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1 7 15 18 19 22 79 85

87

100 111 131 138

156 172 176

188 190 191 193 227


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MASSACHUSETTS CONSENT TO DESIGNATED AGENCY A designated agent is a real estate licensee who has been appointed by a broker or salesperson to represent a buyer as a "designated buyer's agent" or to represent a seller as a "designated seller's agent." When a buyer or seller consents to designated agency only that designated agent represents the buyer or seller. Any other agents affiliated with the broker may represent another party to the transaction and by consenting to designated agency the buyer or seller permits those agents to represent another party. Individuals who are designated agents owe fiduciary duties to their respective clients. If you are a seller you are advised that: a) the designated seller's agent will represent the seller and will owe the seller the duties of loyalty, full disclosure, confidentiality, to account for funds, reasonable care and obedience to lawful instruction; b) all other licensees affiliated with the appointing broker will not represent the seller nor will they owe the other duties specified in paragraph (a) to that seller, and may potentially represent the buyer; and c) if designated agents affiliated with the same broker represent the seller and buyer in a transaction, the appointing broker shall be a dual agent and neutral as to any conflicting interests of the seller and buyer, but will continue to owe the seller and buyer the duties of confidentiality of material information and to account for funds. Conversely, if you are a buyer you are advised that: a) the designated buyer's agent will represent the buyer and will owe the buyer the duties of loyalty, full disclosure, confidentiality, to account for funds, reasonable care and obedience to lawful instruction; b) all other licensees affiliated with the appointing broker will not represent the buyer nor will they have the other duties specified in paragraph (a) to that buyer, and potentially may represent the seller; and c) if designated agents affiliated with the same broker represent the seller and buyer in a transaction, the appointing broker shall be a dual agent and neutral as to any conflicting interests of the seller and buyer, but will continue to owe the seller and buyer the duties of confidentiality of material information and to account for funds. BUYER/SELLER ACKNOWLEDGMENT I acknowledge and agree that [insert name of licensee] is authorized to represent me as a designated agent. I hereby consent to designated agency. Signature of

Buyer

Seller

Print Name

Date

Print Name

Date

(check one)

Signature of

Buyer

Seller

(check one)

BROKER/SALESPERSON ACKNOWLEDGMENT I acknowledge and agree to represent the above named consumer as a designated agent and my signature below signifies that I understand the duties and responsibilities of that relationship, and explained to the consumer that I am their agent, together with any other licensees expressly appointed as their designated agent; and that the appointing broker/salesperson may become a "dual agent;" and that no one else affiliated with my firm represents them. Signature of Broker/Saleperson

License Number

Date

MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORSÂŽ 03.25.05/3483

Form No. 711

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MASSACHUSETTS CONSENT TO DUAL AGENCY A real estate broker or salesperson may act as a dual agent who represents both prospective buyer and seller with their informed written consent. A dual agent is authorized to assist the buyer and seller in a transaction, but shall be neutral with regard to any conflicting interest of the buyer and seller. Consequently, a dual agent will not have the ability to satisfy fully the duties of loyalty, full disclosure, reasonable care and obedience to lawful instructions, but shall still owe the duty of confidentiality of material information and the duty to account for funds. Buyers and sellers should understand that material information received from either client that is confidential may not be disclosed by a dual agent, except: (1) if disclosure is expressly authorized; (2) if such disclosure is required by law; (3) if such disclosure is intended to prevent illegal conduct; or (4) if such disclosure is necessary to prosecute a claim against a person represented or to defend a claim against the broker or salesperson. This duty of confidentiality shall continue after termination of the brokerage relationship. BUYER/SELLER ACKNOWLEDGMENT I acknowledge and agree that {insert name of licensee} is (are) authorized to represent both the buyer and seller as a dual agent. I hereby consent to dual agency. Signature of

Buyer

Seller

Print Name

Today's Date

Print Name

Today's Date

(check one)

Signature of

Buyer

Seller

(check one)

BROKER/SALESPERSON ACKNOWLEDGMENT I acknowledge and agree to represent the above named consumer as a dual agent and my signature below signifies that I understand the duties and responsibilities of that relationship, and explained to the consumer that I am a dual agent and therefore will assist the buyer and seller in a transaction, but shall be neutral with regard to any conflicting interest of the buyer and seller. Signature of Broker/Salesperson

License Number

Today's Date

MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORSÂŽ 03.25.05/3483 Form No.. 710

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ASBESTOS IN YOUR HOME ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY and ENERGY

1

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ASBESTOS IN YOUR HOME Protect yourself and your investment. Review this booklet prior to remodeling, repairing, or removing materials that may contain asbestos. • Before remodeling, ind out whether asbestos materials are present • Asbestos that is in good condition should be left alone • Improper sampling of asbestos can increase the risk of iber release • Sampling should be done by a trained professional • Asbestos problems may be corrected by either repair (major or minor) or removal • Generally, any damaged area that is bigger than your hand is considered a major repair • Major repairs must be done by a trained professional • Asbestos removal must be done by a trained contractor • Check the credentials of asbestos professionals before you hire • Asbestos contractors and consultants licensed in Arkansas are listed on ADEQ’s website • Rooing, looring, and plumbing contractors may also be licensed to handle asbestos

Oice of Air Quality | Asbestos Section 5301 Northshore Drive North Little Rock , AR 72118-5317 www.adeq.state.ar.us Produced by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality | January 2018

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Asbestos in Your Home

We are all exposed to small amounts of asbestos in our daily lives and most people do not develop these health problems.

The mere presence of asbestos in a home or building is not hazardous. However, asbestos materials may become damaged and release ibers over time which could then become a health hazard.

What Should Be Done About Asbestos in the Home? If you think asbestos may be in your home, don’t panic. Usually the best thing to do with asbestos material that is in good condition is to leave it alone. There is no danger unless the ibers are released and inhaled into the lungs.

The best thing to do with asbestos in good condition is to leave it alone. Disturbing it may create a health hazard where none existed before. Read this booklet before you have any asbestos material inspected, removed, or repaired.

If you suspect materials may contain asbestos, check them regularly. Don’t touch, but look for signs of wear or damage such as tears, abrasions, or water damage. Asbestos ibers may be released if damaged material is disturbed by hitting, rubbing, or handling it, or if it is exposed to extreme vibration or air low. Sanding, scraping, sawing, or simply repairing asbestoscontaining materials increases the potential that harmful ibers will be released.

What Is Asbestos? Asbestos is a mineral iber that can be positively identiied only with a special type of microscope. In the past, asbestos was added to provide heat insulation, ire resistance, and strength to a variety of products.

Slightly damaged material may be dealt with by simply limiting access to the area and not touching or disturbing the material. Discard damaged or worn asbestos gloves, stove-top pads, or ironing board covers.

Until the 1970s, many building products and insulation materials used in homes contained asbestos. While most products made today do not contain asbestos, those that continue to be produced are required to be labeled with the potential hazards.

If asbestos material is more than slightly damaged or if you are going to make changes in your home that might disturb it, repair or removal by a professional is needed. Before you have your house remodeled, ind out whether asbestos materials are present.

How Can Asbestos Affect My Health?

How to Identify Asbestos

Breathing high levels of asbestos ibers can lead to an increased risk of:

Unless it is labeled, you cannot tell whether a material contains asbestos simply by looking at it. If in doubt, treat the material as if it contains asbestos, or have it sampled and analyzed by a qualified professional who knows what to look for and can prevent the release of fibers.

• lung cancer • mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of the chest and the abdominal cavity • asbestosis, a chronic lung disease caused by scarring in the lungs

The best thing to do with asbestos in good condition is to leave it alone. 3

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Product that may have previously contained asbestos

How fibers may be released

Steam pipes, boilers, furnace ducts insulated with an asbestos blanket or paper tape

Damaged, repaired, or removed improperly

• Resilient loor tiles (vinyl asbestos, asphalt, rubber), backing on • vinyl sheet looring, adhesives used for installing loor tile

Sanding tiles Scraping or sanding the backing of looring during removal

Cement sheets, millboards, and paper used as insulation around furnaces and wood-burning stoves

• •

Reparing or removing appliances Cutting, tearing, sanding, drilling, or sawing insulation

Door gaskets in furnaces, wood stoves, and coal stoves

Worn seals

Soundprooing or decorative materials sprayed on walls and ceilings

• •

Loose, crumbly, or water-damaged materials Sanding, drilling, or scraping

Patching and joint compounds for walls and ceilings, textured paints

Sanding, scraping, or drilling

Asbestos cement rooing, shingles, and siding

Unlikely unless sawed, drilled, or cut

Air currents created by downdrafts from a ireplace chimney or other activities that stir air

Long-term use or product age

Artiicial ashes and embers sold for use in gas-ired ireplaces Fireproof gloves, stove-top pads, ironing board covers, certain hairdryers

Automobile brake pads and linings, clutch facings, and gaskets •

Damaged or worn

Taking samples yourself is not recommended If done incorrectly, sampling can be more hazardous than leaving the material alone. Therfore, taking samples yourself is not recommended. Material that is in good condition and will not be disturbed (by remodeling, for example) should be left alone. Only material that is damaged or will be disturbed should be sampled.

observe the following procedures: • Ensure no one else is in the room when sampling is conducted • Wear disposable gloves and wash hands after sampling • Shut down any heating or cooling systems to minimize the spread of any released ibers

Sampling should be done by a trained professional who knows what to look for and who can prevent the release of ibers. Asbestos professionals licensed in Arkansas are listed on ADEQ’s website.

• Disturb the material as little as possible • Place a plastic sheet on the loor below the area to be sampled

Taking Your Own Samples

• Wet the material using a ine mist of water containing a few drops of detergent before taking the sample

If you do choose to take the asbestos samples yourself, which is not recommended, take care not to release asbestos ibers into the air or onto yourself. Anyone who samples asbestos-containing materials should have as much information as possible on the handling of asbestos before sampling, and at a minimum, should

• Carefully cut a piece from the entire depth of the material using a small knife, corer, or 4

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other sharp tool and place the small piece into a clean container (a small glass, plastic vial, or highquality resealable plastic bag, for example)

With any type of repair, the asbestos remains in place. Repair is usually cheaper than removal, but it may make later removal of asbestos, if necessary, more diicult and costly. Repairs can either be major or minor.

• Tightly seal the container after inserting the sample • Carefully dispose of the plastic sheets, use a damp paper towel to clean up any material on the outside of the container or around the area sampled, and dispose of asbestos materials according to state and local procedures • Label the container with an identiication number, clearly noting when and where the sample was taken

Asbestos Dos

• Patch the sampled area with a piece of duct tape • Send the sample to an EPA-approved laboratory for analysis

• Keep activities to a minimum in any areas with damaged material that may contain asbestos

A list of EPA-approved laboratories is available from the National Institute for Standards and Technology’s National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, NVLAP.

• Take every precaution to avoid damaging asbestos • Have removal and major repair done by professionals trained and qualiied in handling asbestos; it is highly recommended that sampling and minor repair be done by professionals as well

Contact NVLAP by phone, (301) 975-4016; fax, (301) 926-2884; or email, nvlap@nist.gov. A copy of the list may also be requested by mail, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 2140, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-2140. For more information, visit www.nist.gov/nvlap.

• Install new loor covering over asbestos looring that needs to be replaced, when possible • Clean material tracked in the house with a wet mop • Call an asbestos professional if the area to be cleaned is large

How To Manage an Asbestos Problem

• Contact ADEQ’s Oice of Air Quality Asbestos Section for information about asbestos training programs and asbestos in general

If there is a problem with asbestos material, there are two types of corrections: repair and removal.

• Check with your local school district for information about asbestos professionals and training programs for school buildings

Repair usually involves either sealing (encapsulation) or covering (enclosing) asbestos material. • Encapsulate (or seal) by treating the material with a sealant that either binds the asbestos ibers together or coats the material to prevent iber release. Pipe, furnace, and boiler insulation can sometimes be repaired this way. This should be done only by a professional trained to safely handle asbestos.

Asbestos Don’ts • Dust, sweep, or vacuum debris suspected of containing asbestos • Saw, sand, scrape, or drill holes in asbestos materials • Use abrasive pads or brushes on power strippers to strip wax from asbestos looring; never use a power stripper on a dry loor

• Enclose (or cover) by placing something over or around the material that contains asbestos to prevent release of ibers. Exposed insulated piping may be covered with a protective wrap or jacket.

• Sand or try to level asbestos looring or its backing 5

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professionals, and ADEQ follows these standards. Each person performing asbestos work in your home should provide proof of his or her certiication in asbestos work and the company’s licensing as an asbestos irm. Check ADEQ’s website for lists of certiied workers and licensed companies.

• Track material that could contain asbestos through the house • Try anything more than minor repairs even if you have completed a training course

Minor Repairs

Asbestos professionals are trained in handling asbestos material. They can conduct home inspections, take samples of suspected material, assess its condition, advise what corrections are needed, and help determine who is qualiied to make these corrections.

Before undertaking minor repairs, be sure to follow all the precautions described in this guide and carefully examine the area around the damage to ensure stability. As a general rule, any damaged area bigger than the size of your hand is not a minor repair.

The type of professional will depend on the type of product and what needs to be done to correct the problem. You may hire a general asbestos contractor or, in some cases, a professional irm trained to handle speciic products containing asbestos.

Always wet the asbestos material using a ine mist of water containing a few drops of detergent. Commercial products designed to ill holes and seal damaged areas are available. Small areas of material such as pipe insulation can be covered by wrapping a special fabric, such as rewettable glass cloth, around it. These products are available from stores that specialize in safety items.

Some irms ofer combinations of inspection, consulting, testing, assessment, abatement, and correction. A professional hired to assess the need for abatement or corrective action should not be connected with an asbestos-abatement irm. It is better to use two diferent irms so there is no conlict of interest. Services vary from one area to another.

Asbestos removal is usually the most expensive method and, unless required by state or local regulations, should be the last option considered in most situations. Removal may be required when remodeling or making major changes to your home that will disturb asbestos material or if asbestos material has extensive damage and cannot be repaired. Because removal poses the greatest risk of iber release and is complex, it must be done by a contractor with special training.

Though private homes are usually not covered by the asbestos regulations that apply to schools and public buildings, professionals should still use procedures described during state-approved training. Homeowners should be alert to the chance of misleading claims by asbestos consultants and contractors. There have been reports of irms incorrectly claiming that asbestos materials in homes must be replaced. In other cases, irms have encouraged unnecessary removals or performed them improperly. Unnecessary removals are a waste of money and improper removals may actually increase the health risks to you and your family. To guard against this, know what services are available and what procedures and precautions are needed to do the job properly.

Asbestos Professionals: Who Are They and What Can They Do? If you have a problem that requires the services of asbestos professionals, check their credentials carefully. Hire professionals who are trained, experienced, and reputable. Before hiring, ask for references from previous clients and ind out if the clients were satisied. Ask whether the professional has handled similar situations. Because charges can vary, get cost estimates from several professionals.

In addition to general asbestos contractors, you may select a rooing, looring, or plumbing contractor licensed to handle asbestos. ADEQ maintains a list of Arkansas-licensed asbestos contractors and consultants at https://www.adeq.state.ar.us/air/ program/asbestos/contractor.aspx. To request a paper copy, call (501) 682-0718.

The federal government sets standards for asbestos

Asbestos-containing automobile brake pads and 6

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and disposal laws. At the end of the job, get written assurance from the contractor that all procedures have been followed.

linings, clutch facings, and gaskets should be repaired and replaced only by professionals using special protective equipment. Many of these products are now available without asbestos.

• Make sure that the contractor avoids spreading or tracking asbestos dust into other areas of your home. The contractor should seal the work area from the rest of the house using plastic sheeting and duct tape, and turn of the heating and air conditioning system. For some repairs, such as pipe insulation removal, plastic glove bags may be adequate. They must be sealed with tape and properly disposed of when the job is complete.

If You Hire a Professional Asbestos Inspector • Make sure that the inspection will include a complete visual examination and the careful collection and lab analysis of samples. If asbestos is present, the inspector should provide a written evaluation describing its location and extent of damage, and give recommendations for correction, abatement, or risk prevention.

• Make sure the work site is clearly marked as a hazard area. Do not allow household members or pets into the area until work is completed.

• Make sure an inspecting irm makes frequent site visits to assure that a contractor follows proper procedures and requirements. The inspector may recommend and perform checks after the abatement work to assure the area has been properly cleaned.

• Insist that the contractor apply a wetting agent to the asbestos material with a hand sprayer that creates a ine mist before removal. Wet ibers do not loat in the air as easily as dry ibers and will be easier to clean up.

For a list of Arkansas-licensed asbestos consultants who employ certiied inspectors, call ADEQ, (501) 682-0718, or go to https://www.adeq.state.ar.us/air/ program/asbestos/licenses.aspx.

• Make sure the contractor does not break removed material into small pieces. This could release asbestos ibers into the air. Pipe insulation was usually installed in preformed blocks and should be removed in complete pieces.

If You Hire an Asbestos Abatement Contractor

• Upon completion, assure that the contractor cleans the

• Check with the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (www.osha.gov/SLTC/asbestos/) of the U.S. Department of Labor, Little Rock Oice, (501) 224-1841, and the local Better Business Bureau. Ask if the irm has had any safety violations. Find out if there are legal actions iled against it. • Insist that the contractor use the proper equipment to do the job. The workers must wear approved respirators, gloves, and other protective clothing. • Before work begins, get a written contract specifying the work plan, cleanup, and the applicable federal, state, and local regulations which the contractor must follow (such as notiication requirements and asbestos disposal procedures). Contact ADEQ for Arkansas asbestos regulations. • Be sure the contractor follows asbestos removal 7

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area well with wet mops, wet rags, sponges, or high eiciency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum cleaners. A regular vacuum cleaner must never be used. Wetting helps reduce the chance of spreading asbestos ibers in the air. All asbestos materials and disposable equipment and clothing used in the job must be placed in sealed, leak-proof, and labeled plastic bags. The work site should be visually free of dust and debris. Air monitoring (to make sure there is no increase of asbestos ibers in the air) may be necessary to ensure that the contractor’s job is done properly. This should be done by a irm not connected with the contractor.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission www.cpsc.gov U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/asbestos/ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Information about asbestos, its health efects, training for asbestos professionals, EPA regional and state asbestos contacts, and EPA-approved laboratories http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/help.html#info

Disclaimer

For a list of Arkansas-licensed asbestos contractors, call ADEQ, (501) 682-0718, or go to www.adeq.state. ar.us/air/program/asbestos/contractor.aspx.

This document may be reproduced without charge, in whole or in part, without permission, except for use as advertising material or product endorsement. Any such reproduction should credit the American Lung Association, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality. The use of all or any part of this document in a deceptive or inaccurate manner or for purposes of endorsing a particular product may be subject to appropriate legal action.

Do not dust, sweep, or vacuum debris that may contain

Statement by the American Lung Association: The statements in this brochure are based in part upon the results of a workshop concerning asbestos in the home that was sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and the American Lung Association (ALA). The sponsors believe that this brochure provides an accurate summary of useful information discussed at the workshop and obtained from other sources. However, ALA did not develop the underlying information used to create the brochure and does not warrant the accuracy and completeness of such information. ALA emphasizes that asbestos should not be handled, sampled, removed, or repaired by anyone other than a qualiied professional.

asbestos. These steps will disturb tiny asbestos ibers and may release them into the air. Remove dust by wet mopping or with a special HEPA (high eiciency particulate air) vacuum cleaner used by trained asbestos contractors.

Additional Resources

Prepared by

American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org/ Arkansas-licensed asbestos xontractors and consultants https://www.adeq.state.ar.us/air/program/asbestos/ contractor.aspx Arkansas-licensed asbestos inspectors https://www.adeq.state.ar.us/air/program/asbestos/ licenses.aspx Asbestos information www.ADEQ.state.ar.us/air/asbestos/asbestos.htm

ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY and ENERGY

8

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CONTRACT TO PURCHASE REAL ESTATE #501 (Page 1 of 2) (With Contingencies) (Binding Contract. If Legal Advice Is Desired, Consult An Attorney.)

From:

BUYER(S):

Name(s): Address:

The agent Buyer's Agent

To:

OWNER OF RECORD ("SELLER"):

Name(s): Address:

Seller's Agent

Facilitator

is operating in this transaction as: Dual Agent

This provision does not eliminate the requirement to have a signed Mandatory Real Estate Licensee-Consumer Relationship. It acts to satisfy Standard of Practice 16-10 in the REALTOR® Code of Ethics.

The BUYER offers to purchase the real property described as

together with all buildings and improvements thereon (the "Premises") to which I have been introduced by upon the following terms and conditions: 1. Purchase Price: The BUYER agrees to pay the sum of $ Premises (the “Offer”), due as follows: i. $ as a deposit to bind this Offer and delivered herewith to the Seller or Seller's agent or to be delivered forthwith upon receipt of written acceptance

to the SELLER for the purchase of the

ii. $ as an additional deposit upon executing the Purchase And Sale Agreement; iii. Balance by bank's, cashier's, treasurer's or certified check or wire transfer at time for closing. 2. Duration Of Offer. This Offer is valid until a.m. / p.m. on by which time a copy of this Offer shall be signed by the SELLER, accepting this Offer and returned to the BUYER, otherwise this Offer shall be deemed rejected and the money tendered herewith shall be returned to the BUYER. Upon written notice to the BUYER or BUYER'S agent of the SELLER'S acceptance, the accepted Offer shall form a binding agreement. Time is of the essence as to each provision. 3. Purchase And Sale Agreement. The SELLER and the BUYER shall, on or before a.m. / p.m. on execute the Standard Purchase and Sale Agreement of the MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® or substantial equivalent which, when executed, shall become the entire agreement between the parties and this Offer shall have no further force and effect. 4. Closing. The SELLER agrees to deliver a good and sufficient deed conveying good and clear record and marketable title at a.m. / p.m. on at the County Registry of Deeds or such other time or place as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties. 5. Escrow. The deposit shall be held by , as escrow agent, subject to the terms hereof. Endorsement or negotiation of this deposit by the real estate broker shall not be deemed acceptance of the terms of the Offer. In the event of any disagreement between the parties concerning to whom escrowed funds should be paid, the escrow agent may retain said deposit pending written instructions mutually given by the BUYER and SELLER. The escrow agent shall abide by any Court decision concerning to whom the funds shall be paid and shall not be made a party to a pending lawsuit solely as a result of holding escrowed funds. Should the escrow agent be made a party in violation of this paragraph, the escrow agent shall be dismissed and the party asserting a claim against the escrow agent shall pay the agent's reasonable attorneys' fees and costs. 6. Contingencies. It is agreed that the BUYER'S obligations under this Offer and any Purchase and Sale Agreement signed pursuant to this Offer are expressly conditioned upon the following terms and conditions: a. Mortgage. (Delete If Waived) The BUYER'S obligation to purchase is conditioned upon obtaining a written commitment for financing in the amount of $ at prevailing rates, terms and conditions by . The BUYER shall have an obligation to act reasonably diligently to satisfy any condition within the BUYER'S control. If, despite reasonable efforts, the BUYER has been unable to obtain such written commitment the BUYER may terminate this agreement by giving written notice that is received by 5:00 p.m. on the calendar day after the date set forth above. In the event that notice has not been received, this condition is deemed waived. In the event that due notice has been received, the obligations of the parties shall cease and this agreement shall be void; and all monies deposited by the BUYER shall be returned. In no event shall the BUYER be deemed to have used reasonable efforts to obtain financing unless the BUYER has submitted one application by and acted reasonably promptly in providing additional information requested by the mortgage lender. ©1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014 2017 MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®

10.22.2014/403031

Keller Williams Realty - North Central, 680 Mechanic Street Leominster, MA 01453 Phone: 9788333569 Kurt Thompson Produced with zipForm® by zipLogix 18070 Fifteen Mile Road, Fraser, Michigan 48026 www.zipLogix.com

Fax: 9788603723

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CONTRACT TO PURCHASE REAL ESTATE #501

(Page 2 of 2)

(With Contingencies)

b. Inspections. (Delete If Waived) The BUYER'S obligations under this agreement are subject to the right to obtain inspection(s) of the Premises or any aspect thereof, including, but not limited to, home, pest, radon, lead paint, energy usage/efficiency, septic/sewer, water quality, and water drainage by consultant(s) regularly in the business of conducting said inspections, of BUYER'S own choosing, and at BUYER'S sole cost by , If the results are not satisfactory to BUYER, in BUYER'S sole discretion, BUYER shall have the right to give written notice received by the SELLER or SELLER'S agent by 5:00 p.m. on the calendar day after the date set forth above, terminating this agreement. Upon receipt of such notice this agreement shall be void and all monies deposited by the BUYER shall be returned. Failure to provide timely notice of termination shall constitute a waiver. In the event that the BUYER does not exercise the right to have such inspection(s) or to so terminate, the SELLER and the listing broker are each released from claims relating to the condition of the Premises that the BUYER or the BUYER'S consultants could reasonably have discovered. 7. Representations/Acknowledgments. The BUYER acknowledges receipt of an agency disclosure, lead paint disclosure (for residences built before 1978), and Home Inspectors Facts For Consumers brochure (prepared by the Office of Consumer Affairs). The BUYER is not relying upon any representation, verbal or written, from any real estate broker or licensee concerning legal use. Any reference to the category (single family, multi-family, residential, commercial) or the use of this property in any advertisement or listing sheet, including the number of units, number of rooms or other classification is not a representation concerning legal use or compliance with zoning by-laws, building code, sanitary code or other public or private restrictions by the broker. The BUYER understands that if this information is important to BUYER, it is the duty of the BUYER to seek advice from an attorney or written confirmation from the municipality. In addition, the BUYER acknowledges that there are no warranties or representations made by the SELLER or any broker on which BUYER relies in making this Offer, except those previously made in writing and the following: (if none, write “NONE”):

8. Buyer's Default. If the BUYER defaults in BUYER'S obligations, all monies tendered as a deposit shall be paid to the SELLER as liquidated damages and this shall be SELLER'S sole remedy. 9. Additional Terms. Integrated Disclosure Addendum - Mortgage attached and incorporated by reference.

Date

BUYER

Date

BUYER

SELLER'S REPLY SELLER(S): (check one and sign below) (a) ACCEPT(S) the Offer as set forth above at a.m. / p.m. on this (b) REJECT(S) the Offer. (c) Reject(s) the Offer and MAKE(S) A COUNTEROFFER on the following terms: This Counteroffer shall expire at SELLER or spouse

a.m. / Date

p.m. on

day of

.

if not withdrawn earlier. Date

SELLER

(IF COUNTEROFFER FROM SELLER) BUYER'S REPLY The BUYER: (check one and sign below) (a) ACCEPT(S) the Counteroffer as set forth above at a.m. / p.m. on this (b) REJECT(S) the Counteroffer. Date BUYER BUYER

day of Date

RECEIPT FOR DEPOSIT I hereby acknowledge receipt of a deposit in the amount of $ from the BUYER this . Escrow Agent or Authorized Representative

day of

©1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014 2017 MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®

10.22.2014/403031

Produced with zipForm® by zipLogix 18070 Fifteen Mile Road, Fraser, Michigan 48026

www.zipLogix.com

Documents for

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INTEGRATED DISCLOSURE ADDENDUM - MORTGAGE (To Contract To Purchase / Purchase And Sale Agreement) This Integrated Disclosure Addendum is entered into this ___ day of ________, 20__ and is deemed to amend and supplement a certain agreement between _____________________________ __________________________________ (“SELLER”) and _______________________________ _______________________________ (“BUYER”). Beginning on October 3rd, 2015, the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s “Closing Disclosure” for mortgage loans is required (the “Integrated Disclosure Rule”). The final Closing Disclosure must be received by the borrower three business days prior to the date of Closing (a/k/a Time For Performance) when a deed to the property is delivered by the seller to the buyer and the purchase price is paid. If, after a buyer receives the Closing Disclosure the annual percentage rate of the buyer’s loan changes by more than one eighth of one percent for a fixed rate loan or changes by more than one quarter of one percent for an adjustable rate loan from the rate that was previously disclosed to the buyer, the loan program is changed, or a prepayment penalty becomes applicable to the mortgage loan then it will become necessary for the Closing to be delayed until at least three business days after a buyer receives a revised Closing Disclosure. To promote compliance with the Integrated Disclosure Rule, the parties agree as follows: 1. BUYER agrees to obtain and provide SELLER the name of the attorney for BUYER’s mortgage lender (“Lender’s Attorney”) as soon as practicable after BUYER receives this information from the Lender, but in any event no less than fourteen business days prior to the scheduled date of closing. 2. No fewer than seven business days in advance of the scheduled closing, SELLER and the BUYER shall provide Lender’s Attorney all information reasonably obtainable by such person needed to calculate the adjustments (such as water, sewer, taxes, oil in tank) specified in the applicable clauses of the Purchase and Sale Agreement or as requested by Lender’s Attorney for the purpose of preparing the Closing Disclosure. 3. The BUYER and SELLER agree that: (a) if necessary to assure full compliance with the Integrated Disclosure Rule; and (b) at the request of Lender’s Attorney, the scheduled date for Closing will be extended up to three business days, or such other time as parties may agree. In such event, BUYER shall promptly give notice to SELLER. 4. No claim, counterclaim or cause of action for any loss or damage resulting from an extension, pursuant to paragraph 3, above, shall be initiated or maintained by SELLER against BUYER or by BUYER against SELLER, unless caused by breach of the terms of this Addendum. 5.

Time is of the essence.

____________________________________ BUYER Date

____________________________________ SELLER Date

____________________________________ BUYER Date

____________________________________ SELLER Date

©2015 MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® This form is in use by: Use by anyone other than a participant in the transaction is strictly prohibited

page 17 Form No. 518


Electric and Magnetic Fields Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are a combination of electric and magnetic fields of energy that surround any electrical device that is plugged in and turned on. 

Scientific experiments have not clearly shown whether or not exposure to EMF increases cancer risk. Scientists continue to conduct research on the issue. The strength of electromagnetic fields fades with distance from the source. Limiting the amount of time spent around a source and increasing the distance from a source reduces exposure.

About Electric and Magnetic Fields Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are a combination of electric and magnetic fields of energy that surround any electrical device that is plugged in and turned on. Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together through space. Electric fields are produced by electric charges and magnetic fields are produced by the flow of current through wires or electrical devices. EMFs are found near power lines and other electronic devices such as smart meters. Electric and magnetic fields become weaker as you move further away from them. The fields from power lines and electrical devices have a much lower frequency than other types of EMF, such as microwaves or radio waves. EMF from power lines is considered to be extremely low frequency. Scientific studies have not clearly shown whether exposure to EMF increases cancer risk. Scientists continue to conduct research on the issue.

Transmission overhead power lines.

Rules and Guidance In the United States, there are no federal standards limiting electromagnetic fields from power lines and other sources to people at work or home. Some states set standards for the width of right-of-ways under highvoltage transmission lines because of potential for electric shock.

What you can do There is no clear scientific evidence that electromagnetic fields affect health. However, if you are concerned about possible health risks from electric and magnetic fields you can reduce your exposure by: 

Increasing the distance between yourself and the source - The greater the distance between you and the source of EMF, the less your exposure. Limiting the time spent around the source - The less time you spend near EMF, the lower your exposure.

Where to learn more You can learn more about electric and magnetic fields by visiting the resources available on the following webpage: http://www3.epa.gov/radtown/electric-magnetic-fields.html#learn-more.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608T) | EPA 402-F-14-034 | August 2014 | p. 1


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DFI GUIDE TO

HOME LOANS

WORKBOOK page 22


Building a Strong Foundaion Beginning Your Journey Construcion Crew Understanding Your Credit How Much Home Can You Aford? Understanding the Types of Mortgages Understanding Your Costs

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Creaing a Solid Structure Shop Compare Mortgage Shopping Worksheet A Few Things to Remember

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Window Shopping: Becoming a Savvy Borrower Avoiding Financial Pifalls Predatory Lending

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Know Your Rights It’s the Law; Know Your Rights! Primary Laws Regulaing the Mortgage Industry

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Final Walkthrough Loan Esimate Closing Disclosure Good Faith Esimate (GFE) Truth In Lending Statement (TIL) Disclosure Summary HUD-1 Setlement Statement Before Signing Day Before You Leave: The Closing Closing Costs

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Welcome Home Protecing Your Home Investment Prevening/Avoiding Foreclosure

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Securing a Line of Credit Ater Purchase Is A Home Equity Credit Line For You? Home Improvement Loan Geing A Writen Contract Keeping Records Compleing The Job: A Checklist Reverse Mortgages

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Addiional Tools Mortgage Terms Loan Comparison Worksheet Loan Document Checklist

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YOUR GUIDE TO HOME OWNERSHIP Welcome to the Department of Financial Insituions (DFI) guide to home loans. Whether you’re buying your irst home, considering a second mortgage, reinancing, or considering a reverse mortgage the loan process can be confusing and complicated. As you embark on one of the biggest inancial decisions you’ll make in your lifeime, use this guide to understand and to help navigate this process. Washington State is a leader when it comes to passing laws and rules that protect consumers and ensure sound business pracices in the mortgage industry. This booklet was updated in June 2017. Visit htp://www.di.wa.gov/ consumers/educaion/home.htm to verify you have the most recent informaion regarding the mortgage industry. Educaing yourself can help you avoid common pifalls and assist you in determining what type of home loan is best for you. ABOUT DFI The Department of Financial Insituions licenses and regulates a variety of Washington State inancial service providers such as banks, credit unions, mortgage brokers, consumer loan companies, money transmiters, payday lenders, and securiies broker-dealers and investment advisors. DFI also works to protect consumers from inancial fraud.

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SECTION 1 BUILDING A STRONG FOUNDATION Imagine building your house on sand. When the irst rainstorm blows through, your new house will most likely be washed out to sea. Without placing your house on a solid foundaion you can not weather a disaster. Building a foundaion of knowledge about the mortgage process is equally important. Here are ive steps to help you begin your journey: Beginning Your Journey 1. Before you buy a home, atend a free homeownership educaion course ofered by a HUD-approved housing counseling organizaion or agency. 2. Gather all your inancial documents, check your credit history and ix any blemishes on your credit before you apply for a loan. 3. Determine how much home you can aford. 4. Keep accurate notes, make a ile and keep all loan documents and correspondence in that ile. 5. Shop for a lender and compare costs. Be suspicious if anyone tries to steer you to just one lender. Contact the Washington State Department of Financial Insituions to ensure that you’re working with a licensed professional. Construcion Crew Whether you’re buying a home for the irst ime or reinancing a loan for the third ime, it’s important to know who the main players are and what roles they play in the transacion. Here are Some Iniial Introducions: Borrower: a person who has been approved to receive a loan and is then obligated to repay the loan and any addiional fees according to the loan terms. Selling Agent: the real estate agent represening the buyer rather than lising the property. The lising and selling agent may be the same person or company. Lising Agent: a real estate agent who represents the seller and works to sell a property. Mortgage Broker: any person who, for compensaion or gain, assists a person in obtaining or applying to obtain a residenial mortgage loan.

Loan Originator: a licensed individual working for non-bank lenders, or a mortgage broker who takes a residenial mortgage loan applicaion or ofers or negoiates terms of a mortgage loan, for direct or indirect compensaion or gain. Lender (a Bank, Credit Union, or Non-Bank Lender): any person or enity loaning funds which are to be repaid. Loan Oicer: an individual working for a bank or credit union who takes a residenial mortgage loan applicaion or ofers or negoiates terms of a mortgage loan, for compensaion or gain. Title Company/Title Insurance Company: a company that issues an insurance policy that guarantees an owner has itle to real property and can legally transfer it to someone else. A itle policy may protect the mortgage lender, the home buyer, or both. Appraiser: a licensed individual who uses his or her experience and knowledge to determine the value of a home and prepare the appraisal esimate. Inspector: a licensed individual who inspects and documents the physical condiion of the property as described and veriied in an inspecion ceriicate. Escrow Agent/Agency: the person or organizaion having a iduciary responsibility to both the buyer and seller to see that the terms of the purchase/sale (or loan) are carried out. Oten referred to as “closing” the loan, independent escrow agents, itle companies, atorneys and even the lender may serve in this role. Understanding Your Credit Credit provides a way to acquire merchandise or money with the understanding that you will repay the loan. Your history for paying your bills on ime is collected by credit bureaus or credit-reporing agencies. These businesses gather, maintain, and sell informaion about consumers’ credit histories. They collect informaion about your payment habits from banks, credit unions, inance companies, or retailers.

Why is Your Credit Important? Generally lenders look at several things: your income, your down payment or equity, your credit history, how much money you’ve saved, and the property you plan to purchase or reinance. When studying your credit history, almost all lenders look at your credit score and your debt-to-income raio. Lenders use credit scores, known page 24

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as FICO scores or VantageScore, as an important factor in the decision whether or not to ofer credit - and at what interest rate. The scores can range from 300 to 900+ points. Credit Problems? If you have a lower credit score, don’t assume that your choices are limited to high-cost loans. If your credit report contains negaive informaion that is accurate but stemming from unique circumstances such as illness or temporary loss of income, be sure to explain your situaion to the lender or broker. Take the ime to shop around and negoiate the best deal for you. If you’re currently having credit problems, you should work with a HUD-approved credit counseling organizaion or agency. Many ofer credit counseling free of charge or for a nominal fee. Understand you may not be in a posiion to buy a house unil your credit issues are resolved. The Following Condiions Will Play a Factor in Your Mortgage Lender’s Decision to Provide You With a Loan: Bankruptcy: In most cases, lenders prefer that you wait at least two years ater a bankruptcy is closed before taking on another large debt such as a home loan. Bankruptcies can remain on your credit report for up to 10 years. It may be helpful for you to explain the circumstances of the bankruptcy to the lender. Foreclosure: Having a foreclosure on your records doesn’t mean that you can never buy another house. The mortgage lender will, however, want to know the reasons for your foreclosure. Most lenders will expect you to wait three years ater a foreclosure before you apply for a new mortgage. Debts: Having too much debt may lower the chances for you to buy a home or reinance a mortgage. Making late payments or skipping payments will show as derogatory or negaive items on your credit report. Taking steps to improve your credit record is one of the most important things you can do. Credit Reports A consumer credit report is a document that contains a record of your credit payment history. The report contains four types of informaion: idenifying informaion, credit informaion, public record informaion, and inquiries.

Idenifying Informaion Includes: • Your name • Your current and previous addresses • Your Social Security number • Your year of birth • Your current and previous employers • If you’re married, your spouse’s name • Credit informaion includes credit accounts or loans you have with: • Banks • Retailers • Credit card issuers • Other lenders The informaion contained on your credit report remains for seven years from the date it’s irst reported, and then cycles of automaically. TIP: The credit bureaus will give you one free copy of your credit report annually. To order a copy of your credit report, contact www.annualcreditreport.com or • Equifax www.equifax.com OR Call 1.800.685.1111 • Experian www.experian.com OR 1.888 EXPERIAN (1.888.397.3742) • TransUnion www.tuc.com OR Call 1.800.916.8800 TIP: If you’ve been denied credit because of informaion on your credit report, the lender is required to provide you with the credit bureau’s name, address, and telephone number – and you’re enitled to a free copy of your report from that credit bureau. The credit reporing industry is regulated by the federal Fair Credit Reporing Act, which is administered by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). How Much Home Can You Aford? Determining how much you can aford is an important irst step in shopping. How much will your monthly payments be? Take into consideraion future changes in your household income. Are you anicipaing a promoion at work that would increase your salary? Will you be adjusing from a double income family to a single income in the coming years? If the interest rate is adjustable - can you aford the larger payment when the rates increase? Your debt-to-income raio is the amount of debt payments per month divided by the amount of your income per month. This raio helps lenders decide how large a monthly payment you can aford. page 25 GUIDE TO HOME LOANS

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In addiion to the lender knowing what you can aford, you must be comfortable with the size of your monthly payment. One way to do this is to uilize a mortgage calculator. This can be found on-line, and is an easy-to-use tool to help you determine how much you can aford.

upon which a house will be built. The loan will be paid of by securing inancing for the completed home.

Generally, your monthly housing expenses, including principal, interest, property taxes, and homeowners insurance should not exceed 28 percent of your gross monthly income. Your total long term monthly obligaions (such as housing expenses, plus car payments, insurance, student loans, child care, etc.) should not exceed 36 percent of your gross monthly income.

FHA Loan: A loan insured by the Federal Housing Administraion, open to all qualiied home purchasers, which requires a lower down payment – typically 3 percent – than a convenional loan. This program allows buyers who might not otherwise qualify for a home loan to obtain one because the risk is removed from the lender by FHA insurance. While there are limits on the amount of an FHA loan, they are typically generous enough to handle moderately priced homes almost anywhere in the country.

Understanding the Types of Mortgages When searching for a mortgage, it’s important to choose the best loan program that its your personal wants and needs. The right type of mortgage for you depends on many diferent factors, such as: • • • •

Your current inancial picture. How you expect your inances to change. How long you intend to keep your house. Your ability to adjust to a changing mortgage payment.

The best way to ind the “right” answer is to discuss your current inances, your plans and inancial prospects, and your preferences with a real estate or mortgage professional. Common Types of Mortgages You Should Know About: Fixed-Rated Mortgage: A mortgage on which the interest rate stays the same for the term of the loan. Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM): A mortgage in which the interest rate may periodically adjust based on a pre-selected index and a margin. The ARM is also known as a variable rate mortgage. These types of loans may have lower monthly payments iniially, but can result in negaive amorizaion or higher monthly payments ater a rate adjustment. Negaive Amorizaion (NegAm) occurs when the loan payments during a period do not cover the interest accrued, that over ime, results in a higher principal balance than the amount of the original loan. Balloon (payment) Mortgage: Usually a short term ixed-rate loan that involves smaller payments for a certain period of ime, and one large payment at the end of the term of the loan. Blanket Mortgage: One mortgage securing several pieces of real estate. Bridge Loan: A mortgage securing a piece of property

Convenional loan: A mortgage not insured by the Federal Housing Administraion (FHA) or guaranteed by the Veterans Administraion (VA).

Interest Only Mortgage: A type of ARM in which the borrower pays only interest on the principal of the loan for a set period of ime, followed by a period of larger payments that include interest and principal, or a balloon payment. Reverse Mortgage: A type of home loan that lets a homeowner convert a porion of the equity in their home to cash. According to the Federal Trade Commission, there are three types of reverse mortgages: • single-purpose reverse mortgages, ofered by some state and local government agencies and nonproit organizaions. • Federally-insured reverse mortgages, known as Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (HECMs) and backed by the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). • proprietary reverse mortgages, private loans that are backed by the lenders that develop them. Unlike a tradiional mortgage loan, no repayment is required unil the borrower no longer occupies the home as their principal residence. Borrowers must, in government-backed reverse mortgage products, be over the age of 62, and must atend a counseling class and receive a ceriicate to verify they understand the loan terms. Subprime Lender/Loans: A lender that provides credit to borrowers who do not meet prime underwriing guidelines and oten charges a inance rate that is higher than the “prime” or normal rate ofered to borrowers with good credit. Typically, it’s a lender that approves loans for individuals who may have poor

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credit history or no credit history, or who have other characterisics that jusify a higher rate. Because you’re approved for a subprime loan doesn’t mean that you cannot qualify for a prime rate loan from another lender. Be sure to explore your opions. If you are a irst-ime home buyer and the loan you are considering ofers a payment schedule that causes the principal balance to increase, you may be required to obtain counseling before the loan can close. VA Loan: Loans made to veterans that are guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Afairs. Understanding The Costs of Geing A Mortgage Down payments, rates, points, and fees can make a loan that looks good at irst glance change into something else once all the facts are known. Knowing the amount of the monthly payment and the interest rate is not enough. Be sure to get informaion about potenial loans from several lenders or mortgage brokers and ind out all of the costs involved with each. When comparing loans, make sure you’re reviewing the same informaion in each loan such as loan amount, loan term, type of loan, monthly payment, penalies and features, annual percentage rate (APR), cost of inancing, and down payment. TIP: Ask about the loan’s APR. The APR takes into account not only the interest rate but also points, fees, and certain other charges that you may be required to pay, and is expressed as a yearly percentage rate. This will speciically tell you the cost of what you’re borrowing and will allow you to compare the costs of one loan to another. TIP: Document everything in wriing. A daily journal of all conversaions can be a powerful tool in resolving conlicts later. TIP: Never take the loan originator’s verbal promise on any detail or feature of the loan. Federal law requires they make commitments in wriing and professionals involved should never hesitate to provide this. If your loan originator is unwilling to put promises in wriing shop somewhere else. You should not rely on verbal promises. Be Sure to Obtain and Compare the Following Informaion from Each Lender and Mortgage Broker: Shop around for the best rates and fees. It is in your best interest to get at least two or three esimates from either a mortgage broker or a mortgage lender. Be sure to check to see if your mortgage loan originator is properly licensed to do business with you. All mortgage loan originators in the U.S. need to be either licensed or registered through the Naionwide Mortgage Licensing System. There is a lot you can ind out about your loan originator if you go to the Consumer Access Website at www.NMLSconsumeraccess.org. Most importantly you can verify that the person you are doing business with is properly licensed or registered.

Rates • Ask each lender for a list of its current mortgage interest rates and whether the rates being quoted are the lowest for that day or week. • Ask whether the rate is ixed or adjustable. Keep in mind that when interest rates for adjustable rate loans go up, generally so does the monthly payment. • If the rate quoted is for an adjustable-rate loan, ask how your rate and loan payment will vary, including whether your loan payment will be reduced when rates go down. • Ask which index and margin will be used to determine the adjusted interest rate. • Find out how frequently your rate can adjust (monthly, six months, or annually) and how much it can change at each adjustment (yearly caps, lifeime caps). Points Points are any fees that you pay that are based on a percentage of the loan amount. Discount points are fees you pay to the lender to reduce the interest rate on the loan. Ask to see exactly how much your rate will be dropped based on the amount of discount points you pay. For example, paying 0.50 percent of the loan amount in discount points may adjust the loan rate downward by 0.25 percent. Each program and lender will use a diferent formula and the amounts of points will change daily as market rates change. • Check online or in some local newspaper business secions for informaion about current rates and points. • Ask for points to be quoted to you as a dollar amount – rather than just as the number of points or percentage – so that you will actually know how much you will have to pay. Note the trade of between points and rates and compare your short-term needs against your long-term needs. Here is an example based on a $100,000, 30 year ixed rate mortgage at a 6.5 percent interest rate:

$ Amount of Points Interest Rate Monthly Payment

WITH NO DISCOUNT POINTS

WITH DISCOUNT POINTS

$0 6.5% $632

$250 6.25% $616

In the above example, it would cost you $250 to save $16 a month in your payment. Only you can determine if this is a beneicial trade of for you. Ask yourself whether you page 27 GUIDE TO HOME LOANS

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can aford the extra cash up front right now and then note the following: 1. The $250 repays itself in approximately 16 months (dividing $250 by $16 equals 15.63 months). Every month you keep the loan ater this point you will be “making” an extra $16 per month. Over the next 344 months this equates to $5,504. 2. Over the life of the loan, this $250 investment also saves you approximately $5,886 in interest. TIP: CAUTION: You should not directly pay a mortgage broker for discount points because they don’t set the rate; the lender does. Fees A home loan oten involves many fees, such as loan originaion fees, underwriing fees, broker fees, transacion, setlement, and third party costs. Every lender or broker must give you an esimate of these fees when you apply for a mortgage loan. Many of these fees are negoiable. Some fees are paid when you apply for a loan (such as credit report and appraisal fees), and others are paid at closing. In some cases, you can include the fees in your loan, but doing so will increase your loan amount and total costs. “No cost” loans are someimes available, but they usually involve higher interest rates. • Ask what each fee covers and who will be receiving the fee. Several items may be lumped into one fee. • Ask for an explanaion of any fee you don’t understand. Some common fees associated with a home loan closing are listed on the Mortgage Shopping Worksheet (at the back of this workbook). • Third party costs should be charged to you at the actual cost of service. Ask to see invoices if you feel you’re paying too much. Down Payments and Private Mortgage Insurance Some lenders require 20 percent of the home’s purchase price or value as a down payment or equity in the loan. The down payment sets the Loan to Value or LTV. A 20 percent down payment equates to an 80 percent LTV. Your lender will tell you their LTV requirements for each type of loan.

loans. If a 20 percent down payment is not made, lenders usually require the borrower to purchase private mortgage insurance (PMI) to protect the lender in case the borrower fails to pay. When government-assisted programs such as FHA (Federal Housing Administraion), VA (Veterans Administraion), or Rural Development Services are available, the down payment requirements may be substanially smaller. Once your LTV reaches a certain threshold you can request that the lender disconinue the PMI. • Ask about the lender’s requirements for LTV, including what you need to do to verify that funds for your down payment are available. • Ask your lender about special programs they may ofer. If PMI is Required for Your Loan: • Ask what the total cost of the insurance will be. • Ask how much your monthly payment will be when including the PMI premium. • Ask how long you will be required to carry PMI and how it can be removed. Taxes and Insurance Many lenders will require your monthly loan payment to include an addiional amount to cover annual real estate taxes and homeowner’s insurance. The amount is deposited into an account commonly called a reserve or escrow account. You may also have to pay a cushion amount into the escrow account. Be sure to ask if the lender requires taxes and insurance to be escrowed. Typically, lenders will require monthly real estate taxes and homeowner insurance premiums to be escrowed if the LTV is greater than 80 percent. When comparing monthly payments from various lenders, be sure to ask if the lender included monthly taxes and insurance costs in the total payment. If it’s included, ask for the costs to be broken down in the following manner: • • • •

Principal and interest Real estate taxes Homeowner’s insurance Private mortgage insurance

Most lenders ofer loans that require less than 20 percent down — someimes as litle as 0 percent on convenional

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SECTION 2 CREATING A SOLID STRUCTURE We’ve talked about how to build a strong foundaion. In this secion, we will cover the necessary resources that will make your journey more pleasant and free of obstacles. When buying a home or reinancing a loan remember to shop around, compare costs and terms, and negoiate for the best deal. Shop The newspaper and the Internet are good places to start shopping for a loan. Look for informaion on interest rates and points from several lenders or brokers. Since rates and points can change daily, you’ll want to check the local business secion of the newspaper and various inancial Web sites oten when shopping for a home loan. TIP: The promoional adverising may not list the fees associated with the loan, so be sure to ask the lenders about fees. TIP: Beware of some adverisements that may be formated to look like a news aricle, rather than an adverisement. The Mortgage Shopping Worksheet This worksheet, at right on page 9, is also available by visiing DFI’s Web site. Please take it with you when you speak to each lender or broker and be sure to write down all the informaion you obtain. Don’t be afraid to make lenders and brokers compete with each other for your business by leing them know that you’re shopping around.

• Veriicaion of all assets including banking, investment and reirement statements. • Names, addresses, account numbers and amounts owed to all creditors. • Proof of down payment including cash or gits. • Leter(s) of explanaion on credit issues; on any gaps in employment history; and bankruptcy. • Contact informaion for all residences within the past two years to include names and phone numbers of landlords. TIP: It’s important not to make any changes to your inancial condiion during the loan process, including any major asset purchases, any new debts or changes in your employment. This will afect your approval raing. Compare Using the APR (annual percentage rate): The APR, which takes into account the interest rate, points, broker fees, and certain charges that you may be required to pay, and is expressed as a yearly percentage rate, will allow you to compare similar loans (e.g. ixed to ixed, ARM to ARM) from the same or diferent lenders without analyzing fee and rate informaion. The APR is an interest rate that shows the true interest rate you will pay over the life of the loan, factoring in certain costs related to the loan. Here is an example: Assume that you’re comparing two, ixed rate 30-year mortgages for $100,000 with diferent interest rates and diferent amounts of lender fees:

Loan Pre-Qualiicaion vs. Loan Approval Loan pre-qualiicaion is a best guess at your housing and loan afordability. Pre-qualiicaion is typically based upon a verbal conversaion between potenial borrowers and a lender and doesn’t include formal underwriing or supporing documentaion. A loan pre-qualiicaion is not a commitment to lend. Loan approval comes ater a formal underwriing of a borrower’s loan request. Loan approval is achieved with a complete mortgage loan applicaion and typically includes these basic documents: • Most recent pay stubs (last 2-4 months) and ideniicaion of all employment sources. • Tax Returns: Current year and past year including all schedules and atachments such as W-2’s, 1099’s and 1098’s.

Interest Rate Prepaid Finance Charges* APR

LOAN #1

LOAN #2

6.00% $3,000 6.29%

6.25% $2,500 6.49%

* Prepaid inance charges include a variety of costs or fees paid at closing of the loan such as: lender or broker fees, interim interest, escrow fees and itle fees.

In this example, you only need the APR to determine that Loan #1 is the most cost efecive loan ofered. When comparing loans and lenders, your lender or broker should provide you with the APR on any loan discussed.

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may be negotiable.

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MORTGAGE TERMS

Annual Percentage Rate (APR): Cost of the credit, which includes the interest and all other inance charges. If APR is more than .75 to 1 percentage point higher than the interest rate you were quoted, there are signiicant fees being added to the loan. Points: Fees paid to the lender for a lower interest rate. One point is equal to 1% of the loan amount. Points should be paid at the ime of the loan. These can also be used to buy down the interest rate. Prepayment Penalty: Fees required to be paid by you if the loan is paid of early. Try to avoid any prepayment penalty unless you are very sure that you will hold the loan for longer than the pre-payment penalty period. In the State of Washington, pre-payment penalies are not allowed on second mortgages. Balloon Payment: Large payment due at the end of a loan. This happens when a borrower has a low monthly payment covering only interest and a small porion of the principal, leaving almost the whole loan amount due in one payment at the end. If you cannot make this payment, you could lose your home. Appraisal: A determinaion of the value of a home by a third party who is hired by the lender to assure the home has enough value to pay of the loan should the borrower default. It is typically paid for by borrower.

Loan Originaion Fees: Fees paid to the lender for handling the paperwork in arranging the loan. These are prepaid inance charges paid at the loan closing and are included in your APR calculaion. You can pay them out of pocket. Mortgage Broker Fees: Fees paid to the mortgage broker for handling the paperwork for arranging the loan. Escrow: The holding of money or documents by a neutral third party prior to closing. It can also be an account held by the lender (or servicer) into which a homeowner pays money for taxes and insurance. Interest Rate: is the cost of borrowing money expressed as a percentage rate. Lock-In: A writen agreement guaranteeing a home buyer a speciic interest rate on a home loan provided that the loan is closed within a certain period of ime, such as 60 or 90 days. Oten the agreement also speciies the number of points to be paid at closing. Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): Insurance that protects the lender against a loss if a borrower defaults on the loan. It is usually required for loans in which the down payment is less than 20 percent of the sales price or, in a reinancing when the amount inanced is greater than 75 percent of the appraised value.

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Calculators Mortgage calculators are available online from a number of resources to help you compare and provide you with diferent scenarios that best it your needs. Quesions to Ask Your Broker or Lender: When Shopping for a Loan, You Should Ask: • What is your best interest rate today? What is the total of all fees including the lender fees, third-party fees and transacion fees? • Is this rate ixed or adjustable? (A ixed interest rate stays the same for the life of the loan, while an adjustable rate may change.) • If the loan carries a rebate, how much it is, and who will receive it. • Is there an applicaion deposit? If so, how much is refundable? • What is the total monthly payment, including taxes, homeowners and mortgage insurance? When You Apply For Your Loan Ask: • If I lock in my interest rate today, what is the best rate available? What are the fees? • How long is the lock guaranteed, and what happens if interest rates drop before closing? • What is the annual percentage rate (APR)? • Is there a balloon payment due on the loan? • Are there any pre-payment penalies? What are they and how many years are they in efect? • Does the interest rate increase if my payments are late? • What is the total monthly payment, including taxes, homeowners and mortgage insurance? If the Loan is An Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM): • What is the iniial rate? How long will that rate stay in efect? • What is the iniial monthly payment? How long will that payment stay in efect? • How oten can the rate change? • What are the rate and payment caps each year, as well as over the life of the loan? • What is the maximum interest rate and payment? • Can I convert my adjustable rate loan to a ixed rate without reinancing? • Is there a prepayment penalty? If so, how long does it apply?

A Few Things to Remember 1. When you apply for a mortgage loan, every piece of informaion that you submit must be accurate and complete. Lying on a mortgage applicaion is fraud and may result in criminal penalies. Don’t let anyone persuade you to make a false statement on your loan applicaion, such as overstaing your income or the value of the home, the source of your down payment, failing to disclose the nature and amount of your debts, or even how long you’ve been employed. 2. Federal law requires the lender to provide loan documents to you one day before closing. Review them carefully or ask for help from someone you trust or who is skilled in real estate law. 3. Never sign a blank document or a document containing blanks. If someone else inserts informaion ater you’ve signed, you may sill be bound to the terms of the contract. Write “N/A” (not applicable) or cross through any blanks. 4. Read everything carefully and ask quesions. Don’t sign anything that you don’t understand. Never let anyone pressure you into signing before you’ve read everything completely. 5. Don’t let anyone convince you to borrow more money than you know you can aford to repay. If you get behind on your payments, you risk a potenial negaive impact on your credit score, and losing your house and all of the money you’ve put into the property. 6. If you use the services of a Mortgage Broker, the broker has a iduciary relaionship with you. This means that, by law, the broker must act in your best interest and in the utmost good faith toward you, and must disclose any and all business relaionships to you including, but not limited to, relaionships with the lender who is underwriing your loan. Also, a broker may not accept, provide, or charge any undisclosed compensaion to another party involved in the loan transacion. 7. Did your lender give you a Good Faith Esimate (GFE) and a copy of the federal booklet on setlement costs? Federal law requires that you get a copy of this document within 3 days of your loan applicaion.

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SECTION 3 WINDOW SHOPPING – BECOMING A SAVVY BORROWER Every year misinformed consumers become vicims of predatory lending or loan fraud. Don’t let this happen to you! In this secion we will warn you about the common inancial pifalls, how to avoid them and provide you with some alternaives. Avoiding Financial Pifalls When you buy a house, you enter into a long-term inancial obligaion. You ill out papers and sign legal documents based on those papers. It’s important that you understand your responsibiliies so that you won’t be a vicim or a paricipant in fraud. When you apply for a mortgage loan, every piece of informaion you submit must be accurate and complete. Anything less is considered loan fraud. Unfortunately, there are people who may try to convince you to lie about your qualiicaions so they can illegally make money at your expense. These people will appear to be your friends, saying they’re trying to help you. They may downplay or deny the importance of complying with the law and suggest that it’s all just “red tape” that everyone ignores. Don’t allow yourself to be fooled. BE SMART • Before you sign anything, read and make sure you understand it. • Refuse to sign any blank documents. • Accurately report your income, your employment, your assets, and your debts. • Don’t buy property or borrow money for someone else. • Disclosure of loan terms is not just a formality. It’s the law and you have the right to know. BE HONEST • • • •

Don’t change your income tax returns for any reason. Tell the whole truth about money gits. Don’t list fake co-borrowers on your loan applicaion. Be truthful about your credit problems, past and present. • Be honest about your intenion to occupy the house. • Don’t provide false supporing documentaion.

DON’T BE DISCOURAGED If your loan is denied, the lender will tell you why. Maybe you need to look for a less expensive house, or save more money. Check to see if there is more afordable housing or community programs you might be eligible for to help you through your home buying process. Predatory Lending Your best defense against illegal or unethical pracices is to be informed. Predatory loans are usually based on dishonesty. Predatory lenders ofer easy access to money, but oten use high-pressure sales tacics, inlated interest rates, outrageous fees, unafordable repayment terms, and harassing collecion tacics. Predatory lenders target those who have limited access to mainstream sources of credit. The elderly, military personnel and homeowners in low-income neighborhoods are oten vicims of predatory lending. But anyone can be a vicim of a predator. How to Avoid a Predatory Loan: Finding the best loan is no diferent than making any other purchase. Be a smart shopper! Talk with a number of diferent lenders. Compare their ofers. Ask quesions and don’t let anyone pressure you into making a deal that you don’t feel comfortable with. If you don’t agree with the terms of the ofer you always have the right to walk away. Ask quesions unil you understand the loan terms – even if you feel embarrassed for not knowing the answer. TIP: In a reinance loan or second mortgage you have the right to cancel the loan. This is known as the Right of Rescission. The lender must allow you three days ater the closing of your loan to change your mind. Use that three days wisely – if the loan is not for you, cancel it. Common Predatory Lending Pracices: • Equity Stripping: The lender makes a loan based upon the equity in your home, whether or not you can make the payments. If you cannot make payments, you could lose your home through foreclosure. • Bait-and-switch schemes: The lender may promise one type of loan, interest rate, or costs, but switch you to something diferent at closing. Someimes a higher (and unafordable) interest rate doesn’t kick in unil months ater you’ve begun to pay on your

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loan. Scruinize your documents closely and make sure the loan you sign is the loan you agreed to. • Loan Flipping: A lender reinances your loan more than once with a new long-term, high cost loan. Each ime the lender “lips” the exising loan, you must pay points and assorted fees. • Packing: You receive a loan that contains charges for services you did not request or need. “Packing” most oten involves making you believe that credit insurance or some other costly product must be purchased and inanced into the loan in order to qualify. Someimes the costs of these services may simply be hidden altogether. • Hidden Balloon Payments: You believe that you’ve applied for a low rate loan requiring low monthly payments only to learn at closing that it’s a short-term loan that you will have to reinance within a few years. • Hiding or Lying About Pre-Payment Penalies: You are led to believe that there will be no penalty if you decide to pay your loan of early. • Home Improvement Scams: A contractor talks you into costly or unnecessary repairs, steers you to a high-cost mortgage lender to inance the job, and arranges for the loan proceeds to be sent directly to the contractor. In some cases, the contractor performs shoddy or incomplete work, and you are stuck paying of a long-term loan where the house is at risk. • Monthly Payment Scams: Don’t be tricked by decepive payment comparisons. Be paricularly aware when comparing the new monthly payment to your exising monthly payment. Does the new payment contain amounts for taxes and insurance? Will the lower payment adjust upward ater a short ime? • Piggy Back Second Loans: Be very aware of addiional loans ofered or “snuck” into your loan transacion at the ime of closing. If you did not ask for a second mortgage, home equity line of credit or credit card secured by your home, one shouldn’t be included in your closing papers. As with any loan opportunity you’re considering, contact the Washington State Department of Financial Insituions (DFI) to ensure you’re working with a licensed professional.

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SECTION 4 KNOW YOUR RIGHTS Before signing any document or paying any money, you should carefully examine your requirements, resources available and the need for professional help. In this secion we will provide you with a lising of current laws regulaing the mortgage industry. It’s always recommended that you contact an atorney for any legal advice.

It’s The Law: Know Your Rights! If A Loan: • Just doesn’t seem fair, • Seems inordinately expensive, or • Contains unpleasant surprises that you only ind out at or ater closing, Contact the Washington State Department of Financial Insituions. Primary Laws Regulaing the Mortgage Industry Federal Laws: • Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) Prohibits discriminaion in lending. ECOA prohibits any creditor from discriminaing against an applicant with respect to any aspect of a credit transacion based on sex, race, color, religion, naional origin, disability or parental status. • Fair Credit Reporing Act (FCRA) Sipulates the requirements of users of credit reports and disclosure to consumers. • Fair Housing Act Provides protecion against housing-related discriminatory pracices based on sex, race, color, religion, naional origin, disability or parental status. • Home Ownership and Equity Protecion Act (HOEPA) Requires addiional disclosures for certain types of high cost loans. • Real Estate Setlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Prohibits abusive pracices such as kickbacks and referral fees, and requires advance disclosure of setlement service costs mandates the use of a Good Faith Esimate (GFE) in certain instances, which is a good faith esimate of service costs associated with the mortgage loan, and the setlement statement

(HUD-1) in some instances, which shows every cost the borrower will pay in conjuncion with receiving the loan. • Truth-in-Lending Act (TILA) Requires disclosure of the cost of credit to the consumer and the terms of repayment through the loan esimate and closing details. • Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (SAFE Act) Establishes a Naional Mortgage Licensing System and requires all residenial mortgage loan originators to be licensed. Washington State Laws: • Mortgage Brokers Pracices Act (RCW 19.146) Designed to promote honest and fair dealings and to preserve public conidence in the lending industry by prevening fraudulent pracices by mortgage brokers and loan originators. • The Consumer Loan Act (RCW 31.04) Regulates nonbank lenders and residenial mortgage loan servicers. • The Consumer Protecion Act (RCW 19.86) Prohibits unfair and decepive acts or pracices in trade or commerce. • Escrow Agent Registraion Act (RCW 18.44) Regulates the closing process of your loan. • Residenial Mortgage Loan Disclosure (RCW 9.144.020) Requires that borrowers are provided with a one page summary of all material terms of the loan if not provided with the Good Faith Esimate required under RESPA. The Regulatory Agencies: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Consumer Financial Protecion Bureau Department of Housing and Urban Development Federal Deposit Insurance Corporaion Federal Housing Finance Board Federal Reserve Board Federal Trade Commission Naional Credit Union Administraion Oice of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight Oice of the Comptroller of the Currency Washington State Atorney General Washington State Department of Financial Insituions Washington State Department of Licensing - Real Estate Washington State Housing Finance Commission Washington State Oice of Insurance Commissioner

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SECTION 5 FINAL WALKTHROUGH Understanding disclosures during the home loan process is criical. In this secion, the most important aspects of the main disclosures that you will be receiving during this process are reviewed. Take the ime to understand what you’re commiing to before signing the loan papers. Be sure to ask your loan oicer to explain anything confusing or unclear. Don’t hesitate to ask quesions about any part of the loan process. Within three days of taking your loan applicaion, the lender or broker is required to provide you with (depending on the transacion) either: 1. Loan Esimate or 2. Iniial Good Faith Esimate (GFE) and Iniial Truth in Lending Statement (TIL) Then, as the closing date approaches, or sooner if any of the terms of the loan change, you will receive (depending on the transacion) either: 1. Closing Disclosure, or 1. Final Good Faith Esimate, Final Truth in Lending Statement (TIL), and HUD-1 Setlement Statement The remainder of this secion will be devoted to illustraing and explaining these important documents.

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LOAN ESTIMATE & CLOSING DISCLOSURE FORMS For more than 30 years Federal law has required lenders to provide two diferent disclosure forms to consumers applying for a mortgage and two diferent forms at or shortly before closing on the loan. Since Oct. 3, 2015, new forms (Loan Esimate and Closing Disclosure) are used by lenders in place of the old forms. The new forms (Loan Esimate - on pages 19-23 of this book, and Closing Disclosure - on pages 24-29 of this book) are used for most home purchases and reinances; however, in most instances, the old forms (including the Good Faith Esimate (GFE) on pages 31-33 of this guide, Truth-inLending Disclosure (TIL) on page 35 of this guide, and HUD-1 or HUD-1A Setlement Statement (HUD-1) on pages 39, 41 and 42 of this guide) may sill be used for some transacions, such as home equity lines of credit, reverse mortgages, or mortgages secured by mobile home or a dwelling that is not atached to real property. Within three days of your applicaion, the lender is required to provide you with a Loan Esimate. If there are changes in your applicaion – including your loan amount, credit score, or veriied income – your rate and terms will likely change and the lender will give you a revised Loan Esimate. At least three days before your closing, you will get a Closing Disclosure. For more informaion about the new disclosures please visit the Consumer Financial Protecion Bureau (CFPB) at htp://www.consumerinance.gov/knowbeforeyouowe, including the form checklist noing items prospecive homeowners should understand.

LOAN ESTIMATE The Loan Esimate shows the key features and costs of the mortgage loan for which you are applying. It provides the interest rate, term, loan amount, setlement costs, expected payments, and other signiicant features of a paricular loan. Page 1 of the Loan Esimate form (at right, page 19) includes some of the more important features of your loan. •

The top includes your name and address, the property address, the sale price, the loan term, and whether the rate is locked (and if so, how long the rate lock is valid).

The box itled “Loan Terms” lists your loan’s important terms such as the amount of the loan, interest rate, and esimated monthly payment, and whether any of the amounts can increase ater closing, and whether there is a prepayment penalty or balloon payment.

The box itled “Projected Payments” provides a breakdown of possible payments for the life of your loan, showing the amounts you will pay each month in principal and interest, mortgage insurance, and the esimated escrow amount.

The box itled “Costs at Closing” provides the esimated closing costs and the esimated amount of cash you need to bring to closing (more detail can be found on page 21).

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Page 2 of the Loan Esimate form (at right page, 21) lists the details of the closing costs: •

Secion A lists fees that the lender has complete control over, such as originaion and discount points, applicaion fee, and underwriing fee. If this fee is higher than the fee you were irst quoted, ind out why and negoiate a beter fee if possible.

Secion B lists fees that are charged by third paries such as the appraisal, credit report, and inspecion. These fees should be passed on to you without any markup.

Secion C lists fees for services provided by third paries that you may choose yourself. These amounts may vary depending on the service provider you choose.

Secion E lists taxes and other government fees such as recording fees or other taxes.

Secion F and G list the interest, taxes, and premiums for mortgage, lood, and hazard insurance. These will vary depending on your closing date and are not negoiable. If you close in the start of the month, you will be prepaying more interest than if you close at the end of the month. These items must be paid up front or deposited into an escrow account.

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Page 3 of the Loan Esimate form (at right, on page 23) provides addiional informaion about your loan. •

The box itled “Comparisons” is a good tool when comparing loan ofers. It provides the total you will have paid in principal, interest, mortgage insurance, and loan costs ater ive years as well as the amount of principal you will have paid. In addiion, it provides your Annual Percentage Rate (APR) which shows your costs over the loan term as a rate and your Total Interest Percentage (TIP) which shows the total amount of interest that you pay over the loan term as a percentage of your loan amount.

The box itled “Other Consideraions” provides informaion about appraisals, homeowner’s insurance, late payments, and servicing.

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CLOSING DISCLOSURE The Closing Disclosure form sums up the terms of your loan and what you pay at closing. Typically, the closing agent gathers the perinent informaion, completes the Closing Disclosure, and disperses the required funds once the buyer and seller have ceriied the accuracy of the statement by signing it. The Closing Disclosure has a similar format and the same numbering system as the Loan Esimate to easily compare the numbers on your Closing Disclosure to your most recent Loan Esimate. There should not be any signiicant changes other than those to which you have already agreed. Page 1 of the Closing Disclosure form (at right) should be almost idenical to your most recent Loan Esimate form. In addiion to a statement of the transacion and loan informaion it will also include closing informaion such as the closing date, disbursement date, and setlement agent. You should then compare the “Loan Terms”, “Projected Payments”, and “Costs at Closing” boxes for any changes from the most recent Loan Esimate. Page 2 of the Closing Disclosure form (on page 26) lists the details of the closing costs and is broken down into a summary of each party’s side of the transacion. Borrower-paid on the let side, Seller-paid in the middle, and paid by others on the right side. It is idenical to page two of the Loan Summary except the line items are numbered and a majority of line items indicate to whom the money was paid.

(or will receive) as well as the cash the seller will receive (or will need to provide) at closing. Page 4 of the Closing Disclosure form (on page 28) provides addiional loan disclosures. It includes informaion such as whether your loan is assumable, has a demand feature, can negaively amorize, and what your lender will do with parial payments. In addiion, it provides informaion about your escrow account. It includes an esimate of your property costs over year one (such as homeowner’s insurance, property taxes and homeowner’s associaion dues. It also provides the amount of your monthly escrow payment. Page 5 of the Closing Disclosure form (on page 29) provides a breakdown of your total payments (amount you will have paid ater making all payments), inance charge (the dollar amount the loan costs you), amount inanced (the loan amount ater paying the up-front inance charge), APR (your costs over the loan term expressed as a rate), and TIP (the total amount of interest you will pay over the loan terms as a percentage of your loan amount). It also includes addiional loan disclosures and contact informaion for your lender, mortgage broker (if you used one), buyer’s real estate broker, seller’s real estate broker, and the setlement agent.

Page 3 of the Closing Disclosure form (on page 27) includes two tables that will help you review your transacion. •

A table enitled “Calculaing Cash to Close” will help you easily see what changed from your Loan Esimate. The let column lists the amount from the Loan Esimate, the middle column lists the amounts from the Closing Disclosure, and the right column tells you where the amounts changed and where to look on the Closing Disclosure for an explanaion as to why the amounts changed.

The “Summaries of Transacions” table shows an abbreviated summary of your transacion. The let column is your transacion while the right column is the seller’s transacion. The very botom of the sheet provides the amount the borrower needs to provide

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GOOD FAITH ESTIMATE (GFE) Similar to the Loan Esimate, but only used in certain instances, the Good Faith Esimate (GFE), on the next three pages, shows the interest rate, term, loan amount, and all setlement costs on a paricular loan. If you’re using a GFE to compare lenders and brokers, the most signiicant fees are those charged by third paries such as (but not limited to) appraisal, credit report, inspecion, assumpion, tax service and lood ceriicaion. These fees should be passed on to the borrower without any markup. A lender has complete control over fees such as originaion and discount points, processing, underwriing and administraive fees. If this fee is higher then you were irst quoted, ind out why and negoiate a beter fee if possible.

TIP: Someimes the fees listed on the Good Faith Esimate can change before closing. Some reasons include: • Your mortgage broker may have to submit your loan applicaion to a diferent lender, either to get a beter rate or because the underwriter at the irst lender didn’t approve your loan. Diferent lenders have diferent fees. • If your appraisal is sent to appraisal review by the lender, some lenders charge a fee for that. • You decide to use a diferent loan program or a diferent loan amount. • You close earlier or later in the month than esimated. • You decide to use a diferent home owner’s insurance company, policy, or deducible amount.

Interest, taxes and premiums for mortgage, lood and hazard insurance will vary depending on your closing date and are not negoiable. If you close in the beginning of the month, you will be prepaying more interest than if you were to close at the end of the month. These items must be paid up front or deposited into an Escrow account. Your Escrow fees may be negoiable if you plan early with the lender to know who was selected as your setlement agent. You can also choose the setlement agent yourself. Once you know the idenity of the setlement agent, you can contact the setlement agent and negoiate your closing fees. In any case, it is sill a good idea to ask for lower fees. And inally, there are your government fees such as the city and county tax stamps, recording fees and pest inspecions.

Have each mortgage professional go over the Good Faith Esimates with you. Compare the items line by line. If you noice the cost of any item on a GFE is signiicantly higher or lower than that of the same item on other GFE’s, ask the loan originator to explain the diference. Some dishonest loan originators might “low ball” their setlement costs to gain your business. State and Federal law requires lenders and brokers to provide a writen good faith esimate within three days ater taking a loan applicaion from a borrower.

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TRUTH-IN-LENDING DISCLOSURE (TIL) The Truth-In-Lending (TIL) Disclosure Statement is shown at right. The purpose of the TIL is to show you the esimated total costs of borrowing, the expected payment amounts over the life of the loan, whether the loan has a pre-payment penalty, and other signiicant features of your loan.

Total of Payments Total of payments to be made toward principal, interest, prepaid inance charges, and mortgage insurance (if applicable), over the life of the loan. The total of payments in the payment schedule will also equal this amount.

Now Let’s Look at Some of Key Secions of the Truth In Lending Disclosure Statement:

Payment Schedule This is the break down of the number and amounts of payments that will be due under the stated condiions of the loan at the ime the loan is made.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR) The APR is the annual cost of the loan in percentage terms that take into account various charges paid by the borrower wherein interest on the loan is only a part of the charges. The purpose of an APR is to allow you to quickly compare the total costs between compeing loans without having to analyze all of the individual costs within each loan. For Example: a. A $100,000 30-year ixed rate loan at 7% interest rate with inance costs of $5,000 results in an APR of 7.52%. b. While the same loan at 8% interest rate with inance costs of $4,000 results in an APR of 8.44%. By comparing the APRs (7.52% and 8.44%) alone, we can see from our example that the irst loan (7.52%) iniially seems to have a higher cost however, because the APR is lower it will provide a lower total cost to you in the long run. Comparing APR’s on loans is a quick way to determine the cost of each loan. Finance Charge This is the sum of the lender charges that are incurred at the ime the loan is writen. The greater these charges, the higher the APR on the loan.

Variable Rate Feature A loan with a variable rate feature, also known as an Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM), will have payment adjustments that will occur per the terms agreed on in the note. Insurance The insurance secion will idenify any insurance required (home owner property insurance or lood insurance) or any credit life and credit disability insurance the borrower has indicated a desire to purchase. Credit life and credit disability are an addiional cost to the borrower and cannot ever be a requirement for obtaining a loan. Prepayment The prepayment secion indicates if the borrower has to pay or does not have to pay a penalty for paying of the principal balance of the loan prior to a stated period of ime in the note agreement. This secion also ideniies if the borrower will receive a refund of any of the inance charges if the loan is paid of early.

Amount Financed This is the amount provided to the borrower or used on the borrower’s behalf. This is the principal loan amount less the prepaid inance charges.

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WASHINGTON STATE DISCLOSURE SUMMARY The Washington State Disclosure Summary is shown at right. This document must be used if the GFE is not, unless the Loan Esimate is provided. This form brings together informaion from the Good Faith Esimate (GFE) and the Truth in Lending (TIL) documents. Your lender or broker is required to provide you a copy of this disclosure within three days of receiving your loan applicaion if they do not provide you the GFE. The one-page disclosure summary may be arranged diferently from the example to the right, but must contain the same elements in such a way that is easy to read and understand. First make sure you have the right disclosure. There is one for ixed rate loans and one for adjustable rate loans. Your name and property address should be at the top of the form, and below this should be the terms of your loan. This secion must include the length of the loan in years, the loan amount, the interest rate and payment amount. Monthly reserves are items added to your monthly payment which your lender holds in a separate account, an escrow account, to pay items such as real estate taxes, homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance, and/or homeowner’s associaion dues. The form should relect which ones are included and which ones are not.

is receiving a YSP. If any of the informaion on this page has “Signiicant Changes” then redisclosure is required. “Signiicant Changes” include a change in: • Whether the loan contains a prepayment penalty. • Whether the loan contains a balloon payment. • Whether the property taxes and insurance are included in the loan payment. • Whether the loan cost or rate is based on reduced documentaion. • Any increase in the principal loan amount by ive percent or more. • Any increase in the interest rate greater than oneeighth of one percent. • A change in the loan type (ixed to adjustable or adjustable to ixed. • Any increase of the disclosed fees by ive hundred dollars or more. If you need help understanding your loan contact DFI at 1-877-746-4334

Tip: Not all lenders ofer to hold your money in an escrow account. You may have to pay them on your own. All fees charged by the lender or broker must be on this form. Underwriing, processing and other fees paid to the lender will be disclosed as “Other Fees.” Fees paid for services other than to the lender or the broker, such as appraisal or inspecion fees, will not be included in this igure. The disclosure also must tell you if there is prepayment penalty, a lump sum balloon payment due at the end, if your interest rate is locked, whether your rate or fees are higher due to reduced documentaion and if your broker

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HUD-1 SETTLEMENT STATEMENT Page 1 of the HUD-1 Setlement Statement is shown at right. This statement is like a receipt for your home purchase or reinance. It shows you what you bought, and who you bought it from. Typically, the closing agent gathers the perinent informaion, completes the Setlement Statement and disperses the required funds once the buyer and seller have ceriied the accuracy of the statement by signing it. The Setlement Statement has the same numbering system as your Good Faith Esimate to keep it uniform and easy to understand.

Line 303 – The igure here is the total amount of funds (in cash or ceriied check) that borrower needs to bring to setlement in order to close the transacion. If your transacion is a reinance to get cash out, you will ind the amount you are to receive here.

TIP: It’s very important that you verify all the loan costs associated with the transacion in the 801811 secion of the Setlement Statement. If your loan originaion fee or other broker/lender fee has increased from the inal Good Faith Esimate, ind out why it was not disclosed to you unil closing day. The irst page of the Setlement sheet is broken down into a summary of the borrower’s (buyer) transacion on the let side and a summary of the seller’s transacion on the right. The second page is divided into those costs that are “paid from borrower’s funds at setlement” and those costs that are “paid from seller’s funds at setlement”. If buyer, seller, and itle agent agree that the statement is true and accurate, all paries sign and date the sheet toward the botom of page two. The following key secions of the HUD-1, shown at right, should be thoroughly reviewed by you prior to signing any paperwork at closing: Borrower’s/Seller’s Transacion: Line 101 – Lists the contract price as stated in the Purchase and Sale Agreement. Line 103 – Total setlement charges to the borrowers; this is obtained from adding up all of the costs on the second page and is shown as a subtotal on Line 1400. Line 120 – This is the total amount due from the borrower inclusive of the contract price, costs listed on page two of the sheet and adjustments for taxes and other items pad by seller in advance. Line 220 – States the total amount paid by or for borrowers including deposit monies, principal loans(s) and Seller Assistance.

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PAGE 2 OF THE HUD-1 SETTLEMENT STATEMENT IS SHOWN AT RIGHT. Lines 701 – 703 – States the total commission to selling agent or broker. Lines 801-811 – All of the costs associated with the loan such as originaion fees, appraisal fee, credit report fee, various lender and broker fees, administraion fees, and lood ceriicaion fee are listed. Lines 901 – 905 – Any amounts that are required by the lender to be paid in advance, such as daily interest, are set forth here. For example, if Buyer setles on May 20, 2014, the lender will likely require that the Buyer pay in advance daily interest on the loan unil June 1, 2014. Lines 1001-1009 – All reserves that the lender requires to be set aside in an escrow account such as hazard insurance, county taxes, and school taxes are set forth. Lines 1101 – 1113 – Includes all charges associated with the Buyer’s itle insurance such as the insurance premium and overnight wire fee. Lines 1201 – 1203 – Details the recording fees charged by the county to record the deed and mortgage and sets forth the proporionate share of the real estate transfer taxes for Buyer and Seller. Adjustments to Costs Shared By Buyer and Seller At setlement it is usually necessary to make an adjustment between buyer and seller for property taxes and other expenses. The adjustments between buyer and seller are shown on the let and right side of page 1 on the Setlement Statement. Similar adjustments are made for homeowner’s associaion dues, special assessments, and uiliies. Be sure you work out these cost sharing arrangements or “pro-raions” with the seller and setlement agent before the actual day of setlement. Typically these fees are agreed upon in wriing through the negoiaion of your Purchase & Sales Agreement.

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FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The decisions you make at closing may be with you for the life of the loan. Even at this late date you can negoiate terms or seek advice from your realtor, an atorney or your local housing authority in making a inal decision. The botom line is the inal decision lies with you. Here are several things to consider before your signing day. Before Signing Day: • Contact the lender or Escrow Agent and request copies of your completed documents – such as the Closing Disclosure,setlement statement (HUD-1), Deed of Trust, Note, and all Addendums and Riders – at least one day before your appointment to sign your loan. • Visit a local housing counselor, an atorney or a trusted family member or friend to review all documents. Make sure that you understand all the terms of the loan. • Check your Promissory Note: Is the interest rate correct? • Is the payment what you expected and will it include taxes and insurance? • What is the term of the loan? 30 years? 20 years? 15 years? or even 40 years or longer? • Is there a prepayment penalty? Is there a balloon payment? If you are unsure of the impact of these features, contact a non-proit housing agency or a lawyer. • If your loan is an Adjustable Rate Mortgage, you should receive an ARM Disclosure or Rider. Review this document. Make sure you understand how oten your rate can increase, how much your payment can increase, when the rate will go up, and what the maximum interest rate and the maximum monthly payments will be. • If a mortgage broker is involved, is the broker charging anything other than a mortgage broker fee? For example, are they also charging a processing fee, an underwriing fee, or some other kind of fee of

which you were unaware? TIP: Be sure to request a copy of your property appraisal from your broker, federal law gives you a right to receive a copy. All these documents plus others you received at closing make up your personal loan ile. Keep these together with all other items relaing to your home in a safe place. Before you Leave the Closing, Be Sure You Receive Copies of: • Your Promissory Note • The Deed of Trust • Closing Disclosure, or Esimated HUD-1 Setlement Statement • The Truth in Lending Disclosure Statement • The Servicing Disclosure and • Any Insurance Disclosures.

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If you’re reinancing or geing an equity line of credit, you have three days to change your mind ater you sign the loan documents. If you decide you don’t want the loan within this 3-day “rescission” period, you will provide the lender with writen noiicaion. Provide a signed copy of the “Noice to Cancel” to your lender. You can ind this document among your closing papers. If you do rescind the loan, the lender must give you back any money you paid out in the transacion, even money you paid to other paries. Within one-week of signing your loan documents, you should receive a inal Closing Disclosure or HUD-1 setlement statement in the mail. If you don’t receive this informaion, contact your lender or escrow agent immediately. This document is your oicial accouning of all money paid. Review this inal statement closely and make sure nothing has changed.

may be shared with the seller. There may be other charges for services provided by either your lender or the closing company. Your lender or mortgage broker can give you more speciic informaion on these costs. Remember, when you budget for your purchase, you should include the prepaid and inanced closing costs, in addiion to the purchase price, so that you can be sure that you can aford the house. TIP: To decrease the amount of money you’ll need to pay at closing, ask to schedule the closing at the end of the month. For example: If you close on January 31st, your irst payment will sill be March 1st, but you’ll only need to pay the interest for that one day at the ime of closing. Your irst payment will only be a month and a day away, instead of almost two months away, but you’ll need less money at the closing.

Closing Costs Closing costs are all the diferent charges that you’ll be required to pay at or before the closing. They include charges related to the purchase of your home, and charges related to geing a mortgage. Depending on the speciic circumstances of your paricular loan, closing costs typically run between three and ive percent of the loan amount. Charges by the Lender May Include: • Applicaion fees • Points and originaion fees • Charges for appraisals and credit reports Charges Collected by the Title Company or Setlement Agent Include: • Title insurance fees • Real estate tax on the mortgage • Homeowner’s insurance reserves • Charges for iling documents with the county clerk • And a setlement fee for handling all the paperwork to close your loan. In a purchase, some of these costs

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SECTION 6 WELCOME HOME Congratulaions on the purchase of your new home! Now it’s ime to welcome your family and prepare for the house warming party. Protecing Your Home Investment 1. Limit your use of consumer credit cards. Avoid high cost purchases. Live within your means. 2. If you fall into debt, talk to a mortgage counselor before you apply for a loan. Avoid adding credit card debt to your mortgage. 3. Think twice about including a car payment in a mortgage reinance. Do you want to make payments on your car over 30 years? 4. Considering life insurance? Talk to a inancial planner. Some Mortgage Life Insurance products pay your lender but your loved ones don’t receive a penny 5. Thinking about reinancing? Don’t just look at your loan payments – look at the life of your loan. For example, reinancing with another 30-year mortgage may lower your monthly payment but it also means another 30 years of payments. Perhaps a 15-year loan would best meet your needs. 6. Now that you’ve become a homeowner, you will be bombarded with credit ofers. Choose your credit accounts wisely. Always read the ine print. There is no free money – just clever adverising. 7. Homeowner’s insurance can cover more than home replacement. Consult an insurance specialist about coverage for your home’s contents, replacement costs, and liability insurance. Prevening Foreclosure If you fall behind in your monthly house payments, the lender may try to take the house back. This is generally called foreclosure. If a house is foreclosed, you may lose not only your house, but also all of the money you’ve invested. A foreclosure or a deiciency judgment could seriously afect your ability to qualify for credit in the future. Avoid this if at all possible.

Ways That You Can PREVENT Foreclosure: • Early intervenion is the key! If you’re having trouble making your monthly mortgage payments, contact your lender immediately. Don’t wait! • Don’t ignore leters from your lender. • Clearly explain your situaion. Write down who you spoke to, the date, and what was said. • Be prepared to provide your lender with your current inancial informaion, such as your monthly income and expenses. • You can stop the foreclosure by making up any delinquent payments plus any costs related to the foreclosure. • Remember to use registered or ceriied mail in all your correspondence on legal maters. What Are Your Alternaives? • Special Forbearance. Your lender may be able to arrange a repayment plan that would be based upon your current inancial situaion and may even provide for a temporary reducion or suspension of your payments. You may qualify for this if you’ve recently experienced an involuntary reducion in income or an increase in living expenses. • Mortgage Modiicaion. You may be able to reinance the debt and extend the term of your mortgage loan. This will help you catch up by possibly reducing the monthly payments to a more afordable level. You may qualify if you’ve recovered from a inancial problem but your net income is less than it was before the default. • Parial Claim. Your lender may be able to work with you to obtain an interest-free FHA loan from HUD to bring your mortgage current, if you qualify. • Pre-Foreclosure Sale. This will allow you to sell your property and pay of your mortgage loan to avoid foreclosure and damage to your credit raing. If you’re unable to aford the house long-term, you may sell the house yourself before the foreclosure sale and save some of your equity. • Short Sale. A sale in which the lender agrees to accept a sale price less than the outstanding balance of the loan.

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• Deed-in-lieu of Foreclosure. As a last resort, you may be able to voluntarily “give back” your property to the lender. This won’t save your house, but may help your chances of geing another mortgage loan in the future. TIP: If you’re a senior ciizen or are disabled and are facing a foreclosure acion because of unpaid property taxes or special assessments, you may be eligible to postpone payment of your property taxes or special assessments under two programs in Washington. Contact your local County Assessor’s Oice or an atorney for more informaion. TIP: Lenders don’t have to accept all proposals and are not obligated to do so. So don’t wait ill the last minute to contact your lender. TIP: If the lender refuses to take parial payments, you should put this money aside to help negoiate with the lender later. TIP: The foreclosure process may coninue despite the possibility of a workout agreement. Therefore, you should not wait to hear back from the lender. You should contact the lender early and try and come up with a soluion as soon as possible. How Do You Know If You Qualify For Any Of These Alternaives? Contact your local housing counseling agency for help in determining which, if any, of these opions may meet your needs. You should also discuss the situaion with your lender. Should You Be Aware Of Anything Else? Beware of scams! Soluions that sound too simple or too good to be true usually are. If you’re selling your home without professional guidance, beware of buyers who try to rush you through the process. Unfortunately, there are people who may try to take advantage of your inancial diiculty. Be especially alert to the following: • Equity skimming. This type of scam involves a “buyer” approaching you and ofering to pay of your mortgage or give you a sum of money when the property is sold. The “buyer” may suggest that you move out quickly and deed the property to him or her. The “buyer” then collects rent for a ime, doesn’t make any mortgage payments, and allows the lender to foreclose. Remember that signing over your deed to someone else doesn’t necessarily relieve you of your obligaion on your loan.

• Phony Counseling Agencies. Some groups calling themselves “counseling agencies” may approach you and ofer to perform certain services for a fee. These could well be services you could do for yourself, for free, such as negoiaing a new payment plan with your lender, or pursuing a pre-foreclosure sale. If you have any doubt about paying for such services, call a HUD-approved housing counseling agency. Do this BEFORE you pay anyone or sign anything. Precauions You Can Take Take Precauions to Avoid Being “Taken” By a Scam Arist: • Don’t sign any papers you don’t fully understand. • Make sure you get all the “promises” in wriing. • Signing over the deed to someone else doesn’t necessarily relieve you of your loan obligaion. If your name is sill included on the documents, you’re sill liable for repaying the loan. • Check with your lawyer or your lender before entering into any deal involving your home. • Check to see if there are any complaints against the prospecive buyer if you’re selling your house. You can contact Washington State’s Atorney General’s Oice or the Real Estate Commission for this type of informaion. Points You Should Remember • If you get behind on your payments, call or write your mortgage lender immediately. • Stay in your home to make sure you qualify for assistance. • Arrange an appointment with a housing counselor to explore your opions. • Cooperate with the counselor or lender trying to help you. • Explore every alternaive to losing your home. • Beware of scams.

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SECTION 7 SECURING A LINE OF CREDIT AFTER PURCHASE Here is a heads up on what can be done ater the purchase of your home relaive to inancing, reinancing, or obtaining an equity line of credit. It’s important for you to understand that your home investment can bear you fruits for a future expansion, remodel, a consolidaion loan or long awaited vacaion. Let’s see how it works: Is A Home Equity Credit Line for You? If you need to borrow money, home equity lines may be one useful source of credit. Iniially, they may provide you with large amounts of cash at relaively low interest rates. And they may provide you with certain tax advantages unavailable with other kinds of loans. At the same ime, home equity lines of credit require you to use your home as collateral for the loan. This may put your home at risk if you’re late or cannot make your monthly payments. Those loans may put your home in jeopardy if you can’t qualify for reinancing. And, if you sell your home, most plans require you to pay of your credit line at that ime. In addiion, because home equity loans give you relaively easy access to cash, you might ind you borrow money too freely. • How much money can you borrow on a home equity line of credit (HELOC)? Depending on your creditworthiness and the amount of your outstanding debt, home equity lenders may let you borrow up to 100 percent of the appraised value of your home minus the amount you sill owe on your irst mortgage. Ask the lender about the length of the home equity loan, whether there is a minimum withdrawal requirement when you open your account, and whether there are minimum or maximum withdrawal requirements ater your account is opened. Inquire how you can gain access to your credit line – with checks, credit cards, or both. Also, ind out if your home equity plan sets a ixed ime – a draw period – when you can make withdrawals from your account. Once the draw period expires, you may be able to renew your credit line. If you can’t, you won’t be permited to borrow addiional funds. Also, in some plans, you may have to pay your full outstanding balance. In others, you may be able to repay the balance over a ixed ime.

• What safeguards are built into the loan? One of the best protecions you have is the Federal Truth in Lending Act discussed earlier, which requires lenders to inform you about the terms and costs of the plan at the ime you’re given an applicaion. Lenders must disclose the APR and payment terms and must inform you of charges to open or use the account, such as an appraisal, a credit report, or atorneys’ fees. Lenders also must tell you about any variable rate feature and give you a brochure describing the general features of home equity plans. The Truth in Lending Act also protects you from changes in the terms of the account before the plan is opened. Because your home is at risk when you open a home equity credit account, you have three days ater you receive the closing papers to cancel the transacion, for any reason. To cancel, you must inform the lender in wriing. Upon imely cancellaion, your credit line must be cancelled and all fees you’ve paid must be returned. Quesions to Ask Before You Sign the Doted Line: • • • • •

What is the interest rate on the HELOC? What is the index and margin that afect the interest rate? What are the up front closing costs? Is there an annual fee? What are the repayment terms during the loan?

Home Improvement Loan Understanding Your Payment Opions You have several payment opions for most home improvement and maintenance and repair projects. For example, you can get your own loan or ask the contractor to arrange inancing for larger projects. For smaller projects, you may want to pay by check or credit card. Avoid paying cash. Whatever opion you choose, be sure you have a reasonable payment schedule and a fair interest rate. Here are some addiional ips: • Try to limit your down payment. Some state laws limit the amount of money a contractor can request as a down payment. • Try to make payments during the project coningent upon saisfactory compleion of a deined amount of work. This way, if the work is not proceeding according to schedule, the payment is also delayed.

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• Lien laws may allow subcontractors or suppliers to ile a mechanic’s lien against your home to saisfy their unpaid bills. Don’t make the inal payment or sign an aidavit of inal release unil you’re saisied with the work and know that the subcontractors and suppliers have been paid. • Some state or local laws limit the amount by which the inal bill can exceed the esimate, unless you’ve approved the increase. • If you have a problem with merchandise or services that you charged to a credit card, and you’ve made a good faith efort to work out the problem with the seller, you have the right to withhold payment for the merchandise or services. Contact your card issuer for details on how this service is administered. You may be able to withhold payment up to the amount of credit outstanding for the purchase, plus any inance or related charges. The “Home Improvement” Loan Scam A contractor calls or knocks on your door and ofers to install a new roof or remodel your kitchen at a price that sounds reasonable. You tell him you’re interested, but can’t aford it. He tells you it’s no problem — he can arrange inancing through a lender he knows. You agree to the project, and the contractor begins work. At some point ater the contractor begins, you’re asked to sign a lot of papers. The papers may be blank or the lender may rush you to sign before you have had ime to read what you have been given to sign. You sign the papers. Later, you realize that the papers you signed are a home equity loan. The interest rate, points and fees seem very high. To make maters worse, the work on your home isn’t done right or hasn’t been completed, and the contractor, who may have been paid by the lender, has litle interest in compleing the work to your saisfacion. You can protect yourself from inappropriate lending pracices. Here’s how. Don’t: • Agree to a home equity loan if you don’t have enough money to make the monthly payments. • Sign any document you haven’t read or any document that has blank spaces to be illed in ater you sign. • Deed your property to anyone. First consult an atorney, a knowledgeable family member, or someone else that you trust.

• Agree to inance through your contractor without shopping around and comparing loan terms. Geing a Writen Contract A contract spells out the “who, what, where, when” and cost of your project. The agreement should be clear, concise and complete. Before You Sign a Contract, Make Sure it Contains: • The contractor’s name, address, phone, and license number. • The payment schedule for the contractor, subcontractors and suppliers. • An esimated start and compleion date. • The contractor’s obligaion to obtain all necessary permits. • How change orders will be handled. A change order – common on most remodeling jobs – is a writen authorizaion to the contractor to make a change or addiion to the work described in the original contract. It could afect the project’s cost and schedule. A remodel oten requires payment for change orders before work begins. • A detailed list of all materials including color, model, size, brand name, and product. • Warranies covering materials and workmanship. The names and addresses of the paries honoring the warranies – contractor, distributor or manufacturer – must be ideniied. The length of the warranty period and any limitaions also should be spelled out. • What the contractor will and will not do. For example, is site clean up and trash hauling included in the price? Ask for a “broom clause.” It makes the contractor responsible for all clean-up work, including spills and stains. • Oral promises also should be added to the writen contract. • A writen statement of your right to cancel the contract within three business days if you signed it in your home or at a locaion other than the seller’s permanent place of business. During the sales transacion, the salesperson (contractor) must give you two copies of a cancellaion form (one to keep and one to send back to the company) and a copy of your contract or receipt. The contract or receipt must be dated, show the name and address of the seller, and explain your right to cancel.

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Keeping Records Keep all paperwork related to your project in one place. This includes copies of the contract, change orders and correspondence with your home improvement professionals. Keep a log or journal of all phone calls, conversaions and aciviies. You also might want to take photographs as the job progresses. These records are especially important if you have problems with your project – during or ater construcion. Compleing the Job: A Checklist Before you sign of and make the inal payment, use this checklist to make sure the job is complete. Check that: All work meets the standards spelled out in the contract. You have writen warranies for materials and workmanship. Proof that all subcontractors and suppliers have been paid. The job site has been cleaned up and cleared of excess materials, tools and equipment. You’ve inspected and approved the completed work.

take itle to your home, but your heirs must pay of the loan. Usually, selling the home or reinancing the property repays the debt. Facts to Consider About Reverse Mortgages • Reverse mortgages are rising-debt loans. The interest is added to the principal loan balance each month, because it’s not paid on a current basis. The amount you owe increases over ime as the interest compounds. Some reverse mortgages have ixed rate interest; others have adjustable rates that can change over the lifeime of the loan. • Reverse mortgages use some or all of the equity in your home, leaving fewer assets for you and your heirs. • The three types of reverse mortgages – FHA insured, lender-insured, and uninsured – vary according to their costs and terms. Check the features of each to select the type that is best suited for your needs. Before considering a reverse mortgage, consult with family members, your atorney, or inancial advisor. • Reverse mortgages typically charge loan originaion fees and closing costs. Insured plans charge insurance premiums and some plans have mortgage servicing fees. You may be able to inance these costs if you want to avoid paying them in cash. But, if you inance the costs, they will be added to your loan amount and you will pay interest on them. • Your legal obligaion to repay the loan is limited by the value of your home at the ime the loan is repaid. This would include any appreciaion in the value ater your loan began.

Reverse Mortgages If you’re age 62 or older and are “house-rich, cash-poor”, a reverse mortgage may be an opion to help supplement your income. However, because your home is such a valuable asset, you may want to consult with your family, atorney, or inancial advisor before applying for a reverse mortgage. Knowing your rights and responsibiliies as a borrower may help to minimize your inancial risks and avoid any threat of foreclosure or loss on your home.

There are various reverse mortgage plans ofered. Consult your atorney or inancial advisor about the tax consequences of the paricular plan you’re considering.

How Reverse Mortgages Work

Reverse Mortgage Safeguards

A reverse mortgage is a loan where a lender pays you a monthly advance, a line of credit, or a combinaion of both while you coninue to live in your home. The amount you’re eligible to borrow generally is based on your age, the equity in your home, and the interest rate the lender is charging. Funds you receive from a reverse mortgage may be used for any purpose.

The Federal Truth in Lending Act (TILA) is one of the best protecions you have with a reverse mortgage. TILA requires lenders to disclose the costs and terms of reverse mortgages. This includes the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) and payment terms. If you choose a credit line as your loan advance, lenders also must tell you of charges related to opening and using your credit account.

With a reverse mortgage, you retain itle to your home. You are responsible for maintaining your home and paying all real estate taxes. Depending on the plan you select, your reverse mortgage becomes due with interest when you move, sell your home, reach the end of a pre-selected loan period, or die. When you die, the lender doesn’t

You are enitled to counseling from a federally-approved reverse mortgage counselor if you apply for a reverse mortgage, so be sure to take advantage of that!

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MORTGAGE TERMS Annual Percentage Rate (APR): Cost of the credit, which includes the interest and all other inance charges. If APR is more than .75 to 1 percentage point higher than the interest rate you were quoted, there are signiicant fees being added to the loan. Appraisal: A determinaion of the value of a home by a third party who is hired by the lender to assure the home has enough value to pay of the loan should the borrower default. It is typically paid for by borrower. Balloon Payment: Large payment due at the end of a loan. This happens when a borrower has a low monthly payment covering only interest and a small porion of the principal, leaving almost the whole loan amount due in one payment at the end. If you cannot make this payment, you could lose your home.

Prepayment Penalty: Fees required to be paid by you if the loan is paid of early. Try to avoid any prepayment penalty unless you are very sure that you will hold the loan for longer than the pre-payment penalty period. In the State of Washington, pre-payment penalies are not allowed on second mortgages. Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): Insurance that protects the lender against a loss if a borrower defaults on the loan. It is usually required for loans in which the down payment is less than 20 percent of the sales price or, in a reinancing when the amount inanced is greater than 75 percent of the appraised value.

Escrow: The holding of money or documents by a neutral third party prior to closing. It can also be an account held by the lender (or servicer) into which a homeowner pays money for taxes and insurance. Interest Rate: is the cost of borrowing money expressed as a percentage rate. Loan Originaion Fees: Fees paid to the lender for handling the paperwork in arranging the loan. These are prepaid inance charges paid at the loan closing and are included in your APR calculaion. You can pay them out of pocket. Lock-In: A writen agreement guaranteeing a home buyer a speciic interest rate on a home loan provided that the loan is closed within a certain period of ime, such as 60 or 90 days. Oten the agreement also speciies the number of points to be paid at closing. Mortgage Broker Fees: Fees paid to the mortgage broker for handling the paperwork for arranging the loan. Points: Fees paid to the lender for a lower interest rate. One point is equal to 1% of the loan amount. Points should be paid at the ime of the loan. These can also be used to pay down the interest rate.

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LOAN DOCUMENT CHECKLIST

Use this Loan Document Checklist to make sure you have all the right documents to secure your loan.

(CHECK )

REQUEST COPY FROM

DOCUMENT NAME

DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION

Promissory Note

Borrowers acknowledgement of loan and promise to repay

Lender

Deed of Trust

Records lien and grant powers to trustee incase of default

Lender

Rider(s)

Adds addiional loan terms/ restricions

Lender

Washington Disclosure Summary

Required on purchase transacions if no GFE is given, contains important loan details.

Lender or Broker

Good Faith Esimate/Loan Esimate

Preliminary esimate of fees and funds Re-disclosure of esimated fees

Lender or Broker

Second Good Faith Esimate/ Revised Loan Esimate

Required if there are major changes to the iniial one

Truth in Lending Disclosure (if needed, with GFE only)

Shows repayment schedule and total amount you will have paid in the end

Lender or Broker

Three Day Right of Rescission (equity

Noice of borrower’s right to cancel the transacion during the 3 days ater loan signing

Lender

or reinance loans only) (not applicable in purchase transacion)

if buyer has a copy

Esimated HUD-1/Closing Disclosure Escrow agent’s esimate of costs and funds to be distributed

Escrow Agent

Final HUD-1/ Revised Closing Disclosure

Escrow Agent

Credit Report

Final accouning of costs and funds to be disbursed

(not required to be provided to borrower but can be requested)

Three-bureau credit decision

Lender or Broker

Lock-in Agreement

Shows whether the rate was locked and if so, what the rate was

Lender or Broker

Servicing Disclosure

Disclosure to the borrower whether the lender intends to sell the loan to another enity that will collect your payments Discloses any insurance products that were sold to the borrower in conjuncion with the loan Broke’s agreement to provide a service and what cost (only applicable when broker was used)

Insurance Disclosure (if applicable)

Broker Disclosure Ailiated Business Disclosure

Required when a service provider refers the borrower to an enity the provider has beneicial interest in

HOEPA Noice

Addiional disclosure required if the APR is more than 10% above the treasury yield, OR total fees are more than 8% of loan amount

Lender or broker Lender Broker Party that referred borrower to an ailiate Lender

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RESOURCES The Following Agencies Served as Resources for this Project: AARP www.aarp.org Fannie Mae www.fanniemae.com Federal Ciizen Informaion Center www.pueblo.gsa.gov

Disclaimer: This informaion is intended to provide you with general informaion about buying and reinancing your home. It touches on the basic steps in the process and suggests guidelines for avoiding pifalls, but it does not atempt to provide inancial or legal advice. If you lack knowledge or experience in negoiaing terms, arranging inancing, analyzing tax consequences, or handling related details, you should contact an atorney, or request assistance from your local housing authority before buying or reinancing a home. It is designed to be an educaional tool. It does not endorse or recommend any person, product, or insituion.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporaion www.fdic.gov Federal Reserve Board www.federalreserve.gov Federal Trade Commission www.tc.gov Freddie Mac www.freddiemac.com Ginnie Mae www.ginniemae.gov Seatle/King County Coaliion for Responsible Lending seatle.gov/housing/predatorylending/Default.htm U.S. Department of Urban and Housing Development (HUD) www.hud.gov Washington Homeownership Resource Center www.homeownership-wa.org Washington State Housing Finance Commission www.wshfc.org Washington State Oice of the Atorney General www.atg.wa.gov

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GUIDE TO HOME LOANS


Know before you close.

The New Closing Disclosure Explained A look at the different sections of the Closing Disclosure and explanations of each page.

Closing Disclosure At-a-glance •

The new form is 5 pages long

New form replaces the TILA and HUD-1

One Closing Disclosure is required for each loan

Charge descriptions on both the Loan Estimate and Closing Disclosure must match.

The Closing Disclosure replaces the Truth-in-Lending Act

There is still a requirement for one Closing Disclosure

(TILA) disclosure and the HUD-1 Settlement Statement.

for each loan and charge descriptions used on the Loan

Under the inal rule, the creditor is responsible for delivering

Estimate must be substantially similar to the descriptions

the Closing Disclosure to the consumer, but creditors may

used on the Closing Disclosure. This is so a consumer may

use settlement agents to provide the Closing Disclosure,

easily identify a change in costs or terms by a comparison

provided they comply with the inal rule.

of the two forms.

page 75 © 2015 | Fidelity National Title Group

FNTG01_CDFEX_02_2015V1


The New Closing Disclosure Explained. A look at the different sections of the Closing Disclosure and explanations of each page.

Page 1. The irst page of the Closing Disclosure is almost identical to Page 1 of Loan Estimate. It describes the: •

Loan terms

Loan amount

Interest rate

Monthly P&I, and

Any prepayment penalty or balloon payment.

This page also provides the projected payments over the life of the loan. This page also discloses to the borrower what amounts will be deposited into their impound or escrow account and provides the total estimated closing costs and cash to close.

Page 2. The second page is similar to the current Page 2 of the HUD-1 Settlement Statement. It provides a breakdown of all the closing cost details and lists all loan costs and other costs paid by borrower, seller, and other parties.

© 2015 | Fidelity National Title Group

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The New Closing Disclosure Explained. A look at the different sections of the Closing Disclosure and explanations of each page.

Page 3. The third page displays a Calculating Cash to Close table similar to the table on Page 2 of the Loan Estimate. This table provides a comparison to the charges disclosed on the Loan Estimate. The rest of the page shows the summaries of the borrower and seller costs and credits, similar to the current Page 1 of the HUD-1 Settlement Statement.

Page 4. The fourth page contains disclosures about other terms of the loan, including: •

Whether the loan is assumable

If the loan has a demand feature

May impose a late payment fee and when it may be incurred

If the loan has a negative amortization feature

Whether the lender will accept partial payments

Informs the borrower the lender will have a security interest in their property.

The page also includes a table describing what charges will be impounded and how much will be collected each month. Finally, the page includes adjustable payment and interest rate tables if they are applicable to the loan.

Know before you close. Your CFPB readiness partner - every step of the way. page 77


The New Closing Disclosure Explained. A look at the different sections of the Closing Disclosure and explanations of each page.

Page 5. On the ifth page under the heading “Loan Calculations” the consumer will ind the: •

Total of payments over the life of the loan

Finance charge

Amount inanced

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

Total interest percentage information

Under “Other Disclosures” the consumer will ind information about the: •

Appraisal (if applicable)

Contract details

Liability after foreclosure

Reinance information

Tax deductions

At the bottom of the page is the Contact Information and Signature lines. If signature lines are included, the following disclosure is used: “By signing, you are only conirming that you have received this form. You do not have to accept this loan because you have signed or received this form” indicating a signature is intended only as a receipt of the form. All of these forms, dates, rules, and laws can seem like a lot to take in. The good news is that we’ve done our homework and are here to help you understand what you need to know before you close.

Know before you close. © 2015 | Fidelity National Title Group

Your CFPB readiness partner - every step of the way. page 78


HSA

HSA Home Warranty Protection One of the most important features of your home antyo.ldceorm r r a w s. e m o www.mytho HSA contractuh! d devote ’s all about It

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Protect yourself from unexpected home repair costs. As a seller You’re protected while your home is on the market. Mechanical system failures are covered during the listing period for up to one year – you simply pay a low deductible.

Whether you’re selling or buying, you’re covered with an HSA Home Warranty.

You have a marketing edge. An HSA Home Warranty can help sell your home faster and closer to your asking price. The warranty enhances your home’s value to prospective buyers and helps secure the best possible price for your home.

As a buyer You’re prepared for the unexpected. The cost of repairing or replacing appliances and systems in your home can be budget-breaking, especially when you’ve just purchased a new home. You know they can’t last forever, so you need to plan ahead. You save yourself time and keep it simple. An HSA Home Warranty provides the convenience of one source for most repair needs. Prompt, reliable service is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

You’re helping prevent post-sale disputes. If an unexpected failure occurs in your home after the sale, the buyer turns to HSA for the resolution instead of you.

You’re protected year after year. An HSA Home Warranty is renewable annually, so you’re always prepared for the unexpected.

Most homes experience at least two mechanical failures each year. Without HSA Home Warranty protection, typical repair/replacement costs* would be: Item

Repair

Replacement

Heating system

$95 - $600

$1,325 - $3,700

Central air

$200 - $1,100

$1,475 - $4,200

Water heater

$85 - $210

$420 - $705

Plumbing

$100 - $1,200

$480 - $2,225

Refrigerator

$80 - $515

$525 - $2,100

Oven/Range

$80 - $310

$415 - $1,600

*Based on HSA’s estimates of retail cost for repairs and replacements of items listed above. Costs may vary in your geographic area.

These costs continue to go up every year. Protect yourself from the inancial burden incurred should a covered item need repair or replacement.

Quality service is our top priority. Whether you’re working with one of the HSA customer service representatives over the phone, or relying on a service contractor to make a repair in your home, HSA ensures prompt, convenient and reliable service. When a problem arises in your home, you simply make one call to HSA. Service representatives are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to help you. HSA provides qualiied, prescreened service contractors from its Preferred Vendor Network that arrive promptly and invoice HSA directly for covered repairs. If an HSA authorized service provider cannot respond in a timely manner, HSA will approve the use of a contractor outside of its network to ensure the convenience of fast service. page 80


Coverage Highlights

Form # MW09 01/09

The HSA Home Warranty is a contractual guarantee that should certain appliances or mechanical systems fail due to normal wear and tear during the coverage period, those items will be repaired or replaced, subject to a small deductible. CoveRage

UNDERSTANDING YOUR HSA HOME WARRANTY With HSA Home Warranty you get extensive coverage on your mechanical systems and appliances; however, not all services and failures are covered. HSA wants to help you understand the coverage so you see the value in having the HSA Home Warranty. For a complete understanding of your HSA Home Warranty, read the Sample Contract portion of this brochure.

SelleR

BuyeR

Central heat, central air and heat pump Ductwork, thermostat and ductwork-attached humidiier Toilet tank and bowl (builder’s standard); wax ring seals Plumbing parts and faucets Polybutylene leaks Water, gas, drain and waste lines Routing of drain line stoppages Water heater, instant hot water dispenser and sump pump Whirlpool bathtub Electrical system Attic fans, exhaust fans and ceiling fans Garage door opener Home freezer Trash compactor, dishwasher & garbage disposal Oven, stove top/range & built-in microwave oven

Some of the following services:

Water well pump, septic system and water softener Lighting ixtures, central vacuum, door bell, burglar & ire alarm Refrigerator and clothes washer and dryer

...may not be covered: Normal maintenance/cleaning Drain line stoppages due to tree roots Coolant evacuation and recovery ...may not qualify for repair: Improper maintenance Improper installation Code violations ...may incur additional cost: Disposal of the replaced item Modiications required to it new equipment Code violations Permit fees Coolant evacuation and recovery

Roof leaks

BuyeR optIonS Electronic air cleaner

$40

Hot tub

$150

Swimming pool

$150

Pool/hot tub combination (must share common mechanicals)

$175

BuyeR 5 StaR upgRade

$50

Central heat and air: registers, grills, ilters & heat lamps Central air: freon recovery and non-ducted window or wall air conditioner Water heater sediment & toilets replaced with like quality Smoke alarms Garage door opener: hinges, springs, keypad and remote transmitter Refrigerator: freon recovery and ice maker/beverage dispenser Trash compactor lock/key assembly & bucket Dishwasher racks, baskets & rollers Built-in microwave interior lining, door glass, clock and shelves Oven/range interior lining, clocks, rotisseries, racks, handles, knobs and dials

BuyeR 7 StaR upgRade

Coverage is available on some of the above items for additional premium. Please read the sample contract and application for options that will save you even more money.

$149

$250 toward code violations $300 toward modiications on central heat, air or water heater Permits up to $250 per occurrence Removal and disposal of replaced equipment Lack of maintenance Improper installations/modiications

CoveRage teRmS Seller coverage: effective the date of application and continues for up to 12 months. Buyer coverage: effective the date of closing and continues for 12 months. Renewable annually.

Filing a Claim

price

$439/$419

deductible/trade call fee

$75/$100

Please reference the Sample Contract portion of this brochure for complete coverage details.

1. Homeowner must call HSA at 800-367-1448 before calling a contractor. Failure to do so may result in a refusal of coverage on that item. 2. HSA will provide a qualiied, prescreened contractor who will arrive promptly and invoice HSA directly for covered repairs.* If HSA’s authorized service provider cannot respond in a timely manner, HSA will approve the use of a contractor outside of its network to ensure the convenience of fast service. It’s guaranteed. 3. Contractor must call HSA for approval before initiating the repair. Homeowner is required to pay the service contractor for all charges incurred in the event that no “Operational Failure” is discovered. * If the approved failure was serviced by an HSA service provider, that provider will bill us directly. The contract holder will be responsible for the deductible and any charges not covered by the HSA Home Warranty. If the approved failure was serviced by a contractor outside of the HSA network and that provider is not willing to bill us directly, simply fax the paid invoice to HSA (fax 877-638-1741), and HSA will reimburse the contract holder.

HSA Home Warranty / 1861 Ludden Dr., Cross Plains, WI 53528 / 800-367-1448 / fax 877-638-1741 / www.onlinehsa.com

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Sample Contract PLEASE READ THIS DOCUMENT CAREFULLY. YOU MUST NOTIFY HOME SECURITY OF AMERICA, INC. (HSA) PRIOR TO ACTUAL COMMENCEMENT OF REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT. TO REPORT ALL CLAIMS: CALL HSA AT 1-800-367-1448. FAx SERvICE INvOICES TO 1-877-638-1741. The aggregate coverage under this agreement is limited to $25,000.00; with a $5,000.00 per mechanical system sublimit, unless a lower per occurrence sub-limit or lower aggregate sub-limit is speciically enumerated elsewhere in this agreement. Certain items and events are not covered by this contract. Please refer to section F. Limitations of Liability and to the exclusions listed in each applicable section of this contract.

A. Coverage 1. HSA will provide home protection coverage for authorized repair or replacement of “Component Parts” mentioned as covered in accordance with the terms and conditions of this contract that fail due to “Operational Failure”. HSA will cover “Loss” so long as the “Component Parts”: A. Are located within the “Interior” of the main foundation of the home or attached or detached garage (except for the exterior well pump, septic system, condensing unit and pool/spa equipment); and B. Become inoperative due to normal wear and tear; and C. Are in “Proper Working Order” on the effective date of this contract; and D. Are properly installed throughout the term of this contract for proper diagnosis. 2. This contract covers single-family resale homes and condominium or town house units. Multi-family homes up to and including eight (8) family dwelling units may be covered if applied for and the appropriate fee is paid. Multiple-family homes qualify for listing coverage; however, coverage is limited to the owner-occupied unit. Tenant occupied properties are not eligible for coverage during the listing period. Coverage is for owned or rented residential property and excludes commercial property or residences used as businesses, including but not limited to, day care centers, fraternity/sorority houses and nursing/care homes. 3. Coverage includes only the items stated as covered and excludes all others. Coverage is subject to limitations and conditions speciied in this contract. Please read the contract carefully.

B. Deinitions 1. “Component Parts” - the constituent elements of mechanical items as covered by this contract. 2. “Operational Failure” - the mechanical breakdown of “Component Parts”. 3. “Proper Working Order” - functioning as intended and expected for its age, and within the safety standards as established by the system manufacturer. 4. “Loss” – the reasonable market cost or the actual cost HSA can contract for the required services, whichever is less, for the repair or replacement of “Component Parts”. 5. “Interior” - the space within the external surface area which constitutes the perimeter of the residence’s exterior walls; under the rooing materials; above or encased in the basement loor or home’s slab, or above the ground surface in a crawl space.

C. Coverage Period Home seller: coverage begins on the date HSA issues a contract number and continues for twelve (12) months, until close of sale or termination of listing, whichever occurs irst. Home buyer: for properties involved in a real estate transaction, coverage begins at the close of sale and continues for twelve (12) months from that date. Payment is due at the close of sale. New construction: coverage begins on the irst anniversary of the close of sale and continues for one or three years from that date. Length of coverage is determined by the premium paid. Payment is due at the close of sale. Buyer direct: for properties not involved in a real estate transaction, coverage begins 15 days after payment is received by HSA and continues for twelve (12) months from that date. Visit www.myhomewarranty.com for pricing.

D. Customer Service 1. YOU MUST NOTIFY US PRIOR TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT. When service is needed due to an “Operational Failure”, including emergency situations, you are to telephone HSA at 1-800-367-1448, twenty-four (24) hours per day, and seven (7) days per week. This telephone contact shall initiate the service process without the requirement of a claim form or service application. This notiication includes the requirement that we have the opportunity to speak with the service contractor prior to the implementation of any repairs. Failure to do so may result in our denial of reimbursement for the expenses you incurred. HSA shall not be liable for a “Loss” unless notice is given to HSA prior to the expiration of your coverage and the reported “Operational Failure” is professionally diagnosed and the diagnosis is reported to HSA within 15 days after the expiration of your coverage, regardless of when the “Operational Failure” occurred. 2. You shall take every precaution to protect the property giving rise to the “Operational Failure” until the necessary repair or replacement is authorized by HSA and made. Repair or replacement shall be performed within forty-eight (48) hours, under normal circumstances, of an approved claim by a service contractor chosen by HSA, unless a service contractor of your choice is approved by HSA when you report the malfunction or “Operational Failure” by telephone. HSA selected service contractors must be used on all claims. (Please notify HSA if you have a complaint about an HSA selected service contractor.) If HSA cannot provide a contractor for you, HSA will approve the use of a contractor outside of its network. We have the sole right to determine if items will be repaired or replaced. Unless speciically identiied elsewhere in this contract, replacement shall be with systems comparable in features, capacity and eficiency; HSA is not responsible for matching dimensions, color or brand. The use of non-original manufacturer “Component Parts” is permitted in making repairs under this contract. We will use original manufacturer “Component Parts” when non-original manufacturer “Component Parts” are unavailable. HSA reserves the right to obtain additional opinions at our expense. HSA reserves the right to offer cash in lieu of repair or replacement based on what HSA can expect to pay to repair the failure (parts and labor); this amount may be less than retail or less than your actual cost. Once a failure has been diagnosed, subsequent failures to the same system will be exempt from coverage unless and until proof of repair is submitted to HSA. Proof shall include, but is not limited to, receipts verifying repair and/or replacement. 3. DEDUCTIBLE: you will pay the $75.00 or $100.00 deductible for each separate trade call. Deductible amount is determined by the contract price selected. If multiple visits are required for the same repair you will not be charged an additional deductible. Trade call means each visit by an authorized repair contractor. The deductible shall apply to all approved costs including service call charges. If service work performed under this contract should fail, then HSA will make the necessary repairs without an additional deductible for a period of 90 days on parts and 30 days on labor. In the event that the failure is not covered, you are responsible for all charges incurred. 4. When you select the service contractor, you may be required to pay them directly and seek reimbursement from HSA if the service contractor will not bill us. HSA is not responsible for overtime service rates unless we determine a life threatening or property damaging “Operational Failure” has occurred. HSA will reimburse you for your approved coverage, subject to applicable deductible(s) within 30 days of receipt of a paid invoice from the service contractor or other proof of payment acceptable to HSA. Claim documentation and any correspondence can be faxed to HSA at 1-877-638-1741 or mailed to 1861 Ludden Dr., Cross Plains, WI 53528. 5. You are required to pay the service contractor directly for the service call fee and any non-covered charges. In the event that no covered “Operational Failure” is discovered, you are required to pay the service contractor directly for all charges incurred, including access and diagnosis. HSA will not respond to a new service request when any previous deductible(s) or fees are outstanding. HSA reserves the right to recover any outstanding deductible(s) and fees directly from the contract holder.

E. Covered “Component Parts” Seller & Buyer Coverage In accordance with the terms and conditions of the warranty contract, HSA will repair or replace systems and appliances speciically mentioned as covered; all others are excluded. Please reference Section F. Limitations of Liability for general exclusions and limitations. NOTE FOR SELLER: items 1. and 2. in Section E. are limited to a combined $1,500 aggregate maximum during the listing period. 1. CENTRAL HEAT - COvERED: (up to 2 units) includes forced air furnace; radiant electric including wiring, heat lines installed in electrical baseboards, or ceiling cables; radiant hot water/steam boilers, self-contained heating systems and oil systems are covered up to $1,500 aggregate including radiant heating lines, circulating pumps and piping; solar heating units including solar collectors, relectors and iberglass or galvanized holding tanks that are used for storage of water for a solar heating system; heat exchangers, wall furnaces if they are the main source of heat to the residence; thermostats, ductwork from heating unit to point of attachment at registers or grills; ductwork-attached humidiiers. NOT COVERED: collector box, coal and wood burning equipment, chimneys, ireplaces, lue liners, systems with compressors larger than ive tons; oil storage tanks, free standing or portable space heaters, heat or energy recovery units; air cleaners/ilters, condensate line clearing, crane charges, heat lamps, ilters, registers, grills, insulation, improperly sized ductwork. 2. CENTRAL AIR - COvERED: (up to 2 units) electric units, refrigerated or evaporative units, packaged systems, heat pumps; geothermal system and water source heat pump system “Component Parts” located within the “Interior” of the residence; glycol systems, water source and geothermal heat pump systems are covered up to $1,500 aggregate; thermostats, ductwork from cooling unit to point of attachment at registers or grills. For covered air conditioning and heat pump failures, when repair is not possible and like SEER (Seasonal Energy Eficiency Ratio) or HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) equipment is not readily available, HSA will replace with 13 SEER or 7.7 HSPF equipment. HSA will also install a TX valve or will replace the evaporator coil/air handler and line set to match the SEER/HSPF rating to the replaced equipment. Modiications, including but not limited to, a replacement pad for the condensing unit, relocation of existing equipment to accommodate larger sized equipment, ductwork fabrication or plenum work that is necessary to install the new coil in the existing space, will be the responsibility of the homeowner; if the 7 Star Upgrade is purchased, HSA will pay modiication charges up to $300 in the aggregate for the buyer. NOT COvERED: gas units, systems with compressors larger than ive tons; outside/underground piping, well pump and “Component Parts” for geothermal and/or water source heat pumps; heat or energy recovery units; non-ducted air conditioners, condensate line clearing, crane charges, ilters, registers, grills, insulation, improperly sized ductwork. 3. DOMESTIC WATER HEATER - COvERED: tank, heat elements, thermostat, valves, lue piping, electrical or gas connections. NOT COvERED: solar/solar-assisted water heating units, circulating pumps, expansion tanks, sediment build-up, energy conservation lues and vents. 4. “INTERIOR” PLUMBING SYSTEM - COvERED: leaks and breaks of water supply lines, gas lines, drain and waste lines; leaks in polybutylene piping are covered up to $500 aggregate per contract period; drain line routing with rotary machinery (excludes camera diagnosis and hydro-jetting to clear the line) through an accessible cleanout, p-trap, drain or overlow access points; faucet and shower head assemblies and their respective “Component Parts” including valve for shower/tub diverter, trip levers, tub stopper assembly and sink pop-up assembly; pressure regulators, wax ring seals, toilet ixture and water tank (replaced with builder’s standard as necessary); parts within the toilet tank, in-line shut-off valves, risers leading into: sinks, tubs and toilet; primary sump pump for pumping water only; single-point instant hot water dispenser including casing, element, wiring and valve; whirlpool bathtub pump and motor assembly. Buyer only: water well pump, septic system and water softener. NOT COvERED: ejector/lift pumps; basket strainers, shower base pans, shower enclosures or doors, sinks, tubs, drain tile/French drains, sprinkler systems; water ilter/puriier, bidets, failures due to salt, mineral beds or deposits; caulking, grouting, or tiles; lines or parts lying within an unheated area; drain line stoppages caused by roots; HSA is not responsible for installing a clean-out or pulling/re-setting a toilet to access a drain line stoppage; routing through roof vents is not covered. 5. “INTERIOR” ELECTRIC - COvERED: wiring, main service panels, sub-panels, receptacles or outlets, switches, fuse boxes, electric wiring to all major electrical equipment; outside outlets attached to the primary residential structure and garage; garage door opener (2 systems maximum) must meet current safety standards; includes track assembly and carriage unit if part of the opener unit; permanently installed “Interior” attic and exhaust fans used for the intake and output of air excluding belts, shutters and ilters; ceiling fans. Buyer only: central vacuum, door bell system, lighting ixtures, burglar alarm and ire alarm. NOT COvERED: any failure in the central electrical system caused by non-covered electrical wiring or components; telephone wiring; garage door: cables, rollers, hinges, springs, keypads, remote transmitter units or door replacement; chandeliers, smoke alarms, intercom systems; exhaust equipment mounted on the roof (i.e. ridge-a-lators). 6. KITCHEN APPLIANCES - COvERED: all “Component Parts” including timers that affect the primary function of the appliance; except for clothes washer and dryer all appliances must be located in the primary kitchen unless additional units have been approved by HSA and premium has been received by HSA; includes oven/range, dishwasher, garbage disposal, built-in microwave oven, trash compactor and home freezer. HSA will pay up to $2,000 aggregate for the life of the contract toward repair/replacement of Professional series or ultra-premium appliances, including, but not limited to, Sub-Zero, Viking or Jenn-Air (individual trademarks are owned by the brand name company). Buyer only: refrigerator, clothes washer and dryer. NOT COvERED: condensate line clearing, self-cleaning mechanisms; ice maker/crusher, beverage dispenser and their respective “Component Parts”; any failures to the door other than appliance controls located within the door; clocks, knobs, handles, dials, springs, hinges, tubs, liners, baskets, shelves, drains, glass breakage, probes, rotisseries, racks, rollers, light bulbs, lock/key assemblies, buckets, televisions, computer screens or computers that are part of an appliance but do not affect the primary function of the appliance; walk-in freezers.

Buyer Only Coverage 7. WATER WELL PUMP - COvERED: “Operational Failures” occurring more than thirty (30) days after the inception date of buyer/buyer direct coverage are covered up to $1500 aggregate including access, diagnosis, repair and/or replacement; must be primary water source to residence. NOT COvERED: digging new or deeper wells; co-op/shared wells, irrigation/sprinkler wells, windmills, curing water quality, failures from lack of water, drop pipe, tank, electrical supply line, exterior piping or any part of the well that is not the pump. 8. SEPTIC SYSTEM - COvERED: “Operational Failures” occurring more than thirty (30) days after the inception date of buyer/buyer direct coverage; includes ejector/lift pump; failures to the septic system electrical wiring, lines, tank, and dry (refuse) well are limited to $300 per occurrence including access, diagnosis, repair and/or replacement. NOT COvERED: drain ields, leach beds, aerator/aerator systems and electrical supply lines; cess pools, cess pool cave-ins; upgrading system such as to city or municipal sewage system; septic tank pumping. 9. WATER SOFTENER - COvERED: all “Component Parts” including electrical wiring. NOT COvERED: rental or leased equipment; repair or replacement of water softener necessitated by mineral beds or deposits; cleaning. 10. ELECTRICAL ITEMS - COvERED: central vacuum motor and relay switches; we do not cover clogged lines or conditions of inadequate capacity; door bell systems which are not part of an intercom system; lighting ixtures, burglar alarms and ire alarms. NOT COVERED: central vacuum hoses or accessories; chandeliers, smoke alarms and intercom systems. 11. KITCHEN REFRIGERATOR - COvERED: compressor, coil, fan motor, thermostat and wiring. HSA will pay up to $2000 aggregate for the life of the contract toward repair/replacement of Professional series or ultrapremium appliances, including, but not limited to, Sub-Zero, Viking or Jenn-Air (individual trademarks

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Form # MW09 01/09 are owned by the brand name company). NOT COvERED: ice maker/beverage dispenser, self-cleaning mechanisms, condensate line clearing; any failures to the door other than appliance controls located within the door; clocks, knobs, dials, springs, hinges, liners, glass breakage, baskets, racks, rollers, handles, shelves, light bulbs; televisions, computer screens or computers that are part of an appliance but do not affect the primary function of the appliance. 12. CLOTHES WASHER AND DRYER - COvERED: all “Component Parts” including control timers, except: HSA will pay up to $2000 aggregate for the life of the contract toward repair/replacement of Professional series or ultra-premium appliances, including, but not limited to, Sub-Zero, Viking or Jenn-Air (individual trademarks are owned by the brand name company). NOT COvERED: any failures to the door other than appliance controls located within the door; clocks, knobs, handles, dials, springs, hinges, tubs, liners, baskets, shelves, drains, glass breakage, racks, rollers, light bulbs, buckets. 13. ROOF LEAKS - COvERED: we will pay up to $750 aggregate to repair roof leaks only; includes shingles (cedar or asphalt), built up rooing, slate and tile. DEFINITION: the exterior surface that constitutes the top of the residence, excluding any skylights. NOT COvERED: condominium or townhouse roofs; leaking of an existing roof that has not been properly installed or attached; damage done by ice, mud, snow or wind and any acts of God; secondary damage from any type of leak or re-rooing of the residence; chimneys, gutters or downspouts, skylight or skylight lashing repairs for leaks or any other damage.

Buyer Options Optional coverage may be purchased up to 30 days after the effective date of buyer/buyer direct coverage; however, coverage shall commence upon receipt of payment by HSA and will expire one year after the effective date of the contract. 14. PERMANENTLY MOUNTED ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANER - COvERED: transformer, power pack, switches, wires and elements. NOT COvERED: free standing units, mesh ilters, back lush mechanisms and self-cleaning units. 15. HOT TUB - COvERED: must have jets, impellers, valves, be able to ill with water to qualify for coverage; includes ilter, heater, pump, motor, gaskets, relays, jets, impellers, valves if stand-alone hot tub (limited to $1,000 per occurrence of “Operational Failure” when hot tub shares mechanicals with swimming pool). Note: if pool/hot tub combination option is selected the two systems must share mechanical equipment. NOT COvERED: cleaning equipment, skimmer equipment or secondary or booster type pumps used for cleaning pools; timers, lights, main body, liners, structural defects, covers, ilter grids, concrete-encased or underground plumbing, electrical or fuel lines; geothermal, solar or solar-assisted water heaters and their respective plumbing and equipment; wood encased or otherwise inaccessible parts; any unit with an independent boiler system; “habitat spa” or similar type unit. 16. SWIMMING POOL - COvERED: we will pay up to $1,000 per occurrence of “Operational Failure”; includes heaters which do not have a compressor as a component; ilter, pump, motor, gaskets, relays, impellers, back lush valve and above ground plumbing lines leading to and from the swimming pool; must be for a single family, commercially built and properly installed. NOT COvERED: cleaning equipment, skimmer equipment or secondary or booster type pumps used for cleaning pools; timers, lights, main body, liners, structural defects, covers, ilter grids, concrete-encased or underground plumbing, electrical or fuel lines; geothermal, solar or solar-assisted water heaters and their respective plumbing and equipment; wood encased or otherwise inaccessible parts; any unit with an independent boiler system; “habitat spa” or similar type unit.

Buyer 5 Star Upgrade Central Heat: adds - registers, grills, ilters and heat lamps. Central Air: adds - freon recovery, non-ducted air conditioners, registers, grills and ilters. Plumbing: adds - toilets replaced with like quality up to $600 per occurrence of “Operational Failure”. Water heater: adds - sediment build-up. Electrical: adds - smoke alarms; garage door opener hinges, springs, keypads and remote transmitters. Appliances: adds - refrigerator freon recovery; ice maker and ice/beverage dispenser and their respective equipment; trash compactor lock and key assemblies, bucket; dishwasher racks, baskets and rollers; built-in microwave interior lining, door glass, clock and shelves; oven/range interior lining, clocks, rotisseries, racks, handles, knobs and dials.

Buyer 7 Star Upgrade Code violations: when the correction of code violation(s) is required to affect a covered repair or replacement of a heating, plumbing or electrical “Component Part”, HSA will pay up to $250 aggregate to correct the code violation(s). If there is only a code violation and no related covered repair or replacement, HSA will not pay simply to remove the violation. Modiication charges: if HSA has authorized the replacement of a water heater, central heat or central air system and metal fabrication, plenum work or installation of a new pad for a condensing unit are necessary to complete the covered replacement, HSA will pay $300 aggregate toward modiication charges. Permits: HSA will pay the cost for obtaining permits for HSA-approved repairs and replacements up to $250 per occurrence. Removal and disposal of replaced equipment: when HSA replaces a covered system we will also pay the cost to dispose of the defective equipment. Lack of maintenance: HSA will cover a defect or mechanical failure of a system that was not properly maintained, if the defect or mechanical failure would have otherwise been covered. Mismatched heating and cooling systems: HSA will cover a defect or mechanical failure of a system that was not properly matched in size or eficiency, if the defect or mechanical failure would have otherwise been covered. If the mismatched system is a code violation, coverage will be limited to $250 aggregate. Improper installation, modiications and/or repair: HSA will cover a defect or mechanical failure of a system that was not properly installed, modiied and/or repaired, if the defect or mechanical failure would have otherwise been covered. If the improper installation, modiication or repair is a code violation, coverage will be limited to $250 aggregate.

F. Limitations of Liability Coverage does not apply in these instances: 1. Detectable pre-existing defects or deiciencies, when the “Component Parts” were not in “Proper Working Order” on the inception date of coverage, are not covered by HSA. If, on the Buyer’s effective date of this contract, the defect or malfunction of the covered “Component Parts” would not have been detectable by either visual inspection and/or simple mechanical test and/ or safety test performed by a qualiied professional, the defect or malfunction may qualify for coverage. For example: a simple test would be a visual inspection of a heat exchanger for cracks or a carbon-monoxide test. 2. Abuse, misuse, ire, lightning, freezing, ice, storms, smoke, water damage, acts of God, accident, earthquake, soil movement, mud, chemical or sediment build-up, fungus, rot, mold, power failure, power shortage or power outage, insect or rodent damage, pet damage, insurable peril. 3. “Operational Failures” due to rust or corrosion are excluded during seller coverage. Subject to all other terms and conditions of coverage, “Operational Failures” due to rust or corrosion are covered effective 30 days after the inception date of buyer/buyer direct coverage. “Operational Failures” due to rust or corrosion that occurred prior to the 30th day after the inception date of buyer/buyer direct coverage, but are reported after the 30th day, are excluded from coverage. 4. HSA will not contract to perform service nor pay costs involving hazardous or toxic materials or asbestos, nor will it pay costs related to freon recapture, evacuation or disposal of refrigerants or contaminants. If the 5 Star Upgrade is purchased for/by the buyer HSA will pay costs associated with freon recovery. 5. Modiication charges or costs for metal fabrication, plenum work, or electrical changes necessary to satisfy the installation requirements of a new replacement unit. If the 7 Star Upgrade is purchased for/by the buyer, HSA will pay up to $300 aggregate towards modiication charges associated with an approved heating, air conditioning or water heater repair or replacement as outlined under Section E. Buyer 7 Star Upgrade. 6. Providing access to a covered component or system other than plumbing or ductwork systems. HSA will pay to provide access to plumbing and ductwork systems through unobstructed walls, ceilings or loors only, and will return the access opening to a rough inish condition. HSA is not responsible for moving obstructions including, but not limited to, built-in appliances, systems, cabinets, tile and loor coverings or pulling and re-setting a sink, shower or bathtub to access a failure. Any plumbing or ductwork failure requiring access through concrete, stone, rock or brick is limited to $500 aggregate for total repair including access, diagnosis, repair and/or replacement, even if the primary failure is not located within the concrete, stone, rock or brick. 7. Excessive or inadequate water pressure, electrical surge, excessive or inadequate voltage, electrical currents artiicially generated or inadequate amperage, water entry along the service cable. 8. Lack of maintenance or lack of capacity; normal maintenance, cleaning, adjustments, lubrication services, line

bleeding, capacity increases, licenses or inspection fees; failure to maintain the temperature in the residence above freezing; improper use; contamination of fuel or energy. You are responsible for providing maintenance and cleaning on covered items as speciied by the manufacturer. For example: heating and air conditioning systems require periodic cleaning and/or replacement of ilters and cleaning of evaporator and condenser coils. Water heaters require periodic lushing. If the 7 Star Upgrade is purchased for/by the buyer, HSA will pay costs associated with covered systems that fail due to lack of maintenance if the defect or mechanical failure would have otherwise been covered. 9. Faulty workmanship by any person including a contractor or tradeperson selected and hired. Improper installation or connection of any system, appliance or component part by a contractor/ trade-person or any other person, including improper conversions of heating systems and additions of air conditioning systems to an existing heating system. If the 7 Star Upgrade is purchased for/by the buyer, HSA will pay costs associated with covered systems that fail due to faulty workmanship or improper installation or modiication if the defect or mechanical failure would have otherwise been covered. If the failure is a code violation HSA will pay up to $250 aggregate per the terms outlined under Section G. Building Codes. 10. Secondary damage, consequential damage or any damage caused by or resulting from the failure or malfunction of covered or non-covered “Component Parts”. Any damage resulting from the actual repair or replacement itself. Conditions beyond our control including delays in obtaining parts, relocation of equipment or labor dificulties including, but not limited to, additional costs associated with repair or replacement of a covered mechanical system due to space restrictions or location of the covered equipment. Any damage alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the services or the timeliness of the services provided by us. 11. Any remote control transmitting/receiving items. If the 5 Star Upgrade package is purchased for/by the buyer, the remote transmitter for the garage door opener will be covered for the buyer only. Electronic, computerized or energy management systems or devices, or lighting and appliance management systems are not covered; home computers, computer systems, leased or rental equipment and/or components. 12. Damage to the physical structure of the residence including, but not limited to, load bearing walls, walls, roof, roof supports, structural loor base, foundation or slabs, and ceilings except where speciically identiied as covered. 13. Cosmetic repairs and non-”Operational Failures” including, but not limited to: inishes, cabinetry, panels, trim, buttons, chipping, dents or scratches. 14. You may be charged an additional fee by the service contractor to dispose of an old appliance, system or component. HSA is not responsible for these charges. If the 7 Star Upgrade package is purchased for/by the buyer HSA will pay the cost to dispose of defective equipment on HSA approved system replacement. 15. Equipment, items or systems that are owned by a condominium association or designated as common area in condominium declarations, plats or plans. 16. More than two central heating units, central air conditioning units or garage door openers unless speciically listed and approved by HSA. More than one of any appliance unless speciically listed and approved by HSA. 17. Repairs related to manufacturer recall or defects. In the event that there is other collectible insurance, manufacturer warranty or in-house warranty or guarantee coverage available to you covering an “Operational Failure” that is also covered by this contract, our coverage shall be in excess of, and we will not contribute with, any other insurance, warranty or guarantee. 18. HSA is not responsible for repair or replacement of systems or appliances classiied by the manufacturer as commercial. HSA will pay up to $2,000 aggregate for the life of the contract toward repair/replacement of Professional series or ultra-premium appliances, including, but not limited to, Sub-Zero, Viking or Jenn-Air (individual trademarks are owned by the brand name company). 19. All else not listed as covered.

G. Building Codes HSA is not responsible for any upgrades, work or costs required to comply with any federal, state or local laws, regulations or ordinances or utility regulations, or to meet current building or zoning code requirements, or to correct for code violations. If the 7 Star Upgrade package is purchased for/by the buyer and the correction of code violation(s) is required to affect a covered repair or replacement of a heating, plumbing or electrical “Component Part”, HSA will pay up to $250 aggregate to correct the code violation(s). If there is only a code violation and no related covered repair or replacement, HSA will not pay simply to remove the violation. Please reference Section E. 2 - Central air for speciic information regarding air conditioning coverage and federal regulations. HSA is not responsible for service when permits cannot be obtained, nor will it pay any costs relating to permits. If the 7 Star Upgrade package is purchased for/by the buyer HSA will pay the cost for obtaining permits for HSA-approved repairs and replacements up to $250 per occurrence.

H. Cancellation, Transfer, Renewal The warranty is non-cancelable by either party except for the following: A. The contract fees are not paid. B. Fraud or misrepresentation of facts material to the issuance of this contract. C. If the contract provides coverage for the seller during the listing period and the listing is withdrawn or expires. Should the contract be cancelable under the laws of the state where the contract holder resides, an allowable administrative fee will be charged upon cancellation. In the event of a transfer of the legal title and ownership of the covered residence during buyers’ coverage, the remaining term may be assigned to the new homeowner. The assignee takes the warranty on the same terms, conditions, and expiration date as the assignor. The warranty is renewable, by mutual consent, at prevailing rates for an additional 12 month period from the date of the contract expiration. HSA may, at its option, decline to issue any renewal or cancel any contract, if the contract fees are not paid within 10 days of the due date. Note: if you have selected a monthly payment plan, your contract will automatically renew at the expiration of this contract period. (Renewal customers: payment of the irst installment on the renewal year premium constitutes your consent.)

I. Agency Neither the real estate broker nor the broker’s sales representative is an agent of HSA. Coverage is strictly determined by the warranty contract and not the representations of the real estate professional.

J. HSA’s Rights of Recovery In the event of any payment under this contract, HSA shall be subrogated to all of contract holder’s rights of recovery against any person or organization. You shall do nothing after loss to prejudice such rights. The company shall not be bound to pay any loss if you have impaired any right of recovery for loss.

K. State Disclosures Terms of this contract that are in conlict with the statutes of the states in which this contract is issued are amended to such statutes. ARKANSAS RESIDENTS: obligations of the provider under this service contract are backed only by the full faith and credit of the provider (issuer) and are not guaranteed under a service contract reimbursement insurance policy. Free Look Provision - If no claim has been made, and you return this contract to us within 20 days of the date the contract was mailed to you by us or within 10 days of the delivery of the contract, if delivered to you at the time of sale, the contract is void and we will refund you the full purchase price of the contract. A 10% penalty per month shall be added to the refund that is not paid or credited within 45 days after the return of this contract to us. The right to void the contract is not transferable and applies only to the original contract purchaser. ILLINOIS RESIDENTS: the purchaser of this contract may within 30 calendar days of delivery of the warranty contract, provided there has been no service, cancel this contract for a full refund less a cancellation fee of 10% of the contract price or may cancel at any time and receive a pro-rata refund for the unexpired term of coverage, less the value of any service provided and less the cancellation fee. The cancellation fee will not exceed $50. Any person who, with intent to defraud or knowing that he is facilitating a fraud against an insurer, submits an application or iles a claim containing a false or deceptive statement is guilty of insurance fraud. WISCOSIN RESIDENTS: THIS WARRANTY IS SUBJECT TO LIMITED REGULATION BY THE OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INSURANCE. Cancellation: The purchaser of this warranty may, within 15 calendar days of the delivery of the warranty contract, reject and return the warranty contract for a full refund less actual costs or charges needed to issue and service the warranty contract. Any person who, with intent to defraud or knowing that he is facilitating a fraud against an insurer, submits an application or iles a claim containing a false or deceptive statement is guilty of insurance fraud. Rights of Recovery: you will be made whole before the company may seek recovery of any subrogation interest. Notice of loss: per Wis. Statute 631.81, operational failures that have occurred on or before expiration of this contract may be reported to HSA after the expiration of the contract so long as: 1. notice of the operational failure is given to HSA as soon as reasonably possible; 2. the failure to provide notice prior to the expiration of the contract does not prejudice HSA; and 3. it was not reasonably possible to provide notice prior to the expiration of the contract. HSA will determine if this notice meets these criteria based on individual circumstances presented to HSA. In Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Texas, Utah & Wisconsin: HSA operates through its subsidiary Home Security Association, Inc.

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Application Four easy ways to enroll 1. online

2. phone

3. Fax

4. mail with payment to HSa

www.onlinehsa.com

800-367-1448

877-638-1741

1861 ludden dr., Cross plains, WI 53528

Warranted Property

(Required)

CONTRACT NUMBER STREET CITY

STATE

ZIP

Real Estate Professional Information Please send warranty confirmation by:

Fax

E-mail

NAME

DATE ASSIGNED

Telephone application

Mail E-MAIL ADDRESS

MW09 01/09

FORM NUMBER

COMPANY NAME FAx (Required)

TELEPHONE

Select coverage desired:

OFFICE STREET ADDRESS CITY

STATE

ZIP

q

Single family residence

Seller Information Please send warranty confirmation by:

q$75 Deductible

Fax

E-mail

NAME

Mail

E-MAIL ADDRESS MAILING ADDRESS (If different from warranted property) CITY

q

$

Single family residence

q

$419

q

Condominium STATE

ZIP

Multiple family ($419 + $150 each additional unit)

Closing Information

HSA New Construction

ESCROW/CLOSING/TITLE COMPANY

Year 2 E-MAIL ADDRESS

FAx (Required)

TELEPHONE

Optional Coverage For Buyer: Electronic air cleaner

Buyer Information Please send warranty confirmation by:

$539

q

$40 $150

Pool/hot tub combination (must share common mechanicals)

$150

q

$175

new Construction: Call for optional coverage pricing 1-800-367-1448 Fax

E-mail

NAME

CLOSE DATE

Mail TELEPHONE

E-MAIL ADDRESS

CITY

Buyer 5 Star Upgrade*

q

Buyer 7 Star Upgrade*

q

Total

$

$50 $149

*If upgrade(s) have been selected and the property is a multiple family dwelling, the upgrade package(s) must be purchased for each unit.

MAILING ADDRESS (if different from warranted property) STATE

ZIP

Purchase Agreement: When seller coverage is selected, seller agrees to pay the fee shown on the date legal title transfers to the buyer. This agreement is binding and may not be cancelled. If seller fails to pay the specified fee, seller shall be liable for all attorney fees and court costs incurred by HSA to collect the fee. By application for this contract, seller and/or buyer represent that, to the best of their knowledge, all items are in good working order on the date of application for this coverage. Further, seller and/or buyer agree that failure to notify HSA prior to repair or replacement of any covered item may result in a refusal of coverage on that item. HSA discloses to the purchaser of this warranty, and the purchaser consents and acknowledges by his/her signature that the employing broker may receive a minimal fee for services rendered in marketing or administering the sale of this warranty plan.

Coverage Desired:

q

q

Swimming pool ZIP

$439

q

Hot tub

STATE

$

q

OFFICE STREET ADDRESS

CITY

$389

q

$75.00 deductible Coverage begins one year after closing

Year 2 through 4 CLOSING AGENT

$409

Multiple family ($439 + $160 each additional unit)

q$100 Deductible

TELEPHONE

$439

q

Condominium

Seller and Buyer Coverage

Payment Due At Closing Check is enclosed (payable to HSA) Discover

MasterCard

Visa

Charge my credit card American Express

Account # Expiration Date

Buyer Coverage Only Name as on credit card

Applicant signature

Date

Coverage Limitations: Some limitations and general exclusions apply to covered items. Please read the Sample Contract section of this brochure for details.

Waiver: Purchase of this coverage is not mandatory. No other services are contingent upon the purchase of the warranty. I have reviewed the Home Warranty Protection plan and hereby decline coverage. I agree to hold the real estate broker and real estate professional harmless in the event of a subsequent mechanical failure which otherwise would have been covered under the warranty plan. Signature

Date

Cardholder’s signature

Home Security of america, Inc. 1861 Ludden Drive Cross Plains, WI 53528 www.onlinehsa.com 1-800-367-1448

Date

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Homeowner Oil Heating System Upgrade and Insurance Law By September 30, 2011, you must upgrade your home heating system equipment to prevent leaks from tanks and pipes that connect to your furnace.

This fact sheet contains important information for those who heat their homes with oil. By September 30, 2011, you must upgrade your home heating system equipment to prevent leaks from tanks and pipes that connect to your furnace. By making a relatively small expenditure now, you can prevent a much greater expense in the future.

Massachusetts has a new law to address oil leaks from home heating systems (see Chapter 453 of the Acts of 2008, as most recently amended in 2010). This law has two major provisions that require:  the installation of either an oil safety valve or an oil supply line with protective sleeve on systems that do not currently have these devices; and

 insurance companies that write homeowner policies to offer coverage for leaks from heating systems that use oil. Most homeowner policies do not currently include such coverage, leaving many to pay for costly cleanups out of their own pocket. Although it is mandatory that insurance companies make this coverage available by July 1, 2010 to homeowners whose systems are upgraded, the insurance is an optional purchase.

Who must take action? Owners of 1- to 4-unit residences that are heated with oil must already have or install an oil safety valve or an oil supply

line with a protective sleeve, as shown in the diagram. These devices must be installed by a licensed oil burner technician. Technicians are employed by companies that deliver home heating oil or are self-employed. It is important to note that heating oil systems installed on or after January 1, 1990 most likely are already in compliance because state fire codes implemented these requirements on new installations at that time.

Who is exempt? Homeowners are exempt from taking these leak prevention steps if:

 the oil burner is located above the oil storage tank and the entire oil supply line is connected to and above the top of the tank OR  an oil safety valve or oil supply line with protective sleeve was installed on or after January 1, 1990, AND

 those changes comply with the oil burning equipment regulations; a copy of the oil burner permit from the local fire department may be used to demonstrate compliance.

Why comply? Not only is complying with the new law required, it makes good financial and environmental sense. Homeowners who take these preventive measures can avoid the disruption and expense that can be caused by heating oil leaks. A leak may result in exposure to petroleum vapors in your home. If the leak reaches the soil or groundwater beneath your house, then a cleanup must be performed to restore your

property to state environmental standards. Leaks that affect another property or impact drinking water supply wells can complicate the cleanup and increase the expense. Each year, several hundred Massachusetts families experience some kind of leak.

What will an upgrade cost? The typical cost of installing either an oil safety valve or oil supply line with a protective sleeve ranges from $150 $350 (including labor, parts, and local permit fees).

What could it cost to cleanup a leak? The cleanup cost for a “simple” leak can be as much as $15,000. In cases where the leak affects the groundwater or is more extensive, the cleanup costs can reach $250,000 or more.

What kind of insurance is available? To be eligible for the new insurance coverage, homeowners must ensure that their oil heating systems are in compliance with the new law. Homeowners who have been certified to be in compliance with (or exempt from) the leak prevention measures qualify to purchase insurance that:  provides “first party coverage” of at least $50,000 for the cost of cleaning up a leak to soil, indoor air, or other

February 2011

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environmental media from a home heating system at the residence itself and reimbursement for personal property damage, AND

 provides “third party coverage” of at least $200,000 for the cost of dealing with conditions on and off the insured’s property because the leak from this system has or is likely to affect groundwater or someone else’s property. The coverage also includes costs incurred for legal defense, subject to a deductible not to exceed $1,000 per claim.

What should I do next?  Determine whether you have had

an oil safety valve or oil supply line

with protective sleeve installed since January 1, 1990. If you have, your permit from the fire department for the installation can be used to document your compliance. You can request a copy from the fire department if the permit is on file, or a licensed oil burner technician can certify that status on a form.

 Determine whether your existing policy provides oil leak coverage.

 If it does not, consider calling your homeowner insurance agent to amend the policy to include this coverage.

If you do not have an oil safety valve or oil supply line with protective sleeve in place, have one or the other installed and certified. Either contact your oil delivery company to ask if they employ a licensed oil burner technician or find one in your area. Consider buying insurance coverage for the cleanup of a leak.

Find more information at http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/cleanup/reports/help-for-homeowners-and-businesses.html

Diagram: Above-Ground Home Heating Oil System Leak Prevention Upgrades

February 2011

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The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Health and Human Services Department of Public Health Bureau of Environmental Health 250 Washington Street, 7th Floor Boston, MA 02108 (800) 532-9571 / (617)-624-5757

CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONING PREVENTION PROGRAM (CLPPP) PROPERTY TRANSFER LEAD PAINT NOTIFICATION Under Massachusetts and federal law, this notification package must be given to prospective purchasers of homes built before 1978. This package must be given in full to meet state and federal requirements. It may be copied, as long as the type size is not made smaller. Every seller and any real estate agent involved in the sale must give this package before the signing of a purchase and sale agreement, a lease with an option to purchase, or, under state law, a memorandum of agreement used in foreclosure sales. Sellers and agents must also tell the prospective purchaser any information they know about lead in the home. They must also give a copy of any lead inspection report, risk assessment report, Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control. This package is for compliance with both state and federal lead notification requirements. Real estate agents must also tell prospective purchasers that under the state Lead Law, a new owner of a home built before 1978 in which a child under six will live or continue to live must have it either deleaded or brought under interim control within 90 days of taking title. This package includes a check list to certify that the prospective purchaser has been fully notified by the real estate agent. This certification should be filled out and signed by the prospective purchaser before the signing of a purchase and sale agreement, a lease with an option to purchase or a memorandum of agreement used in a foreclosure sale. It should be kept in the real estate agent's files. After getting notice, the prospective purchaser has at least 10 days, or longer if agreed to by the seller and buyer, to have a lead inspection or risk assessment if he or she chooses to have one, except in cases of foreclosure sales. There is no requirement for a lead inspection or risk assessment before a sale. A list of private lead inspectors and risk assessors licensed by the Department of Public Health is attached and can also be found on the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program’s website at www.mass.gov/dph/clppp. Sellers and real estate agents who do not meet these requirements can face a civil penalty of up to $1,000 under state law; a civil penalty of up to $10,000 and possible criminal sanctions under federal law, as well as liability for resulting damages. In addition, a real estate agent who fails to meet these requirements may be liable under the Massachusetts Consumer Protection Act. The property transfer notification program began in 1988 and has been very successful. It provides information you need to protect your child, or your tenants' child, from lead poisoning. Massachusetts has a tax credit of up to $1,500 for each unit deleaded. There are also a number of grants and no-interest or lowinterest loans available for deleading. It's up to you to do your part toward ending lead poisoning. PLEASE TAKE THE TIME TO READ THIS DOCUMENT. LEAD POISONING IS THE NATION'S LEADING ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD AFFECTING CHILDREN. DON'T GAMBLE WITH YOUR CHILD'S FUTURE. CLPPP Form 94-2, 6/30/94, Rev. 2/03, Rev. 10/09

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What is lead poisoning? How do children become lead poisoned? Lead poisoning is caused by exposure to lead in the environment. It is most dangerous for children under six years old. In young children, too much lead in the body can cause permanent harm to the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. Even at low levels, lead in children's bodies can slow growth and cause learning and behavioral problems. The main way children get lead poisoned is by swallowing lead paint dust. They do not have to chew on leaded surfaces or eat paint chips to become poisoned. Most childhood lead poisoning is caused by children's normal behavior of putting their hands or other things, such as toys, in their mouths. If their hands or these objects have touched lead dust, this may add lead to their bodies. Children can also be exposed to lead from such other sources as lead-contaminated soil or water, but these sources alone rarely cause lead poisoning. Lead can be found in soil near old, lead-painted houses. If children play in bare, leaded soil, or eat vegetables or fruit grown in such soil, or if leaded soil is tracked into the home and gets on children's hands or toys, lead may enter their bodies. What are the symptoms of lead poisoning? How is it detected? Most lead poisoned children have no special symptoms. The only way to find out if a child is lead poisoned is to have his or her blood tested. The Massachusetts Lead Law requires all children between 9 months and 3 years old to be screened annually for lead, and again at age 4 if living in a high-risk community. If your child has been exposed to lead, or if you do not know if your child under age six has been screened for lead, ask your child's doctor, other health care provider or your local board of health for a simple screening test of your child. What is the treatment for lead poisoning? Treatment of a lead poisoned child starts with finding and removing the lead hazards to which the child is exposed. This will include a lead inspection of the child's home, and if lead hazards are identified, deleading of the home. Medical treatment depends on the child's blood lead level and the child's response to the removal of the lead source. Parents will be taught about protecting their child from lead exposure. They will need to watch the child's progress through frequent blood tests. If necessary, the child may receive special drugs to help rid his body of excess lead. With this treatment, drugs are given daily for as long as several weeks. Sometimes this must be done more than once. A child who has been lead poisoned will need a lot of blood tests for a year or more. He or she should be tested for learning problems before starting school. Are children under six years old the only ones at risk of lead poisoning? No. Young children are usually more easily and seriously poisoned than older children or adults, but lead is harmful to everyone. Lead in the body of a pregnant woman can hurt her baby before birth. Older children and adults who live in older housing with lead paint hazards may become exposed to lead and could potentially develop lead poisoning through home renovation. Most lead poisoning in adults is caused by work-related exposure or home renovation. Even hobby supplies, such as stained glass, bullets and fishing sinkers, can expose people to lead. Lead poisoning in adults can cause high blood pressure, problems having children for both men and women, digestive problems, nerve disorders, memory loss and problems concentrating, and muscle and joint pain. Adults who have any of these symptoms and who have been exposed to lead should consider being screened for lead. Those 2

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who are regularly exposed to lead through their work are required by law to have their blood tested once a year for lead.

What are the dangers of lead paint in homes, and when was it used? Lead paint in homes causes almost all childhood lead poisoning. Lead is so harmful that even a small amount of fine lead dust that cannot be seen can poison a child. Lead paint covered by layers of nonleaded paint can still poison children, especially when it is disturbed, such as through normal wear and tear, or home repair work. When such lead paint is on moving surfaces, such as windows, fine lead dust is released through normal use. This dust settles, where it can be easily picked up on children's toys and fingers. Household paint with poisonous (now illegal) levels of lead was in use in Massachusetts from the 1690s until 1978. In 1978, the U.S. government banned lead from house paint. Lead can be found in all types of pre-1978 homes: homes in cities, suburbs or the countryside; private housing and state or federal public housing; single-family and multi-family homes. The older the house, the more likely it is to contain lead paint. The older the paint, the higher the likely lead content. Can routine home repairs cause lead poisoning? There can be a danger of lead poisoning whenever painted surfaces inside or outside the home are scraped for repainting, or woodwork is stripped or removed, or windows or walls are removed. This is because lead paint is found in almost all Massachusetts homes built before 1978, and so many of Massachusetts' homes are old. Do not use power sanders, propane torches or heat guns to remove leaded paint, as these methods create a lot of lead dust and fumes. Temporarily move your family (especially children and pregnant women) out of the home while the work is being done and cleaned up, or at a minimum, tape up plastic sheets to completely seal off the work area. Get a lead inspection done, so that you will know which surfaces have lead paint and need extra care when preparing for and doing home repair work, and during cleanup afterwards. Do not do repairs in older homes without learning about safe ways to do the work to reduce the danger of lead dust. Hundreds of cases of childhood and adult lead poisoning result each year from do-it-yourself home projects. How does the owner of a home built before 1978 in which a child under six years old lives meet the requirements of the Massachusetts Lead Law? The first step is to have a lead inspection or risk assessment done. A licensed lead inspector will test the surfaces of the home for lead and give the owner a written report that states where there is lead in amounts considered a violation by state law, and record any lead hazards that must be corrected. A risk assessor, who is a specially licensed lead inspector, will do a lead inspection plus a risk assessment, during which he or she checks the home for the most serious lead hazards that must be fixed for interim control. (See question about interim control, below.) Only a licensed deleader may do high-risk work, such as removing lead paint or repairing chipping and peeling lead paint. Either a deleader, the owner or someone who works for the owner (an agent) can do certain other deleading and interim control tasks. (See next question.) An owner or agent must get special training to perform the deleading tasks they may do. After the work is done, the lead inspector or risk assessor returns to check the home. He or she may take dust samples to test for lead and makes sure the home has been properly cleaned up. If everything is fine, he or she gives the owner a Letter of Compliance or a Letter of Interim Control. After getting one of these letters, the owner must take reasonable care of the property, mainly by making sure there is no peeling lead paint.

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Can I do some of the deleading myself? In Massachusetts, the owner or someone who works for the owner (an agent) can do certain deleading activities. These include covering surfaces with certain materials; removing certain building parts; capping baseboards; installing vinyl siding on the exterior, and applying encapsulants. Encapsulants are special liquid coatings made to be long-lasting barriers over lead paint. Before any of these deleading tasks are done, the owner must first have a lead inspection done and whoever is going to do the work must get special training. Contact CLPPP for information about this training. In addition, owners or their agents can perform structural repairs and lead dust cleaning for interim control. Before doing this work, owners and agents should get and read CLPPP's interim control booklet. Is there financial help for deleading? There is a state income tax credit of up to $1,500 per unit for full deleading. A credit of up to $500 per unit is available for interim control work that also contributes to full deleading. There are also grants and no-interest, deferred loans, or low-interest loans available to eligible property owners. These funds are available through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Massachusetts Executive Office of Communities and Development, the Massachusetts Housing Finance Authority, local city and town community development planning departments, and banks. Does deleading improve the value of my property? Many homeowners have found that the benefits of deleading are not unlike the benefits of other home improvement projects. Replacement windows and doors can save the homeowner money because they are more energy efficient. Having a legally deleaded home, whether it is a single-family or multi-family, owner-occupied or rental unit, can make it easier to sell or rent, often at a better price. What surfaces must be deleaded for full compliance with the Massachusetts Lead Law? Owners of homes built before 1978 where children under six years of age live must have the following lead hazards corrected to get a Letter of Compliance: * any peeling, chipping or flaking lead paint, plaster or putty; * intact lead paint, other coating or putty on moveable parts of windows with sills five feet or less from the floor or ground and those surfaces that come in contact with moveable parts; * intact lead paint or other coating on "accessible mouthable surfaces." These surfaces generally include woodwork, such as doors, door jambs, stairs and stair rails, and window casings. What is interim control? Interim control is a set of temporary measures that property owners can take to correct urgent lead hazards, especially peeling or chipping lead paint and lead dust. These steps protect residents from lead poisoning until the home is fully deleaded. Homes in good condition may need little or no work to get interim control status. Owners then have up to two years before they have to fully delead the home. For that period, they are protected from strict liability under the state Lead Law should a child become lead poisoned in the home, as long as the home is maintained and the conditions for 4

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interim control are met. In addition to the repair of peeling and chipping lead paint and the cleaning of lead dust, other work may be necessary for interim control. This includes fixing water leaks or other damage that makes lead paint peel and chip; making window wells smooth and easy to clean; making windows work properly and deleading any badly chipping and peeling lead-painted surfaces. Property owners interested in interim control must hire a licensed risk assessor. He or she will then decide what work, if any, needs to be done to get a Letter of Interim Control. The original Letter of Interim Control is good for one year. The property owner can have the home reinspected before the end of that year, and if all conditions are met, the home can be recertified for another year. By the end of the second year, the home must be deleaded, if a child under six still lives there, for the owner to remain free of strict liability. Does my family have to be out of the house during deleading or interim control work? Residents must be out of the house for the entire time that a deleader is doing deleading work inside a home, and for some of the deleading work by owners and their agents. Residents may stay at home, but out of the work area, while a deleader, property owner or owner's agent without a deleader's license does certain other deleading tasks, or such interim control work as structural repairs or lead dust cleaning. Residents who have been out of the house may not return until the deleading work that made it necessary for them to leave is complete, the home is cleaned up, and a lead inspector or risk assessor has checked and found this work has been properly done and dust samples have passed. For complete details, contact CLPPP. Are there any exemptions to the Massachusetts Lead Law? The Lead Law applies only to homes built before 1978 in which a child under six lives. Any home or apartment having fewer than 250 square feet of living space, or which is in a rooming house, is exempt, as long as no child under age six is living there. Finally, homes rented for 31 days or less for vacation or recreational purposes are also exempt, as long as there is no chipping or peeling lead paint in the home and the renter has received the Short-Term Vacation Rental Notification. What are the requirements of the state Lead Law if there is a lease with an option to buy? When there is a lease with an option to buy a home built before 1978 in effect, the owner of the property must have it deleaded or brought under interim control if a child under six lives there. If the tenant with an option to buy such a home proceeds to purchase it, he or she becomes responsible for meeting the requirements of the Lead Law if a child under six lives there after the purchase. How can I find out about how lead inspections, risk assessments and deleading should be done? All lead inspections, risk assessments and deleading must be done according to the Regulations for Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control, 105 Code of Massachusetts Regulations 460.000 and the Deleading Regulations, 454 CMR 22.00. For full information, homeowners may get these regulations at the State House Book Store, State House, Boston, MA 02133. The phone number is (617) 727-2834. Lead inspectors and risk assessors licensed by the Department of Public Health have been trained and are experienced in using the state-approved methods for testing for lead paint. These methods are the following: use of a solution of sodium sulfide, a portable x-ray fluorescence machine or lab tests of paint samples removed from the home. Deleaders licensed by the Department of Labor and Workforce Development have been trained to use safe methods to prepare for and do deleading work, and clean up afterwards. They may delead using any of the following methods: removing paint, removing building parts, covering and encapsulating. When removing paint, they cannot use certain 5

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very dangerous methods, such as open flame burning, dry abrasive blasting or power sanding without a special vacuum attachment.

How do I get a lead inspection or risk assessment? Included as part of this notification package is a listing of private licensed lead inspectors organized alphabetically, and private licensed risk assessors, similarly organized. Ask to see the inspector or risk assessor's license, to make sure it is current. You should arrange for the inspection or risk assessment as quickly as possible after deciding you want one. If you do have an inspection or risk assessment, you must give the seller a copy of the report. What is the best time to delead or undertake interim control? The best time to delead a home or bring it under interim control is when the home is vacant, so that residents will not be exposed to lead and household furnishings will not be contaminated with lead. In addition, it often is efficient, and reduces costs, to combine deleading with other repair work being done to a vacant home. What is a Letter of Compliance and a Letter of Interim Control? Under the state Lead Law, a Letter of Compliance is a legal letter that says either that there are no lead paint hazards or that the home has been deleaded. The letter is signed and dated by a licensed lead inspector. A Letter of Interim Control is a legal letter that says work necessary to make a home temporarily safe from lead hazards has been done. It is signed and dated by a licensed risk assessor. A Letter of Interim Control is good for one year, but can be renewed for one more year. The owner must fully delead the home and get a Letter of Compliance by the end of the second year if a child under six still lives there. The Lead Law does not require the removal of all lead paint from a home. An owner who gets a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control must take reasonable care to keep up the home, mainly by making sure there is no chipping or peeling lead paint. If an owner fails to take reasonable steps to maintain the home, he or she may become liable for damages to a child lead poisoned as a result of the owner's breach of that duty of reasonable care. RENTAL PROPERTY INFORMATION What liability do rental property owners have if they don't comply with the state Lead Law? If a property owner of a home built before 1978 in which a child under six lives fails to delead or bring the home under interim control, and a child is lead poisoned as a result, the property owner is strictly liable for all damages. An owner is not strictly liable for lead poisoning if a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control is in effect. Strict liability means owners may be liable even if they did not know lead paint was in the home. Since harm to the kidneys and blood cells, delays in growth, learning disabilities and emotional and behavioral disturbances resulting from lead poisoning can have life-long effects, monetary damages awarded against an owner responsible for a child's lead poisoning can be substantial. Failing to delead or bring under interim control a home to which the Lead Law applies is also an emergency public health matter, and can carry criminal penalties. An owner who is notified by a public agency of Lead Law violation in a property he or she owns, and who willfully fails to correct the dangerous conditions, is also subject to punitive damages, which are three times the actual damages found. These provisions are in addition to any other legal rights the leadpoisoned child may have. 6

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Can I avoid state Lead Law requirements by not renting to a family with children under six? The Massachusetts Lead Law makes it illegal to refuse to rent to families with children under six, or evicting or refusing to renew the lease of families with children under six, because of lead paint. Discrimination against families with young children is also a violation of the U.S. Fair Housing Act and the Massachusetts anti-discrimination statute. Parents cannot waive the rights of their children to live in lead-safe housing or agree to assume to risks of lead exposure. Owners who violate these laws face heavy penalties. The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination investigates and prosecutes cases of discrimination against families with children because of lead paint. It is also illegal for lenders to deny financing because a home has lead paint, or because financing could trigger future duties under the Lead Law. This does not restrict the right of a lender to process or deny a mortgage application in accordance with accepted underwriting practices and criteria. If I am considering buying a pre-1978 house to rent out, and a child under six lives in one of the apartments, should I have at least that unit and common areas inspected for lead now? Yes. If there are children under six living in such an apartment and the apartment does not have a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control, buyers should find out whether or not the apartment has lead hazards and will have to be brought into compliance with the state Lead Law. This information will be important in deciding whether to buy the property and at what price. As noted above, new owners have 90 days from the date of taking title to have such an apartment deleaded or brought under interim control. Therefore, they should arrange deleading or interim control work to begin as soon as possible after taking title, to be sure the work is done within 90 days. Can a landlord delay a tenancy to bring a home into compliance with the state Lead Law? A landlord who will be deleading a home or bringing it under interim control may delay the start of the tenancy up to 30 days. This can be done as long as a lease between the landlord and the new tenant does not exist. During this delay period, the new tenants are responsible for their living expenses. If there is a signed lease, however, the landlord is responsible for temporary housing during relocation necessary for deleading work. Must a landlord arrange temporary housing for a tenant while a rental home is being deleaded? Under the state Lead Law, tenants have to be relocated for the time that certain deleading work is taking place inside the home. They may not return until that work is done, the home is cleaned up, and a licensed lead inspector or risk assessor checks and finds it is fine for residents to move back in. The landlord and tenant are responsible for working out an acceptable plan for alternative housing if it is necessary. The landlord may move the tenant to another place to live, which may be another house, apartment, motel or hotel. The landlord is responsible for paying the tenant's reasonable moving costs and any temporary housing costs over and above the rent of the home being deleaded. During the time the home is being deleaded, the tenant remains responsible for paying the normal rent they would pay for this period as their share of the cost of temporary housing. The Lead Law states the temporary housing must not cause undue economic or personal hardship to the tenant. 7

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What is tenant notification? The goal of the federal and state requirements for tenant notification is to help reduce lead poisoning by giving all tenants of homes built before 1978 information about lead in their home. The program also educates tenants and landlords about the dangers of lead poisoning, its prevention, and the Massachusetts Lead Law. Tenant notification applies to all tenants, whether or not they have a child under six living with them. Before renting a home, landlords, managing agents or any real estate agent involved in the rental must give new tenants copies of any existing lead forms for the home. These include lead inspection reports, risk assessment reports, a Letter of Compliance (no matter how old) or a Letter of Interim Control. If the landlord or agent does not have any or all of these forms for the home, he or she simply does not give them. In addition, the landlord or agent must give new tenants the Tenant Lead Law Notification. This form addresses lead poisoning, specific prevention tips for parents, the requirements of the Lead Law and an explanation of the lead forms. Attached to the Tenant Lead Law Notification is the Tenant Certification form. This is to be filled out and signed by both the tenant and the landlord or agent. Each party gets a copy to keep. These forms have been approved to satisfy both state and federal lead notification requirements. Landlords or agents may choose to include the Tenant Lead Law Notification/Tenant Certification form in a written lease, instead of using a separate form. Landlords and agents who fail to carry out their tenant notification obligations are liable for all damages caused by their failure to do so, and are subject to a fine of up to $1,000. INSURANCE INFORMATION How can an owner of rental housing in Massachusetts built before 1978 get insurance to cover potential lead liability? The answer depends on the number of units that the property owner wishes to insure, and whether the property owner lives in the building for which insurance is sought. An owner-occupant who insures four or fewer units may be covered by homeowners insurance. Generally, the property owner who is not an owner-occupant will need to get commercial liability insurance, as will an owneroccupant who wishes to insure more than four units. Homeowners insurance may be available from several different sources: the regular, "admitted" market, the FAIR Plan or the "surplus lines" market. The regular, "admitted" market is the usual market for insurance. The FAIR Plan offers homeowners insurance to property owners unable to find coverage in the regular market. The "surplus lines" market is a less regulated, and generally more expensive market. It provides insurance to those who cannot find coverage elsewhere. Under state Division of Insurance regulations, if an insurer in the regular market decides to write homeowners insurance on rental housing for which a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control is in effect, the insurer must provide coverage of lead paint liability arising from those premises. Neither the state Lead Law nor the insurance regulations require a regular market insurer to write liability insurance, including homeowners insurance, on a particular property. If a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control is in effect for only part of a property, the coverage for lead liability will extend to only that part of the property. Such insurance will also apply to any common areas covered by the Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control. It will not, however, extend to injuries resulting from gross or willful negligence. The FAIR Plan's coverage of lead liability is subject to the same regulations that apply to the regular market. 8

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An insurer in the regular market, or the FAIR Plan, may ask the property owner to prove that there is a Letter of Compliance or a Letter of Interim Control for the home sought to be insured. Once the proof is provided, coverage for lead liability will apply as of the date of the Letter. If the Fair Plan determines that a given property is eligible for insurance, or if a regular market insurer elects to insure certain premises, either may exclude lead liability coverage on any part of the property it ensures to which no Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control applies. If either the Fair Plan or a regular market insurer uses such an exclusion, it must offer the owner of the premises the chance to buy back the excluded coverage. There is an additional charge for the lead liability "buyback" coverage. The amount of this charge is regulated by the Division of Insurance. In the surplus lines market, there is no requirement to cover lead liability arising from premises to which a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control applies. Surplus lines insurers generally exclude coverage of lead liability, do not offer the buyback coverage, and charge higher prices than the regular market. Since the FAIR Plan does not provide commercial liability insurance, property owners who need to get such coverage (as opposed to homeowners insurance) must get it from either the regular market or the surplus lines market. Commercial liability insurance from the surplus lines market, like homeowners insurance from that market, usually will exclude coverage of lead liability, will not include the buyback option, and will cost more than regular market coverage. While a regular market insurer can decline to write commercial liability insurance on a given property, once such an insurer decides to write such coverage, it must then insure lead liability arising from any part of the property covered by a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control. If such an insurer chooses to insure a property, it may exclude coverage of lead liability on any part of the premises for which no Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control is in effect. If such insurer applies such an exclusion, it must offer the property owner the opportunity to buy back the excluded coverage. The lead liability insurance regulations described above as applicable to regular market homeowners insurance also apply to commercial liability insurance from the regular market. Owners of rental housing should try to get coverage for lead liability, whether they have met the requirements of the Lead Law or not, by seeking regular market coverage through insurance agents, or by contacting direct writing companies that are listed in the telephone directory, before resorting either to the FAIR Plan or the surplus lines market. If I own and occupy a single-family house, does my homeowners insurance cover lead liability? Under the state lead liability insurance regulations, coverage of lead liability cannot be excluded from regular market and FAIR Plan homeowners insurance policies on single-family owneroccupied homes. Instead, lead liability coverage is included in such policies. However, a family member covered by a homeowners policy cannot make a lead liability claim against another family member covered by the same policy. The requirements of the lead liability insurance regulations do not apply to homeowners coverage from the surplus lines market. How are new owners affected by the lead liability insurance regulations? If a buyer of rental housing built before 1978 meets the state Lead Law's requirements and gets a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control within 90 days after becoming the owner, then, under certain conditions, they will be able to get coverage for lead liability for the period they owned the property before they deleaded or brought it under interim control. This will happen if a regular market insurer chooses to provide liability coverage on the property. Such an insurer is required to provide lead liability coverage to a new owner who obtains a Letter of Compliance or Letter of Interim Control within 90 days after becoming the owner of the property. Such coverage will go back to the time that the new owner took title to the property, unless the liability insurance went into effect some 9

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time after the taking of title. In the latter case, the coverage of lead liability will extend back to the time that the liability insurance held by the new owner first went into effect on the premises. The rule for new owner lead liability insurance coverage for the FAIR Plan is the same as for the regular market. These special rules for lead liability insurance for new owners do not apply to insurance from the surplus lines market. ********* What happens next? That's up to you. At this point, you should be well informed about lead poisoning, the effects of lead hazards in the home, and your responsibilities under the Massachusetts Lead Law. In the past, the Department of Public Health has had to devote its childhood lead poisoning resources to provide services to the thousands of Massachusetts children who were poisoned, as well as to providing services to children whose blood lead levels are elevated, to prevent them from becoming lead poisoned. Between the Department's work and the preventive deleading carried out by property owners, we have been successful at reducing the number of lead poisonings among young children in Massachusetts. All of us at the Department are hopeful that we will continue that partnership, in which the correction of lead hazards in the homes of young children before those children are lead poisoned is so important. Where can I get more information on lead poisoning? Massachusetts Department of Public Health U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (CLPPP) Region 1 (New England) (For more copies of this form, and full range of (Information about federal laws on lead) http://www.epa.gov/region1 information on owners' and tenants' rights and responsibilities under the state Lead Law, financial help (617)-918-1524 for owners, safe renovation work, and soil testing) www.mass.gov/dph/clppp (781)-774-6611, 1-800-532-9571 National Lead Information Center (lead poisoning information or lead in consumer products) www.epa.gov/lead or 1-800-424-LEAD Massachusetts Department of Labor/ Division of Occupational Safety (List of licensed deleaders) U.S. Consumer Product Safety www.mass.gov/dos Commission (Info about lead in (617)-626-6962 consumer products www.cpsc.gov or 1-800-638-2772 Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency (Get the Lead Out loan program information) www.masshousing.com (617)-854-1000

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PROPERTY TRANSFER NOTIFICATION CERTIFICATION This form is to be signed by the prospective purchaser before signing a purchase and sale agreement or a memorandum of agreement, or by the lessee-prospective purchaser before signing a lease with an option to purchase for residential property built before 1978, for compliance with federal and Massachusetts lead-based paint disclosure requirements. Required Federal Lead Warning Statement: Every purchaser of any interest in residential property on which a residential dwelling was built prior to 1978 is notified that such property may present exposure to lead from lead-based paint that may place young children at risk of developing lead poisoning. Lead poisoning in young children may produce permanent neurological damage, including learning disabilities, reduced intelligence quotient, behavioral problems and impaired memory. Lead poisoning also poses a particular risk to pregnant women. The seller of any interest in residential real property is required to provide the buyer with any information on lead-based paint hazards from risk assessments or inspections in the seller's possession and notify the buyer of any known lead-based paint hazards. A risk assessment or inspection for possible lead-based paint hazards is recommended prior to purchase.

Seller's Disclosure (a) Presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards (check (i) or (ii) below): (i)______ Known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards are present in the housing (explain). __________________________________________________________________________________ (ii)_____ Seller has no knowledge of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing. (b) Records and reports available to the seller (check (i) or (ii) below): (i)______ Seller has provided the purchaser with all available records and reports pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing (circle documents below). Lead Inspection Report; Risk Assessment Report; Letter of Interim Control; Letter of Compliance (ii)______ Seller has no reports or records pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing. Purchaser's or Lessee Purchaser's Acknowledgment (initial) (c) _______ Purchaser or lessee purchaser has received copies of all documents circled above. (d) _______ Purchaser or lessee purchaser has received no documents. (e) _______ Purchaser or lessee purchaser has received the Property Transfer Lead Paint Notification. (f) _______ Purchaser or lessee purchaser has (check (i) or (ii) below): (i)______ received a 10-day opportunity (or mutually agreed upon period) to conduct a risk assessment or inspection for the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards; or (ii)______ waived the opportunity to conduct a risk assessment or inspection for the presence of leadbased paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. Agent's Acknowledgment (initial) (g)_______ Agent has informed the seller of the seller's obligations under federal and state law for leadbased paint disclosure and notification, and is aware of his/her responsibility to ensure compliance. (h)_______ Agent has verbally informed purchaser or lessee-purchaser of the possible presence of dangerous levels of lead in paint, plaster, putty or other structural materials and his or her obligation to bring a property into compliance with the Massachusetts Lead Law -- either through full deleading or interim control -- if it was built before 1978 and a child under six years old resides or will reside in the property. Certification of Accuracy The following parties have reviewed the information above and certify, to the best of their knowledge, that the information they have provided is true and accurate. _________________________ _____________ _____________________ ________________ Seller Date Seller Date _________________________ ______________ _____________________ _________________ Purchaser Date Purchaser Date _________________________ ______________ ______________________ __________________ Agent Date Agent Date CLPPP Form 94-3, 6/30/94, Rev. 9/02

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Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency

United States Consumer Product Safety Commission

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development June 2017

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Are You Planning to Buy or Rent a Home Built Before 1978? Did you know that many homes built before 1978 have lead-based paint? Lead from paint, chips, and dust can pose serious health hazards. Read this entire brochure to learn: • • • •

How lead gets into the body How lead afects health What you can do to protect your family Where to go for more information

Before renting or buying a pre-1978 home or apartment, federal law requires: • Sellers must disclose known information on lead-based paint or leadbased paint hazards before selling a house. • Real estate sales contracts must include a speciic warning statement about lead-based paint. Buyers have up to 10 days to check for lead. • Landlords must disclose known information on lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards before leases take efect. Leases must include a speciic warning statement about lead-based paint. If undertaking renovations, repairs, or painting (RRP) projects in your pre-1978 home or apartment: • Read EPA’s pamphlet, The Lead-Safe Certiied Guide to Renovate Right, to learn about the lead-safe work practices that contractors are required to follow when working in your home (see page 12).

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Simple Steps to Protect Your Family from Lead Hazards If you think your home has lead-based paint: • Don’t try to remove lead-based paint yourself. • Always keep painted surfaces in good condition to minimize deterioration. • Get your home checked for lead hazards. Find a certiied inspector or risk assessor at epa.gov/lead. • Talk to your landlord about ixing surfaces with peeling or chipping paint. • Regularly clean loors, window sills, and other surfaces. • Take precautions to avoid exposure to lead dust when remodeling. • When renovating, repairing, or painting, hire only EPA- or stateapproved Lead-Safe certiied renovation irms. • Before buying, renting, or renovating your home, have it checked for lead-based paint. • Consult your health care provider about testing your children for lead. Your pediatrician can check for lead with a simple blood test. • Wash children’s hands, bottles, paciiers, and toys often. • Make sure children eat healthy, low-fat foods high in iron, calcium, and vitamin C. • Remove shoes or wipe soil of shoes before entering your house.

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Lead Gets into the Body in Many Ways Adults and children can get lead into their bodies if they: • Breathe in lead dust (especially during activities such as renovations, repairs, or painting that disturb painted surfaces). • Swallow lead dust that has settled on food, food preparation surfaces, and other places. • Eat paint chips or soil that contains lead. Lead is especially dangerous to children under the age of 6. • At this age, children’s brains and nervous systems are more sensitive to the damaging efects of lead. • Children’s growing bodies absorb more lead. • Babies and young children often put their hands and other objects in their mouths. These objects can have lead dust on them. Women of childbearing age should know that lead is dangerous to a developing fetus. • Women with a high lead level in their system before or during pregnancy risk exposing the fetus to lead through the placenta during fetal development.

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Health Efects of Lead Lead afects the body in many ways. It is important to know that even exposure to low levels of lead can severely harm children. In children, exposure to lead can cause:

Brain Nerve Damage Hearing Problems

• Nervous system and kidney damage • Learning disabilities, attention-deicit disorder, and decreased intelligence

Slowed Growth

• Speech, language, and behavior problems • Poor muscle coordination • Decreased muscle and bone growth • Hearing damage Digestive Problems

While low-lead exposure is most common, Reproductive Problems exposure to high amounts of lead can have (Adults) devastating efects on children, including seizures, unconsciousness, and in some cases, death. Although children are especially susceptible to lead exposure, lead can be dangerous for adults, too. In adults, exposure to lead can cause: • Harm to a developing fetus • Increased chance of high blood pressure during pregnancy • Fertility problems (in men and women) • High blood pressure • Digestive problems • Nerve disorders • Memory and concentration problems 3

• Muscle and joint pain page 115


Check Your Family for Lead Get your children and home tested if you think your home has lead. Children’s blood lead levels tend to increase rapidly from 6 to 12 months of age, and tend to peak at 18 to 24 months of age. Consult your doctor for advice on testing your children. A simple blood test can detect lead. Blood lead tests are usually recommended for: • Children at ages 1 and 2 • Children or other family members who have been exposed to high levels of lead • Children who should be tested under your state or local health screening plan Your doctor can explain what the test results mean and if more testing will be needed.

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Where Lead-Based Paint Is Found In general, the older your home or childcare facility, the more likely it has lead-based paint.1 Many homes, including private, federally-assisted, federallyowned housing, and childcare facilities built before 1978 have lead-based paint. In 1978, the federal government banned consumer uses of lead-containing paint.2 Learn how to determine if paint is lead-based paint on page 7. Lead can be found: • In homes and childcare facilities in the city, country, or suburbs, • In private and public single-family homes and apartments, • On surfaces inside and outside of the house, and • In soil around a home. (Soil can pick up lead from exterior paint or other sources, such as past use of leaded gas in cars.) Learn more about where lead is found at epa.gov/lead.

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1

“Lead-based paint” is currently deined by the federal government as paint with lead levels greater than or equal to 1.0 milligram per square centimeter (mg/cm), or more than 0.5% by weight.

2

“Lead-containing paint” is currently deined by the federal government as lead in new dried paint in excess of 90 parts per million (ppm) by weight. page 117


Identifying Lead-Based Paint and Lead-Based Paint Hazards Deteriorating lead-based paint (peeling, chipping, chalking, cracking, or damaged paint) is a hazard and needs immediate attention. Lead-based paint may also be a hazard when found on surfaces that children can chew or that get a lot of wear and tear, such as: • On windows and window sills • Doors and door frames • Stairs, railings, banisters, and porches Lead-based paint is usually not a hazard if it is in good condition and if it is not on an impact or friction surface like a window. Lead dust can form when lead-based paint is scraped, sanded, or heated. Lead dust also forms when painted surfaces containing lead bump or rub together. Lead paint chips and dust can get on surfaces and objects that people touch. Settled lead dust can reenter the air when the home is vacuumed or swept, or when people walk through it. EPA currently deines the following levels of lead in dust as hazardous: • 40 micrograms per square foot (μg/ft2) and higher for loors, including carpeted loors • 250 μg/ft2 and higher for interior window sills Lead in soil can be a hazard when children play in bare soil or when people bring soil into the house on their shoes. EPA currently deines the following levels of lead in soil as hazardous: • 400 parts per million (ppm) and higher in play areas of bare soil • 1,200 ppm (average) and higher in bare soil in the remainder of the yard Remember, lead from paint chips—which you can see—and lead dust—which you may not be able to see—both can be hazards. The only way to ind out if paint, dust, or soil lead hazards exist is to test for them. The next page describes how to do this. page 118

6


Checking Your Home for Lead You can get your home tested for lead in several diferent ways: • A lead-based paint inspection tells you if your home has leadbased paint and where it is located. It won’t tell you whether your home currently has lead hazards. A trained and certiied testing professional, called a lead-based paint inspector, will conduct a paint inspection using methods, such as: • Portable x-ray luorescence (XRF) machine • Lab tests of paint samples • A risk assessment tells you if your home currently has any lead hazards from lead in paint, dust, or soil. It also tells you what actions to take to address any hazards. A trained and certiied testing professional, called a risk assessor, will: • Sample paint that is deteriorated on doors, windows, loors, stairs, and walls • Sample dust near painted surfaces and sample bare soil in the yard • Get lab tests of paint, dust, and soil samples • A combination inspection and risk assessment tells you if your home has any lead-based paint and if your home has any lead hazards, and where both are located. Be sure to read the report provided to you after your inspection or risk assessment is completed, and ask questions about anything you do not understand.

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7


Checking Your Home for Lead, continued In preparing for renovation, repair, or painting work in a pre-1978 home, Lead-Safe Certiied renovators (see page 12) may: • Take paint chip samples to determine if lead-based paint is present in the area planned for renovation and send them to an EPA-recognized lead lab for analysis. In housing receiving federal assistance, the person collecting these samples must be a certiied lead-based paint inspector or risk assessor • Use EPA-recognized tests kits to determine if lead-based paint is absent (but not in housing receiving federal assistance) • Presume that lead-based paint is present and use lead-safe work practices There are state and federal programs in place to ensure that testing is done safely, reliably, and efectively. Contact your state or local agency for more information, visit epa.gov/lead, or call 1-800-424-LEAD (5323) for a list of contacts in your area.3

3

Hearing- or speech-challenged individuals may access this number through TTY by calling the Federal Relay Service at 1-800-877-8339. page 120

8


What You Can Do Now to Protect Your Family If you suspect that your house has lead-based paint hazards, you can take some immediate steps to reduce your family’s risk: • If you rent, notify your landlord of peeling or chipping paint. • Keep painted surfaces clean and free of dust. Clean loors, window frames, window sills, and other surfaces weekly. Use a mop or sponge with warm water and a general all-purpose cleaner. (Remember: never mix ammonia and bleach products together because they can form a dangerous gas.) • Carefully clean up paint chips immediately without creating dust. • Thoroughly rinse sponges and mop heads often during cleaning of dirty or dusty areas, and again afterward. • Wash your hands and your children’s hands often, especially before they eat and before nap time and bed time. • Keep play areas clean. Wash bottles, paciiers, toys, and stufed animals regularly. • Keep children from chewing window sills or other painted surfaces, or eating soil. • When renovating, repairing, or painting, hire only EPA- or stateapproved Lead-Safe Certiied renovation irms (see page 12). • Clean or remove shoes before entering your home to avoid tracking in lead from soil. • Make sure children eat nutritious, low-fat meals high in iron, and calcium, such as spinach and dairy products. Children with good diets absorb less lead.

9

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Reducing Lead Hazards Disturbing lead-based paint or removing lead improperly can increase the hazard to your family by spreading even more lead dust around the house. • In addition to day-to-day cleaning and good nutrition, you can temporarily reduce lead-based paint hazards by taking actions, such as repairing damaged painted surfaces and planting grass to cover leadcontaminated soil. These actions are not permanent solutions and will need ongoing attention. • You can minimize exposure to lead when renovating, repairing, or painting by hiring an EPA- or statecertiied renovator who is trained in the use of lead-safe work practices. If you are a do-it-yourselfer, learn how to use lead–safe work practices in your home. • To remove lead hazards permanently, you should hire a certiied lead abatement contractor. Abatement (or permanent hazard elimination) methods include removing, sealing, or enclosing lead-based paint with special materials. Just painting over the hazard with regular paint is not permanent control. Always use a certiied contractor who is trained to address lead hazards safely. • Hire a Lead-Safe Certiied irm (see page 12) to perform renovation, repair, or painting (RRP) projects that disturb painted surfaces. • To correct lead hazards permanently, hire a certiied lead abatement professional. This will ensure your contractor knows how to work safely and has the proper equipment to clean up thoroughly. Certiied contractors will employ qualiied workers and follow strict safety rules as set by their state or by the federal government.

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10


Reducing Lead Hazards, continued If your home has had lead abatement work done or if the housing is receiving federal assistance, once the work is completed, dust cleanup activities must be conducted until clearance testing indicates that lead dust levels are below the following levels: • 40 micrograms per square foot (μg/ft2) for loors, including carpeted loors • 250 μg/ft2 for interior windows sills • 400 μg/ft2 for window troughs For help in locating certiied lead abatement professionals in your area, call your state or local agency (see pages 14 and 15), or visit epa.gov/lead, or call 1-800-424-LEAD.

11

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Renovating, Repairing or Painting a Home with Lead-Based Paint If you hire a contractor to conduct renovation, repair, or painting (RRP) projects in your pre-1978 home or childcare facility (such as pre-school and kindergarten), your contractor must: • Be a Lead-Safe Certiied irm approved by EPA or an EPA-authorized state program • Use qualiied trained individuals (Lead-Safe Certiied renovators) who follow speciic lead-safe work practices to prevent lead contamination • Provide a copy of EPA’s lead hazard information document, The Lead-Safe Certiied Guide to Renovate Right RRP contractors working in pre-1978 homes and childcare facilities must follow lead-safe work practices that: • Contain the work area. The area must be contained so that dust and debris do not escape from the work area. Warning signs must be put up, and plastic or other impermeable material and tape must be used. • Avoid renovation methods that generate large amounts of lead-contaminated dust. Some methods generate so much leadcontaminated dust that their use is prohibited. They are: • Open-lame burning or torching • Sanding, grinding, planing, needle gunning, or blasting with power tools and equipment not equipped with a shroud and HEPA vacuum attachment • Using a heat gun at temperatures greater than 1100°F • Clean up thoroughly. The work area should be cleaned up daily. When all the work is done, the area must be cleaned up using special cleaning methods. • Dispose of waste properly. Collect and seal waste in a heavy duty bag or sheeting. When transported, ensure that waste is contained to prevent release of dust and debris. To learn more about EPA’s requirements for RRP projects, visit epa.gov/getleadsafe, or read The Lead-Safe Certiied Guide to Renovate Right.

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12


Other Sources of Lead Lead in Drinking Water The most common sources of lead in drinking water are lead pipes, faucets, and ixtures. Lead pipes are more likely to be found in older cities and homes built before 1986. You can’t smell or taste lead in drinking water. To ind out for certain if you have lead in drinking water, have your water tested. Remember older homes with a private well can also have plumbing materials that contain lead. Important Steps You Can Take to Reduce Lead in Drinking Water • Use only cold water for drinking, cooking and making baby formula. Remember, boiling water does not remove lead from water. • Before drinking, lush your home’s pipes by running the tap, taking a shower, doing laundry, or doing a load of dishes. • Regularly clean your faucet’s screen (also known as an aerator). • If you use a ilter certiied to remove lead, don’t forget to read the directions to learn when to change the cartridge. Using a ilter after it has expired can make it less efective at removing lead. Contact your water company to determine if the pipe that connects your home to the water main (called a service line) is made from lead. Your area’s water company can also provide information about the lead levels in your system’s drinking water. For more information about lead in drinking water, please contact EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791. If you have other questions about lead poisoning prevention, call 1-800 424-LEAD.* Call your local health department or water company to ind out about testing your water, or visit epa.gov/safewater for EPA’s lead in drinking water information. Some states or utilities ofer programs to pay for water testing for residents. Contact your state or local water company to learn more. 13

* Hearing- or speech-challenged individuals may access this number through TTY by calling the Federal Relay Service at 1-800-877-8339. paid 125


Other Sources of Lead, continued • Lead smelters or other industries that release lead into the air. • Your job. If you work with lead, you could bring it home on your body or clothes. Shower and change clothes before coming home. Launder your work clothes separately from the rest of your family’s clothes. • Hobbies that use lead, such as making pottery or stained glass, or reinishing furniture. Call your local health department for information about hobbies that may use lead. • Old toys and furniture may have been painted with lead-containing paint. Older toys and other children’s products may have parts that contain lead.4 • Food and liquids cooked or stored in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery or porcelain may contain lead. • Folk remedies, such as “greta” and “azarcon,” used to treat an upset stomach.

4

In 1978, the federal government banned toys, other children’s products, and furniture with lead-containing paint. In 2008, the federal government banned lead in most children’s products. The federal government currently bans lead in excess of 100 ppm by weight in most children’s products. page 126

14


For More Information The National Lead Information Center Learn how to protect children from lead poisoning and get other information about lead hazards on the Web at epa.gov/lead and hud.gov/lead, or call 1-800-424-LEAD (5323). EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline For information about lead in drinking water, call 1-800-426-4791, or visit epa.gov/safewater for information about lead in drinking water. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Hotline For information on lead in toys and other consumer products, or to report an unsafe consumer product or a product-related injury, call 1-800-638-2772, or visit CPSC’s website at cpsc.gov or saferproducts.gov. State and Local Health and Environmental Agencies Some states, tribes, and cities have their own rules related to leadbased paint. Check with your local agency to see which laws apply to you. Most agencies can also provide information on inding a lead abatement irm in your area, and on possible sources of inancial aid for reducing lead hazards. Receive up-to-date address and phone information for your state or local contacts on the Web at epa.gov/lead, or contact the National Lead Information Center at 1-800-424-LEAD.

Hearing- or speech-challenged individuals may access any of the phone numbers in this brochure through TTY by calling the tollfree Federal Relay Service at 1-800-877-8339.

15

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U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Oices The mission of EPA is to protect human health and the environment. Your Regional EPA Oice can provide further information regarding regulations and lead protection programs. Region 1 (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont)

Region 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and 66 Tribes)

Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 1 5 Post Oice Square, Suite 100, OES 05-4 Boston, MA 02109-3912 (888) 372-7341

Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 6 1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Floor Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (214) 665-2704

Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands)

Region 7 (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska)

Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 2 2890 Woodbridge Avenue Building 205, Mail Stop 225 Edison, NJ 08837-3679 (732) 321-6671 Region 3 (Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, DC, West Virginia) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 3 1650 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215) 814-2088 Region 4 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 4 AFC Tower, 12th Floor, Air, Pesticides & Toxics 61 Forsyth Street, SW Atlanta, GA 30303 (404) 562-8998 Region 5 (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 5 (DT-8J) 77 West Jackson Boulevard Chicago, IL 60604-3666 (312) 886-7836

Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 7 11201 Renner Blvd. WWPD/TOPE Lenexa, KS 66219 (800) 223-0425 Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 8 1595 Wynkoop St. Denver, CO 80202 (303) 312-6966 Region 9 (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 9 (CMD-4-2) 75 Hawthorne Street San Francisco, CA 94105 (415) 947-4280 Region 10 (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington) Regional Lead Contact U.S. EPA Region 10 Solid Waste & Toxics Unit (WCM-128) 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900 Seattle, WA 98101 (206) 553-1200

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Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) The CPSC protects the public against unreasonable risk of injury from consumer products through education, safety standards activities, and enforcement. Contact CPSC for further information regarding consumer product safety and regulations. CPSC 4330 East West Highway Bethesda, MD 20814-4421 1-800-638-2772 cpsc.gov or saferproducts.gov

U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HUD’s mission is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality afordable homes for all. Contact HUD’s Oice of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control for further information regarding the Lead Safe Housing Rule, which protects families in pre-1978 assisted housing, and for the lead hazard control and research grant programs. HUD 451 Seventh Street, SW, Room 8236 Washington, DC 20410-3000 (202) 402-7698 hud.gov/oices/lead/ This document is in the public domain. It may be produced by an individual or organization without permission. Information provided in this booklet is based upon current scientiic and technical understanding of the issues presented and is relective of the jurisdictional boundaries established by the statutes governing the co-authoring agencies. Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that can be caused by lead exposure.

U. S. EPA Washington DC 20460 U. S. CPSC Bethesda MD 20814 U. S. HUD Washington DC 20410

EPA-747-K-12-001 June 2017

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17


IMPORTANT! Lead From Paint, Dust, and Soil in and Around Your Home Can Be Dangerous if Not Managed Properly • Children under 6 years old are most at risk for lead

poisoning in your home. • Lead exposure can harm young children and babies even

before they are born. • Homes, schools, and child care facilities built before 1978

are likely to contain lead-based paint. • Even children who seem healthy may have dangerous

levels of lead in their bodies. • Disturbing surfaces with lead-based paint or removing

lead-based paint improperly can increase the danger to your family. • People can get lead into their bodies by breathing or

swallowing lead dust, or by eating soil or paint chips containing lead. • People have many options for reducing lead hazards.

Generally, lead-based paint that is in good condition is not a hazard (see page 10).

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7404)

EPA-747-F-01-004 November 2001

Fight

Lead Poisoning with a Healthy Diet Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips for Families

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Lead and a Healthy Diet What You Can Do to Protect Your Child Lead’s Effects on the Body Lead is a poisonous metal that our bodies cannot use. Lead poisoning can cause learning, hearing, and behavioral problems, and can harm your child’s brain, kidneys, and other organs. Lead in the body stops good minerals such as iron and calcium from working right. Some of these effects may be permanent.

Lead Awareness and Your Child Children with lead poisoning usually do not look or act sick. The only way to know if your child has lead poisoning is by getting a blood test. Ask your doctor or health care provider to test your child under six years of age at least once a year.

Lead Hazards Where is Lead Found?

Contaminated soil occurs when exterior lead-based paint from houses, buildings, or other structures flakes or peels and gets into the soil. Soil near roadways may also be contaminated from past use of leaded gasoline in cars. Avoid these areas when planting vegetable gardens.

Other Sources of Lead Contaminated drinking water from older plumbing fixtures Lead-based painted toys and household furniture Imported lead-glazed pottery and leaded crystal Lead smelters

Main Sources of Lead Lead-based paint is a hazard if it is peeling, chipping,

chalking, or cracking. Even lead-based paint that appears to be undisturbed can be a problem if it is on surfaces that children chew or that get a lot of wear and tear. The older your home is, the more likely it is to contain lead-based paint.

Hobbies Folk remedies like azarcon and pay-loo-ah Cosmetics like kohl and kajal

Contaminated dust forms when lead paint is dry-

scraped or sanded. Dust can also become contaminated when painted surfaces bump or rub together. Lead chips and dust can gather on surfaces and objects that people touch or that children put into their mouths. page 132


Recipes

Oatmeal swirlers Sliced banana Orange juice

Grilled cheese & tomato Coleslaw Low-fat milk

Sloppy joes Watermelon Low-fat milk

-or-

-or-

-or-

Cheese omelet Applesauce Low-fat milk

Tuna salad sandwich Cranberry juice Pear slices

Macaroni and cheese Stewed tomatoes Melon slice

-or-

-or-

-or-

French toast Orange sections Low-fat milk

Pizza bagel 100% fruit juice Fresh or canned peaches Low-fat milk

Chicken stew Rice Strawberries

Dinner

Recipes

Lunch

be bought with food vouchers from the

WIC program. To find out more about Recipes

WIC, call your child’s pediatrician or

Recipes

visit www.fns.usda.gov/wic

Cereal with low-fat milk, whole wheat crackers with cheese, apple or pear slices, oranges or bananas, raisins, yogurt, frozen fruit juice pops, and fruit smoothies.

Many of the foods listed in this brochure can

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Recipes

Between meals offer small snacks such as:

Recipes

Recipes

Recipes

Recipes

Recipes

Breakfast

Recipes

MealTipsand Snack Ideas to help you and your children plan meals and snacks


Oatmeal Swirlers · Makes 4–6 servings

French Toast · Makes 4–6 servings

1 1/2 cups of quick cooking oats 1/3 cup of peanut butter 1/3 cup of fruit jelly or jam

3 eggs, beaten 1/2 cup of low-fat milk Vegetable oil 6 slices of bread Cinnamon 2 bananas, sliced

Steps: • Follow the package directions to cook oats. • Spoon peanut butter and jelly on top of cooked oatmeal. • Stir and spoon into bowls.

Steps: • Mix eggs and milk.

• Serve with low-fat milk.

• Lightly coat pan with vegetable oil. Use medium heat. • Dip bread into egg mixture, so that bread is covered. • Brown one side of bread in pan. • Sprinkle top with cinnamon. • Turn over bread and brown the other side. Top with sliced banana. • Serve with low-fat milk.

Cheese Omelet · Makes 2–3 servings 3 eggs 1 tablespoon of low-fat milk Vegetable oil 3 tablespoons of cheese Steps:

Grilled Cheese & Tomato Sandwich · Makes 1 serving 2 slices of bread 2 slices of American cheese 1 slice of tomato Vegetable oil

• Lightly coat pan with vegetable oil. Use medium heat.

Steps: • Make sandwich using bread, cheese, and tomato.

• Add egg mixture and cook.

• Lightly coat pan with vegetable oil.

• When omelet is cooked on the bottom, add cheese.

• Brown sandwich on both sides over low heat to melt the cheese.

• Mix eggs and milk in a bowl.

• When cheese is melted, fold omelet in half. • Top with salsa if you like.

• Serve with low-fat milk or fruit juice.

• Serve with toast, fruit, and low-fat milk.

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Tuna Salad Sandwich · Makes 2 servings

Sloppy Joes · Makes 4–6 servings

4 slices of bread 1 can of water packed tuna 4 teaspoons of low-fat mayonnaise Onion and celery, chopped

1 pound of lean ground beef, turkey, or chicken 1 small onion, chopped 1/2 green pepper, chopped 1 cup of tomato sauce Your choice of seasonings 5 hamburger buns or pita pocket breads

Steps: • Mix tuna with low-fat mayonnaise, onion, and celery. • Try your sandwich with cheese and tomato. • Serve with low-fat milk.

Steps: • In a pan, cook lean ground meat, onion, and green pepper until meat is well done. • Drain fat. • Stir in tomato sauce and seasonings. • Cook for 5 to 10 minutes. • Spoon into hamburger bun or pita. • Serve with fruit juice.

Pizza Bagels · Makes 2–3 servings

Baked Macaroni and Cheese · Makes 3–5 servings

1 bagel 2 tablespoons of tomato sauce Garlic, basil, or oregano 2 tablespoons of cheddar cheese or part-skim mozzarella

4 cups of cooked macaroni 3 cups of grated cheddar cheese 2 tablespoons of margarine 2 tablespoons of flour

Steps: • Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

Steps: • Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Lightly coat casserole dish with vegetable oil.

• Slice open a bagel and place on a flat pan. • Add tomato sauce, seasonings, and cheese. • Bake for 3 minutes or until cheese melts. • Serve with fruit juice.

Vegetable oil 2 cups of low-fat milk Salt and pepper

• Mix cooked macaroni with grated cheese and pour into casserole. • Melt margarine in a pan. Remove from heat, stir in flour. Return to heat. • Add low-fat milk slowly, stirring until smooth. • Season with salt and pepper to taste. • Pour over macaroni. Stir. • Cover. Bake for 30 minutes. • Uncover and bake for another 15 minutes.

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Regularly Eat Healthy Foods Children with empty stomachs absorb more lead than children with full stomachs. Provide your child with four to six small meals during the day. The following nutrients can help protect your child from lead poisoning:

Vitamin C-Rich Foods Vitamin C and iron-rich foods work together to reduce lead absorption. Good sources of vitamin C include: Oranges, orange juice Grapefruits, grapefruit juice Tomatoes, tomato juice Green peppers

Iron-Rich Foods Normal levels of iron work to protect the body from the harmful effects of lead. Good sources of dietary iron include: Lean red meats, fish, and chicken Iron-fortified cereals Dried fruits (raisins, prunes) Calcium-Rich Foods Calcium reduces lead absorption and also helps make teeth and bones strong. Good sources of dietary calcium include: Milk Yogurt Cheese Green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collard greens)

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Simple Steps You Can Take to Protect Your Family from Lead Hazards If you think your home has high levels of lead: • Make sure your children eat healthy, low-fat foods high in iron, calcium, and vitamin C. • Get your children tested for lead, even if they seem healthy. • Get your home tested for lead if it was built before 1978. Call 1-800-424-LEAD for more information. • Always wash your hands before eating. • Wash children’s hands, bottles, pacifiers, and toys.

• Wipe or remove shoes before entering your house. • If you rent, it is your landlord’s job to keep paint in good shape. Report peeling or chipping paint to your landlord and call your health department if the paint is not repaired safely. • Take precautions to avoid exposure to lead dust when remodeling or renovating. • Don’t try to remove paint yourself!

• Do not use imported pottery to store or serve food. • Let tap water run for one minute before using. • Use only cold water for making your baby’s formula, drinking, and cooking. • Regularly clean floors, windowsills, and other surfaces using wet methods that control dust.

For more information on childhood lead poisoning prevention: Call

Visit

• Your child’s pediatrician

• EPA Lead Program Web site www.epa.gov/lead

• The National Lead Information Center 1-800-424-LEAD (424-5323) • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791

• U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web site www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Web site www.hud.gov/offices/lead page 137

Printed with Vegetable Oil-Based Inks, Recycled Paper (Minimum 50% Post-consumer) Process Chlorine Free


U En A

A Brief Guide to

Mold, Moisture, And

Your HoMe

page 138

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)


EPA 402-K-02-003 (Reprinted 09/2012)

This Guide provides information and guidance for homeowners and renters on how to clean up residential mold problems and how to prevent mold growth.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oice of Air and Radiation Indoor Environments Division 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Mailcode: 6609J Washington, DC 20460 www.epa.gov/iaq page 139


A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, And Your HoMe Contents

Page

Mold Basics Why is mold growing in my home? Can mold cause health problems? How do I get rid of mold?

2 2 3

Mold Cleanup Who should do the cleanup?

4

Mold Cleanup Guidelines

6

What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas

8

How Do I Know When the Remediation or Cleanup is Finished?

9

Moisture and Mold Prevention and Control Tips Actions that will help to reduce humidity Actions that will help prevent condensation Testing or sampling for mold

10 11 12 13

Hidden Mold

14

Cleanup and Biocides

15

Additional Resources

16

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1


Mold â– â– 

W

â–

Basics

The key to mold control is moisture control. If mold is a problem in your home, you should clean up the mold promptly and ix the water problem. It is important to dry water-damaged areas and items within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.

hy is mold growing in my home? Molds are part of the

Mold growing outdoors on irewood. Molds come in many colors; both white and black molds are shown here.

natural environment. Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and loat through outdoor and indoor air. Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture.

can mold cause health problems? Molds are usually not a problem indoors, unless mold spores land on a wet or damp spot and begin growing. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some cases, potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins). Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Allergic responses include hay fever-type symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash (dermatitis). Allergic reactions to mold are common. They can be immediate or delayed. Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs of both mold2

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allergic and non-allergic people. Symptoms other than the allergic and irritant types are not commonly reported as a result of inhaling mold. Research on mold and health efects is ongoing. This brochure provides a brief overview; it does not describe all potential health efects related to mold exposure. For more detailed information consult a health professional. You may also wish to consult your state or local health department.

How do i get rid of mold? It is impossible to get rid of all mold and mold spores indoors; some mold spores will be found loating through the air and in house dust. The mold spores will not grow if moisture is not present. Indoor mold growth can and should be prevented or controlled by controlling moisture indoors. If there is mold growth in your home, you must clean up the mold and ix the water problem. If you clean up the mold, but don’t ix the water problem, then, most likely, the mold problem will come back.

Molds can gradually destroy the things they grow on. You can prevent damage to your home and furnishings, save money, and avoid potential health problems by controlling moisture and eliminating mold growth. Magniied mold spores.

3

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Mold cleaNuP

If you already have a mold problem –

act QuicKlY. Mold damages what it grows on. The longer it grows, the more damage it can cause. Leaky window – mold is beginning to rot the wooden frame and windowsill.

Who should do the cleanup? Who should do the cleanup depends on a number of factors. One consideration is the size of the mold problem. If the moldy area is less than about 10 square feet (less than roughly a 3 ft. by 3 ft. patch), in most cases, you can handle the job yourself, following the guidelines below. However: ■ If there has been a lot of water damage, and/or mold growth covers more than 10 square feet, consult the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guide: Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. Although focused on schools and commercial page 143

4


buildings, this document is applicable to other building types. It is available on the Internet at: www. epa.gov/mold. ■ If you choose to hire a contractor (or other professional service provider) to do the cleanup, make sure the contractor has experience cleaning up mold. Check references and ask the contractor to follow the recommendations in EPA’s Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings, the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists (ACGIH), or other guidelines from professional or government organizations. ■ If you suspect that the heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) system may be contaminated with mold (it is part of an identiied moisture problem, for instance, or there is mold near the intake to the system), consult EPA’s guide Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned? before taking further action. Do not run the HVAC system if you know or suspect that it is contaminated with mold - it could spread mold throughout the building. Visit www.epa. gov/iaq/pubs to download a copy of the EPA guide. ■ If the water and/or mold damage was caused by sewage or other contaminated water, then call in a professional who has experience cleaning and ixing buildings damaged by contaminated water. ■ If you have health concerns, consult a health professional before starting cleanup.

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5


Mold

cleaNuP Guidelines

Bathroom Tip

Places that are often or always damp can be hard to maintain completely free of mold. If there’s some mold in the shower or elsewhere in the bathroom that seems to reappear, increasing the ventilation (running a fan or opening a window) and cleaning more frequently will usually prevent mold from recurring, or at least keep the mold to a minimum.

tips and techniques The tips and techniques presented in this section will help you clean up your mold problem. Professional cleaners or remediators may use methods not covered in this publication. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage. It may not be possible to clean an item so that its original appearance is restored. ■ Fix plumbing leaks and other water problems as soon as possible. Dry all items completely. ■ Scrub mold of hard surfaces with detergent and water, and dry completely. Mold growing on the underside of a plastic lawnchair in an area where rainwater drips through and deposits organic material.

6

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Mold growing on a piece of ceiling tile.

■ Absorbent or porous materials, such as ceiling tiles and carpet, may have to be thrown away if they become moldy. Mold can grow on or ill in the empty spaces and crevices of porous materials, so the mold may be diicult or impossible to remove completely. ■ Avoid exposing yourself or others to mold (see discussions: What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas and Hidden Mold.) ■ Do not paint or caulk moldy surfaces. Clean up the mold and dry the surfaces before painting. Paint applied over moldy surfaces is likely to peel. ■ If you are unsure about how to clean an item, or if the item is expensive or of sentimental value, you may wish to consult a specialist. Specialists in furniture repair, restoration, painting, art restoration and conservation, carpet and rug cleaning, water damage, and ire or water restoration are commonly listed in phone books. Be sure to ask for and check references. Look for specialists who are ailiated with professional organizations. 7

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What to Wear When

cleaNiNG Moldy areas It is important to take precautions to

liMit Your eXPosure

Mold growing on a suitcase stored in a humid basement.

to mold and mold spores.

â– Avoid breathing in mold or mold spores. In order to limit your exposure to airborne mold, you may want to wear an N-95 respirator, available at many hardware stores and from companies that advertise on the Internet. (They cost about $12 to $25.) Some N-95 respirators resemble a paper dust mask with a nozzle on the front, others are made primarily of plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering. In order to be efective, the respirator or mask must it properly, so carefully follow the instructions supplied with the respirator. Please note that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that respirators it properly (it testing) when used in an occupational setting; consult OSHA for more information (800-321-OSHA or osha.gov/). 8

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■ Wear gloves. Long gloves that extend to the middle of the forearm are recommended. When working with water and a mild detergent, ordinary household rubber gloves may be used. If you are using a disinfectant, a biocide such as chlorine bleach, or a strong cleaning solution, you should select gloves made from natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyurethane, or PVC (see Cleanup and Biocides). Avoid touching mold or moldy items with your bare hands. ■ Wear goggles. Goggles that do not have ventilation holes are recommended. Avoid getting mold or mold spores in your eyes.

Cleaning while wearing N-95 respirator, gloves, and goggles.

How do i know when the remediation or cleanup is inished? You must have completely ixed the water or moisture problem before the cleanup or remediation can be considered inished. ■ You should have completed mold removal. Visible mold and moldy odors should not be present. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage. ■ You should have revisited the site(s) shortly after cleanup and it should show no signs of water damage or mold growth. ■ People should have been able to occupy or re-occupy the area without health complaints or physical symptoms. ■ Ultimately, this is a judgment call; there is no easy answer.

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9


Moisture and Mold

PreVeNtioN and

Moisture

control tips

Control is the Key to Mold Control

■ When water leaks or spills occur indoors - ACT QUICKLY. If wet or damp materials or areas are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow. Mold growing on the surface of a unit ventilator.

■ Clean and repair roof gutters regularly. ■ Make sure the ground slopes away from the building foundation, so that water does not enter or collect around the foundation. ■ Keep air conditioning drip pans clean and the drain lines unobstructed and lowing properly. page 149

10


■ Keep indoor humidity low. If possible, keep indoor humidity below 60 percent (ideally between 30 and 50 percent) relative humidity. Relative humidity can be measured with a moisture or humidity meter, a small, inexpensive ($10-$50) instrument available at many hardware stores.

Condensation on the inside of a windowpane.

■ If you see condensation or moisture collecting on windows, walls or pipes - ACT QUICKLY to dry the wet surface and reduce the moisture/water source. Condensation can be a sign of high humidity. Actions that will help to reduce humidity:

 Vent appliances that produce moisture, such as clothes dryers, stoves, and kerosene heaters to the outside where possible. (Combustion appliances such as stoves and kerosene heaters produce water vapor and will increase the humidity unless vented to the outside.)  Use air conditioners and/or de-humidiiers when needed.

 Run the bathroom fan or open the window when showering. Use exhaust fans or open windows whenever cooking, running the dishwasher or dishwashing, etc.

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Actions that will help prevent condensation:

 Reduce the humidity (see preceeding page).

 Increase ventilation or air movement by opening doors and/or windows, when practical. Use fans as needed.  Cover cold surfaces, such as cold water pipes, with insulation.  Increase air temperature. Mold growing on a wooden headboard in a room with high humidity.

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renters: Report all plumbing leaks and moisture problems immediately to your building owner, manager, or superintendent. In cases where persistent water problems are not addressed, you may want to contact local, state, or federal health or housing authorities.

testing or sampling for mold Is sampling for mold needed? In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to Rust is an indicator that condensation check a building’s compliance occurs on this drainpipe. The pipe should with federal mold standards. be insulated to prevent condensation. Surface sampling may be useful to determine if an area has been adequately cleaned or remediated. Sampling for mold should be conducted by professionals who have speciic experience in designing mold sampling protocols, sampling methods, and interpreting results. Sample analysis should follow analytical methods recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), or other professional organizations.

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hidden

Mold

Mold growing on the back side of wallpaper.

suspicion of hidden mold You may suspect hidden mold if a building smells moldy, but you cannot see the source, or if you know there has been water damage and residents are reporting health problems. Mold may be hidden in places such as the back side of dry wall, wallpaper, or paneling, the top side of ceiling tiles, the underside of carpets and pads, etc. Other possible locations of hidden mold include areas inside walls around pipes (with leaking or condensing pipes), the surface of walls behind furniture (where condensation forms), inside ductwork, and in roof materials above ceiling tiles (due to roof leaks or insuicient insulation).

investigating hidden mold problems Investigating hidden mold problems may be diicult and will require caution when the investigation involves disturbing potential sites of mold growth. For example, removal of wallpaper can lead to a massive release of spores if there is mold growing on the underside of the paper. If you believe that you may have a hidden mold problem, consider hiring an experienced professional. page 153

14


cleanup and Biocides Biocides are substances that can destroy living organisms. The use of a chemical or biocide that kills organisms such as mold (chlorine bleach, for example) is not recommended as a routine practice during mold cleanup. There may be instances, however, when professional judgment may indicate its use (for example, when immune-compromised individuals are present). In most cases, it is not possible or desirable to sterilize an area; a background level of mold spores will remain - these spores will not grow if the moisture problem has been resolved. If you choose to use disinfectants or biocides, always ventilate the area and exhaust the air to the outdoors. Never mix chlorine bleach solution with other cleaning solutions or detergents that contain ammonia because toxic fumes could be produced.

Please note: Dead mold may still cause allergic reactions in some people, so it is not enough to simply kill the mold, it must also be removed.

Water stain on a basement wall — locate and ix the source of the water promptly.

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additional

resources

For more information on mold related issues including mold cleanup and moisture control/condensation/ humidity issues, visit:

www.epa.gov/mold

Mold growing on fallen leaves.

This document is available on the Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division website at: www.epa.gov/mold page 155 16


EPA 402/K-12/002 | 2016 | www.epa.gov/radon

A Citizen’s Guide to Radon The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon

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Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)


EPA Recommends:  Test your home for radon—it’s easy and inexpensive.  Fix your home if your radon level is 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) or higher.  Radon levels less than 4 pCi/L still pose a Radon is risk, and in many cases may be reduced. estimated to cause thousands of lung cancer 30,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. 21,000 deaths per year 17,400

10,000

8,000 3,900

RADON*

Drunk Driving

Falls in the Home

Drownings

2,800

Home Fires

*Radon is estimated to cause about 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year, according to EPA’s 2003 Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R-03-003). The numbers of deaths from other causes are taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 1999-2001 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Report and 2002 National Safety Council Reports.

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A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON


OVERVIEW Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas. You can’t see radon. And you can’t smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year. That’s because when you breathe air containing radon, you can get lung cancer. In fact, the Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.

Radon can be found all over the U.S. Radon comes from the natural (radioactive) breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water and gets into the air you breathe. Radon can be found all over the U.S. It can get into any type of building—homes, offices, and schools—and result in a high indoor radon level. But you and your family are most likely to get your greatest exposure at home, where you spend most of your time.

You should test for radon. Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. EPA and the Surgeon General recommend testing all homes below the third floor for radon. EPA also recommends testing in schools. Testing is inexpensive and easy—it should only take a few minutes of your time. Millions of Americans have already tested their homes for radon (see page 5).

You can fix a radon problem. Radon reduction systems work and they are not too costly. Some radon reduction systems can reduce radon levels in your home by up to 99%. Even very high levels can be reduced to acceptable levels.

New homes can be built with radon-resistant features. Radon-resistant construction techniques can be effective in preventing radon entry. When installed properly and completely, these simple and inexpensive techniques can help reduce indoor radon levels in homes. In addition, installing them at the time of construction makes it easier and less expensive to reduce radon levels further if these passive techniques don’t reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L. Every new home should be tested after occupancy, even if it was built radonresistant. If radon levels are still in excess of 4 pCi/L, the passive system should be activated by having a qualified mitigator install a vent fan. For more explanation of radon resistant construction techniques, refer to EPA publication, Building Radon Out: A Step-by-Step Guide on How to Build Radon-Resistant Homes (see page 15). page 158 A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON

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HOW DOES RADON GET INTO YOUR HOME?

Any home may have a radon problem.

Radon is a radioactive gas. It comes from the natural decay of uranium that is found in nearly all soils. It typically moves up through the ground to the air above and into your home through cracks and other holes in the foundation. Your home traps radon inside, where it can build up. Any home may have a radon problem. This means new and old homes, wellsealed and drafty homes, and homes with or without basements. Radon from soil gas is the main cause of radon problems. Sometimes radon enters the home through well water (see page 8). In a small number of homes, the building materials can give off radon, too. However, building

RADON GETS IN THROUGH: 1. Cracks in solid floors. 2. Construction joints. 3. Cracks in walls. 4. Gaps in suspended floors. 5. Gaps around service pipes. 6. Cavities inside walls. 7. The water supply.

materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves. Nearly 1 out of every 15 homes in the U.S. is estimated to have elevated radon levels. Elevated levels of radon gas have been found in homes in your state. Contact your state radon office (https://www.epa.gov/radon/findinformation-about-local-radon-zones-and-state-contact-information) for general information about radon in your area. While radon problems may be more common in some areas, any home may have a problem. The only way to know about your home is to test. Radon can also be a problem in schools and workplaces. Ask your state radon office (www.epa.gov/radon/whereyoulive.html) about radon problems in schools, daycare and childcare facilities, and workplaces in your area (also visit https://www.epa.gov/radon). page 159 4

A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON


HOW TO TEST YOUR HOME You can’t see radon, but it’s not hard to find out if you have a radon problem in your home. All you need to do is test for radon. Testing is easy and should only take a few minutes of your time. The amount of radon in the air is measured in “picocuries per liter of air,” or “pCi/L.” There are many kinds of low-cost “do it yourself” radon test kits you can get through the mail and in some hardware stores and other retail outlets. If you prefer, or if you are buying or selling a home, you can hire a qualified tester to do the testing for you. You should first contact your state radon office about obtaining a list of qualified testers. You can also contact a private radon proficiency program for lists of privately certified radon professionals serving your area. For links and more information, visit https://www.epa.gov/radon/find-radon-test-kit-ormeasurement-and-mitigation-professional.

There are Two General Ways to Test for Radon: SHORT-TERM TESTING: The quickest way to test is with short-term tests. Short-term tests remain in your home for two days to 90 days, depending on the device. “Charcoal canisters,” “alpha track,” “electret ion chamber,” “continuous monitors,” and “charcoal liquid scintillation” detectors are most commonly used for short-term testing. Because radon levels tend to vary from day to day and season to season, a short-term test is less likely than a long-term test to tell you your year-round average radon level. If you need results quickly, however, a short-term test followed by a second short-term test may be used to decide whether to fix your home (see also page 7 under Home Sales).

Testing is easy and should only take a few minutes of your time.

LONG-TERM TESTING: Long-term tests remain in your home for more than 90 days. “Alpha track” and “electret” detectors are commonly used for this type of testing. A long-term test will give you a reading that is more likely to tell you your home’s year-round average radon level than a short-term test.

How To Use a Test Kit: Follow the instructions that come with your test kit. If you are doing a short-term test, close your windows and outside doors and keep them closed as much as possible during the test. Heating and air conditioning system fans that re-circulate air may be operated. Do not operate fans or other machines which bring in air from outside. Fans that are part of a radon-reduction system or small exhaust fans operating only for short periods of time may run during the test. If you are doing a short-term test lasting just 2 or 3 days, be sure to close your windows and outside doors at least 12 hours before beginning the test, too. You should not conduct

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HOW TO TEST YOUR HOME continued short-term tests lasting just 2 or 3 days during unusually severe storms or periods of unusually high winds. The test kit should be placed in the lowest lived-in level of the home (for example, the basement if it is frequently used, otherwise the first floor). It should be put in a room that is used regularly (like a living room, playroom, den, or bedroom) but not your kitchen or bathroom. Place the kit at least 20 inches above the floor in a location where it won’t be disturbed—away from drafts, high heat, high humidity, and exterior walls. Leave the kit in place for as long as the package says. Once you’ve finished the test, reseal the package and send it to the lab specified on the package right away for analysis. You should receive your test results within a few weeks.

EPA Recommends the Following Testing Steps: Step 1.

Take a short-term test. If your result is 4 pCi/L or higher, take a followup test (Step 2) to be sure.

Step 2.

Follow up with either a long-term test or a second short-term test: • For a better understanding of your year-round average radon level, take a long-term test. • If you need results quickly, take a second short-term test. The higher your initial short-term test result, the more certain you can be that you should take a short-term rather than a long-term follow up test. If your first short-term test result is more than twice EPA’s 4 pCi/L action level, you should take a second short-term test immediately.

Step 3.

• If you followed up with a long-term test: Fix your home if your longterm test result is 4 pCi/L or more. • If you followed up with a second short-term test: The higher your short-term results, the more certain you can be that you should fix your home. Consider fixing your home if the average of your first and second test is 4 pCi/L or higher (see also page 7 under Home Sales).

6 6

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WHAT YOUR TEST RESULTS MEAN The average indoor radon level is estimated to be about 1.3 pCi/L, and about 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally found in the outside air. The U.S. Congress has set a long-term goal that indoor radon levels be no more than outdoor levels. While this goal is not yet technologically achievable in all cases, most homes today can be reduced to 2 pCi/L or below. Sometimes short-term tests are less definitive about whether or not your home is above 4 pCi/L. This can happen when your results are close to 4 pCi/L. For example, if the average of your two short-term test results is 4.1 pCi/L, there is about a 50% chance that your year-round average is somewhat below 4 pCi/L. However, EPA believes that any radon exposure carries some risk—no level of radon is safe. Even radon levels below 4 pCi/L pose some risk, and you can reduce your risk of lung cancer by lowering your radon level. If your living patterns change and you begin occupying a lower level of your home (such as a basement) you should retest your home on that level. Even if your test result is below 4 pCi/L, you may want to test again sometime in the future.

Test your home now and save your results. If you find high radon levels, fix your home before you decide to sell it.

RADON AND HOME SALES More and more, home buyers and renters are asking about radon levels before they buy or rent a home. Because real estate sales happen quickly, there is often little time to deal with radon and other issues. The best thing to do is to test for radon NOW and save the results in case the buyer is interested in them. Fix a problem if it exists so it won’t complicate your home sale. If you are planning to move, review EPA’s pamphlet “Home Buyer’s and Seller’s Guide to Radon,” which addresses some common questions (https://www.epa.gov/radon/home-buyers-and-sellers-guide-radon). You can also use the results of two short-term tests done side-by-side (four inches apart) to decide whether to fix your home. During home sales: •

• •

Buyers often ask if a home has been tested, and if elevated levels were reduced. Buyers frequently want tests made by someone who is not involved in the home sale. Your state radon office https://www.epa.gov/radon/find-information-about-local-radon-zones-and-state-contactinformation) can assist you in identifying a qualified tester. Buyers might want to know the radon levels in areas of the home (like a basement they plan to finish that the seller might not otherwise test.

Today many homes are built to help prevent radon from coming in. Building codes in your state or local area may require these radon-resistant construction features. If you are buying or renting a new home, ask the owner or builder if it has radon-resistant features. The EPA recommends building new homes with radonresistant features in high radon potential (Zone 1) areas. Even if built radon-resistant, every new home should be tested for radon after occupancy. If you have a test result of 4 pCi/L or more, consult a qualified mitigator (http://www. epa.gov/radon/find-radon-test-kit-or-measurement-and-mitigation-professional#who) to estimate the cost of upgrading to an active system by adding a vent fan to reduce the radon level. In an existing home, the cost to install a radon mitigation system is about the same as for other common home repairs.

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RADON IN WATER

If you’ve tested the air in your home and found a radon problem, and your water comes from a well, have your water tested.

8 8

There are two main sources for the radon in your home’s indoor air, the soil and the water supply. Compared to radon entering the home through water, radon entering your home through the soil is usually a much larger risk. The radon in your water supply poses an inhalation risk and an ingestion risk. Research has shown that your risk of lung cancer from breathing radon in air is much larger than your risk of stomach cancer from swallowing water with radon in it. Most of your risk from radon in water comes from radon released into the air when water is used for showering and other household purposes. Radon in your home’s water is not usually a problem when its source is surface water. A radon in water problem is more likely when its source is ground water, e.g., a private well or a public water supply system that uses ground water. If you are concerned that radon may be entering your home through the water and your water comes from a public water supply, contact your water supplier. If you’ve tested your private well and have a radon in water problem, it can be fixed. Your home’s water supply can be treated in two ways. Pointof-entry treatment can effectively remove radon from the water before it enters your home. Point-of-use treatment devices remove radon from your water at the tap, but only treat a small portion of the water you use and are not effective in reducing the risk from breathing radon released into the air from all water used in the home. For more information, call EPA’s Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 If your water comes from a private well, you can also contact your state radon office.

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HOW TO LOWER THE RADON LEVEL IN YOUR HOME Since there is no known safe level of radon, there can always be some risk. But the risk can be reduced by lowering the radon level in your home. There are several proven methods to reduce radon in your home, but the one primarily used is a vent pipe system and fan, which pulls radon from beneath the house and vents it to the outside. This system, known as a soil suction radon reduction system, does not require major changes to your home. Sealing foundation cracks and other openings makes this kind of system more effective and cost-efficient. Similar systems can also be installed in houses with crawl spaces. Radon contractors can use other methods that may also work in your home. The right system depends on the design of your home and other factors. Ways to reduce radon in your home are discussed in EPA’s Consumer’s Guide to Radon Reduction. You can get a copy at –about-radon https://www.epa.gov/radon/publications-about-radon. The cost of reducing radon in your home depends on how your home was built and the extent of the radon problem. Most homes can be fixed for about the same cost as other common home repairs. The cost to fix can vary widely; consult with your state radon office or get one or more estimates from qualified mitigators. The cost is much less if a passive system was installed during construction.

RADON AND HOME RENOVATIONS

If you are planning any major structural renovation, such as converting an unfinished basement area into living space, it is especially important to test the area for radon before you begin the renovation. If your test results indicate a radon problem, radonresistant techniques can be inexpensively included as part of the renovation. Because major renovations can change the level of radon in any home, always test again after work is completed.

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HOW TO LOWER THE RADON LEVEL IN YOUR HOME continued

Most homes can be fixed for about the same cost as other common home repairs.

Lowering high radon levels requires technical knowledge and special skills. You should use a contractor who is trained to fix radon problems. A qualified contractor can study the radon problem in your home and help you pick the right treatment method. Check with your state radon office for names of qualified or state certified radon contractors in your area. You can also contact private radon proficiency programs for lists of privately certified radon professionals in your area. For more information on private radon proficiency programs, visit https://www.epa.gov/radon/find-radon-test-kit-or-measurement-andmitigation-professional. Picking someone to fix your radon problem is much like choosing a contractor for other home repairs—you may want to get references and more than one estimate. If you are considering fixing your home’s radon problem yourself, you should first contact your state radon office for guidance and assistance https://www.epa.gov /radon/find-information-about-local-radon-zones-and-state-contact-information). You should also test your home again after it is fixed to be sure that adon levels have been reduced. Most soil suction radon reduction systems include a monitor that will indicate whether the system is operating properly. In addition, it’s a good idea to retest your home every two years to be sure radon levels remain low.

Note: This diagram is a composite view of several mitigation options. The typical mitigation system usually has only one pipe penetration through the basement floor; the pipe may also be installed on the outside ohe house.

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THE RISK OF LIVING WITH RADON Radon gas decays into radioactive particles that can get trapped in your lungs when you breathe. As they break down further, these particles release small bursts of energy. This can damage lung tissue and lead to lung cancer over the course of your lifetime. Not everyone exposed to elevated levels of radon will develop lung cancer. And the amount of time between exposure and the onset of the disease may be many years. Like other environmental pollutants, there is some uncertainty about the magnitude of radon health risks. However, we know more about radon risks than risks from most other cancer-causing substances. This is because estimates of radon risks are based on studies of cancer in humans (underground miners). Smoking combined with radon is an especially serious health risk. Stop smoking and lower your radon level to reduce your lung cancer risk. Children have been reported to have greater risk than adults of certain types of cancer from radiation, but there are currently no conclusive data on whether children are at greater risk than adults from radon. Your chances of getting lung cancer from radon depend mostly on: • How much radon is in your home • The amount of time you spend in your home

Scientists are more certain about radon risks than risks from most other cancer-causing substances.

• Whether you are a smoker or have ever smoked

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THE RISK OF LIVING WITH RADON continued RADON RISK IF YOU SMOKE Radon Level

It’s never too late to reduce your risk of lung cancer. Don’t wait to test and fix a radon problem. If you are a smoker, stop smoking.

If 1,000 people who smoked were exposed to this level over a lifetime*. . .

The risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to**. . .

WHAT TO DO: Stop Smoking and. . .

20 pCi/L

About 260 people could get lung cancer

250 times the risk of drowning

Fix your home

10 pCi/L

About 150 people could get lung cancer

200 times the risk of dying in a home fire

Fix your home

8 pCi/L

About 120 people could get lung cancer

30 times the risk of dying in a fall

Fix your home

4 pCi/L

About 62 people could get lung cancer

5 times the risk of dying in a car crash

Fix your home

2 pCi/L

About 32 people could get lung cancer

6 times the risk of dying from poison

Consider fixing between 2 and 4 pCi/L

1.3 pCi/L

About 20 people could get lung cancer

(Average indoor radon level)

(Reducing radon levels below 2 pCi/L is difficult)

(Average outdoor radon level)

0.4 pCi/L

Note: If you are a former smoker, your risk may be lower.

RADON RISK IF YOU’VE NEVER SMOKED Radon Level

If 1,000 people who never smoked were exposed to this level over a lifetime*. . .

The risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to**. . .

WHAT TO DO:

20 pCi/L

About 36 people could get lung cancer

35 times the risk of drowning

Fix your home

10 pCi/L

About 18 people could get lung cancer

20 times the risk of dying in a home fire

Fix your home

8 pCi/L

About 15 people could get lung cancer

4 times the risk of dying in a fall

Fix your home

4 pCi/L

About 7 people could get lung cancer

The risk of dying in a car crash

Fix your home

2 pCi/L

About 4 people could get lung cancer

The risk of dying from poison

Consider fixing between 2 and 4 pCi/L

1.3 pCi/L

About 2 people could get lung cancer

(Average indoor radon level)

(Reducing radon levels below 2 pCi/L is difficult)

0.4 pCi/L

(Average outdoor radon level)

Note: If you are a former smoker, your risk may be higher. *Lifetime risk of lung cancer deaths from EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R-03-003). **Comparison data calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 1999-2001 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Reports.

12

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RADON MYTHS AND FACTS MYTH: Scientists aren’t sure radon really is a problem.

FACT:

Although some scientists dispute the precise number of deaths due to radon, all major health organizations (like the Centers for Disease Control, the American Lung Association and the American Medical Association) agree with estimates that radon causes thousands of preventable lung cancer deaths every year. This is especially true among smokers, since the risk to smokers is much greater than to nonsmokers.

MYTH: Radon testing is difficult, time consuming and expensive.

FACT:

Radon testing is easy. You can test your home yourself or hire a qualified radon test company. Either approach takes only a small amount of time and effort.

MYTH: Homes with radon problems can’t be fixed.

FACT:

There are simple solutions to radon problems in homes. Hundreds of thousands of homeowners have already fixed radon problems in their homes. Most homes can be fixed for about the same cost as other common home repairs; check with one or more qualified mitigators. Call your state radon office (www.epa.gov/radon/whereyoulive. html) for help in identifying qualified mitigation contractors.

MYTH: Radon only affects certain kinds of homes.

FACT:

House construction can affect radon levels. However, radon can be a problem in homes of all types: old homes, new homes, drafty homes, insulated homes, homes with basements, homes without basements. Local geology, construction materials, and how the home was built are among the factors that can affect radon levels in homes.

MYTH: Radon is only a problem in certain parts of the country.

FACT:

High radon levels have been found in every state. Radon problems do vary from area to area, but the only way to know your radon level is to test.

MYTH: A neighbor’s test result is a good indication of whether your home has a problem.

FACT:

It’s not. Radon levels can vary greatly from home to home. The only way to know if your home has a radon problem is to test it.

A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON

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RADON MYTHS AND FACTS continued MYTH: Everyone should test their water for radon.

FACT:

Although radon gets into some homes through water, it is important to first test the air in the home for radon. If your water comes from a public water system that uses ground water, call your water supplier. If high radon levels are found and the home has a private well, call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 for information on testing your water.

MYTH: It’s difficult to sell homes where radon problems have been discovered.

FACT:

Where radon problems have been fixed, home sales have not been blocked or frustrated. The added protection is sometimes a good selling point.

MYTH: I’ve lived in my home for so long, it doesn’t make sense to take action now.

FACT:

You will reduce your risk of lung cancer when you reduce radon levels, even if you’ve lived with a radon problem for a long time.

MYTH: Short-term tests can’t be used for making a decision about whether to fix your home.

FACT:

A short-term test followed by a second short-term test* can be used to decide whether to fix your home. However, the closer the average of your two short-term tests is to 4 pCi/L, the less certain you can be about whether your year-round average is above or below that level. Keep in mind that radon levels below 4 pCi/L still pose some risk. Radon levels can be reduced in most homes to 2 pCi/L or below. *If the radon test is part of a real estate transaction, the result of two short-term tests can be used in deciding whether to mitigate. For more information, see EPA’s “Home Buyer’s and Seller’s Guide to Radon.”

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A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION EPA Radon Website

EPA Regional Offices

https://www.epa.gov/radon EPA’s radon page includes links to publications, hotlines, private proficiency programs and more.

https://www.epa.gov/radon/findinformation-about-local-radon-zones-andstate-contact-information. Check the above website for a listing of your EPA regional office.

Frequent Questions: https://iaq.zendesk.com/hc/enus/sections/202349927

Radon Hotlines 1-800-SOS-RADON (767-7236)* Purchase radon test kits by phone. 1-800-55RADON (557-2366)* Get live help for your radon questions. 1-800-644-6999* Radon Fix-It Hotline. For general information on fi or reducing the radon level in your home.

Ordering Radon Publications Many EPA radon publications are available from https://www.epa.gov /radon/ publications-about-radon Radon publications may be ordered through the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP) by calling 1-800-490-9198, by visiting the NSCEP website at https://www.epa.gov/nscep or by email at nscep@lmsolas.com.

1-866-528-3187* Línea Directa de Información sobre Radón en Español. Hay operadores disponibles desde las 9:00 AM hasta las 5:00 PM para darle información sobre radón y como ordenar un kit para hacer la prueba de radón en su hogar. 1-800-426-4791 Safe Drinking Water Hotline. For general information on drinking water, radon in water, testing and treatment, and standards for radon in drinking water. Operated under a contract with EPA.

*Operated by Kansas State University in partnership with EPA.

A Citizen’s Guide to Radon l THE GUIDE TO PROTECTING YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY FROM RADON

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Surgeon General Health Advisory “Indoor radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and breathing it over prolonged periods can present a significant health risk to families all over the country. It’s important to know that this threat is completely preventable. Radon can be detected with a simple test and fixed through well-established venting techniques.” January 2005

U.S. EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes In June 2003, the EPA revised its risk estimates for radon exposure in homes. EPA estimates that about 21,000 annual lung cancer deaths are radon related. EPA also concluded that the effects of radon and cigarette smoking are synergistic, so that smokers are at higher risk from radon. EPA’s revised estimates are based on the National Academy of Sciences 1998 BEIR VI (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) Report which concluded that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking.

Indoor Environments Division (6609J) EP 402/K-12/002 | May 2012 | www.epa.gov/radon

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Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)


Title 5 Overview Homes that are not connected to a sewer system use septic systems or cesspools, both of which are regulated by the state Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and local boards of health. A septic system has a tank, a distribution box, and soil absorption system commonly known as a "leach field." A cesspool has a pipe carrying waste from the home to a pit which distributes liquid waste. Improperly functioning sewage systems and cesspools are a major cause of the pollution of our coastal waters, rivers, and water supplies. As of March 31, 1995, the state environmental code governing septic systems, commonly referred to as Title 5 regulations, requires inspections of septic systems and cesspools prior to a home being sold or enlarged. In most instances, systems that fail inspection must be repaired within 2 years. After January 1, 1996, most septic system replacements or upgrades will also require that the soil evaluation test be performed by a DEPapproved soil evaluator. On November 3, 1995, Title 5 was again revised to encourage increased compliance with the regulations and to minimize financial hardships and delays for homeowners. Relevant Law: Massachusetts Septic System Inspection Regulation, 310 CMR 15.00. Important Issues: Because compliance with Title 5 is complex and potentially lengthy and costly, it is imperative that Realtors familiarize themselves with the general requirements of Title 5. Quick and thorough discussion of Title 5 to a seller and buyer can help to prevent delays in a pending sale. This is especially true since many mortgage lenders may require any septic system or cesspool repair or upgrade to be completed before closing or that funds for the cost of the repair be placed in escrow before closing. Although Title 5 is a state regulation, it is a minimum code therefore permitting local boards of health to adopt ordinances that are more stringent than Title 5. As with any regulation or law, there are many nuances and details that must be carefully followed to ensure compliance. Careful instruction will help prevent any unnecessary delays or expenses. Informational brochures on Title 5 are available for purchase from the Massachusetts Association of Realtors. Frequently Asked Questions: (Note: All answers are subject to additional local requirements, if any.) Q: When are septic system and cesspool inspections required under Title 5? A: Septic system and cesspool inspections are required in the following circumstances:

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Within 2 years before the sale of a home or transfer of title; In certain inheritance situations; (e.g. - when a child inherits a house from his/her parents); In certain insolvency proceedings (e.g. - bankruptcy, tax taking or foreclosure); When the use of the home is changed (e.g. - from residential to commercial use); When the footprint of the house is enlarged; When the home is expanded and a building, or occupancy permit is required (e.g. - adding a bedroom) Q: When are septic system and cesspool inspections NOT required under Title 5? A: Septic system and cesspool inspections are not required in the following circumstances: When a mortgage is refinanced; When the system was inspected within 3 years before the sale and you have records proving that your system was pumped annually since the inspection; Title to the house is transferred from one spouse to another or placed in certain family trusts; When the local board of health issued a certificate of compliance within 2 years before the time of transfer of title; When the community has adopted a comprehensive plan approved by DEP requiring periodic inspections and the system was inspected at the most recent time required by the plan; or When the homeowner has entered into an enforceable agreement, binding on subsequent buyers, with the board of health requiring an upgrade of the system or connection to the municipal sewer system within 2 years of transfer or sale. Q: How much does the average inspection and replacement or upgrade, if required, cost? A: The average cost of a septic system or cesspool inspection ranges between $300 to $500. The cost of repairs or upgrades vary depending on the nature of the problem; the location of the system, the size of the system, soil conditions; and site restrictions. A simple repair may only cost $500 while more extensive repairs may cost up to $12,000 or more. Contact your local board of health to inquire about typical costs in your community. Q: If a septic system or cesspool inspection is required at what point in time must the inspection be performed? A: The inspection must be performed within 2 years prior to the sale or transfer of the home or 6

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months after the sale if weather conditions preclude prior inspection. If the system fails inspection, the system must be upgraded or replaced within 2 years of the inspection regardless whether the house is actually sold or transferred. However, voluntary inspections, inspections not performed because of an intent to sell the property, may be performed just to assess the system’s condition. The results of a voluntary inspection are not reported to the local board of health or DEP. Q: Who is allowed to perform septic system or cesspool inspections? A: Only inspectors and soil evaluators approved under the regulations can perform required system inspections and soil tests. A list of DEP-approved soil evaluators and inspectors is available from your local board of health. Certified health officers, registered sanitarians and professional engineers qualify automatically as system inspectors under the regulations, and their names may or may not appear on the DEP-approved list. Consult with your local board of health to ensure that the system is inspected by a qualified individual. Q: What happens with the results of a septic system or cesspool inspection? A: If a system passes, the inspector is required to submit an approved system inspection form to the local board of health within 30 days, and the homeowner must provide a copy to the buyer. Prospective buyers and lending institutions may also require a copy of the approved inspection form. If the systems fails a required inspection, the inspector is required to submit the form to the local board of health within 30 days, and the homeowner must provide a copy to the buyer. The system must be repaired or upgraded within 2 years following the inspection, regardless whether the property is sold. Q: Is there any state financial assistance available to homeowners faced with the financial burden of replacing or upgrading their septic system? A: With the support of the Massachusetts Association of Realtors, the Massachusetts legislature passed a Title 5 tax credit which will provide eligible homeowners with a tax credit equal to 40 percent of the design and construction costs incurred to upgrade or repair a septic system. The tax credit relief measure provides credits of up to $1,500 per year for qualified homeowners with a maximum credit of $6,000 over a four-year period. This tax credit is available for all septic system and cesspool upgrade and repairs which occurred on or after January 1, 1997. Additional financial assistance is available in the form of low interest loans through the Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency and the Rural Economic Development Service Loan program. In addition, eligible municipalities can make low-interest 20-year loans to low-tomoderate income homeowners, repaid by adding an annual "betterment" to their tax bill. Contact your local board of health to see if your community participates in the Betterment Fund Program. For more information please contact the following:

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Massachusetts Association of REALTORS 速 at (800) 370-LEGAL Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Title 5 Hotline at (617) 292-5886 or (800) 266-1122. Office of the Attorney General, Consumer Complaint and Information Line at (617) 7278400 Massachusetts Better Business Bureau at (413) 734-3114 or (508) 755-2548 or (617) 4269000 Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency (HILP Loans) at (617) 854-1020 Rural Economic Development Service Loans at (413) 253-4330 This publication is provided as a service to members of the Massachusetts Association of REALTORS 速 and is intended for educational use only. Opinion or suggestions in this publication do not necessarily represent the official policies or positions of the Massachusetts Association of REALTORS 速 . The Massachusetts Association of REALTORS 速 does not accept responsibility for any misinterpretation or misapplication by the reader of the information contained in this article. The publishing of this material does not constitute the practice of law nor does it attempt to provide legal advice concerning any specific factual situation. FOR ADVICE ON SPECIFIC LEGAL PROBLEMS CONSULT LEGAL COUNSEL.

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Guide to Massachusetts

Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Requirements When Selling a One- or Two-Family Residence December 1, 2016

DEPARTMENT OF FIRE SERVICES Peter J. Ostroskey • State Fire Marshal page 176


M.G.L. c 148 s. 26F - The Law Massachusetts General Law, chapter 148 section 26F mandates that upon the sale or transfer of certain homes, the seller must install approved smoke alarms. These requirements apply to residences that were built or modiied prior to creation of the Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975). If a building was built or has undergone renovation, addition or modiication after Jan. 1, 1975, the date the building permit was issued determines the smoke alarms requirements of the building code. Although the transfer law applies to residences with ive or less residential units, this pamphlet will focus only on oneand two-family homes.

Veriication After a successful inspection for smoke alarm compliance, the local ire department will issue a Certiicate of Compliance indicating that the residence meets the smoke alarm requirements. Although the law applies to homes built prior to the date of the building code (Jan. 1975), it is industry practice that most purchase and sales agreements, and many mortgage companies require that the seller, as a condition to sell or transfer, obtain a Certiicate of Compliance issued by the local ire department, even if the home was permitted or modiied after 1975.

1

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Smoke Detector Requirements All homes are required to have smoke alarms. In general, the requirements for smoke alarms vary depending on when the residence was constructed or underwent renovation, addition or modiication.

Photoelectric vs. Ionization Technologies Photoelectric smoke alarms • • •

Use light to detect smoke. More effective in detecting smoldering ires, which have been attributed to more ires involving death. Household ire warning systems (low voltage or wireless low voltage systems) only use photoelectric detectors.

Ionization smoke detectors • • •

Use radiation to detect smoke. More effective in detecting laming ires. Increase the risk of nuisance alarms caused by steam or cooking smoke.

Carbon Monoxide Alarms Massachusetts General Law, chapter 148 section 26F½ and 527 CMR 1.00:13.7.6 mandates that upon the sale or transfer of any residence, the local ire department must inspect the residence for carbon monoxide alarm compliance. After a successful inspection, the local ire department will issue a Certiicate of Compliance indicating that the residence meets the carbon monoxide alarm requirements. Smoke alarm and CO alarm inspections can be conducted in the same visit.

2

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Carbon Monoxide Alarm Requirements Since March 31, 2006, carbon monoxide alarms have been required in all residences that have either: fossil fuel burning equipment or an attached enclosed garage. This law applied to all such residences whether or not the residence is being sold or transferred.

What is Fossil Fuel Burning Equipment? Fossil fuel burning equipment is any device, apparatus or appliance that is designed or used to consume fuel of any kind which emits carbon monoxide as a by-product of combustion. Some examples of fossil fuel burning equipment are: gas water heaters, oil or gas furnaces, wood or gas ireplaces, wood pellet stoves, gas clothes dryers, or gas cooking stoves.

How Will I Know What I Need? The word “typical” is used in the following guidelines only for purposes of illustration. The speciic requirements may depend on when the building permit for the residence was issued and if there have been any major renovations, additions or modiications. It is best to check with your local building or ire department for detailed guidance.

Typical one- and two-family residences built before January 1, 1975: • Smoke alarms are required as follows: – On every habitable level of the residence. – In the basement. – On the ceiling at the base of each stairway leading to a loor above including the basement (but not within stairways). – On the ceiling outside each separate sleeping area. 3

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– Must be photoelectric. (Can be in combination with ionization or carbon monoxide.) – May be battery-powered, hardwired, or a combination of both. – Smoke alarms cannot be more than 10 years old or exceed the manufacturer’s recommended life, whichever comes irst. – In two-family dwellings, smoke alarms are required in common areas shared by residents.

• New or Replacement alarms: – Must be photoelectric. (Can be in combination with ionization or carbon monoxide.) – Must contain a hush feature to silence nuisance alarms. – Battery-powered alarms must have 10-year, sealed, nonrechargeable, non-replaceable batteries.

• Carbon monoxide alarms are required as follows: – On every level of the residence, including habitable portions of basements and attics and must be located within 10 feet of each bedroom door. – Combination alarms (photoelectric smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used. – Combination alarms must have both a tone and simulated voice alarm to distinguish the type of emergency. – May be either: battery powered, plug-in with battery backup, hardwired with battery backup, or system type. – Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for placement.

Typical one- and two-family residences permitted between 1975 and August 27, 1997: • Smoke alarms are required as follows: – One smoke alarm on every habitable level of the residence. – One smoke alarm on the ceiling at the base of each stairway. – One smoke alarm on the ceiling outside of each separate sleeping area. 4

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– A minimum of one smoke alarm must be installed for every 1,200 square feet of living space per level. – Must be hardwired interconnected smoke alarms.

• Carbon monoxide alarms are required as follows: – On every level of the residence, including habitable portions of basements and attics and must be located within 10 feet of each bedroom door. – Combination alarms (photoelectric smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used anywhere. – Combination alarms (ionization smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used if the alarm is more than 20 feet from a kitchen or bathroom (containing a bathtub or shower). – Combination alarms must have both a tone and simulated voice alarm to distinguish the type of emergency. – May be either: battery powered, plug-in with battery backup, hardwired with battery backup, or system type. – Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for placement.

Typical one- and two-family residences permitted after August 27, 1997: •

Smoke alarms are required as follows: – One smoke alarm on every habitable level of the residence. – One smoke alarm at the base of each stairway. – One smoke alarm outside of each separate sleeping area. – One smoke alarm inside every bedroom. – A minimum of one smoke alarm must be installed for every 1,200 square feet of living space per level. – Must be hardwired and interconnected smoke alarms with battery backup. – If the smoke alarm is within 20 feet of a kitchen or bathroom (containing a bathtub or shower), the smoke alarm is required to be a photoelectric alarm. 5

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• Carbon monoxide alarms are required as follows: – On every level of the residence, including habitable portions of basements and attics and must be located within 10 feet of each bedroom door. – Combination alarms (photoelectric smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used anywhere. – Combination alarms (ionization smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used if the alarm is more than 20 feet from a kitchen or bathroom (containing a bathtub or shower). – Combination alarms must have both a tone and simulated voice alarm to distinguish the type of emergency. – May be either: battery powered, plug-in with battery backup, hardwired with battery backup, or system type. – Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for placement.

Typical one- and two-family residences permitted on or after January 1, 2008: • Smoke alarms are required as follows: – One smoke alarm on every habitable level of the residence. – One smoke alarm at the base of each stairway. – One smoke alarm outside of each separate sleeping area. – One smoke alarm inside every bedroom. – A minimum of one smoke alarm must be installed for every 1,200 square feet of living space per level. – Must be hardwired and interconnected smoke alarms with battery backup. – If the smoke alarm is within 20 feet of a kitchen or bathroom (containing a bathtub or shower), the smoke alarm is required to be a photoelectric alarm. – If the smoke alarm is more than 20 feet from a kitchen or a bathroom (containing a bathtub or shower), the

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6


smoke alarm is required to be either a photoelectric alarm or a dual alarm (containing both ionization and photoelectric technologies).

• Carbon monoxide alarms are required as follows: – On every level of the residence, including habitable portions of basements and attics and located within 10 feet of each bedroom door. – Combination alarms (photoelectric smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used. – Must be hardwired and interconnected with battery backup. (May be separately wired from the existing smoke detection system.) – Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for placement.

• Heat alarms are required as follows: – Must have a single heat alarm in any garage attached to or under the residence. – Must be hardwired and interconnected with or without battery backup to the existing smoke detection system. – Heat alarms are not required in garages of older homes unless renovation, addition or modiication occurs after Jan. 1, 2008.

Typical one- and two-family residences permitted on or after February 4, 2011: • Smoke alarms are required as follows: – One smoke alarm on every habitable level of the residence. – One smoke alarm at the base of each stairway. – One smoke alarm outside of each separate sleeping area. – One smoke alarm inside every sleeping area. – A minimum of one smoke alarm must be installed for every 1,200 square feet of living space per level. – Must be hardwired and interconnected with battery backup. – All smoke alarms must be photoelectric. 7

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• Carbon monoxide alarms are required as follows: – On every level of the residence, including basements and habitable portions of attics, and must be located within 10 feet of each bedroom door. – Combination alarms (photoelectric smoke and carbon monoxide alarm) may be used. – Must be hardwired and interconnected with battery backup. (May be separately wired from the existing smoke detection system.)

• Heat alarms are required as follows: – Must have a single heat alarm in any garage attached to or under the residence. – Must be hardwired and interconnected with or without battery backup to the existing smoke detection system. – Heat alarms are not required in garages of older homes unless renovation, addition or modiication occurs after Jan. 1, 2008.

How Will I Get a Certiicate of Compliance? After you have a closing date: •

Contact the local ire department to schedule an inspection of your smoke and carbon monoxide detectors right away. Don’t wait until the last minute! Fees are determined by each city/town.

Prior to the arrival of the ire department: • •

Make sure that your posted street number is visible from the street (MGL c.148 § 59); Make sure that you have the proper type of alarms. – The local ire department may require that they be taken down for compliance veriication. – Make sure that all detectors are installed in the proper locations. – Make sure that all alarms are working properly. 8

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After passing the inspection, the local ire department will issue your Certiicate of Compliance. – This document will probably be required at the closing.

How Do I Know if my Smoke Alarm is More than 10 Years Old or Expired? The manufacturer’s date is located on the back of the smoke alarm. Carefully remove the alarm from its mounting bracket to check the date. If there is no date marked, then the alarm is more than 10 years old. If the date indicates it was manufactured more than 10 years ago, replace it with a new alarm that meets the requirements identiied in this guide.

How Do I Know Which Kind of Smoke Alarm I Have? A new alarm should be marked on the outside of the package to indicate if it uses ionization or photoelectric technology. For older or existing alarms you will need to remove the smoke alarm and look on the backside. • It is an ionization smoke alarm if the word “AMERICIUM” or the following symbol is on the back:

9

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Can I Use New Wireless Technology? Yes you can use new wireless technology. • In homes built before 1975, alarms can be wirelessly interconnected and can have a replaceable battery as long as the battery lasts for at least one year. • In homes built or modiied after 1975, they may be wirelessly interconnected, but cannot be wirelessly powered; they must be hard-wired per the State Building Code. • Wireless devices are always allowed with household ire warning systems.

Household Fire Warning Systems If you have a household ire warning system, the speciic requirements may be different than those listed here. Contact your local ire department. • Alarms must comply with Underwriter’s Laboratory Standard 268.

Are There Other Recommendations? The State Fire Marshal’s Ofice recommends: • Test your smoke and CO alarms monthly and replace alkaline batteries twice a year. REMEMBER, when you change the clocks, change the batteries. • Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer’s published instructions, no smoke alarms (battery operated or hard-wired) shall remain in service after 10 years from the date of manufacture. Combination CO and smoke alarms may need to be replaced sooner.

10

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• •

Additional replaceable battery-powered smoke alarms can be installed. Strongly consider a smoke alarm on the ceiling of each bedroom. Additional non-required smoke alarms may be photoelectric, ionization or both. People who are deaf or hard of hearing should install bed shaking devices in the bedroom that connect to the smoke alarms and strobe alarms in living areas. Consider selecting a carbon monoxide alarm with a digital display.

DEPARTMENT OF FIRE SERVICES Division of Fire Safety

978-567-3375 • www.mass.gov/dfs

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70

SOMETHING WAYS YOU COULD LOSE YOUR HOME AND 1 WAY TO STOP IT

There are many title issues that could cause you to lose your property or your mortgage investments. Even the most careful search of public records may not disclose the most dangerous threat: hidden risks. These issues may not be uncovered until years later. Without title insurance from a reputable and financially secure company, your title could be worthless. With the proper insurance, your rights will be defended in court. Here are some of the issues that occur most frequently: Forged deeds, mortgages, satisfactions or releases. Deed by person who is insane or mentally incompetent. Deed by minor (may be disavowed). Deed from corporation, unauthorized under corporate bylaws or given under falsified corporate resolution. 5. Deed from partnership, unauthorized under partnership agreement. 6. Deed from purported trustee, unauthorized under trust agreement. 7. Deed to or from a “corporation” before incorporation, or after loss of corporate charter. 8. Deed from a legal non-entity (styled, for example, as a church, charity or club). 9. Deed by person in a foreign country, vulnerable to challenge as incompetent, unauthorized or defective under foreign laws. 10. Claims resulting from use of “alias” or fictitious name style by a predecessor in title. 11. Deed challenged as being given under fraud, undue influence or duress. 12. Deed following non-judicial foreclosure, where required 1. 2. 3. 4.

procedure was not followed. 13. Deed affecting land in judicial proceedings (bankruptcy,

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

receivership, probate, conservatorship, dissolution of marriage), unauthorized by court. Deed following judicial proceedings, subject to appeal or further court order. Deed following judicial proceedings, where all necessary parties were not joined. Lack of jurisdiction over persons or property in judicial proceedings. Deed signed by mistake (grantor did not know what was signed). Deed executed under falsified power of attorney. Deed executed under expired power or attorney (death, disability or insanity of principal). Deed apparently valid, but actually delivered after death of grantor or grantee, or without consent of grantor. Deed affecting property purported to be separate property of grantor, which is in fact community or jointly-owned property. Undisclosed divorce of one who conveys as sole heir of a deceased former spouse.

Universal Title O : 877.645.8319 www.unive rsa ltitle .c o m

First American Title Insurance Company makes no express or implied warranty respecting the information presented and assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. First American, the eagle logo, First American Title, and firstam.com are registered trademarks or trademarks of First American Financial Corporation and/or its affiliates. AMD: 07/2014

AN INDEPENDENT POLICY-ISSUING AGENT OF FIRST AMERICAN TITLE INSURANCE COMPANY ©2014 First American Financial Corporation and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.  NYSE: FAF

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70-Something Ways You Could Lose Your Home continued

23. Deed affecting property of deceased person, not 24. 25. 26.

27.

28.

29. 30.

31.

32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

46. 47. 48.

49.

joining all heirs. Deed following administration of estate of missing person, who later re-appears. Conveyance by heir or survivor of a joint estate, who murdered the decedent. Conveyances and proceedings affecting rights of service-member protected by the Soldiers and Sailors Civil Relief Act. Conveyance void as in violation of public policy (payment of gambling debt, payment for contract to commit crime, or conveyance made in restraint of trade). Deed to land including “wetlands” subject to public trust (vesting title in government to protect public interest in navigation, commerce, fishing and recreation). Deed from government entity, vulnerable to challenge and is unauthorized or unlawful. Ineffective release of prior satisfied mortgage due to acquisition of note by bona fide purchaser (without notice of satisfaction). Ineffective release of prior satisfied mortgage due to bankruptcy of creditor prior to recording of release (avoiding powers in bankruptcy). Ineffective release of prior mortgage of lien, as fraudulently obtained by predecessor in title. Disputed release of prior mortgage or lien, as given under mistake or misunderstanding. Ineffective subordination agreement, causing junior interest to be reinstated to priority. Deed recorded, but not properly indexed so as to be locatable in the land records. Undisclosed but recorded federal or state tax lien. Undisclosed but recorded judgment or spousal/child support lien. Undisclosed but recorded prior mortgage. Undisclosed but recorded notice of pending lawsuit affecting land. Undisclosed but recorded environmental lien. Undisclosed but recorded option, or right of first refusal, to purchase property. Undisclosed but recorded covenants or restrictions, with (or without) rights of reverter. Undisclosed but recorded easements (for access, utilities, drainage, airspace, views) benefiting neighboring land. Undisclosed but recorded boundary, party wall or setback agreements. Errors in tax records (mailing tax bill to wrong party resulting in tax sale, or crediting payment to wrong property). Erroneous release of tax or assessment liens, which are later reinstated to the tax rolls. Erroneous reports furnished by tax officials (not binding local government). Special assessments which become liens upon passage of a law or ordinance, but before recorded notice or commencement of improvements for which assessment is made. Adverse claim of vendor’s lien.

First American Title Insurance Company makes no express or implied warranty respecting the information presented and assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. First American, the eagle logo, First American Title, and firstam.com are registered trademarks or trademarks of First American Financial Corporation and/or its affiliates. AMD: 07/2014

50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

61. 62. 63.

Adverse claim of equitable lien. Ambiguous covenants or restrictions in ancient documents. Misinterpretation of wills, deeds and other instruments. Discovery of will of supposed intestate individual, after probate. Discovery of later will after probate of first will. Erroneous or inadequate legal descriptions. Deed to land without a right of access to a public street or road. Deed to land with legal access subject to undisclosed but recorded conditions or restrictions. Right of access wiped out by foreclosure on neighboring land. Patent defects in recorded instruments (for example, failure to attach notarial acknowledgment or a legal description). Defective acknowledgment due to lack of authority of notary (acknowledgment taken before commission or after expiration of commission). Forged notarization or witness acknowledgment. Deed not properly recorded (wrong county, missing pages or other contents, or without required payment). Deed from grantor who is claimed to have acquired title through fraud upon creditors of a prior owner In certain states, an extended coverage policy may be requested to protect against such additional defects as:

64. Deed to a purchaser from one who has previously sold

65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77.

or leased the same land to a third party under an unrecorded contract, where the third party is in possession of the premises. Claimed prescriptive rights, not of record and not disclosed by survey. Physical location of easement (underground pipe or sewer line) which does not conform with easement of record. Deed to land with improvements encroaching upon land of another. Incorrect survey (misstating location, dimensions, area, easements or improvements upon land). “Mechanics’ lien” claims (securing payment of contractors and material suppliers for improvements) which may attach without recorded notice. Federal estate or state inheritance tax liens (may attach without recorded notice). Pre-existing violation of subdivision mapping laws. Pre-existing violation of zoning ordinances. Pre-existing violation of conditions, covenants and restrictions affecting the land. Post-policy forgery against the insured interest. Forced removal of residential improvements due to lack of an appropriate building permit (subject to deductible). Post-policy construction of improvements by a neighbor onto insured land. Damage to residential structures from use of the surface of insured land for extraction or development of minerals.

AN INDEPENDENT POLICY-ISSUING AGENT OF FIRST AMERICAN TITLE INSURANCE COMPANY ©2014 First American Financial Corporation and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.  NYSE: FAF

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H o m e Wa t e r Te s t i n g Should I Have My Water Tested?

Public Water Systems

The answer to this question depends on several factors. It concerns your health and the health of your family, so you need to know some basic facts.

When you turn on the tap, where does the water come from? If you pay a water bill, you are purchasing water from a public water system, where your water is monitored, tested and the results reported to the federal, state or tribal drinking water agencies responsible for making sure it meets the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Your water company must notify you when contaminants are in the water they provide that may cause illness or other problems.

In addition to illness, a variety of less serious problems such as taste, color, odor and staining of clothes or fixtures are signs of possible water quality problems. Other things to think about include the nearness of your water well to septic systems and the composition of your home’s plumbing materials. This fact sheet provides information to help you decide whether or not to have your water tested, and if so, suggested tests for your situation. Regardless of your water source, here are two situations that may require testing: Do you suspect lead may be in some of your household plumbing materials and water service lines? Most water systems test for lead as a regular part of water monitoring. These tests give a system-wide picture, but do not reflect conditions at a specific household faucet. If you want to know if your home’s drinking water contains unsafe levels of lead, have your water tested. Testing is the only way to confirm if lead is present or absent. Some faucet and pitcher filters can remove lead from drinking water. If you use a filter to remove lead, be sure you get one that is certified to remove lead by NSF International. For more information, visit www.epa.gov/safewater/ lead, or call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.

Are you considering a home water treatment unit? Find out what is in your water and what you might want to remove before contacting potential dealers. Be informed so you can make the right decisions. To help you, please visit: www.epa.gov/safewater/faq/faq.html#hwtu and www.epa.gov/safewater/wot.

Most people in the United States receive water from a community water system that provides its customers with an annual water quality report, also known as a Consumer Confidence Report. Normally, you will receive it with your water bill once a year in July. The report contains information on contaminants found, possible health effects, and the water’s source. If you do not receive a report, contact your water company for this information.

Private Water Supplies If your drinking water does not come from a public water system, or you get your drinking water from a household well, you alone are responsible for assuring that it is safe. For this reason, routine testing for a few of the most common contaminants is highly recommended. Even if you currently have a safe, pure water supply, regular testing can be valuable because it establishes a record of water quality. This record is helpful in solving any future problems and in obtaining compensation if someone damages your water supply. page 191


The following items will help you determine when to test your private drinking water supply. How frequently should I test? Test water every year for total coliform bacteria, nitrates, total dissolved solids and pH levels, especially if you have a new well, or have replaced or repaired pipes, pumps or the well casing. Do you expect to have a new baby in the household? Test for nitrate in the early months of a pregnancy, before bringing an infant home, and again during the first six months of the baby’s life. It is best to test for nitrate during the spring or summer following a rainy period. Do you have taste, odor and staining issues? Test for sulfate, chloride, iron, manganese, hardness and corrosion, and every three years. If you suspect other contaminants, test for these also. Have you had a chemical or fuel spill or leak near your water supply? Test your well for chemical contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds. Tests can be expensive; limit them to possible problems specific to your situation. Local experts can tell you about possible impurities in your area. Is someone in your household pregnant or nursing an infant? Are there unexplained illnesses in your family? Do you notice a change in water taste, odor, color or clarity? You may need to test more than once a year.

Most testing laboratories or services supply their own sample containers. Use the containers provided and carefully follow the instructions given for collecting, preserving and handling water samples. Samples for coliform bacteria testing must be collected using sterile containers and under sterile conditions. Some procedures require that water runs from an outside tap for several minutes before filling the sample containers. Laboratories may sometimes send a trained technician to collect the sample or to analyze the sample directly in your home. Ask if this service is available, since you may obtain better samples and more reliable test results.

WHEN TO TEST YOUR WATER Conditions or nearby activities

Recommended Test

Recurrent gastro-intestinal illness

Coliform bacteria

Household plumbing contains lead Radon in indoor air or region is radon rich Scaly residues, soaps don’t lather Water softener needed to treat hardness Stained plumbing fixtures, laundry

pH, lead, copper Radon Hardness Manganese, iron iron, copper, manganese

Objectionable taste or smell

Hydrogen sulfide, corrosion, metals

Water appears cloudy, frothy or colored

Color, detergents

Corrosion of pipes, plumbing Rapid wear of water treatment equipment Nearby areas of intensive agriculture Coal or other mining operation nearby Gas drilling operation nearby

Do you know who can test your water? Often county health departments will help you test for bacteria or nitrates. If not, you can have your water tested by a state certified laboratory. You can find one in your area by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791 or visiting www.epa.gov/safewater/labs. Office of Water (4606)

Collecting Samples

Odor of gasoline or fuel oil, and near gas station or buried fuel tanks Dump, junkyard, landfill, factory or dry-cleaning operation nearby Salty taste and seawater, or a heavily salted roadway nearby

www.epa.gov/safewater

Corrosion, pH, lead pH, corrosion Nitrate, pesticides, coliform bacteria Metals, pH, corrosion Chloride, sodium, barium, strontium Volatile organic compounds (VOC) VOC, Total disolved solids (TDS), pH, sulfate, chloride, metals Chloride, TDS, sodium

EPA 816-F-05-013 May 2005 page 192


WATER ON TAP what you need to know

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Table of Contents Chapter

Page No.

1. A Consumer’s Guide To The Nation’s Drinking Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. How Safe Is My Drinking Water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. Where Does My Drinking Water Come From And How Is It Treated? . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. How Do We Use Drinking Water In Our Homes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 5. What’s Being Done To Improve Water Security?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 6. What Can I Do If There Is A Problem With My Drinking Water?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 7. How Safe Is The Drinking Water In My Household Well? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 8. What You Can Do To Protect Your Drinking Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Appendix A: National Primary Drinking Water Standards as of 10/03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Appendix B: References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Appendix C: Sources of Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Appendix D: Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

Office of Water (4601) EPA 816-K-09-002 www.epa.gov/safewater December 2009

Printed on Recycled Paper

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1. A Consumer’s Guide To The Nation’s Drinking Water The United States enjoys one of the best supplies of drinking water in the world. Nevertheless, many of us who once gave little or no thought to the water that comes from our taps are now asking the question: “Is my water safe to drink?” While tap water that meets federal and state standards is generally safe to drink, threats to drinking water are increasing. Short-term disease outbreaks and water restrictions during droughts have demonstrated that we can no longer take our drinking water for granted.

This booklet provides the answers to these and other frequently asked questions. This booklet also directs you to more detailed sources of information. Often, you will be directed to a page on the EPA website. Additionally, the Safe Drinking Water Hotline is available to answer your questions. Please also see Appendix C for more resources. Refer to the Glossary (Appendix D) for definitions of words in bold font.

What you need to know to protect your family Sensitive Subpopulations Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. People undergoing chemotherapy or living with HIV/AIDS, transplant patients, children and infants, the frail elderly, and pregnant women and their fetuses can be particularly at risk for infections.

Consumers have many questions about their drinking water. How safe is my drinking water? What is being done to improve security of public water systems? Where does my drinking water come from, and how is it treated? Do private wells receive the same protection as public water systems? What can I do to help protect my drinking water?

www.epa.gov/safewater

If you have special health care needs, consider taking additional precautions with your drinking water, and seek advice from your health care provider. For more information, see www.epa.gov/safewater/healthcare/ special.html. You will find information on bottled water and home water treatment units on page 16 of this booklet. You may also contact NSF International, Underwriter’s Laboratory, or the Water Quality Association. Contact information is located in Appendix C.

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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2. How Safe Is My Drinking Water?

What Law Keeps My Drinking Water Safe? Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nation’s public drinking water supply and protecting sources of drinking water. SDWA is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its state partners. 2

Highlights of the Safe Drinking Water Act • Authorizes EPA to set enforceable health standards for contaminants in drinking water • Requires public notification of water systems violations and annual reports (Consumer Confidence Reports) to customers on contaminants found in their drinking water -

www.epa.gov/safewater/ccr • Establishes a federal-state partnership for regulation enforcement • Includes provisions specifically designed to protect underground sources of drinking water - www.epa.gov/safewater/uic • Requires disinfection of surface water supplies, except those with pristine, protected sources • Establishes a multi-billion-dollar state revolving loan fund for water system upgrades -

www.epa.gov/safewater/dwsrf • Requires an assessment of the vulnerability of all drinking water sources to contamination -

www.epa.gov/safewater/protect — Drinking Water: Past, Present, and Future EPA-816-F-00-002

www.epa.gov/safewater

What Is A Public Water System? The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) defines a public water system (PWS) as one that serves piped water to at least 25 persons or 15 service connections for at least 60 days each year. There are approximately 161,000 public water systems in the United States.1 Such systems may be publicly or privately owned. Community water systems (CWSs) are public water systems that serve people year-round in their homes. Most people in the U.S. (268 million) get their water from a community water system. EPA also regulates other kinds of public water systems,

Public Water Systems Community Water System (54,000 systems)— A public water system that serves the same people year-round. Most residences are served by Community Water Systems. Non-Community Water System (approximately 108,000 systems)—A public water system that does not serve the same people year-round. There are two types of non-community systems: • Non-Transient Non-Community Water System (almost 19,000 systems)—A noncommunity water system that serves the same people more than six months of the year, but not year-round. For example, a school with its own water supply is considered a non-transient system. • Transient Non-Community Water System (more than 89,000 systems)—A noncommunity water system that serves the public but not the same individuals for more than six months. For example, a rest area or a campground may be considered a transient system.

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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such as those at schools, campgrounds, factories, and restaurants. Private water supplies, such as household wells that serve one or a few homes, are not regulated by EPA. For information on household wells, see “How Safe Is The Drinking Water In My Household Well?” on page 18 of this booklet.

Cost of Making Water Safe Continues to Rise Much of the existing water infrastructure (underground pipes, treatment plants, and other facilities) was built many years ago. In 1999, EPA conducted the second Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey, and found that drinking water systems will need to invest $150 billion over a 20-year period to ensure clean and safe drinking water.

Will Water Systems Have Adequate Funding In The Future? Nationwide, drinking water systems have spent hundreds of billions of dollars to build drinking water treatment and distribution systems. From 1995 to 2000, more than $50 billion was spent on capital investments to fund water quality improvements.2 With the aging of the nation’s infrastructure, the clean water and drinking water industries face a significant challenge to sustain and advance their achievements in protecting public health. EPA’s Clean Water & Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis3 has found that if present levels of spending do not increase, there will be a significant funding gap by the year 2019.

Where Can I Find Information About My Local Water System? Since 1999, water suppliers have been required to provide annual Consumer Confidence Reports to their customers. These reports are due by July 1 each year, and contain information on contaminants found www.epa.gov/safewater

in the drinking water, possible health effects, and the water’s source. Some Consumer Confidence Reports are available at www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm. Water suppliers must promptly inform you if your water has become contaminated by something that can cause immediate illness. Water suppliers have 24 hours to inform their customers of violations of EPA standards “that have the potential to have serious adverse effects on human health as a result of short-term exposure.” If such a violation occurs, the water system will announce it through the media, and must provide information about the potential adverse effects on human health, steps the system is taking to correct the violation, and the need to use alternative water supplies (such as boiled or bottled water) until the problem is corrected. Systems will inform customers about violations of less immediate concern in the first water bill sent after the violation, in a Consumer Confidence Report, or by mail within a year. In 1998, states began compiling information on individual systems, so you can evaluate the overall quality of drinking water in your state. Additionally, EPA must compile and summarize the state reports into an annual report on the condition of the nation’s drinking water. To view the most recent annual report, see www.epa.gov/safewater/annual.

How Often Is My Water Supply Tested? EPA has established pollutant-specific minimum testing schedules for public water systems. To find out how frequently your drinking water is tested, contact your water system or the agency in your state in charge of drinking water. If a problem is detected, immediate retesting requirements go into effect along with strict instructions about how the system informs the public. Until the system can reliably demonstrate that it is free of problems, the retesting is continued. In 2001, one out of every four community water systems did not conduct testing or report the results for all of the monitoring required to verify the safety Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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of their drinking water.4 Although failure to monitor does not necessarily suggest safety problems, conducting the required reporting is crucial to ensure that problems will be detected. Consumers can help make sure certain monitoring and reporting requirements are met by first contacting their state drinking water agency to determine if their water supplier is in compliance. If the water system is not meeting the requirements, consumers can work with local and state officials and the water supplier to make sure the required monitoring and reporting occurs. 4

A network of government agencies monitor tap water suppliers and enforce drinking water standards to ensure the safety of public water supplies. These agencies include EPA, state departments of health and environment, and local public health departments.

Common Sources of Pollution Naturally Occurring: microorganisms (wildlife and soils), radionuclides (underlying rock), nitrates and nitrites (nitrogen compounds in the soil), heavy metals (underground rocks containing arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium), fluoride. Human Activities: bacteria and nitrates (human and animal wastes—septic tanks and large farms), heavy metals (mining construction, older fruit orchards), fertilizers and pesticides (used by you and others (anywhere crops or lawns are maintained)), industrial products and wastes (local factories, industrial plants, gas stations, dry cleaners, leaking underground storage tanks, landfills, and waste dumps), household wastes (cleaning solvents, used motor oil, paint, paint thinner), lead and copper (household plumbing materials), water treatment chemicals (wastewater treatment plants).

www.epa.gov/safewater

Reported Community Water Systems Violating Maximum Contaminant Levels or Treatment Standards in FY 2002

District of Columbia

0% - 6% of Systems

6% - 11% of Systems

11+% of Systems

Nevertheless, problems with local drinking water can, and do, occur.

What Problems Can Occur? Actual events of drinking water contamination are rare, and typically do not occur at levels likely to pose health concerns. However, as development in our modern society increases, there are growing numbers of activities that can contaminate our drinking water. Improperly disposed-of chemicals, animal and human wastes, wastes injected underground, and naturally occurring substances have the potential to contaminate drinking water. Likewise, drinking water that is not properly treated or disinfected, or that travels through an improperly maintained distribution system, may also pose a health risk. Greater vigilance by you, your water supplier, and your government can help prevent such events in your water supply. Contaminants can enter water supplies either as a result of human and animal activities, or because they occur naturally in the environment. Threats to your drinking water may exist in your neighborhood, or may occur many miles away. For more information on drinking water threats, see www.epa.gov/safewater/ Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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publicoutreach/landscapeposter.html. Some typical

examples are microbial contamination, chemical contamination from fertilizers, and lead contamination.

Boil Water Notices for Microbial Contaminants When microorganisms such as those that indicate fecal contamination are found in drinking water, water suppliers are required to issue “Boil Water Notices.” Boiling water for one minute kills the microorganisms that cause disease. Therefore, these notices serve as a precaution to the public. www.epa.gov/safewater/ faq/emerg.html

Excessive levels of nitrates can cause “blue baby syndrome,” which can be fatal without immediate medical attention. Chemical Contamination From Fertilizers:

Microbial Contamination: The potential for health problems from microbialcontaminated drinking water is demonstrated by localized outbreaks of waterborne disease. Many of these outbreaks have been linked to contamination by bacteria or viruses, probably from human or animal wastes. For example, in 1999 and 2000, there were 39 reported disease outbreaks associated with drinking water, some of which were linked to public drinking water supplies.5 Certain pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms), such as Cryptosporidium, may occasionally pass through water filtration and disinfection processes in numbers high enough to cause health problems, particularly in vulnerable members of the population. Cryptosporidium causes the gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, and can cause serious, sometimes fatal, symptoms, especially among sensitive members of the population. (See box on Sensitive Subpopulations on page 1.) A serious outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in 1993 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, causing more than 400,000 persons to be infected with the disease, and resulting in at least 50 deaths. This was the largest recorded outbreak of waterborne disease in United States history.6

www.epa.gov/safewater

Nitrate, a chemical most commonly used as a fertilizer, poses an immediate threat to infants when it is found in drinking water at levels above the national standard. Nitrates are converted to nitrites in the intestines. Once absorbed into the bloodstream, nitrites prevent hemoglobin from transporting oxygen. (Older children have an enzyme that restores hemoglobin.) Excessive levels can cause “blue baby syndrome,” which can be fatal without immediate medical attention. Infants most at risk for blue baby syndrome are those who are already sick, and while they are sick, consume food that is high in nitrates or drink water or formula mixed with water that is high in nitrates. Avoid using water with high nitrate levels for drinking. This is especially important for infants and young children, nursing mothers, pregnant women and certain elderly people.

Nitrates: Do NOT Boil Do NOT boil water to attempt to reduce nitrates. Boiling water contaminated with nitrates increases its concentration and potential risk. If you are concerned about nitrates, talk to your health care provider about alternatives to boiling water for baby formula.

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6

Lead Contamination:

For more information on drinking water contaminants that are regulated by EPA, see Appendix A, or visit

Lead, a metal found in natural deposits, is commonly used in household plumbing materials and water service lines. The greatest exposure to lead is swallowing lead paint chips or breathing in lead dust. But lead in drinking water can also cause a variety of adverse health effects. In babies and children, exposure to lead in drinking water above the action level of lead (0.015 milligram per liter) can result in delays in physical and mental development, along with slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems or high blood pressure. Lead is rarely found in source water, but enters tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials. Very old and poorly maintained homes may be more likely to have lead pipes, joints, and solder. However, new homes are also at risk: pipes legally considered to be “lead-free” may contain up to eight percent lead. These pipes can leach significant amounts of lead in the water for the first several months after their installation. For more information on lead contamination, see www.epa.gov/safewater/con-

www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html.

taminants/dw_contamfs/lead.html.

Where Can I Find More Information About My Drinking Water? Drinking water varies from place to place, depending on the water’s source and the treatment it receives. If your drinking water comes from a community water system, the system will deliver to its customers annual drinking water quality reports (or Consumer Confidence Reports). These reports will tell consumers what contaminants have been detected in their drinking water, how these detection levels compare to drinking water standards, and where their water comes from. The reports must be provided annually before July 1, and, in most cases, are mailed directly to customers’ homes. Contact your water supplier to get a copy of your report, or see if your report is posted online at www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm. Your state’s department of health or environment can also be a valuable source of information. For help in locating these agencies, call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline. Further resources can be found in Appendix C. Information on testing household wells is on page 19.

Lead: Do NOT Boil Do NOT boil water to attempt to reduce lead. Boiling water increases lead concentration. Always use water from the cold tap for preparing baby formula, cooking, and drinking. Flush pipes first by running the water before using it. Allow the water to run until it’s cold. If you have high lead levels in your tap water, talk to your health care provider about alternatives to using boiled water in baby formula. www.epa.gov/safewater

1

Factoids: Drinking Water & Ground Water Statistics for 2002, 2003.

2

Community Water Systems Survey 2000, Volume I, 2001.

3

The Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis, EPA 816-R-02-020.

4

Factoids: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2001, EPA 816-K-02-004.

5

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks, United States 1999-2000, 2002.

6

25 Years of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 1999.

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3. Where Does My Drinking Water Come From And How Is It Treated? Your drinking water comes from surface water or ground water. The water that systems pump and treat from sources open to the atmosphere, such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs is known as surface water. Water pumped from wells drilled into underground aquifers, geologic formations containing water, is called ground water. The quantity of water produced by a well depends on the nature of the rock, sand, or soil in the aquifer from which the water is drawn. Drinking water wells may be shallow (50 feet or less) or deep (more than 1,000 feet). More water systems have ground water than surface water as a source (approx. 147,000 v. 14,500), but more people drink from a surface water system (195 million v. 101,400). Large-scale water supply systems tend to rely on surface water resources, while smaller water systems tend to use ground water. Your water utility or public works department can tell you the source of your public water supply.

How Does Water Get To My Faucet? An underground network of pipes typically delivers drinking water to the homes and businesses served by the water system. Small systems serving just a handful of households may be relatively simple, while large metropolitan systems can be extremely complex—sometimes consisting of thousands of miles of pipes serving millions of people. Drinking water must meet required health standards when it leaves the treatment plant. After treated water leaves the plant, it is monitored within the distribution system to identify and remedy any problems such as water main breaks, pressure variations, or growth of microorganisms.

www.epa.gov/safewater

How Is My Water Treated To Make It Safe? Water utilities treat nearly 34 billion gallons of water every day.1 The amount and type of treatment applied varies with the source and quality of the water. Generally, surface water systems require more treatment than ground water systems because they are directly exposed to the atmosphere and runoff from rain and melting snow. Water suppliers use a variety of treatment processes to remove contaminants from drinking water. These individual processes can be arranged in a “treatment train” (a series of processes applied in a sequence). The most commonly used processes include coagulation (flocculation and sedimentation), filtration, and disinfection. Some water systems also use ion exchange and adsorption. Water utilities select the treatment combination most appropriate to treat the contaminants found in the source water of that particular system. Coagulation (Flocculation & Sedimentation): Flocculation: This step removes dirt and other particles suspended in the water. Alum and iron salts or synthetic organic polymers are added to the water to form tiny sticky particles called “floc,” which attract the dirt particles. All sources of drinking water contain some naturally occurring contaminants. At low levels, these contaminants generally are not harmful in our drinking water. Removing all contaminants would be extremely expensive, and in most cases, would not provide increased protection of public health. A few naturally occurring minerals may actually improve the taste of drinking water and may even have nutritional value at low levels.

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Sedimentation: The flocculated particles then settle naturally out of the water. Filtration: Many water treatment facilities use filtration to remove all particles from the water. Those particles

include clays and silts, natural organic matter, precipitates from other treatment processes in the facility, iron and manganese, and microorganisms. Filtration clarifies the water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection.

Water Treatment Plant Follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is located underground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams.

8

Lake or Reservoir

Coagulation removes dirt and other particles suspended in water. Alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called “floc� which attract the dirt particles. The combined weight of the dirt and the alum (floc) become heavy enough to sink to the bottom during sedimentation.

Sedimentation: The heavy particles (floc) settle to the bottom and the clear water moves to filtration.

Disinfection: A small amount of chlorine is added or some other disinfection method is used to kill any bacteria or microorganisms that may be in the water.

Filtration: The water passes through filters, some made of layers of sand, gravel, and charcoal that help remove even smaller particles.

www.epa.gov/safewater

Storage: Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir for disinfection to take place. The water then flows through pipes to homes and businesses in the community.

Source: AWWA Drinking Water Week Blue Thumb Kit

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Disinfection: Disinfection of drinking water is considered to be one of the major public health advances of the 20th century. Water is often disinfected before it enters the distribution system to ensure that dangerous microbial contaminants are killed. Chlorine, chlorinates, or chlorine dioxides are most often used because they are very effective disinfectants, and residual concentrations can be maintained in the water system.

Disinfection Byproducts Disinfection of drinking water is one of the major public health advances of the 20th century. However, sometimes the disinfectants themselves can react with naturally occurring materials in the water to form unintended byproducts, which may pose health risks. EPA recognizes the importance of removing microbial contaminants while simultaneously protecting the public from disinfection byproducts, and has developed regulations to limit the presence of these byproducts. For more information, see www.epa.gov/safewater/mdbp.html.

Water System Filtration Tank

Why Is My Water Bill Rising? The cost of drinking water is rising as suppliers meet the needs of aging infrastructure, comply with public health standards, and expand service areas. In most cases, these increasing costs have caused water suppliers to raise their rates. However, despite rate increases, water is generally still a bargain compared to other utilities, such as electricity and phone service. In fact, in the United States, combined water and sewer bills average only about 0.5 percent of household income.2

1

Protect Your Drinking Water, 2002.

2

Congressional Budget Office Study: Future Investment in Drinking Water & Wastewater Infrastructure, 2002.

Water passes through charcoal, sand, and gravel layers in a water system’s filtration tank.

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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4. How Do We Use Drinking Water In Our Homes? We take our water supplies for granted, yet they are limited. Only one percent of all the world’s water can be used for drinking. Nearly 97 percent of the world’s water is salty or otherwise undrinkable, and the other two percent is locked away in ice caps and glaciers. There is no “new” water: whether our source water is a stream, river, lake, spring, or well, we are using the same water the dinosaurs used millions of years ago.

How Much Water Do Homes In The U.S. Use Compared To Other Countries? Americans use much more water each day than individuals in both developed and undeveloped countries: For example, the average European uses 53 gallons; the average Sub-Saharan citizen, 3-5 gallons.4

10

Common Household Uses of Drinking Water* (*Gallons per Capita per Day) Bathing, 20 gpcd Toilet Flushing, 24 gpcd Drinking and Cooking, 2 gpcd Garbage Disposal, 1 gpcd Dishwasher, 4 gpcd Car Washing 2.5 gpcd

Laundry 8.5 gpcd

Lawn Watering and Pools, 25 gpcd

Water efficiency plays an important role in protecting water sources and improving water quality. By using water wisely, we can save money and help the environment. Water efficiency means using less water to provide the same benefit. Using water-saving techniques could save you hundreds of dollars each year, while also reducing the amount of pollutants entering our waterways.

How Do Drinking Water Utilities Conserve Water? Source: Van Der Leeden, F., F. L. Troise, and D. K. Todd. The Water Encyclopedia. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Second Edition, 1990.

The average American uses about 90 gallons of water each day in the home, and each American household uses approximately 107,000 gallons of water each year.1 For the most part, we use water treated to meet drinking water standards to flush toilets, water lawns, and wash dishes, clothes, and cars. In fact, 50-70 percent of home water is used for watering lawns and gardens.2 Nearly 14 percent of the water a typical homeowner pays for is never even used—it leaks down the drain.3

Water utilities forecast water source availability, growth in population, and water demand to ensure adequate future water supplies during normal conditions, as well as periods of drought. When water shortages are predicted or experienced, water utilities have many options for conserving water. Temporary cutbacks or permanent operating adjustments can help conserve water. Temporary cutbacks may include: • Reduction of system-wide operating pressure, and • Water use bans, restrictions, and rationing.

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Permanent conservation measures may include: • Subsidizing use of water-efficient faucets, toilets, and showerheads, • Public education and voluntary use reduction, • Billing practices that impose higher rates for higher amounts of water use, • Building codes that require water-efficient fixtures and appliances, • Leak detection surveys and meter testing, repair, and replacement, and • Reduction in use and increase in recycling of industrial water.

How Can Businesses Conserve Water? The industrial and commercial sectors can conserve water through recycling and waste reduction. Industry has implemented conservation measures to comply with state and federal water pollution con-

trols. Evaluation of industrial plant data may show that a particular process or manufacturing step uses the most water or causes the greatest contamination. Such areas can be targeted for water conservation. Also, water that is contaminated by one process may be usable in other plant processes that do not require high-quality water.

How Can I Conserve Water? The national average cost of water is $2.00 per 1,000 gallons. The average American family spends about $474 each year on water and sewage charges.5 American households spend an additional $230 per year on water heating costs.6 By replacing appliances such as the dishwasher and inefficient fixtures such as toilets and showerheads, you can save a substantial amount each year in water, sewage, and energy costs. There are many ways to save water in and around your home. Here are the five that might get the best results:

Ways To Save Water At Home* (*Water Savings as Percent of Total Interior Water Use)

Low-Flow Showerheads (or Flow Restrictors), 12 percent

Low-Water Use Clothes Washers, 5 percent

Low-Water Use Toilets (or Plastic Bottles or Water Dams in Toilet Reservoir), 18 percent

Low-Flow Aerators on Faucets (or Replacement Faucets), 2 percent Low-Water Use Dishwasher, 4 percent

Source: Corbitt, Robert A. Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1989.

www.epa.gov/safewater

Insulation on Hot Water Lines, 4 percent

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11


• Stop Leaks. • Replace Old Toilets with models that use 1.6 gallons or less per flush. • Replace Old Clothes Washers with EPA Energy Star certified models. • Plant the Right Kind of Garden that requires less water. • Provide Only the Water Plants Need.

For more information on ways to conserve water in the home, see www.epa.gov/water/waterefficiency.html or www.h2ouse.org.

1

Water Trivia Facts, EPA 80-F-95-001.

2

AWWA Stats on Tap.

3

Using Water Wisely in the Home, 2002.

4

The Use of Water Today, World Water Council.

5

Investing in America’s Water Infrastructure, 2002.

6

Using Water Wisely in the Home, 2002.

12

Nearly 14 percent of the water a typical homeowner pays for is never even used— it leaks down the drain. Using Water Wisely in the Home, 2002

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5. What’s Being Done To Improve Water Security? What Security Measures Are In Place To Protect Water Systems? Drinking water utilities today find themselves facing new responsibilities due to concerns over water system security and counter-terrorism. EPA is committed to the safety of public drinking water supplies and has taken numerous steps to work with utilities, other government agencies, and law enforcement to minimize threats. The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 requires that all community water systems serving more than 3,300 people evaluate their susceptibility to potential threats and identify corrective actions. EPA has provided assistance to help utilities with these Vulnerability Assessments by giving direct grants to large systems, supporting self-assessment tools, and providing technical help and training to small and medium utilities. For more information on water system security, see www.epa.gov/safewater/security.

How Can I Help Protect My Drinking Water? Local drinking water and wastewater systems may be targets for terrorists and other would-be criminals

13

wishing to disrupt and cause harm to your community water supplies or wastewater facilities. Because utilities are often located in isolated areas, drinking water sources and wastewater collection systems may cover large areas that are difficult to secure and patrol. Residents can be educated to notice and report any suspicious activity in and around local water utilities. Any residents interested in protecting their water resources and community as a whole can join together with law enforcement, neighborhood watch groups, water suppliers, wastewater operators, and other local public health officials. If you witness suspicious activities, report them to your local law enforcement authorities. Examples of suspicious activity might include: •

People climbing or cutting a utility fence

• People dumping or discharging material to a water reservoir

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• Unidentified truck or car parked or loitering near waterway or facilities for no apparent reason

Do not confront strangers. Instead report suspicious activities to local authorities.

• Suspicious opening or tampering with manhole covers, fire hydrants, buildings, or equipment

When reporting an incident: • State the nature of the incident • Identify yourself and your location • Identify location of activity • Describe any vehicle involved (color, make, model, plate number) • Describe the participants (how many, sex, race, color of hair, height, weight, clothing)

For emergencies, dial 9-1-1 or other local emergency response numbers.

14

For more information on water security, visit: www.epa.gov/safewater/security

• People climbing or on top of water tanks • People photographing or videotaping utility facilities, structures or equipment • Strangers hanging around locks or gates

Report suspicious activity to local authorities www.epa.gov/safewater

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6. What Can I Do If There Is A Problem With My Drinking Water? Local incidents, such as spills and treatment problems, can lead to short-term needs for alternative water supplies or in-home water treatment. In isolated cases, individuals may need to rely on alternative sources for the long term, due to their individual health needs or problems with obtaining new drinking water supplies.

What Alternative Sources Of Water Are Available? Bottled water is sold in supermarkets and convenience stores. Some companies lease or sell water dispensers or bubblers and regularly deliver large bottles of water to homes and businesses. It is expensive compared to water from a public water system. The bottled water quality varies among brands, because of the variations in the source water used, costs, and company practices. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water used for drinking. While most consumers assume that bottled water is at least as safe as tap water, there are still potential risks. Although required to meet the same safety standards as public water supplies, bottled water does not undergo the same testing and reporting as water from a treatment facility. Water that is bottled and sold in the same

state may not be subject to any federal standards at all. Those with compromised immune systems may want to read bottled water labels to make sure more stringent treatments have been used, such as reverse osmosis, distillation, UV radiation, or filtration by an absolute 1 micron filter. Check with NSF International to see if your bottled water adheres to FDA and international drinking water standards. The International Bottled Water Association can also provide information on which brands adhere to even more stringent requirements. Contact information is listed in Appendix C.

Can I Do Anything In My House To Improve The Safety Of My Drinking Water? Most people do not need to treat drinking water in their home to make it safe. However, a home water treatment unit can improve water’s taste, or provide a factor of safety for those people more vulnerable to waterborne disease. There are different options for home treatment systems. Point-of-use (POU) systems treat water at a single tap. Point-of-entry (POE) systems treat water used throughout the house. POU systems can be installed in various places in the home, including the counter top, the faucet itself, or under the sink. POE systems are installed where the water line enters the house. POU and POE devices are based on various contaminant removal technologies. Filtration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and distillation are some of the treatment methods used. All types of units are generally available from retailers, or by mail order. Prices can reach well into the hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars, and depending on the method and location of installation, plumbing can also add to the cost.

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TREATMENT DEVICE

WHAT IT DOES TO WATER

TREATMENT LIMITATIONS

Activated Carbon Filter

Adsorbs organic contaminants that cause taste and odor problems.

Is efficient in removing metals such as lead and copper

(includes mixed media that remove heavy metals)

Somedesigns remove chlorination byproducts;

Does not remove nitrate, bacteria or dissolved minerals

Some types remove cleaning solvents and pesticides

Ion Exchange Unit

Removes minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium that make water “hard� Some designs remove radium and barium

(with activated alumina)

If water has oxidized iron or iron bacteria, the ion-exchange resin will become coated or clogged and lose its softening ability

Removes fluoride

16 Reverse Osmosis Unit

Removes nitrates, sodium, other dissolved inorganics and organic compounds

Does not remove all inorganic and organic contaminants

Removes foul tastes, smells or colors (with carbon)

May also reduce the level of some pesticides, dioxins and chloroform and petrochemicals

Distillation Unit

Removes nitrates, bacteria, sodium, hardness, dissolved solids, most organic compounds, heavy metals, and radionucleides Kills bacteria

Activated carbon filters adsorb organic contaminants that cause taste and odor problems. Depending on their design, some units can remove chlorination byproducts, some cleaning solvents, and pesticides. To maintain the effectiveness of these units, the carbon canisters must be replaced periodically. Activated carbon filters are efficient in removing metals such as lead and copper if they are designed to absorb or remove lead. Because ion exchange units can be used to remove minerals from your water, particularly calcium and magnesium, they are sold for water softening. Some ion exchange softening units remove radium and barium from water. Ion exchange systems that employ activated alumina are used to remove fluoride and www.epa.gov/safewater

Does not remove some volatile organic contaminants, certain pesticides and volatile solvents Bacteria may recolonize on the cooling coils during inactive periods

arsenate from water. These units must be regenerated periodically with salt. Reverse osmosis treatment units generally remove a more diverse list of contaminants than other systems. They can remove nitrates, sodium, other dissolved inorganics, and organic compounds. Distillation units boil water and condense the resulting steam to create distilled water. Depending on their design, some of these units may allow vaporized organic contaminants to condense back into the product water, thus minimizing the removal of organics. You may choose to boil your water to remove microbial contaminants. Keep in mind that boiling reduces Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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the volume of water by about 20 percent, thus concentrating those contaminants not affected by the temperature of boiling water, such as nitrates and

Maintaining Treatment Devices All POU and POE treatment units need maintenance to operate effectively. If they are not maintained properly, contaminants may accumulate in the units and actually make your water worse. In addition, some vendors may make claims about their effectiveness that have no merit. Units are tested for their safety and effectiveness by two organizations, NSF International and Underwriters Laboratory. In addition, the Water Quality Association represents the household, commercial, industrial and small community treatment industry and can help you locate a professional that meets their code of ethics. EPA does not test or certify these treatment units.

pesticides. For more information on boiling water, see page 5 of this booklet. No one unit can remove everything. Have your water tested by a certified laboratory prior to purchasing any device. Do not rely on the tests conducted by salespeople that want to sell you their product.

Where Can I Learn More About Home Treatment Systems? Your local library has articles, such as those found in consumer magazines, on the effectiveness of these devices. The U.S. General Accounting Office published a booklet called Drinking Water: Inadequate Regulation of Home Treatment Units Leaves Consumers At Risk (December 1991). To read this booklet, visit www.gao.gov and search for document number RCED-92-34, or call (202) 512-6000.

This treatment device is for point of use (POU). For more information on different types of devices contact NSF International, Underwriters Laboratory, or the Water Quality Association See Appendix C for contact information.

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7. How Safe Is The Drinking Water In My Household Well?

18

EPA regulates public water systems; it does not have the authority to regulate private wells. Approximately 15 percent of Americans rely on their own private drinking water supplies (Drinking Water from Household Wells, 2002), and these supplies are not subject to EPA standards. Unlike public drinking water systems serving many people, they do not have experts regularly checking the water’s source and its quality before it is sent to the tap. These households must take special precautions to ensure the protection and maintenance of their drinking water supplies.

What Should I Do?

Drinking Water from Household Wells is an EPA publication available to specifically address special concerns of a private drinking water supply. To learn more, or to obtain a copy, visit www.epa.gov/safewater/ privatewells, or call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline.

5. Set and follow a regular maintenance schedule for your well, and keep up-to-date records.

There are six basic steps you can take to help protect your private drinking water supply: 1. Identify potential problem sources. 2. Talk with local experts. 3. Have your water tested periodically. 4. Have the test results interpreted and explained clearly.

6. Immediately remedy any problems.

Identify Potential Problem Sources

How Much Risk Can I Expect? The risk of having problems depends on how good your well is—how well it was built and located, and how well you maintain it. It also depends on your local environment. That includes the quality of the aquifer from which your water is drawn and the human activities going on in your area that can affect your well. Several sources of pollution are easy to spot by sight, taste, or smell. However, many serious problems can be found only by testing your water. Knowing the possible threats in your area will help you decide the kind of tests you may need. www.epa.gov/safewater

Understanding and spotting possible pollution sources is the first step to safeguarding your drinking water. If your drinking water comes from a well, you may also have a septic system. Septic systems and other on-site wastewater disposal systems are major potential sources of contamination of private water supplies if they are poorly maintained or located improperly, or if they are used for disposal of toxic chemicals. Information on septic systems is available from local health departments, state agencies, and the National Small Flows Clearinghouse (www.epa.gov/owm/ mab/smcomm/nsfc.htm) at (800) 624-8301. A septic system design manual and guidance on system maintenance are available from EPA (www.epa.gov/ OW-OWM.html/mtb/decent/homeowner.htm).

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Talk With Local Experts Ground water conditions vary greatly from place to place, and local experts can give you the best information about your drinking water supply. Some examples are your health department’s “sanitarian,” local water-well contractors, public water system officials, county extension agents of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), local or county planning commissions, and your local library.

Have Your Water Tested Periodically Test your water every year for total coliform bacteria, nitrates, total dissolved solids, and pH levels. If you suspect other contaminants, test for these as well. As the tests can be expensive, limit them to possible problems specific to your situation. Local experts can help you identify these contaminants. You should also test your water after replacing or repairing any part of the system, or if you notice any change in your water’s look, taste, or smell. Often, county health departments perform tests for bacteria and nitrates. For other substances, health departments, environmental offices, or county governments should have a list of state-certified laboratories. Your State Laboratory Certification Officer can also provide you with this list. Call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline for the name and number of your state’s certification officer. Any laboratory you use should be certified to do drinking water testing.

Have Your Test Results Interpreted And Explained Clearly Compare your well’s test results to federal and state drinking water standards (see Appendix A, or visit www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html or call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline). You may need to consult experts to aid you in understanding your results, such as the state agency that licenses water well contractors, your local health department, or your state’s drinking water program.

www.epa.gov/safewater

Protecting Your Ground Water Supply • Periodically inspect exposed parts of the well for problems such as: - Cracked, corroded, or damaged well casing - Broken or missing well cap - Settling and cracking of surface seals. • Slope the area around the well to drain surface runoff away from the well. • Install a well cap or sanitary seal to prevent unauthorized use of, or entry into, the well. • Disinfect drinking water wells at least once per year with bleach or hypochlorite granules, according to the manufacturer’s directions. • Have the well tested once a year for coliform bacteria, nitrates, and other constituents of concern. • Keep accurate records of any well maintenance, such as disinfection or sediment removal, that may require the use of chemicals in the well. • Hire a certified well driller for any new well construction, modification, or abandonment and closure. • Avoid mixing or using pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, degreasers, fuels, and other pollutants near the well. • Do not dispose of wastes in dry wells or in abandoned wells. • Do not cut off the well casing below the land surface. • Pump and inspect septic systems as often as recommended by your local health department. • Never dispose of hazardous materials in a septic system.

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20

Set A Regular Maintenance Schedule For Your Well And Your Septic System

on page 16. If you connect to a public water system, remember to close your well properly.

Proper well and septic system construction and continued maintenance are keys to the safety of your water supply. Your state water well and septic system contractor licensing agency, local health department, or local public water system professional can provide information on well construction. Make certain your contractors are licensed by the state, if required, or certified by the National Ground Water Association.

After A Flood-Concerns And Advisories • Stay away from well pump to avoid electric shock. • Do not drink or wash from a flooded well. • Pump the well until water runs clear. • If water does not run clear, contact the county or state health department or extension service for advice.

Maintain your well, fixing problems before they reach crisis levels, and keep up-to-date records of well installation and repairs, as well as plumbing and water costs. Protect your own well area from contamination.

Immediately Remedy Any Problems If you find that your well water is contaminated, fix the problem as soon as possible. Consider connecting into a nearby community water system, if one is available. You may want to install a water treatment device to remove impurities. Information on these devices is provided

Animal waste can contaminate your water supply

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8. What You Can Do To Protect Your Drinking Water Drinking water protection is a shared responsibility. Many actions are underway to protect our nation’s drinking water, and there are many opportunities for citizens to become involved.

Be Observant!

Be Involved!

• Form and operate a citizens watch network within your community to communicate regularly with law enforcement, your public water supplier and wastewater operator. Communication is key to a safer community!

EPA activities to protect drinking water include setting drinking water standards and overseeing the work of states that enforce federal standards—or stricter ones set by the individual state. EPA holds many public meetings on issues ranging from proposed drinking water standards to the development of databases. You can also comment on proposed drafts of other upcoming EPA documents. A list of public meetings and regulations open for comment can be found at www.epa.gov/safewater/pubinput/html.

• Look around your watershed and look for announcements in the local media about activities that may pollute your drinking water.

• Be alert. Get to know your water/wastewater utilities, their vehicles, routines and their personnel. • Become aware of your surroundings. This will help you to recognize suspicious activity as opposed to normal daily activities.

Be Informed! • Read the annual Consumer Confidence Report provided by your water supplier. Some Consumer Confidence Reports are available at www.epa.gov/ safewater/dwinfo.htm. • Use information from your state’s Source Water Assessment to learn about potential threats to your water source. • If you are one of the 15 percent of Americans who uses a private source of drinking water—such as a well, cistern, or spring—find out what activities are taking place in your watershed that may impact your drinking water; talk to local experts/ test your water periodically; and maintain your well properly. • Find out if the Clean Water Act standards for your drinking water source are intended to protect water for drinking, in addition to fishing and swimming.

www.epa.gov/safewater

Other Ways To Get Involved • Attend public hearings on new construction, storm water permitting, and town planning. • Keep your public officials accountable by asking to see their environmental impact statements. • Ask questions about any issue that may affect your water source. • Participate with your government and your water system as they make funding decisions. • Volunteer or help recruit volunteers to participate in your community’s contaminant monitoring activities. • Help ensure that local utilities that protect your water have adequate resources to do their job.

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Don’t Contaminate! • Reduce paved areas: use permeable surfaces that allow rain to soak through, not run off. • Reduce or eliminate pesticide application: test your soil before applying chemicals, and use plants that require little or no water, pesticides, or fertilizers. • Reduce the amount of trash you create: reuse and recycle. 22

• If you see any suspicious activities in or around your water supply, please notify local authorities or call 9-1-1 immediately to report the incident.

Stormwater runoff threatens our sources of drinking water. As this water washes over roofs, pavement, farms and grassy areas, it picks up fertilizers, pesticides and litter, and deposits them in surface water and ground water. Here are some other threats to our drinking water: Every year: • We apply 67 million pounds of pesticides that contain toxic and harmful chemicals to our lawns. • We produce more than 230 million tons of municipal solid water—approximately five pounds of trash or garbage per person per day—that contain bacteria, nitrates, viruses, synthetic detergents, and household chemicals.

• Recycle used oil: 1 quart of oil can contaminate 2 million gallons of drinking water—take your used oil and antifreeze to a service station or recycling center. • Take the bus instead of your car one day a week: you could prevent 33 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions each day. • Keep pollutants away from boat marinas and waterways: keep boat motors well-tuned to prevent leaks, select nontoxic cleaning products and use a drop cloth, and clean and maintain boats away from the water. For more information on how you can help protect your local drinking water source, call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline, or check www.epa.gov/ safewater/publicoutreach. Additional resources are listed in Appendix C.

• Our more than 12 million recreational and houseboats and 10,000 boat marinas release solvents, gasoline, detergents, and raw sewage directly into our rivers, lakes and streams.

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National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Contaminant OC

Acrylamide

OC

Alachlor

R

MCL or TT1 (mg/L)2

Alpha/photon emitters

TT4 0.002

15 picocuries per Liter (pCi/L)

Potential health effects from long-term3 exposure above the MCL

Common sources of contaminant in drinking water

Public Health Goal (mg/L)2

Nervous system or blood problems; increased risk of cancer

Added to water during sewage/ wastewater treatment

zero

Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia; increased risk of cancer

Runoff from herbicide used on row crops

zero

Increased risk of cancer

Erosion of natural deposits of certain minerals that are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation

zero

0.006

IOC

Antimony

0.006

Increase in blood cholesterol; decrease in blood sugar

Discharge from petroleum reineries; ire retardants; ceramics; electronics; solder

IOC

Arsenic

0.010

Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancer

Erosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards; runoff from glass & electronics production wastes

0

IOC

Asbestos (ibers >10 micrometers)

Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps

Decay of asbestos cement in water mains; erosion of natural deposits

7 MFL

OC

Atrazine

0.003

Cardiovascular system or reproductive problems

Runoff from herbicide used on row crops

0.003

IOC

Barium

2

Increase in blood pressure

Discharge of drilling wastes; discharge from metal reineries; erosion of natural deposits

OC

Benzene

0.005

Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from factories; leaching from gas storage tanks and landills

zero

OC

Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)

0.0002

Reproductive dificulties; increased risk of cancer

Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines

zero

IOC

Beryllium

0.004

Intestinal lesions

Discharge from metal reineries and coal-burning factories; discharge from electrical, aerospace, and defense industries

0.004

4 millirems per year

Increased risk of cancer

Decay of natural and man-made deposits of certain minerals that are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation

zero

Increased risk of cancer

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

zero

Kidney damage

Corrosion of galvanized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from metal reineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints

0.005

R

Beta photon emitters

7 million ibers per Liter (MFL)

DBP

Bromate

0.010

IOC

Cadmium

0.005

2

23

OC

Carbofuran

0.04

Problems with blood, nervous system, or reproductive system

Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa

0.04

OC

Carbon tetrachloride

0.005

Liver problems; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities

zero

D

Chloramines (as Cl2)

MRDL=4.01

Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort; anemia

Water additive used to control microbes

MRDLG=41

Liver or nervous system problems; increased risk of cancer

Residue of banned termiticide

zero

OC

Chlordane

0.002

D

Chlorine (as Cl2)

MRDL=4.01

Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort

Water additive used to control microbes

MRDLG=41

D

Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2)

MRDL=0.81

Anemia; infants, young children, and fetuses of pregnant women: nervous system effects

Water additive used to control microbes

MRDLG=0.81

Chlorite

1.0

Anemia; infants, young children, and fetuses of pregnant women: nervous system effects

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

0.8

OC

Chlorobenzene

0.1

Liver or kidney problems

Discharge from chemical and agricultural chemical factories

0.1

IOC

Chromium (total)

0.1

Allergic dermatitis

Discharge from steel and pulp mills; erosion of natural deposits

0.1

IOC

Copper

Short-term exposure: Gastrointestinal distress. Long-term exposure: Liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson’s Disease should consult their personal doctor if the amount of copper in their water exceeds the action level

Corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits

1.3

Short-term exposure: Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)

Human and animal fecal waste

zero

DBP

M

Cryptosporidium

TT5; Action Level = 1.3

TT7

LEGEND

Disinfectant

D DBP

Disinfection Byproduct

www.epa.gov/safewater

IOC M

Inorganic Chemical Microorganism

OC R

Organic Chemical Radionuclides Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

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Contaminant

MCL or TT1 (mg/L)2

Potential health effects from long-term3 exposure above the MCL

Common sources of contaminant in drinking water

Public Health Goal (mg/L)2

IOC

Cyanide (as free cyanide)

0.2

Nerve damage or thyroid problems

Discharge from steel/metal factories; discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories

0.2

OC

2,4-D

0.07

Kidney, liver, or adrenal gland problems

Runoff from herbicide used on row crops

0.07

OC

Dalapon

0.2

Minor kidney changes

Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way

0.2

OC

1,2-Dibromo-3- chloropropane (DBCP)

Reproductive dificulties; increased risk of cancer

Runoff/leaching from soil fumigant used on soybeans, cotton, pineapples, and orchards

zero

OC

o-Dichlorobenzene

0.6

Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.6

OC

p-Dichlorobenzene

0.075

Anemia; liver, kidney or spleen damage; changes in blood

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.075

OC

1,2-Dichloroethane

0.005

Increased risk of cancer

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

zero

OC

1,1-Dichloroethylene

0.007

Liver problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.007

OC

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

0.07

Liver problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.07

OC

trans-1,2Dichloroethylene

0.1

Liver problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.1

OC

Dichloromethane

0.005

Liver problems; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from drug and chemical factories

zero

OC

1,2-Dichloropropane

0.005

Increased risk of cancer

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

zero

OC

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

Weight loss, liver problems, or possible reproductive dificulties

Discharge from chemical factories

0.4

OC

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

0.006

Reproductive dificulties; liver problems; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from rubber and chemical factories

zero

OC

Dinoseb

0.007

Reproductive dificulties

Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables

0.007

OC

Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)

Reproductive dificulties; increased risk of cancer

Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion; discharge from chemical factories

zero

OC OC

Diquat

0.02

Cataracts

Runoff from herbicide use

0.02

Endothall

0.1

Stomach and intestinal problems

Runoff from herbicide use

OC

Endrin

Liver problems

Residue of banned insecticide

0.002

OC

Epichlorohydrin

TT4

Increased cancer risk; stomach problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories; an impurity of some water treatment chemicals

zero

OC

Ethylbenzene

0.7

Liver or kidney problems

Discharge from petroleum reineries

0.7

OC

Ethylene dibromide

Problems with liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from petroleum reineries

zero

M

Fecal coliform and E. coli

24

IOC

0.4

0.00000003

0.002

0.00005 MCL6

Fecal coliforms and E. coli are bacteria whose Human and animal fecal waste presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes may cause short term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and people with severely compromised immune systems.

0.1

zero6

Fluoride

4.0

Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); children may get mottled teeth

Water additive which promotes strong teeth; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories

4.0

Giardia lamblia

TT7

Short-term exposure: Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)

Human and animal fecal waste

zero

OC

Glyphosate

0.7

Kidney problems; reproductive dificulties

Runoff from herbicide use

0.7

DBP

Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

0.060

Increased risk of cancer

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

n/a9

OC

Heptachlor

0.0004

Liver damage; increased risk of cancer

Residue of banned termiticide

zero

OC

Heptachlor epoxide

0.0002

Liver damage; increased risk of cancer

Breakdown of heptachlor

zero

M

Heterotrophic plate count (HPC)

TT7

HPC has no health effects; it is an analytic method used to measure the variety of bacteria that are common in water. The lower the concentration of bacteria in drinking water, the better maintained the water system is.

HPC measures a range of bacteria that are naturally present in the environment

n/a

M

0.0002

LEGEND

D DBP

Disinfectant Disinfection Byproduct

www.epa.gov/safewater

IOC M

Inorganic Chemical Microorganism

OC R

Organic Chemical Radionuclides Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 218


Contaminant

OC

Hexachlorobenzene

OC

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

IOC

Lead

M

Legionella

0.05 TT5; Action Level=0.015

TT7

Common sources of contaminant in drinking water

Public Health Goal (mg/L)2

Liver or kidney problems; reproductive dificulties; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from metal reineries and agricultural chemical factories

zero

Kidney or stomach problems

Discharge from chemical factories

0.05

Infants and children: Delays in physical or or mental development; children could show slight deicits in attention span and learning abilities; Adults: Kidney problems; high blood pressure

Corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits

zero

Legionnaire’s Disease, a type of pneumonia

Found naturally in water; multiplies in heating systems

zero

Lindane

0.0002

Liver or kidney problems

Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle, lumber, gardens

0.0002

IOC

Mercury (inorganic)

0.002

Kidney damage

Erosion of natural deposits; discharge from reineries and factories; runoff from landills and croplands

0.002

OC

Methoxychlor

0.04

Reproductive dificulties

Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock

0.04

IOC

Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen)

10

Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.

Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion of natural deposits

10

IOC

Nitrite (measured as Nitrogen)

1

Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.

Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion of natural deposits

1

Slight nervous system effects

Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples, potatoes, and tomatoes

0.2

Liver or kidney problems; increased cancer risk

Discharge from wood-preserving factories

zero

25

OC

Oxamyl (Vydate)

0.2

OC

Pentachlorophenol

0.001

OC

Picloram

Liver problems

Herbicide runoff

0.5

OC

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

0.0005

Skin changes; thymus gland problems; immune deiciencies; reproductive or nervous system dificulties; increased risk of cancer

Runoff from landills; discharge of waste chemicals

zero

Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined)

5 pCi/L

Increased risk of cancer

Erosion of natural deposits

zero

Discharge from petroleum and metal reineries; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from mines

0.05

0.004

0.5

IOC

Selenium

0.05

Hair or ingernail loss; numbness in ingers or toes; circulatory problems

OC

Simazine

0.004

Problems with blood

Herbicide runoff

OC

Styrene

Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problems

Discharge from rubber and plastic factories; leaching from landills

0.1

OC IOC

Tetrachloroethylene

0.005

Liver problems; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from factories and dry cleaners

zero

Thallium

0.002

Hair loss; changes in blood; kidney, intestine, or liver problems

Leaching from ore-processing sites; discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories

0.0005

OC

Toluene

1

Nervous system, kidney, or liver problems

Discharge from petroleum factories

1

Coliforms are bacteria that indicate that other, potentially harmful bacteria may be present. See fecal coliforms and E. coli

Naturally present in the environment

zero

M

0.001

Potential health effects from long-term3 exposure above the MCL

OC

R

MCL or TT1 (mg/L)2

Total Coliforms

0.1

5.0 percent8

DBP

Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs)

0.080

Liver, kidney or central nervous system problems; increased risk of cancer

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

n/a9

OC

Toxaphene

0.003

Kidney, liver, or thyroid problems; increased risk of cancer

Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle

zero

OC OC

2,4,5-TP (Silvex)

0.05

Liver problems

Residue of banned herbicide

0.05

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

0.07

Changes in adrenal glands

Discharge from textile inishing factories

0.07

OC

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

0.2

Liver, nervous system, or circulatory problems

Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories

0.2

OC

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

0.005

Liver, kidney, or immune system problems

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

0.003

OC

Trichloroethylene

0.005

Liver problems; increased risk of cancer

Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories

zero

LEGEND

Disinfectant

D DBP

Disinfection Byproduct

www.epa.gov/safewater

IOC M

Inorganic Chemical Microorganism

OC R

Organic Chemical Radionuclides Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 219


Contaminant

MCL or TT1 (mg/L)2

M

Turbidity

TT7

R

Uranium

30Âľg/L

OC M OC

Vinyl chloride Viruses (enteric) Xylenes (total)

0.002 TT7 10

Potential health effects from long-term3 exposure above the MCL

Common sources of contaminant in drinking water

Public Health Goal (mg/L)2

Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water. It is used to indicate water quality and iltration effectiveness (e.g., whether disease-causing organisms are present). Higher turbidity levels are often associated with higher levels of disease-causing microorganisms such as viruses, parasites and some bacteria. These organisms can cause short term symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

Soil runoff

n/a

Increased risk of cancer, kidney toxicity

Erosion of natural deposits

zero

Increased risk of cancer

Leaching from PVC pipes; discharge from plastic factories

zero

Short-term exposure: Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)

Human and animal fecal waste

zero

Nervous system damage

Discharge from petroleum factories; discharge from chemical factories

10

26

LEGEND

D DBP

Disinfectant Disinfection Byproduct

www.epa.gov/safewater

IOC M

Inorganic Chemical Microorganism

OC R

Organic Chemical Radionuclides Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 220


NOTES 1 Definitions • Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)—The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals. • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)—The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards. • Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG)—The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants. • Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL)—The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants. • Treatment Technique (TT)—A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water. 2 Units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. Milligrams per liter are equivalent to parts per million (ppm). 3 Health effects are from long-term exposure unless specified as short-term exposure. 4 Each water system must certify annually, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturers certification) that when it uses acrylamide and/or epichlorohydrin to treat water, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows: Acrylamide = 0.05 percent dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent); Epichlorohydrin = 0.01 percent dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent). 5 Lead and copper are regulated by a Treatment Technique that requires systems to control the corrosiveness of their water. If more than 10 percent of tap water samples exceed the action level, water systems must take additional steps. For copper, the action level is 1.3 mg/L, and for lead is 0.015 mg/L. 6 A routine sample that is fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-positive triggers repeat samples--if any repeat sample is total coliform-positive, the system has an acute MCL violation. A routine sample that is total coliform-positive and fecal coliform-negative or E. coli-negative triggers repeat samples--if any repeat sample is fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-positive, the system has an acute MCL violation. See also Total Coliforms. 7 EPA’s surface water treatment rules require systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water, and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Cryptosporidium: 99 percent removal for systems that filter. Unfiltered systems are required to include Cryptosporidium in their existing watershed control provisions. • Giardia lamblia: 99.9 percent removal/inactivation

www.epa.gov/safewater

• Viruses: 99.99 percent removal/inactivation • Legionella: No limit, but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are removed/inactivated according to the treatment techniques in the surface water treatment rule, Legionella will also be controlled. • Turbidity: For systems that use conventional or direct filtration, at no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go higher than 1 nephelolometric turbidity unit (NTU), and samples for turbidity must be less than or equal to 0.3 NTU in at least 95 percent of the samples in any month. Systems that use filtration other than conventional or direct filtration must follow state limits, which must include turbidity at no time exceeding 5 NTU. • HPC: No more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment; Surface water systems or ground water systems under the direct influence of surface water serving fewer than 10,000 people must comply with the applicable Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule provisions (e.g. turbidity standards, individual filter monitoring, Cryptosporidium removal requirements, updated watershed control requirements for unfiltered systems). • Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment; This rule applies to all surface water systems or ground water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The rule targets additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements for higher risk systems and includes provisions to reduce risks from uncovered finished water storages facilities and to ensure that the systems maintain microbial protection as they take steps to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts. (Monitoring start dates are staggered by system size. The largest systems (serving at least 100,000 people) will begin monitoring in October 2006 and the smallest systems (serving fewer than 10,000 people) will not begin monitoring until October 2008. After completing monitoring and determining their treatment bin, systems generally have three years to comply with any additional treatment requirements.) • Filter Backwash Recycling: The Filter Backwash Recycling Rule requires systems that recycle to return specific recycle flows through all processes of the system’s existing conventional or direct filtration system or at an alternate location approved by the state. 8 No more than 5.0 percent samples total coliform-positive in a month. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month, no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive per month.) Every sample that has total coliform must be analyzed for either fecal coliforms or E. coli. If two consecutive TC-positive samples, and one is also positive for E. coli or fecal coliforms, system has an acute MCL violation. 9 Although there is no collective MCLG for this contaminant group, there are individual MCLGs for some of the individual contaminants: • Haloacetic acids: dichloroacetic acid (zero); trichloroacetic acid (0.3 mg/L) • Trihalomethanes: bromodichloromethane (zero); bromoform (zero); dibromochloromethane (0.06 mg/L)

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 221

27


Appendix B: References US EPA Publications 25 Years of the Safe Drinking Water Act: History & Trends EPA 816-R-99-007 Community Water Systems Survey 2000, Volume I EPA 815-R-02-0054 Drinking Water Costs and Federal Funding EPA 810-F-99-014

28

Drinking Water from Household Wells EPA 816-K-02-003 Drinking Water Priority Rulemaking: Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct Rules EPA 816-F-01-012 Drinking Water Treatment EPA 810-F-99-013 Factoids: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2001 EPA 815-K-02-004 Factoids: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2002 EPA 816–K-03-001 Fact Sheet: 1999 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey EPA 816-F-01-001 “Investing in America’s Water Infrastructure” Keynote Address by G. Tracy Mehan III to the Schwab Capital Markets’ Global Water Conference Protect Your Drinking Water EPA 816-F-02-012 Public Access to Information & Public Involvement EPA 810-F-99-021 Report to Congress: EPA Studies on Sensitive Subpopulations and Drinking Water Contaminants EPA 815-R-00-015 Safe Drinking Water Act-Protecting America’s Public Health EPA 816-H-02-003

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Act: Underground Injection Control Program: Protecting Public Health and Drinking Water Resources EPA 816-H-01-003 The Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis EPA 816-F-02-017 The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Protecting the Public Through Drinking Water Infrastructure Improvements EPA 819-F-00-028 Understanding the Safe Drinking Water Act EPA 810-F-99-008 Using Water Wisely in the Home EPA 800-F-02-001

Featured Consumer Information Resources Download the following documents from EPA’s New Drinking Water Consumer Information Web site: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumerinformation/ Or order hard copies from EPA’s National Service Center for Environmental Publications: HYPERLINK “http://www.epa.gov/ nscep” http://www.epa.gov/nscep or 1-800-490-9198 Public Health and Emergency Information: Bottled Water Basics, 816-K-05-003 Filtration Facts, 816-K-05-002 Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water English, 816-F-06-027 Spanish, EPA 816-F-06-028 French, 816-F-06-045 Arabic, 816-F-06-030 Vietnamese, 816-F-06-029

What to Do After the Flood English, 816-F-05-021 Spanish, 816-F-05-021 Vietnamese, 816-F-05-025 Is There Lead In My Drinking Water? 816-F-05-001 Guidance for People with Severely Weakened Immune Systems, 816-F-99-005 Public Involvement in Water Security Web site, a compilation of resources to help increase public awareness of water security issues and to give citizens information and guidance to help them prepare for potential emergency incidents and incorporate security activities into their daily lives, http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/publicInvolve.cfm Environmental Education: Thirstin’s Drinking Water Games and Activities (CD-ROM), 816-C-04-008 Virtual Tour of a Water Treatment Plant (CD-ROM), 816-C-06-002 Find answers to your questions about drinking water and ground water programs authorized under the Safe Drinking Water Act in EPA’s dynamic question and answer database, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/drinklink.html.

Publications From Outside Sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance for Waterborne-Disease OutbreaksUnited States-1999-2000. Congressional Budget Office. Future Investment in Drinking Water & Wastewater Infrastructure

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 222


Appendix C: Sources of Additional Information American Water Works Association Public Affairs Department 6666 West Quincy Avenue Denver, CO 80235 Phone (303) 794-7711 www.awwa.org Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies 1620 I Street NW Suite 500 Washington, DC 20006 Phone (202) 331-2820 Fax (202) 785-1845 www.amwa.net Association of State Drinking Water Administrators 1401 Wilson Blvd. Suite 1225 Arlington, VA 22209 Phone (703) 812-9505 www.asdwa.org Clean Water Action 4455 Connecticut Avenue NW Suite A300 Washington, DC 20008 Phone (202) 895-0420 www.cleanwater.org

International Bottled Water Association 1700 Diagonal Road Suite 650 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 683-5213 Information Hotline 1-800-WATER-11 ibwainfo@bottledwater.org National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners 1101 Vermont Ave NW Suite 200 Washington, DC 20005 Phone (202) 898-2200 www.naruc.org National Association of Water Companies 2001 L Street NW Suite 850 Washington, DC 20036 Phone (202) 833-8383 www.nawc.org National Drinking Water Clearinghouse West Virginia University P.O. Box 6064 Morgantown, WV 26506 Phone (800) 624-8301 www.ndwc.wvu.edu

Consumer Federation of America 1620 I Street NW Suite 200 Washington, DC 20006 Phone (202) 387-6121 www.consumerfed.org

National Ground Water Association 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville, OH 43081-8978 Phone: (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org

The Groundwater Foundation P.O. Box 22558 Lincoln, NE 68542 Phone (800) 858-4844 www.groundwater.org

National Rural Water Association 2915 South 13th Street Duncan, OK 73533 Phone (580) 252-0629 www.nrwa.org

The Ground Water Protection Council 13308 N. Mac Arthur Oklahoma City, OK 73142 Phone (405) 516-4972 www.gwpc.org

Natural Resources Defense Council 40 West 20th Street New York, NY 10011 Phone (212) 727-2700 www.nrdc.org

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 223

29


NSF International P.O. Box 130140 789 North Dixboro Road Ann Arbor, MI 48113 Phone (800) NSF-MARK www.nsf.org Rural Community Assistance Program 1522 K Street NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20005 Phone (800) 321-7227 www.rcap.org

30

Underwriters Laboratories Corporate Headquarters 2600 N.W. Lake Road Camas, WA 98607 Phone (877) 854-3577 www.ul.com Water Quality Association 4151 Naperville Road Lisle, IL 60532 Phone (630) 505-0160 www.wqa.org U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Resource Center 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW RC-4100T Washington, DC 20460 SDWA Hotline (800) 426-4791 www.epa.gov/safewater

EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI) Phone (212) 637-3000 EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV) Phone (215) 814-5000 EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) Phone (404) 562-9900 EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) Phone (312) 353-2000 EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) Phone (214) 665-2200 EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) Phone (913) 551-7003 EPA Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) Phone (303) 312-6312 EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NW, AS GU) Phone (415) 947-8000 EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) Phone (206) 553-1200

Water Systems Council National Programs Office 101 30th Street NW Suite 500 Washington, D.C. 20007 Phone: (202) 625-4387 Wellcare Hotline 888-395-1033 www.watersystems council.org EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) Phone (888) 372-7341 Phone (617) 918-1614

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 224


Appendix D: Glossary

Action Level

Ground Water

The level of lead and copper which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements that a water system must follow.

Water that is pumped and treated from an aquifer

Aquifer

Mineral-based compounds such as metals, nitrates, and asbestos; naturally occurring in some water, but can also enter water through human activities

A natural underground layer, often of sand or gravel, that contains water

Inorganic Contaminants

Maximum Contaminant Level Coliform A group of related bacteria whose presence in drinking water may indicate contamination by disease-causing microorganisms

Community Water System (CWS) A water system that supplies drinking water to 25 people or more year-round in their residences

The highest level of a contaminant that EPA allows in drinking water (legally enforceable standard)

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health (not a legally enforceable standard)

Microorganisms Contaminant Anything found in water (including microorganisms, radionuclides, chemicals, minerals, etc.) which may be harmful to human health

Cryptosporidium Microorganism found commonly in lakes and rivers which is highly resistant to disinfection.

Tiny living organisms that can be seen only under a microscope; some can cause acute health problems when consumed in drinking water

Non-Transient Non-Community Water System A non-community water system that serves the same people more than six months of the year, but not year-round

Disinfectant A chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that kills microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa

Organic Contaminants Carbon-based chemicals, such as solvents and pesticides, which enter water through cropland runoff or discharge from factories

Distribution System

Pathogen

A network of pipes leading from a treatment plant to customers’ plumbing systems

Disease-causing organism

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 225

31


Public Water System (PWS)

Transient Non-Community Water System

A water system which supplies drinking water to at least 25 people, at least 60 days each year

A non-community water system that serves the public but not the same individuals for more than six months

Sensitive Subpopulation People who may be more vulnerable to drinking water contamination, such as infants, children, some elderly, and people with severely compromised immune systems

Violation Failure to meet any state or federal drinking water regulation

Vulnerability Assessment Septic System

32

Used to treat sanitary waste; can be a significant threat to water quality due to leaks or runoff

An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals

Source Water

Watershed

Water in its natural state, prior to any treatment for drinking (i.e., lakes, streams, ground water)

The land area from which water drains into a stream, river, or reservoir

Surface Water

Well

Water that is pumped and treated from sources open to the atmosphere, such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs

A bored, drilled or driven shaft whose depth is greater than the largest surface dimension, a dug hole whose depth is greater than the largest surface dimension, an improved sinkhole, or a subsurface fluid distribution system

www.epa.gov/safewater

Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800-426-4791

page 226


Well Owner’s Manual A Water Systems Council Publication

page 227


Well Owner’s Manual Well Owner’s Manual Table of Contents Well Records

3

Where Your Water Comes From

7

Wells

9

Well Maintenance

14

Selecting a Well Contractor

16

Protecting Your Wellhead

19

Water Well Testing

21

Understanding Your Test Results

26

Well Owners Checklist

30

wellcare® Hotline

31

!2 page 228


Your Water Well System Important Records If you are among the millions of Americans who rely on a private water well system for your household water supply, you can rest assured that your properly constructed well and pump system will provide you with many years of service. This is a good place to keep the basic information you need to protect your investment and keep your well operating at its best. It is also a good place to keep a log of water testing results and maintenance performed. These records are a good reference for someone you may hire to do an inspection or repair work to your well, if and when that is ever necessary. These records are also useful information for you or contractors to consult when you landscape or build on your property. Finally, they offer important information about your well for anyone who may purchase your property in the future.

Your Well Permit and Well Completion Report In most states before a well is drilled, the well contractor or property owner is required to get a well permit. This permit includes basic information on the location and design of your well. Often, this permit is issued by the health department. When your well was completed, your well contractor was required to file a well completion report with the agency responsible for wells in your state. The well completion report contains more important details on your well’s location, size and depth, as well as on materials used in construction and water quality. Keep copies of your well permit and well completion report with this manual for future reference. If you don’t have your well permit or well completion report, contact the well contractor who installed your well or your county or state health department. They may be able to locate these records.

!3 page 229


wellcareÂŽ Well Records Basic Information Your Address_________________________________________________ City_____________________________________State_____Zip_______ Well Contractor_______________________________________________ Contractor Address___________________________________________ City_____________________________________State_____Zip_______ Contractor Phone__________________ Well Permit Number:___________________Construction Date_______ Initial Water Testing Results: Bacteria______________________________________________________ Minerals_____________________________________________________ Other (Name)________________________________________________ Other (Name)________________________________________________ System Disinfected After Construction_____Yes _____No Disinfectant Used/Amount____________________________________

Well Location

Use this box to represent your property. Sketch in the location of your house, your well, and any other structures on your property. Include distances to your septic system and your neighbors’ septic system, if you know where they are. Also include any garages, kennels, barns and barnyards, abandoned wells, and fuel storage tanks. Show which way the land slopes and how water drains on your property. Consult this drawing when you are planning any construction or landscaping or when interpreting the results of any water tests.

!4 page 230


wellcareÂŽ Well Records Well Data Depth

ft. Diameter

Hole size

Casing size

Screen size

in.

Estimated ow

gal. per min.

inches from

ft. to

ft.

inches from

ft. to

ft.

inches from

ft. to

ft.

inches from

ft. to

ft.

inches from

ft. to

ft. Type_____________________

inches from

ft. to

ft. Type_____________________

inches from

ft. to

ft. Type_____________________

inches from

ft. to

ft.. Type_____________________

inches from

ft. to

ft. Type_____________________

inches from

ft. to

ft. Type_____________________

Gravel Pack? If yes: from Grout? If yes: from

ft. to ft. to

ft. Size_____________________ ft. Type_____________________

Pump Information Manufacturer

Model No.

Motor Brand

HP

Pump Depth

ft. Riser Pipe

Voltage

awg.

Pump supported by: Well Seal

Psi Rating

No

Code_________ Type_____________

Size

Model__________

Size___________________________

Type awg.

Code______

Type_____________________

or Pitless Adapter

Flow sleeve installed on pump: Yes

Feeder Wire: Size

Phase Date in. Psi Rating

Pump Wire: Size

Water Line: Size

Series/Date

Length

ft.

Type__________________________

Tank Information Manufacturer Drawdown

Model No. gal. w/pressure switch setting of

Precharge Pressure psi on

psi

psi off

!5 page 231


wellcareÂŽ Well Records Water Test Results Summary Date

Lab

Reason for Sampling

Bacteria

Nitrate

Other Tests

Well & Plumbing Maintenance Record Date

Work Performed

Company

(File any receipts and warranties)

Cost

!6 page 232


wellcare® information for you about

Where Your Water Comes From Groundwater is used for drinking water by 44% of the people in the United States, including those with private wells and public water customers. Groundwater is a renewable, reliable source for cool, pure water. Groundwater from deep, drilled wells is naturally filtered and less likely to be contaminated than surface water in lakes and rivers. Deep, drilled wells recharge themselves and can provide a constant, steady supply of water even during bouts of dry weather. What is Groundwater? Groundwater, which accounts for 90% of the world’s fresh water, occurs below the ground, where it is filtered and purified naturally as it passes through layers of the earth. Groundwater is stored in aquifers -- layers of soil, sand and rocks -but can come to the surface naturally through a spring or brought to the surface through a well. More than 43 million Americans depend on individual wells for their drinking water. Water on the earth is constantly moving. The water cycle, pictured below, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the earth’s surface. Water can change states (liquid, vapor, ice) at various stages of the water cycle.

When water falls as rain, hail or snow, some of it collects as surface water. The rest seeps into the earth to become groundwater. Groundwater flows slowly underground and emerges again as surface water. Evaporation of surface water takes place and the cycle begins again.

!7 page 233


wellcare® information for you about

Where Your Water Comes From Steps You Should Take to Protect Your Groundwater and Well Water Maintain your well. Keep household chemicals and paint away from your well and dispose of them properly. Take used motor oil to a recycling center. Limit your use of pesticides and fertilizers. Install a well cap and keep it clear of leaves, mulch, dirt, snow, or other materials. Be careful when you mow around your well so you don’t damage the well casing. And remember...even though your well can meet all the water needs of a modern household, it is important to conserve water to protect the nation’s groundwater resources.

For More Information on Groundwater Your local well contractor, health department, cooperative extension service and state environmental or natural resources agency can provide you with more information about groundwater in your area. For help with locating these agencies, contact the wellcare® Hotline toll free at 888-395-1033 or check your local telephone directory.

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Wells Water from modern wells is naturally filtered, cool and pure.

Three Basic Types of Wells Bored or “shallow” wells are usually bored into an unconfined water source, generally found at depths of about 100 feet or less. Consolidated or “rock” wells are drilling into a formation consisting entirely of a natural rock formation that contains no soil and does not collapse. Their average depth is about 250 feet. Unconsolidated or “sand” wells are drilled into a formation consisting of soil, sand, gravel or clay material that collapses upon itself.

Well Construction All private well construction is based on establishing the right location for the well, sizing the system correctly and choosing the proper construction techniques. Only a professional water well contractor should install a well! They know the hydrogeology in your area and all the local codes and regulations for wells. They also have the modern equipment and expertise needed to make sure that your well is properly constructed to meet the water needs of your family. Your well is located on your property according to certain regulations required by the state, county or other locality. These regulations are designed to protect the integrity of your water supply. In addition, the well contractor uses his experience and expertise to locate the well on your property that is suited to your lot size, the location of existing structures and utilities and the most likely location for a good supply of water. Proper sizing is crucial to the construction and performance of your well system. Your system is designed to suit the needs of your household. Factors considered when sizing your system include such things as number of bathrooms, bedrooms and occupants, and anticipated water use for extras such as swimming pools, irrigation, spas or whirlpool baths. Proper well construction is the key to operating and maintaining your well. The initial cost of a properly constructed well may be somewhat higher. However, in the long run, a properly constructed well results in improved efficiency, less maintenance and longer well life.

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Wells Your Well Your well is constructed of quality materials, designed to prolong its life and performance. The following is a list of the most important materials used in construction of your well: Casing is used to maintain an open access in the earth while not allowing any entrance or leakage into the well from the surrounding formations. The most popular materials used for casing are black steel, galvanized steel, PVC pipe or concrete pipe. Grout is a sealant that is used to fill in the spaces around the outside of the well. It protects the well against the intrusion of contaminants. A grout mixture can be made of neat cement, bentonite or concrete, each used separately. Screen keeps sand and gravel out while allowing ground water and water from formations to enter into the well. Screen is available in many materials, the most popular being stainless steel and PVC. Screen is used when wells are drilled in unconsolidated materials. Gravel Pack is placed around the outside of the screen to prevent sand from entering the well or clogging the screen and to stabilize the well assembly. The modern drilling process makes use of sophisticated technology. Two drilling methods are commonly used for private wells: Air rotary drilling: A drill rig or truck outfitted with a large drill is driven onto the well site. The drill is lowered to the ground and turned on. As the drill spins, a hammer at its end smashes rock and soil creating the well shaft. The hammer is powered by air that is shot through the drill at very high speed. At the same time, water is pumped around the drill to make the drilling easier. As the drill moves down, the same air that moves the hammer clears out the broken rock, dirt and excess water. When the drill hits a solid rock formation, a casing is placed in the well shaft to keep unwanted materials from entering the opening. Drilling then continues into the rock until water is found. The space between the casing and the ground is then filled with grout and the well is cleaned and capped.

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Wells Mud rotary drilling: Mud rotary drilling is used to drill where the soil is loose and sandy. It is similar to rotary drilling except that as the drill bit spins, a fluid (drilling mud) shoots down through the middle of the drill, then flows out at very high speeds at the sides and the tip of the drill. Without this fluid moving up and around the drill, the walls of the hole would cave in and the well could not be made. The fluid and sand that come out of the hole are pumped to a pit. The fluid in the pit is pumped out and used again, while the extra sand stays put. After the drill hits an area of sand that is filled with water, the casing and screen are put in to keep things from getting in the well. When the drilling is finished, the driller grouts the well, cleans the well and puts a cap on it.

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Wells

This illustration is intended to demonstrate some of the components that can be included in a water well system and is not intended as an illustration guide. Check local codes for actual requirements and restrictions.

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Wells Well Pumps and Tanks Your private water system has two important components in addition to the well itself – a pump and a tank. Pumps: There are many types and sizes of pumps for water systems. Some are only designed to remove water from a source. Others not only remove the water, but also force it through the rest of the water system. Some pumps are for special jobs such as boosting pressure or supplying a special outlet. Selecting the appropriate pump size and type is critical to good well performance. Tanks: Tanks provide storage for your water system. There are three general types of water storage tanks: (1) diaphragm bladder tanks with permanent separation between the air and water; (2) tanks with a float or wafer separating the air from the water; and (3) plain steel tanks. Each kind of tank serves a specific purpose. If your water supply provides plenty of water for your needs and you have selected the proper pump, it is easy to select the right size and type of tank. The amount of stored water in the tank is equal to the pump discharge in gallons per minute. Additional storage: Some well owners may consider additional water storage tanks. Generally speaking, additional storage capacity of one day’s water supply is sufficient. Additional water storage is useful when there are power outages and other emergencies. Be sure to have the installer provide manual access to your storage unit.

For More Information on Your Well Contact the well contractor who installed your well or find a water well contractor in your area by searching online or looking in your local telephone directory. Many states maintain lists of licensed or registered well contractors. Most states also have state water well associations, state well driller associations or state groundwater associations that maintain a list of contractor members. Contact your local or state health department or environmental agency, your state water well or groundwater association or the wellcare® Hotline at 888-395-1033 to find out where you can obtain a list of well contractors.

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Well Maintenance The safety and purity of your drinking water and the efficient operation of your private well system depends on a well-organized maintenance program. Protect your investment in a quality water supply through regular inspection, testing and repair or treatment.

Create a Well Maintenance Log Gather a comprehensive history on your well and water quality. If you don’t already have a well log (also known as a water well record or drilling report), ask your well contractor or state environmental agency for a copy. The well log will include a reference number for the well, original site owner, location of the well, construction and contractor details, as well as the results from any water tests. The well log should help establish the location, age and condition of the well. This information will provide the basis on which to schedule regular tests of water quality and inspections of well equipment, as well as regular maintenance and repairs.

Set a Well Maintenance Schedule Plan for the maintenance of the wellhead, well system, water quality, water treatment devices and septic system.

Well Inspection Inspect your wellhead several times a year. Check the condition of the well covering, casing, and well cap to make sure all are in good repair, leaving no cracks or other entry points for potential pollutants. Have the well system, including the pump, storage tank, pipes and valves, and water flow inspected every 10 years by a qualified well driller or pump installer. If you have no inspection record and cannot determine the age of the well, have it inspected immediately by a water well professional. When your well reaches the end of its serviceable life, usually more than 20 years, contact your water well professional to install a new system and properly close the old well.

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Well Maintenance Water Testing Test drinking water immediately if you have no recent test results or any record of previous tests. Test drinking water for bacteria every year. Also test annually for nitrates if you live in an agricultural area or have an on-site septic system. The best time to perform these annual tests is in the spring. Test if you notice any change in the taste, color or odor of your water. Test more than once a year in special situations: someone in the household is pregnant or nursing; there are unexplained illnesses in the family; your neighbors find a dangerous contaminant in their water; or there is a spill of chemicals or fuels into or near your well. Test after disinfection, within one or two weeks, to make sure the water is pure. Test after any flooding in or near the well, to determine if flood water carried bacteria or other contaminants into the well system. Contact your local health department, cooperative extension office, state environmental agency or the wellcare® Hotline at 888-395-1033 for other water testing guidelines and to find a state-certified water testing laboratory in your area. Water Treatment System Test drinking water before installing any water treatment device. Test water every year to make sure the device is working properly. Follow the inspection and maintenance schedule provided by your water treatment device manufacturer or water systems professional. Review the Water Systems Council information sheet, “Well Water Treatment Options and Costs.” Septic System Testing Inspect the septic tank each year for capacity and leaks. Pump out the tank as needed, usually every three to five years, based on the number of people in the household and the size of the tank. Repair the tank or drainfield system as needed to prevent leaks of bacteria and nutrients into groundwater. A poorly maintained wastewater treatment system poses a serious threat to the quality of your drinking water and can require expensive repairs. The cost of pumping a septic tank is far less than the expense of replacing a drainfield clogged by solids. Review the Water Systems Council information sheet, “Your Septic System.”

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Selecting a Well Contractor Hiring a Water Well Professional Selecting the right water well professional is somewhat like searching for a new doctor or dentist. All are directly involved in your health. An experienced well contractor is your best guarantee of a good supply of clean drinking water. Take the time to learn more to find the right person and company.

Well Professionals To find a well contractor or drilling company in your area, ask your neighbors, contact your state water well association or local health department, or check in the yellow pages of the telephone book under “water well drilling & well pump installations.” Once you’ve identified a few prospective companies, ask a lot of questions. Professional Qualifications Your well contractor should be certified, licensed or registered with your state health or environmental agency. Specific requirements vary from state to state. Ask for proof of proper credentials and well association memberships. References Ask for two to three references from former customers. Find out how long the company has worked in your area, how many wells they have drilled and how satisfied their customers really are. Contracts A professional well contractor uses a written contract. The contract should include details of the job and warranties or guarantees, if any. Insurance and Bonding A drilling company and its personnel should be insured. Some states require bonding; some do not. Find out what the law requires. Local Geology An experienced well contractor knows about the geology of the area in which he or she drills and can clearly explain it to you. State and Local Laws A knowledgeable well contractor knows state and local regulations that govern well drilling. Maintenance and Repair Timely maintenance and repair services are important to well owners. A company that offers these services can make life easier for you and ensure the proper function of your well system.

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Selecting a Well Contractor Responsibilities Before signing a contract, discuss who is responsible for various aspects of the well construction or repair work. Permits, Site Visits, Fees, Etc. -- The homeowner or his/her representative typically secures permits required by the local government or health agency. A well contractor can tell you what agencies to contact and what fees must be paid. The contractor coordinates site visits by inspectors and construction activities. Well Location -- In most states, strict regulations govern location of the well. A competent well contractor knows the regulations and will tell you if health officials or other regulators must be present during the well location process. Well Capacity -- The well contractor can estimate the water requirements for your household. Help your contractor by discussing things like the number of bathrooms, the number of people in the household or anticipated water use for irrigation of lawns and gardens, spas, whirlpool baths or pools. Water Quantity/Quality -- The quality and quantity of water from your well depends on the geology and hydrology of the area. Well water comes from underground aquifers, which exist throughout the ground at different depths. These “storage spaces” contain different amounts of water. A well contractor cannot tell you exactly how deep he/she will have to go to get water. An estimate can be based on other wells drilled in your area. In addition, a contractor cannot predict the exact quality of the water that will be tapped. What a contractor can do is make reasonable judgments about water quality based on previous experience. However, some states or localities may have regulations on minimum quantity and or quality of water on newly drilled wells. Check with your state or local environmental agency for these regulations. Well Records -- Your well contractor should make a construction record (well log). Ask for a copy. If the law requires an inspection, keep that report as well. Keep repair bills and information on equipment purchases. Well records are very useful for maintenance purposes. Some states require the well contractor to submit records to regulatory agencies. Ask the contractor what your state requires. Troubleshooting -- Ask the well contractor what will be done if water is not reached at the estimated depth. Also, ask what options are available if the water needs some form of treatment.

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Selecting a Well Contractor Potential Cost Finally, discuss the cost of well construction and maintenance or repair. There are several factors that will influence the final cost, including: Depth of Well The depth of a well is a determining factor in figuring the basic cost of drilling and the cost of pipe, because most drillers charge by the foot. A well contractor will base estimates on what experience shows is an average depth for your area. If the water first tapped is adequate for your family, then drilling can stop. If not, then drilling may have to go deeper. Materials and Equipment A complete well includes casing material, pipe, a pump, a tank and grout to seal the well. Choose superior quality products to improve the efficiency and longevity of the well. State Regulations Most states require specific construction practices designed to protect health and the groundwater. Some states prohibit use of certain construction materials. Ask the well contractor how state construction requirements may effect cost. Labor Labor is usually figured into the charge-per-foot for drilling a well. However, there may be labor costs for installing the pump and tank or for performing repairs on an existing well. Experience teaches a well contractor to anticipate problems that may occur. However, nature is full of surprises, some of which even the most experienced contractor cannot anticipate. Cost Effectiveness Over the long term, the cost of water from your well will be pennies per day. Even factoring in construction and routine maintenance, a private well is still cost effective when compared to other systems. If you need further assistance with selecting a well contractor, contact your state health department or environmental agency, the local extension service, your state water well or groundwater association or the wellcare® Hotline at 888-395-1033.

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Protecting Your Wellhead The most visible portion of your drinking water system is the wellhead, the structure built over your well to protect its various parts. By protecting your wellhead, you will ensure the quality of your drinking water supply.

Maintaining Your Wellhead The wellhead protects the well casing, which is the lining of the well, and the well cap, which provides a tight-fitting seal at the top of the well. The wellhead is your first line of defense to prevent pollutants from penetrating your drinking water system. Inspect your wellhead regularly to make sure these elements are in good condition. To keep your well safe, hire a licensed water well professional to perform any new well construction or modification, or to close an old well. Take care when working or mowing around your well. It is easy to damage the wellhead with heavy equipment, which will jeopardize the sanitary protection of your well, permitting contaminants to enter the water supply. Don’t pile snow, leaves or other materials around the well, where they can carry pollutants into the system. When landscaping around your well or siting a new well, make sure the top of the well sits at least one foot above the ground. Slope the ground down and away from your well for proper drainage.

Well Location & Surface Drainage

Chart reprinted with permission from “BMPs for Wellhead Protection” by R.L. Mahler and K.A. Loeffelman, Soil Sciences Division, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Ensure Clean Drinking Water Some common household activities can actually threaten the quality of your drinking water. Even small spills of pesticides, fertilizers or fuels near your well can seep into the ground and contaminate the water.

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Protecting Your Wellhead Avoid mixing or using pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, degreasers, fuels or other pollutants within 100 feet of your well. When siphoning water for these tasks, be careful to avoid back-flow back into the well system. Conduct a quick visual check for activities that might threaten to enter your drinking water system at or near the wellhead which may include the following: septic tanks, lateral fields, cesspools, pit privy; chemical storage areas, machinery maintenance areas, waste piles, lagoons, sewers; underground storage tanks for chemicals, fertilizers, or petroleum products, above-ground tanks for chemicals, fertilizers or petroleum products; animal pens or feedlots and manure storage areas. If your existing well is located near these activities, you may need to test your water quality more often than once a year. Try to move the risky activities away from your well. Check that your well is located on your property according to standards set by the state, county or locality. These regulations are designed to protect the integrity of your water supply. You should also inspect and pump septic systems on your property as often as recommended by your local health department or septic service, usually at three to five year intervals. Failing septic systems can leach contaminants into the water supply.

For More Information on Protecting Your Wellhead Contact the well contractor who installed your well or find a water well contractor in your area by searching online or looking in your local telephone directory. Many states maintain lists of licensed or registered well contractors. Most states also have state water well associations, state well driller associations or state groundwater associations that maintain a list of contractor members. Contact your local or state health department or environmental agency, your state water well or groundwater association or the wellcare® Hotline at 888-395-1033 to find out where you can obtain a list of well contractors.

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Water Well Testing To keep your well water clean and pure and your well operating at peak performance, regular water testing is an important maintenance tool. Private well owners are solely responsible for the quality of their drinking water. So it is up to you, the well owner, to decide when and how to test your water.

Recommended Testing At a minimum, your water should be tested every year for bacteria, the most common water quality problem. Other tests may be required, depending on where you live and what is located near your water supply. Table 1 on the following pages describes some conditions that may prompt you to test for select contaminants. Table 2 on the following pages lists the limits for some primary contaminants. For example, if your well is in an area of intensive agricultural use, test for nitrates and the pesticides commonly used in that region. If household tests of radon in the air are high, test for radon in water. If you have problems with taste, odor, staining or color of your water, then test levels of iron, manganese and sulfate. Testing more than once a year may be warranted in special situations: someone in your household is pregnant or nursing there are unexplained illnesses in the family your neighbors find a dangerous contaminant in their water you note a change in water taste, odor, color or clarity there is a spill of chemicals or fuels into or near your well. Contact your local health department, cooperative extension service, state health or environmental agency or your well professional for guidance in selecting tests.

Choosing a Testing Lab Approach water testing as a smart shopper. Get an up-to-date list of all stateapproved laboratories and the specific tests they are certified to perform from your state health or environmental agency. Check with individual laboratories to get prices. Ask how soon you should expect results and about the information that will be provided with the test results. A good lab should help you interpret the results and make sense of the scientific data.

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Water Well Testing Table 1: Tests for Specific Conditions Conditions or Nearby Activities

Recommended Test

Recurrent gastrointestinal distress

Coliform bacteria

Household plumbing contains lead

Copper, hardness, lead, pH, salts

Radon present in indoor air or region

Radon

Scaly residues, soaps don’t lather

Chloride, hardness, sodium

Water softener to treat hardness

Iron, manganese (before purchase)

Stained plumbing fixtures, laundry

Iron, manganese, sulfate, tannins

Objectionable taste or smell

Hydrogen sulfide, pH, hardness, metals

Water is cloudy, frothy or colored

pH, salts, tannins, turbidity

Corrosion of pipes, plumbing

Copper, lead, pH, salts

Rapid wear of water treatment equipment

Hardness, iron, manganese, pH, salts

Nearby areas of intensive agriculture

Coliform bacteria, nitrate, pesticides

Nearby coal, other mining operation

Metals, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Gas drilling operation nearby

Barium, chloride, sodium, strontium

Gasoline or fuel oil odor

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Dump, landfill, factory or dry cleaning operation nearby

Metals, pH, salts, VOCs

Salty taste and seawater or a heavily salted road nearby

Boron, chloride, sodium, TDS

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Water Well Testing Table 2: Tests for SpeciďŹ c Contaminants Contaminant

When to Test

How to Test

When to Treat/ Max. Limits

Arsenic

Baseline test in areas prone to arsenic/annually after treatment

State laboratory

10 parts/billion

Bacteria

Annually in spring; newborn in house; well equipment installed

Local health department test of total coliforms

Positive test of total coliforms; presence of fecal coliforms

Chromium

Near steel/pulp mills or in at-risk states*

State laboratory

100 parts/billion

Iron

Water colored or leaving stains of orange, red, rusty

State laboratory

300 parts/billion

MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether)

Water has oil/gas smell or oily film in area where MTBEs used

State laboratory

20 parts/billion

Nitrate

Annually in farm areas; pregnant woman/infant in house

State laboratory

10 parts per million

Radium

Area with high radium in bedrock

State laboratory

5 picocuries per liter

Radon

Before buy/move into new home

State laboratory

Check with State Radon Office

Sulfur & Manganese

Bitter taste, rotten egg odor, black/ brown water or staining

Local health dept.

Sulfur: 250 parts/ million Manganese: 50 parts/billion

TCE (trichloroethylene)

Near factories/dry cleaners or in atrisk states**

State laboratory

5 parts/billion

* Chromium at-risk states: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin

!23 ** TCE at-risk states: Pennsylvania, Illinois, Georgia, Texas, Massachusetts, West Virginia

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Water Well Testing Taking a Water Sample The laboratory you choose should provide specific sampling instructions and clean bottles in which to collect the water sample. Do not rinse lab containers or fill them to overflowing. Check to see if the sample must be refrigerated or treated with special chemicals. You may need to take a sample from the tap with the first flush of water in the morning or after the tap has been allowed to run for a period of time. If you suspect a problem somewhere in your home plumbing, you may need to take samples from several points: before and after water enters the hot water tank, for example, or at the inlet and outlet of a filtering device. Again, carefully follow instructions for taking samples. Sampling is the most important part of testing. A carelessly collected sample can give you inaccurate results.

Understanding Test Results The report of analysis, as some laboratories call test results, can take a variety of forms. It may be a computer printout of results for the specific tests you requested or a preprinted form with your results typed or written into blocks or spaces. It may include some general information about the laboratory that performs the test and the types of tests that were done or it may provide only your results. The amount of a specific contaminant in your water sample will be expressed as a concentration of a specific weight of the substance in a specific volume of water. The most commonly used concentration units for drinking water analyses are provided in Table 2 on page 23.

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Water Well Testing The test results may also include other symbols and abbreviations. Laboratory methods have detection limits, or levels below which contaminants cannot be reliably detected. That does not necessarily mean that the chemical is not present. There could be so little present that it cannot be reliably detected with the laboratory equipment or testing procedures being used. The important question is whether the contaminant poses a health threat at that particular concentration. Compare your water test results to the federal standards in Table 2 on page 23 and to other guidance numbers, such as health advisories, to assess the potential for health problems. If in doubt, contact your state health department or environmental agency, the local extension service, your water well professional or the wellcareÂŽ Hotline at 888-395-1033. After you get your first test results, you would be wise to follow up with a second test taken at a different time before you decide on any water treatment. This is because there is a certain margin of error in water testing and contamination problems may vary.

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Understanding Your Test Results Regular water testing is essential to keep your drinking water clean and your well operating at peak performance. But many well owners are stumped when they receive their test results from the laboratory. The often confusing measurements, limits and standards make it tough to determine if your water is safe or if it needs some type of treatment.

Figuring Out the Measurements* Most substances in water are measured as a concentration: a specific mass of a specific chemical within a specific unit or volume of water. The confusing part is that different terms can be used to reflect the exact same measurement. ➡ part per million/ppm = milligram per liter of water = mg/L ➡ per billion/ppb = microgram per liter of water = ug/L So what do these terms really mean? Basically, they refer to very small amounts of a substance within about a quart of water. (A liter amounts to 1.05 quarts.) For example:

These are very diluted concentrations. For example, the recommendation for sodium in drinking water is no more than 20 parts per million. By comparison, the salt content of seawater is 32,000 parts per million. * Our thanks to … Water on the Web, http://waterontheweb.org, based at the University of Minnesota-Duluth and funded by the National Science Foundation.

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Understanding Your Test Results Figuring Out the Standards The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates public water supplies but not private wells. Well owners can use EPA’s standards to judge their drinking water quality. Sometimes state standards are stricter than the EPA’s, so check with your local or state health department for specific substances of concern. Maximum Containment Levels (MCLs) are the highest level of a contaminant that the EPA allows in drinking water. MCLs are legally enforceable for public water supplies. When they turn up in the water, a utility must treat and remove or reduce the contaminant below the maximum level to protect public health. EPA also sets standards for a second group of contaminants. These limits serve as guidelines for good water quality, but are not required by law. These National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs), known as the secondary standards, regulate contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects, such as skin or tooth discoloration, or aesthetic effects, such as taste, odor or color, in drinking water. These contaminants are not considered threats to public health. Finally, EPA studies another group of contaminants for possible regulation in the future. The Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) is published every five years. These standards are under discussion, but are not yet an official EPA recommendation or regulation. Here’s the confusing part. On most government charts, the standard for a given substance will be written in parts per million. But the great majority of limits actually relate to much smaller amounts, in parts per billion. If your laboratory chooses one over the other, you may not be able to figure out if your water needs treatment or not. For example, arsenic is a naturally occurring mineral found in soil and bedrock. We know arsenic as a popular poison in murder mysteries. But the substance can also work its way into groundwater through erosion and build to dangerous levels in some wells. On most charts, the MCL for arsenic is written .010 mg/L. What they really mean is 10 parts per billion.

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Understanding Your Test Results Translating Your Test Results The chart below is a road map to your test results. It lists each contaminant, how it is regulated or not, and the maximum levels in all the measurements you are likely to see. Cross reference your test results with the chart to determine your water quality.

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Understanding Your Test Results Next Steps Laboratories have detection limits, or levels below which contaminants cannot be reliably detected. That does not necessarily mean that the contaminant is not present. There could be so little present that it cannot be reliably detected with the laboratory equipment or testing procedures being used. The important question is whether the contaminant poses a health threat at that particular concentration. Compare your water test results to the federal standards in the table to assess the potential for health problems. If in doubt, contact your local or state health department or environmental agency, the local extension service or your well professional. After you get your ďŹ rst test results, you would be wise to follow up with a second test taken at a different time before you decide on any water treatment. This is because there is a certain margin of error in water testing and contamination problems may vary. Use bottled water until the second results are in. There is a major exception to this rule. Any positive test for bacteria, such as fecal coliforms and E. coli, or microrganisms, such as cryptosporidium or Giardia lamblia, demands immediate disinfection of your well and water supply. These organisms can make you very sick. Contact your local health department, water well professional or the wellcareÂŽ Hotline at 888-395-1033 for help.

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Checklist for Well Owners Properly constructed private water supply systems require little routine maintenance. These simple steps will help protect your system and investment: Always use a licensed or certified water well contractor and pump installer when a well is constructed, a pump is installed, or the system is serviced. Perform an annual water test for a minimum of bacteria. Check with your local health department for other tests of local concern. Test your water any time there is a change in taste, odor or appearance, or someone is ill or pregnant. Keep hazardous chemicals, such as paint, fertilizer, pesticides and motor oil, far away from your well. Periodically check the well cover or well cap on top of the casing to ensure it is in good repair. Confirm your well is properly separated from buildings, waste systems, or chemical storage facilities. Take care in working or mowing around your well. Damage to your casing can jeopardize the sanitary protection of your well. Don’t pile snow, leaves or other materials around your well. Always keep good well records, including using the maintenance and water testing logs in this manual.

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The wellcare® Hotline The wellcare® Hotline: Answering Your Questions About Wells

888-395-1033 If you have a question about wells or need help, contact the wellcare® Hotline Monday-Friday at 888-395-1033, or visit wellcarehotline.org at any time for information on: Well construction codes and other regulations related to wells or water well systems Well care and maintenance Water testing Water quality Identifying possible contaminants Avoiding seasonal threats Understanding well mechanics Learning well basics Well components Water conservation Find a licensed well contractor And much more!

Join the wellcare® Well Owners Network! You will receive a quarterly e-newsletter with tips and tools to maintain your well and protect your well water as well as discounts on water test kits. Signing up for the wellcare® Well Owners Network is easy and FREE!  Sign up online at watersystemscouncil.org/water-well-help/join/. page 257

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Water Systems Council 1101 30th Street N.W., Suite 500 Washington, DC 20007 Phone: 202-625-4387 Fax: 202-625-4363 www.watersystemscouncil.org

This publication was developed in part under Assistance Agreement No. EPA-OGW-OGWDW-14-01 awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It has not been formally reviewed by the EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of WSC. EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication. Š 2015 Water Systems Council

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Consumer guides for clients updated 3.2019  

Consumer guides for HomesJustForYou Team clients. Updated 3/14/2019. Lead paint info, , etc.

Consumer guides for clients updated 3.2019  

Consumer guides for HomesJustForYou Team clients. Updated 3/14/2019. Lead paint info, , etc.

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