMITH, SMITH,Gerald GeraldOwen Owen ••USS USSTracy Tracy BIRD, BIRD,John JohnArthur Arthur PENCE, PENCE,John JohnWallace Wallace ZACEK, ZACEK,Laddie LaddieJohn John ••USS USSUtah Utah ARBUCKLE, ARBUCKLE,William WilliamDelanno Delanno BARTA, BARTA,Joseph Joseph BIELKA, BIELKA,Rudolph RudolphPaul Paul BIGHAM, BIGHAM,Virgil VirgilCornelius Cornelius BLACK, BLACK,John JohnEdward Edward BLACKBURN, BLACKBURN,John JohnThomas Thomas


PEARL PEARL HARBOR HARBOR //43 43 PEARL HARBOR / 47

BROWN, BROWN,Pallas PallasFranklin Franklin BRUNNER, BRUNNER,William WilliamFrank Frank BUGARIN, BUGARIN,Feliciano FelicianoTodias Todias CHESTNUTT, CHESTNUTT,George GeorgeV.V.Jr. Jr. CLIPPARD, CLIPPARD,Lloyd LloydDale Dale CONNER, CONNER,Joseph JosephUcline Ucline CRAIN, CRAIN,John JohnReeves Reeves CROSSETT, CROSSETT,David DavidLloyd Lloyd DAVIS, DAVIS,Billy BillyRex Rex DENNIS, DENNIS,Leroy Leroy DIECKHOFF, DIECKHOFF,Douglas DouglasR. R. DOSSER, DOSSER,William WilliamHugh Hugh EIDSVIG, EIDSVIG,Vernon VernonJerome Jerome GANDRE, GANDRE,Melvyn MelvynAmour Amour GIFT, GIFT,Kenneth KennethMace Mace GREGOIRE, GREGOIRE,Charles CharlesNorman Norman HARVESON, HARVESON,Herold HeroldAloysius Aloysius HILL, HILL,Clifford CliffordDale Dale HOUDE, HOUDE,Emery EmeryLyle Lyle JACKSON, JACKSON,David DavidWilliam William JONES, JONES,Leroy LeroyHenry Henry JUEDES, JUEDES,William WilliamArthur Arthur KAELIN, KAELIN,John JohnLouis Louis KAMPMEYER, KAMPMEYER,Eric EricT.T. KARABON, KARABON,Joseph JosephNicholas Nicholas KENT, KENT,William WilliamHarrison Harrison LA LARUE, RUE,George GeorgeWillard Willard LITTLE, LITTLE,John JohnGrubbs GrubbsIII III LYNCH, LYNCH,Kenneth KennethLee Lee MARSHALL, MARSHALL,William WilliamEarl EarlJr. Jr. MARTINEZ, MARTINEZ,Rudolph RudolphMachado Machado MICHAEL, MICHAEL,Charles CharlesO. O. MILLER, MILLER,Marvin MarvinEugene Eugene NORMAN, NORMAN,Donald DonaldCharles Charles NORMAN, NORMAN,Orris OrrisNate Nate ODGAARD, ODGAARD,Edwin EdwinNelson Nelson PARKER, PARKER,Elmer ElmerAnthony Anthony PERRY, PERRY,Forrest ForrestHurbert Hurbert PHILLIPS, PHILLIPS,James JamesWilliam William PONDER, PONDER,Walter WalterHoward Howard REED, REED,Frank FrankEdward Edward SCOTT, SCOTT,Ralph RalphEdward Edward SHOUSE, SHOUSE,Henson HensonTaylor Taylor SMITH, SMITH,George GeorgeRandolph Randolph SMITH, SMITH,Robert RobertDaniel Daniel SOUSLEY, SOUSLEY,Joseph JosephB. B. STRINZ, STRINZ,Gerald GeraldVictor Victor TOMICH, TOMICH,Peter Peter ULRICH, ULRICH,Elmer ElmerHerbert Herbert VILLA, VILLA,Michael MichaelWilliam William WETRICH, WETRICH,Vernard VernardOren Oren WHITE, WHITE,Glen GlenAlbert Albert ••USS USSVestal Vestal ARNEBERG, ARNEBERG,Harold HaroldRaymond Raymond DUANE, DUANE,William William JACKSON, JACKSON,Lowell LowellBruce Bruce JONES, JONES,Charles CharlesWilliam William KERRIGAN, KERRIGAN,Raymond RaymondJoseph Joseph LONG, LONG,Guy GuyEdward Edward REID, REID,William WilliamHenry Henry ••USS USSWest WestVirginia Virginia ASHBY, ASHBY,Welborn WelbornLee Lee BARGERHUFF, BARGERHUFF,Benjamin BenjaminE.E.Jr. Jr. BARNETT, BARNETT,William WilliamLeroy Leroy BARTEK, BARTEK,Frank FrankJoseph JosephJr. Jr. BENNION, BENNION,Mervyn MervynSharp Sharp BOOTON, BOOTON,Charlie CharlieVinton Vinton BOYER, BOYER,Fred FredHunter Hunter BRANHAM, BRANHAM,George GeorgeOhara Ohara BROOKS, BROOKS,Ennis EnnisEdgar Edgar BROWN, BROWN,Charles CharlesDarling Darling BROWN, BROWN,Riley RileyMirville Mirville BURGESS, BURGESS,John JohnEdwin EdwinJr. Jr.

CAMPBELL, CAMPBELL,William WilliamClarence Clarence CHRISTIAN, CHRISTIAN,William WilliamGarnett Garnett COSTILL, COSTILL,Harold HaroldKendall Kendall COSTIN, COSTIN,Louis LouisAlbert Albert COTTIER, COTTIER,Charles CharlesEdwin Edwin CROMWELL, CROMWELL,Howard HowardDon Don DOWNING, DOWNING,Eugene EugeneVictor Victor DRUM, DRUM,Donald DonaldLandford Landford DUNN, DUNN,George GeorgeS.S.Jr. Jr. DURKEE, DURKEE,Edward EdwardNorman Norman DURR, DURR,Clement ClementEdward Edward DYE, DYE,Tommy Tommy EDWARDS, EDWARDS,Roland RolandWayne Wayne ENDICOTT, ENDICOTT,Ronald RonaldBurdette Burdette ENGLAND, ENGLAND,Richard RichardBoyd Boyd EVANS, EVANS,Woodrow WoodrowWilson Wilson FLORES, FLORES,Jose JoseSan SanNicolas Nicolas FOTH, FOTH,Jack Jack FOX, FOX,Gilbert GilbertRoy Roy FRYE, FRYE,Neil NeilDaniel Daniel GABRIELE, GABRIELE,Angelo AngeloMichael Michael GARCIA, GARCIA,Claude ClaudeRalph Ralph GONZALES, GONZALES,Bibian BibianBernard Bernard GOODWIN, GOODWIN,Myron MyronEugene Eugene GOULD, GOULD,Arthur Arthur HALVORSEN, HALVORSEN,Harry HarryJohn John HARRISS, HARRISS,Hugh HughBraddock Braddock HEAVIN, HEAVIN,Hadley HadleyIrvin Irvin HILT, HILT,Fred FredAlbert Albert HODGES, HODGES,Howard HowardDavid David HOOD, HOOD,Joseph JosephEarnest Earnest HORTON, HORTON,William WilliamDavid David HUDSON, HUDSON,Ira IraDuane Duane JACKSON, JACKSON,William WilliamClarence Clarence JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Carl CarlSpencer Spencer KELLEY, KELLEY,Sanford SanfordV.V.Jr. Jr. KLEIST, KLEIST,Chester ChesterFredrick Fredrick KNIGHT, KNIGHT,Milton MiltonJewel JewelJr. Jr. KUBINEC, KUBINEC,William WilliamPaul Paul LACROSSE, LACROSSE,Henry HenryE.E.Jr. Jr. LEARY, LEARY,Thomas ThomasFrancis Francis LEMIRE, LEMIRE,Joseph JosephSam SamL.L. LISH, LISH,Eugene EugeneVictor Victor LUKER, LUKER,Royle RoyleBradford Bradford LYNCH, LYNCH,Donald DonaldWilliam William LYON, LYON,Arnold ArnoldEugene Eugene MANN, MANN,Charles CharlesWillis Willis MATA, MATA,Jesus JesusManalisay Manalisay MATHISON, MATHISON,Donald DonaldJoseph Joseph McBEE, McBEE,Luther LutherKirk Kirk McCLELLAND, McCLELLAND,Thomas ThomasAlfred Alfred McCOLLOM, McCOLLOM,Lawrence LawrenceJennings Jennings McCOMAS, McCOMAS,Clarence ClarenceWilliam William McKEE, McKEE,Quentin QuentinGuy Guy MEGLIS, MEGLIS,John JohnAnthony Anthony MELTON, MELTON,John JohnRussell Russell MENDIOLA, MENDIOLA,Enrique EnriqueCastro Castro MISTER, MISTER,Joe JoeEddie Eddie MONTGOMERY, MONTGOMERY,Wallace WallaceAlford Alford MORRIS, MORRIS,William WilliamFrancis Francis MRACE, MRACE,Albin AlbinJohn John MYERS, MYERS,Clair ClairClifton Clifton NERMOE, NERMOE,Earl EarlTilman Tilman NEWTON, NEWTON,Paul PaulEugene Eugene NOCE, NOCE,Emile EmileSalvatore Salvatore O’CONNOR, O’CONNOR,Maurice MauriceMichael Michael OLDS, OLDS,Clifford CliffordNathan Nathan OWSLEY, OWSLEY,Arnold ArnoldJacob Jacob PACIGA, PACIGA,Walter WalterJoseph Joseph PAOLUCCI, PAOLUCCI,James JamesAlfred Alfred PINKO, PINKO,Andrew AndrewAnthony Anthony PITCHER, PITCHER,Jack JackArthur Arthur POWERS, POWERS,Roy RoyWallace Wallace REID, REID,George GeorgeBeard Beard RENNER, RENNER,Albert Albert RICHTER, RICHTER,Leonard LeonardClaiver Claiver ROSE, ROSE,Ernest ErnestClaude Claude

SAHL, SAHL,Glenn GlennDawain Dawain SAULSBURY, SAULSBURY,Theodore TheodoreHilliard Hilliard SCHUON, SCHUON,Richard RichardMartin MartinJr. Jr. SCOTT, SCOTT,George GeorgeWilliam William SMITH, SMITH,Gordon GordonEllsworth Ellsworth SPEICHER, SPEICHER,Ernest ErnestEdward Edward STERLING, STERLING,Otis OtisDelaney Delaney TABER, TABER,George GeorgeEdward Edward TIBBS, TIBBS,Ernie ErnieEwart Ewart TIPSWORD, TIPSWORD,Keith KeithWarren Warren VANDER VANDERGOORE, GOORE,Albert AlbertPeter Peter VOGELGESANG, VOGELGESANG,Joseph JosephJr. Jr. WAGNER, WAGNER,Thomas ThomasGeorge George WALTERS, WALTERS,Bethel BethelElbert Elbert WILBUR, WILBUR,Harold Harold WILSON, WILSON,Clyde ClydeRichard Richard ZOBECK, ZOBECK,Lester LesterFrank Frank

CRUTHIRDS, CRUTHIRDS,John JohnE.E.

••Ewa EwaMarine MarineCorps CorpsAir AirStation Station

FAIRCHILD, FAIRCHILD,Malcolm MalcolmW. W. FAIRCHILD, FAIRCHILD,Willard WillardE.E. FELDMAN, FELDMAN,Jack JackH. H. FELLMAN, FELLMAN,Paul PaulV.V. FERRIS, FERRIS,Homer HomerE.E. FIANDER, FIANDER,Stuart StuartH. H. FIELD, FIELD,Arnold ArnoldE.E. FINNEY, FINNEY,Patrick PatrickL.L. FOX, FOX,Jack JackW. W.

LAWRENCE, LAWRENCE,Edward EdwardStephen Stephen LUTSCHAN, LUTSCHAN,William WilliamEdward, Edward,Jr. Jr. MICHELETTO, MICHELETTO,Carlo CarloAnthony Anthony ODA, ODA,Yaeko YaekoLillian, Lillian,age age66 TACDERAN, TACDERAN,Francisco, Francisco,age age34 34 TURNER, TURNER,William WilliamGeorge George ••Bellows BellowsField Field CHRISTIANSEN, CHRISTIANSEN,Hans HansC. C. WHITEMAN, WHITEMAN,George GeorgeAllison Allison ••Hickam HickamField Field AKINA, AKINA,August, August,age age37 37 ALOIS, ALOIS,Ralph Ralph ANDERSON, ANDERSON,Garland GarlandC. C. ANDERSON, ANDERSON,Manfred ManfredCarl Carl ANDERSON, ANDERSON,William WilliamT.T. ANGELICH, ANGELICH,Jerry JerryMike Mike AVERY, AVERY,Robert RobertL.L. BAKER, BAKER,George GeorgeW. W. BAYS, BAYS,Donald DonaldE.E. BEASLEY, BEASLEY,Leland LelandV.V. BENNETT, BENNETT,Gordon GordonR. R.Jr. Jr. BILLS, BILLS,Mathew MathewT.T. BLAKLEY, BLAKLEY,William WilliamThomas Thomas BOLAN, BOLAN,George GeorgeP.P. BONNIE, BONNIE,Felix Felix BORGELT, BORGELT,Harold HaroldW. W. BOSWELL, BOSWELL,Frank FrankG. G. BOYLE, BOYLE,Arthur ArthurF.F. BRANDT, BRANDT,Billy BillyO. O. BROOKS, BROOKS,B.J. B.J.Jr. Jr. BROWER, BROWER,Rennie RennieV.V.Jr. Jr. BROWN, BROWN,Robert RobertS.S. BROWNLEE, BROWNLEE,William WilliamJohn John BRUBAKER, BRUBAKER,Brooks BrooksJ.J. BRUMMWELL, BRUMMWELL,Malcolm MalcolmJ.J. BURLISON, BURLISON,Weldon WeldonC. C. BUSH, BUSH,Joseph Joseph CAMPIGLIA, CAMPIGLIA,Francis FrancisEdward Edward CARLSON, CARLSON,Lawrence LawrenceRobert Robert CARREIRA, CARREIRA,John John CASHMAN, CASHMAN,Edward EdwardJ.J. CHAGNON, CHAGNON,Joseph JosephJ.J. CHAPMAN, CHAPMAN,Donal DonalV.V. CHURCH, CHURCH,Leroy LeroyR. R. CLARK, CLARK,Monroe MonroeM. M. CLENDENNING, CLENDENNING,Lee LeeI.I. CONANT, CONANT,Clarence ClarenceAlbert Albert COOPER, COOPER,Frank FrankBernard Bernard COSTER, COSTER,Richard RichardLee Lee COUHIG, COUHIG,John JohnH. H. COYNE, COYNE,William WilliamJr. Jr.

DASENBROCK, DASENBROCK,Louis LouisH. H. DAVENPORT, DAVENPORT,Ernest ErnestJ.J. DE DEPOLIS, POLIS,Frank FrankJ.J. DEFENBAUGH, DEFENBAUGH,Russell RussellC. C. DENSON, DENSON,Eugene EugeneB. B. DICKERSON, DICKERSON,Richard RichardA. A. DOWNS, DOWNS,Jack JackA. A. DUFF, DUFF,Robert RobertC. C.Jr. Jr. DYER, DYER,Daniel DanielA. A.Jr. Jr. EDWARDS, EDWARDS,Lyle LyleO. O. EICHELBERGER, EICHELBERGER,Paul PaulR. R. ELDRED, ELDRED,Philip PhilipWard, Ward,age age36 36 ELLIOTT, ELLIOTT,Byron ByronG. G. ELYARD, ELYARD,Harold HaroldC. C.

GAGNE, GAGNE,Leo LeoE.E.A. A. GALLAGHER, GALLAGHER,Russell RussellE.E. GARRETT, GARRETT,Robert RobertR. R. GLEASON, GLEASON,James JamesJ.J. GOODING, GOODING,Robert RobertHenry Henry GOSSARD, GOSSARD,James JamesE.E.Jr. Jr. GREENE, GREENE,John JohnSherman Sherman GUMMERSON, GUMMERSON,Elwood ElwoodR. R. GUTTMANN, GUTTMANN,Joseph JosephHerman Herman HARTFORD, HARTFORD,Carlton CarltonH. H. HASENFUSS, HASENFUSS,William WilliamE.E.Jr. Jr. HASTY, HASTY,Ardrey ArdreyVernon Vernon HAUGHEY, HAUGHEY,John JohnThomas Thomas HAYS, HAYS,Alfred Alfred HISLOP, HISLOP,William William HOOD, HOOD,Earl EarlA. A. HORAN, HORAN,John JohnJ.J. HORNER, HORNER,James JamesAlbert Albert HOWARD, HOWARD,George GeorgeF.F. HOYT, HOYT,Clarence ClarenceE.E. HRUSECKY, HRUSECKY,Charles CharlesLewis Lewis HUGHES, HUGHES,Edward EdwardRhys Rhys HUMPHREY, HUMPHREY,Henry HenryJ.J. JACOBSON, JACOBSON,Dave Dave JEDRYSIK, JEDRYSIK,Joseph Joseph JENCUIS, JENCUIS,Joseph JosephHerbert Herbert JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Carl CarlAndreas Andreas JOHNSON, JOHNSON,James JamesRodman Rodman JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Olaf OlafA. A. JOHNSON, JOHNSON,Robert RobertHenry Henry JOYNER, JOYNER,Theodore TheodoreK. K. KECHNER, KECHNER,Vincent VincentJohn John KELLEY, KELLEY,Robert RobertR. R. KIMMEY, KIMMEY,Robert RobertDoyle Doyle KINDER, KINDER,Andrew AndrewJ.J. KING, KING,Marion MarionE.E.Jr. Jr. KLEIN, KLEIN,Otto OttoC. C. KLUBERTANZ, KLUBERTANZ,Roderick RoderickOtto Otto KOHL, KOHL,John JohnJ.J. LANGO, LANGO,Frank FrankJ.J. LEPPER, LEPPER,Edmond EdmondBrayton Brayton LEVINE, LEVINE,Sherman Sherman LEWIS, LEWIS,James JamesI.I. LIBOLT, LIBOLT,Lester LesterH. H. LIVINGSTON, LIVINGSTON,Richard RichardE.E.

LORD, LORD,Harry HarryW. W.Jr. Jr. LUSK, LUSK,Howard HowardN. N. LYONS, LYONS,Lawrence LawrenceP.P.Jr. Jr. MACY, MACY,Thomas ThomasSamuel, Samuel,age age59 59 MALATAK, MALATAK,Joseph Joseph MANN, MANN,John JohnH. H. MARKLEY, MARKLEY,Robert RobertHarold Harold MARTIN, MARTIN,George GeorgeM. M.Jr. Jr. MARTIN, MARTIN,Herbert HerbertBenjamin Benjamin MARTIN, MARTIN,Wallace WallaceR. R. MATTOX, MATTOX,Harell HarellK. K. McABEE, McABEE,William WilliamE.E. McCLINTOCK, McCLINTOCK,James JamesJacob Jacob McLAUGHLIN, McLAUGHLIN,Herbert HerbertE.E. McLEOD, McLEOD,Stanley StanleyA. A. MEADOWS, MEADOWS,Durward DurwardA. A. MEAGHER, MEAGHER,Donald DonaldF.F. MERITHEW, MERITHEW,William WilliamW. W. MESSAM, MESSAM,Horace HoraceArthur Arthur MEYERS, MEYERS,Victor VictorL.L. MITCHELL, MITCHELL,Edwin EdwinN. N. MOORHEAD, MOORHEAD,Lionel LionelJay Jay MORAN, MORAN,George GeorgeA. A. MORRIS, MORRIS,Emmett EmmettEdloe Edloe MOSER, MOSER,Joseph JosephG. G. MOSLENER, MOSLENER,Louis LouisGustav GustavJr. Jr. NEEDHAM, NEEDHAM,La LaVerne VerneJ.J. NELLES, NELLES,Joseph JosephF.F. NORTHWAY, NORTHWAY,William WilliamM. M. OFFUTT, OFFUTT,William WilliamH. H. ORR, ORR,Willard WillardC. C. PANG, PANG,Harry HarryTuck TuckLee, Lee,age age30 30 PENNY, PENNY,Russell RussellM. M. PERRY, PERRY,Hal HalH. H.Jr. Jr. PHILIPSKY, PHILIPSKY,Thomas ThomasF.F. PIETZSCH, PIETZSCH,Jay JayE.E. POSEY, POSEY,Frank FrankS.S.E.E. POWELL, POWELL,Raymond RaymondE.E. POWLOSKI, POWLOSKI,Daniel DanielJ.J. PRICE, PRICE,George George RAE, RAE,Allen AllenG. G. REUSS, REUSS,Herman HermanC. C. RHODES, RHODES,William WilliamT.T. RICHEY, RICHEY,Robert RobertM. M. ROGNESS, ROGNESS,Halvor HalvorE.E. SCHICK, SCHICK,William WilliamRhinehart Rhinehart SCHLEIFER, SCHLEIFER,Louis Louis SHIELDS, SHIELDS,William WilliamF.F. SMITH, SMITH,George GeorgeJ.J. SMITH, SMITH,Harry HarryE.E. SMITH, SMITH,Ralph RalphStanley Stanley SOUTH, SOUTH,Elmer ElmerW. W. SPARKS, SPARKS,John JohnB. B. ST STGERMAIN, GERMAIN,Maurice MauriceJ.J. STAPLES, STAPLES,Merton MertonIra Ira STATON, STATON,Paul PaulL.L. STOCKWELL, STOCKWELL,Carey CareyK. K. STRICKLAND, STRICKLAND,James JamesE.E.Jr. Jr. SURRELLS, SURRELLS,Leo LeoH. H. SYLVESTER, SYLVESTER,William WilliamGrover Grover SZEMATOWICZ, SZEMATOWICZ,Jerome JeromeJ.J. TAFOYA, TAFOYA,Antonio AntonioS.S. TENNISON, TENNISON,Anderson AndersonG. G. TIBBETS, TIBBETS,Hermann HermannK. K.Jr. Jr. TIMMERMAN, TIMMERMAN,William WilliamFrederick Frederick TOPALIAN, TOPALIAN,James JamesN. N. TUCKERMAN, TUCKERMAN,George GeorgeWilliam William VANDERELLI, VANDERELLI,Martin Martin VERNICK, VERNICK,Edward EdwardFrank Frank

WALKER, WALKER,Ernest ErnestM. M.Jr. Jr. WARDIGO, WARDIGO,Walter WalterH. H. WEGRZYN, WEGRZYN,Felix FelixS.S. WESTBROOK, WESTBROOK,Robert RobertH. H.Jr. Jr. WOOD, WOOD,Earl EarlA. A. WOODWORTH, WOODWORTH,Lawton LawtonJay Jay WRIGHT, WRIGHT,Thomas ThomasMonroe Monroe

••Schofield SchofieldBarracks Barracks

YOUNG, YOUNG,Virgil VirgilJarrett Jarrett

••Honolulu Honolulu

ZACZKIEWICZ, ZACZKIEWICZ,Marion MarionHerbert Herbert ZAPPALA, ZAPPALA,Joseph JosephS.S. ZUCKOFF, ZUCKOFF,Walter WalterD. D. ZUSCHLAG, ZUSCHLAG,Walter WalterJ.J.

ADAMS, ADAMS,John JohnKalauwae, Kalauwae,age age18 18 ADAMS, ADAMS,Joseph JosephKanehoa, Kanehoa,age age 50 50 ARAKAKI, ARAKAKI,Nancy NancyMasako, Masako,age age88 CHONG, CHONG,Patrick PatrickKahamokupuni, Kahamokupuni, age age30 30 FAUFATA, FAUFATA,Matilda MatildaKaliko, Kaliko,age age12 12 GONSALVES, GONSALVES,Emma Emma HARADA, HARADA,Ai, Ai,age age54 54 HATATE, HATATE,Kisa, Kisa,age age41 41 HIGA, HIGA,Fred FredMasayoshi, Masayoshi,age age21 21 HIRASAKI, HIRASAKI,Jackie JackieYoneto, Yoneto,age age88 HIRASAKI, HIRASAKI,Jitsuo, Jitsuo,age age48 48 HIRASAKI, HIRASAKI,Robert RobertYoshito, Yoshito,age age33 HIRASAKI, HIRASAKI,Shirley ShirleyKinue, Kinue,age age22 INAMINE, INAMINE,Paul PaulS., S.,age age19 19 IZUMI, IZUMI,Robert RobertSeiko, Seiko,age age25 25 KAHOOKELE, KAHOOKELE,David, David,age age23 23 KONDO, KONDO,Edward EdwardKoichi, Koichi,age age19 19 LOPES, LOPES,Peter PeterSouza, Souza,age age33 33 MANGANELLI, MANGANELLI,George GeorgeJay, Jay,age age 14 14 McCABE, McCABE,Sr., Sr.,Joseph, Joseph,age age43 43 NAGAMINE, NAGAMINE,Masayoshi, Masayoshi,age age27 27 OHASHI, OHASHI,Frank, Frank,age age29 29 OHTA, OHTA,Hayako, Hayako,age age19 19 OHTA, OHTA, Janet Janet Yumiko, Yumiko, age age 33 months months OHTA, OHTA,Kiyoko, Kiyoko,age age21 21 ORNELLAS, ORNELLAS,Barbara BarbaraJune, June,age age88 ORNELLAS, ORNELLAS,Gertrude, Gertrude,age age16 16 TAKEFUJI TAKEFUJI (aka (aka Koba), Koba), James James Takao, Takao,age age20 20 TOKUSATO, TOKUSATO,Yoshio, Yoshio,age age19 19 TYCE, TYCE,Robert RobertH., H.,age age38 38 UYENO, UYENO,Hisao, Hisao,age age20 20 WHITE, WHITE,Alice Alice(Mrs. (Mrs.Millard MillardD.), D.), age age42 42 WILSON, WILSON,Eunice Eunice

••Wheeler WheelerField Field ALLEN, ALLEN,Robert RobertG. G. BARKSDALE, BARKSDALE,James JamesM. M. BURNS, BURNS,Edward EdwardJ.J. BUSS, BUSS,Robert RobertP.P. BYRD, BYRD,Theodore TheodoreF.F. CASHEN, CASHEN,Malachy MalachyJ.J. CEBERT, CEBERT,Dean DeanW. W. CHAMBERS, CHAMBERS,Eugene EugeneL.L. CREECH, CREECH,William WilliamC. C. DAINS, DAINS,John JohnL.L. DERTHICK, DERTHICK,James JamesH. H. EVERETT, EVERETT,James James FREE, FREE,Paul PaulB. B. GANNAM, GANNAM,George GeorgeK. K. GOOD, GOOD,Joseph JosephE.E. GOUDY, GOUDY,Allen AllenE.E.W. W. GUTHRIE, GUTHRIE,James JamesE.E. HERBERT, HERBERT,Joseph JosephC. C. HORAN, HORAN,Vincent VincentM. M. HULL, HULL,Robert RobertL.L. LESLIE, LESLIE,George GeorgeG. G. MANLEY, MANLEY,William WilliamH. H. MITCHELL, MITCHELL,John JohnG. G. PLANT, PLANT,Donald DonaldD. D. PRICE, PRICE,John JohnA. A. ROBBINS, ROBBINS,Anson AnsonE.E. SCHMERSAHL, SCHMERSAHL,George GeorgeR. R. SCHOTT, SCHOTT,Robert RobertL.L. SHATTUCK, SHATTUCK,Robert RobertR. R. SHERMAN, SHERMAN,Robert RobertO. O. STACEY, STACEY,Morris MorrisE.E. STERLING, STERLING,Gordon GordonH. H.Jr. Jr. VIDOLOFF, VIDOLOFF,Russell RussellP.P. WALCZYNSKI, WALCZYNSKI,Andrew AndrewA. A. WALKER, WALKER,Lumus LumusE.E. ••Camp CampMalakole Malakole

FADON, FADON,Paul PaulJ.J. FRENCH, FRENCH,Walter WalterR. R. KUJAWA, KUJAWA,Conrad Conrad LEWIS, LEWIS,Theodore TheodoreJ.J. MIGITA, MIGITA,Torao Torao

••Pearl PearlCity City FOSTER, FOSTER,Rowena RowenaKamohaulani, Kamohaulani, age age33

BLACKWELL, BLACKWELL,Henry HenryC. C. BROWN, BROWN,Clyde ClydeC. C. RASMUSSEN, RASMUSSEN,Warren WarrenD. D.

••Pearl PearlHarbor Harbor

••Fort FortBarrett Barrett(in (inKapolei) Kapolei)

••Red RedHill Hill

MEDLEN, MEDLEN,Joseph JosephAlford Alford

LA LAVERNE, VERNE,Daniel Daniel

••Fort FortKamehameha Kamehameha

••Wahiawa Wahiawa

BRYANT, BRYANT,Claude ClaudeL.L. BUBB, BUBB,Eugene EugeneR. R. DA DATORRE, TORRE,Otreste Otreste DUQUETTE, DUQUETTE,Donat DonatGeorge GeorgeJr. Jr. SULLIVAN, SULLIVAN,Edward EdwardFrancis Francis

KIM, KIM,Soon SoonChip, Chip,age age66 66 SOMA, SOMA,Richard RichardMasaru, Masaru,age age22 22

••Fort FortShafter Shafter FAVREAU, FAVREAU,Arthur ArthurArmond Armond ZISKIND, ZISKIND,Samuel SamuelJ.J.

LOO, LOO,Tai TaiChung, Chung,age age19 19

••Waipahu Waipahu KIMURA, KIMURA,Tomaso, Tomaso,age age19 19 ••Wake WakeIsland Island JACOBS, JACOBS,Richard RichardWilliam William


#1 Attraction in New Orleans #4 Museum in the United States

VISIT AMERICA’S WWII MUSEUM This must-see attraction transports you to a time when victory hung in the balance. Guaranteed to move and educate, The National WWII Museum features a 4D cinematic experience, interactive exhibits, soaring aircraft, personal histories, and more. Enjoy on-site dining at The American Sector Restaurant + Bar and take a step back in time in BB’s Stage Door Canteen, a 1940s-style entertainment venue that showcasing the music and performers of the war years with weekly matinees and weekend shows. 945 MAGAZINE STREET, NEW ORLEANS, LA 70130 | 504.528.1944 | NATIONALWW2MUSEUM.ORG | OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK, 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM

Join us on the 75th anniversary of Pearl Harbor, December 7, for a full day of special events: • Live Music and Commemorative Ceremony • History Corps Reenactors • Hands-on History Interactive Artifacts • Talks by Pearl Harbor Survivors and Families • Photography from the Attacks • Scale Models of the Japanese Aircraft Carriers that Launched the Attacks —and Many More Family-Friendly Activities!

Visit pearl75.org for more information.

FREE SOUVENIR BUTTON with admission to the Museum!


Pearl Harbor Special  

The Courier and Daily Comet present this year's Pearl Harbor Special.

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