Page 1


Contents Foreword tk A Brief History of Bread tk

Sessions 1

Introduction to the Professional Bread Kitchen: Basic Principles and Terms tk

2

Ingredients and Their Functions tk

3

Bread-Making Terms and Techniques tk

4

Bread Dough Mixing, Shaping, Proofing, and Baking tk

5

Pre-Ferments tk

6

Exercises in Baker’s Percentage tk

7

The Fourteen Steps of Bread Making tk

8

Classic French Breads tk

9

Traditional Italian Breads tk

10

German and Middle European Breads tk

11

Advanced Bread Formulas tk

12

Gluten-Free Formulas tk

Conversion Charts tk Index tk


Contents Foreword tk A Brief History of Bread tk

Sessions 1

Introduction to the Professional Bread Kitchen: Basic Principles and Terms tk

2

Ingredients and Their Functions tk

3

Bread-Making Terms and Techniques tk

4

Bread Dough Mixing, Shaping, Proofing, and Baking tk

5

Pre-Ferments tk

6

Exercises in Baker’s Percentage tk

7

The Fourteen Steps of Bread Making tk

8

Classic French Breads tk

9

Traditional Italian Breads tk

10

German and Middle European Breads tk

11

Advanced Bread Formulas tk

12

Gluten-Free Formulas tk

Conversion Charts tk Index tk


Session 3 Bread-Making Terms and Techniques

It is essential that the novice baker learn the following techniques and terms, as they will be used over and over throughout this book as well as in any professional bakery. Amylase: A natural enzyme that speeds the transformation of starch into sugar; used in some French bakeries in a product called levit as a food for yeast. Ash content: The mineral content of any flour, usually around .5 to .6 percent. The higher the ash content, the grayer the crumb will be. Aspect: The final, overall look, texture, aroma, and crumb of a baked loaf of bread. Autolyse: This is the resting period after the first stage of mixing flour and water together at low speed. The dough is allowed to rest for a designated period of time, usually no more than 30 minutes. This allows the flour to hydrate to its maximum, the gluten to develop, and the enzymes to organize the gluten structure as the dough rests. No other ingredients are added during this preliminary stage; yeast would acidify the dough and salt would tighten it. Although it is an additional step in the process, it reduces mixing times, improves the handling ability of the dough, and boosts the quality of the finished product by reducing oxidation of the carotenoid pigments in the flour. Bench rest: The period, usually from 5 to 20 minutes, whereby scaled, shaped pieces of dough are set aside to rest and allow the gluten to relax before further shaping is attempted. Because the relaxed gluten is not re-

sistant, benching allows smaller pieces to be stretched and formed into a more defined finished shape. Biga: A pre-ferment used in making Italian breads. With a hydration of 50 to 100 percent, a biga is usually denser than a French poolish or a sourdough. It creates a bread that has an open crumb with a slightly nutty flavor. Bloom: This describes the overall external look of a baked loaf of bread, including its color and the completion of properly opened slashes or cuts. Boulanger: French for baker of bread, it also means to shape dough into a boule or round loaf. This is the word from which the French word for bakery, boulangerie, was derived. Boulangerie: French for bakery or bake shop. Build: To create a levain large enough to be used in the final dough; synonymous with elaborate. Chef: Another term used to describe a wild yeast starter. It is also known as the mother culture or simply as “mother.� Couche: A sheet of natural, untreated fabric, often linen, used to hold and separate loaves while they are rising.

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7 session the fourteen steps of bread making

9.

10.

11.

9. Final Shaping The final shape of the dough is determined by the type of finished loaf desired. In classic French bread making there are four basic shapes: the baguette, the bâtard, the boule, and the loaf (formed in a loaf-shaped pan).

sanal breads are usually baked for a longer period of time to develop the desired thick, crisp, and flavorful crust. Doneness is determined by the amount of time baked, the color of the crust, and the hollow sound that results when you knock on the bottom of the finished loaf. 13. Cooling

10. Final Fermentation/Proofing Although the yeast in bread dough has been working throughout the bread-making process, this is the last chance it has to complete the fermentation. The final proof can last anywhere from 5 minutes to overnight, depending upon the condition of the dough, the type of loaf being made, and temperature and moisture levels in the bakery. 11. Scoring Scoring simply means cutting marks into the top of the dough to allow the bread to expand properly during baking. Although utilitarian, the marks also give a decorative appearance to the top of the baked bread (see pages TK and TK). Most breads are scored just before they are loaded into the oven. 12. Baking Baking time is determined by the type of dough being baked. Most lean doughs (doughs without fat or sugar) are baked at around 475°F (246°C) with steam. The steam is important, as it allows the bread to spring in the oven, giving it a shiny, crisp crust. Although they are lean, arti-

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13.

Bread cut directly upon removal from the oven will have a wet, spongy crumb and a gassy flavor from the carbon dioxide still present in the loaf. Therefore, bread should be cooled completely before being served or eaten. During the cooling period, the crumb is set and excess gas and moisture dissipate. 14. Storing The shelf life of bread depends as much on its shape and size as it does on the type of bread and the manner in which it is stored. A small loaf or a loaf with an expansive surface (such as a baguette) has a very short shelf life, a day at most. Larger loaves can last longer if stored properly. Proper storage is crucial to maintaining both the quality of a bread and the loaf’s longevity. Breads that are meant to be crisp and crusty should not be stored in plastic or under refrigeration; a paper bag or a bread box is the best place to store these. Enriched bread may be stored in a resealable plastic bag, but when refrigerated these breads can become quite hard. Both lean and enriched breads usually last from 3 to 4 days at room temperature. If doublewrapped in plastic film so that it is airtight, most bread can be frozen for up to 3 months.


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8 session

Demonstration Bordelaise

classic french breads

Makes 1 loaf Estimated time to complete: 21 hours Improved mix Desired dough temperature (DDT): 75°F (25°C) Ingredient Amount For the liquid levain: Bread flour Cool water Culture (see page TK) Total

Baker’s Percentage

63 grams / 2¼ ounces 78.8 grams / 2¾ ounces 6.3 grams / ¼ ounce 148.1 grams / 5¼ ounces

For the final dough: Bread flour or all-purpose flour 333.4 grams / 11¾ ounces Coarse rye flour 29.6 grams / 1 ounce Whole wheat flour 7.4 grams / ¼ ounce Water 222.3 grams / 7¾ ounces Liquid levain 148.1 grams / 5¼ ounces Salt 8.8 grams / 1⁄3 ounce Total 750 grams / 261⁄3 ounces

100% 125% 10% 235%

90% 8% 2% 60% 40% 2.4% 202.4%

Oil for greasing bowl Flour for dusting Ice for steam

Equipment Scale Digital thermometer Large mixing bowl Wooden spoon Bowl scraper Plastic film Standing electric mixer fitted with the hook Large bowl or container

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Large cutting board Couche Baking stone(s) or tiles Cast iron or stainless steel roasting pan Lame or razor Peel Wire rack


Prepare the mise en place for the levain, taking care that the water is about 75째F (25째C). To make the levain, combine the bread flour and water with the culture in a large mixing bowl, stirring with a wooden spoon to blend. When blended, scrape down the edge of the bowl, cover with plastic film, and set aside to ferment at 70째F (20째C) for 12 to 14 hours. When ready to make the final dough, prepare the mise en place.

Combine the bread, coarse rye, and whole wheat flours with the water and liquid levain in the bowl of a standing electric mixer fitted with the hook. Mix on low speed until blended. Stop the mixer and autolyse for 15 minutes. Add the salt and mix on low for 5 minutes. Increase the mixer speed to medium and mix until the dough begins to pull away from the sides of the bowl, feels elastic, and gives some resistance when tugged.

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8 session classic french breads

Line two 12 x 18-inch pans with parchment paper. Set aside. Lightly flour a clean, flat work surface. Uncover the dough and divide it into 60-gram / 2-ounce pieces on the floured surface, shaping each one into a small round. Cover with plastic film and bench rest for 15 minutes. Uncover the dough and, if necessary, lightly flour the work surface. Gently press on the dough to degas and again form each piece into a small round shape. Place the rolls on the prepared sheet pans. Cover with plastic film and proof for 1 hour. About an hour before you are ready to bake the rolls, preheat the oven to 470°F (243°C). If using a pan to create steam (see page TK), place it in the oven now. Uncover the dough and, using kitchen shears, snip

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a small cut at about a 45-degree angle and about ½ inch deep in the center of each roll. To make the required steam, add 1 cup of ice to the hot pan in the oven. Immediately place the rolls in the preheated oven. Bake, with steam, for 22 minutes, or until the rolls are a golden-brown color, the sides are firm to the touch, and the rolls make a hollow sound when tapped on the bottom. Remove from the oven and transfer to wire racks to cool.


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8 session classic french breads

Equipment Scale Large mixing bowl Wooden spoon Bowl scraper Plastic film Small bowl Small baking dish Fine mesh sieve Standing electric mixer fitted with the hook

Prepare the mise en place for the levain. To make the levain, combine the bread flour and water with the culture in a large mixing bowl, stirring with a wooden spoon to blend. When blended, scrape down the edge of the bowl, cover with plastic film, and set aside to ferment at 70°F (20°C) for 12 to 14 hours. When ready to make the final dough, preheat the oven to 470°F (243°C) and prepare the mise en place. Place the raisins in a small, heat-proof bowl. Cover with hot water and set aside to rehydrate for 30 minutes. While the raisins are rehydrating, place the walnuts in a single layer in a small baking dish. Place in the preheated oven and bake, turning occasionally, for about 8 minutes or until nicely colored and fragrant. Remove from the oven and set aside to cool. Drain the raisins well and set aside. Combine the bread and whole wheat flours with the water and liquid levain in the bowl of a standing electric mixer fitted with the hook. Mix on low speed until blended. Stop the mixer and autolyse for 15 minutes. Add the salt and yeast and mix on low for 5 minutes. Increase the mixer speed to medium and mix for about 8 minutes, or until the dough has come together but

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Large bowl or container Large cutting board Couche Baking stone(s) or tiles Cast iron or stainless steel roasting pan Lame or razor Peel Wire racks

remains slightly sticky. Check the gluten development by pulling a window (see page TK). If the gluten has developed sufficiently, mix in the raisins and walnuts on low speed. Lightly oil a large bowl or container. Scrape the dough into the prepared bowl. Cover the bowl with plastic film and set aside to ferment for 1 hour. Uncover and fold the dough. Again, cover with plastic film and set aside to ferment for 1 hour. Cover the cutting board with the couche and dust the couche with flour. Lightly flour a clean, flat work surface. Uncover the dough and divide it into three 500-gram / 18-ounce rounds on the floured surface. Cover with plastic film and bench rest for 15 minutes. Uncover the dough and, if necessary, lightly flour the work surface. Gently press on the dough to degas and shape each piece into a bâtard (see page TK). Place one bâtard on one side of the couche-covered board, fold the couche up to make a double layer of cloth to serve as a divider between the loaves, and place the remaining loaves in the same manner. Cover with plastic film and proof for 1 hour.


About an hour before you are ready to bake the loaves, place the baking stone(s) or tiles into the oven and preheat to 450째F (232째C). If using a pan to create steam (see page TK), place it in the oven now. Uncover the dough and, using a lame or a razor, immediately score the loaves as directed on page TK, illustration TK. To make the required steam, add 1 cup of ice to the hot pan in the oven. Using a peel, immedi-

ately transfer the loaves to the hot baking stone(s) in the preheated oven. Bake, with steam, for 25 minutes, or until the crust is caramel colored, the sides are firm to the touch, and the loaves make a hollow sound when tapped on the bottom. Remove from the oven and transfer to wire racks to cool.

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326 gluten-free formulas

session

12


Demonstration Gluten-Free Buttermilk Biscuits Makes 1 dozen biscuits Estimated time to complete: 40 minutes Ingredient Amount Rice flour 210 grams / 7½ ounces Potato starch 50 grams / 1¾ ounces Tapioca flour 35 grams / 1¼ ounces Baking powder 15 grams / ½ ounce Baking soda 6 grams / ¼ ounce Sugar 5 grams / ¼ ounce Salt 2 grams / ½ teaspoon Xanthan gum 0.6 gram / ¼ teaspoon Whole eggs, at room temperature 100 grams / 3½ ounces Buttermilk 75 grams / 22⁄3 ounces Vegetable oil 70 grams / 2½ ounces Total 570 grams / 1 pound 4¼ ounces

Baker’s Percentage 85.7% 20.4% 14.3% 6.1% 2.4% 2.04% 0.8% 0.25% 40.8% 30.6% 28.5% 213.89%

Buttermilk for brushing biscuits

Equipment Scale Sifter Large mixing bowl Wooden spoon Medium mixing bowl Whisk

12 x 18-inch sheet pan Parchment paper ¼-cup measure Small bowl Pastry brush Wire racks

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The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Bread Baking  

The French Culinary Institute’s international bread-baking course, created in 1997, is taught by some of today’s greatest artisanal bread ba...

The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Bread Baking  

The French Culinary Institute’s international bread-baking course, created in 1997, is taught by some of today’s greatest artisanal bread ba...