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September / October 2006 January / February 2006

Number 109 Number 105

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INSIDE THIS ISSUE

A Holistic Focus– Beyond Policy by Wyatt Fraas

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nfluencing policies is an inherent part of our democratic systems, through the vote or through more direct methods, but successful outcomes seem to be few and far between for most of us. However, state and local policymakers are not out of reach, and can often be allies in our quest to reach our quality of life and healthy environment objectives. Here is an example of how one farmer in Nebraska, Kelly Bruns, ‘worked the system’ to overcome some of the obstacles to his holistic goal, and how that process helped him redefine how he could move forward. I was mostly an observer to this process, watching policy specialists in action and watching this farmer master the process to get what he wanted. A holistic approach to policy intervention shares the fundamental steps with other uses of Holistic Management® decision-making (described more fully in the March/April 2002 IN PRACTICE and Holistic Management). It begins with creating the holistic goal, and using it and the testing questions, to design sound policy that creates the outcome you want rather than reacting to something you don’t want. Using Holistic Management for developing policy also involves having a clear understanding of the whole being affected by this policy and who the decisionmakers are within that whole. In essence, the key is to target the policy to the holistic goal rather than to a single problem. While this story begins with a problem–a regulatory bottleneck–it ends with Kelly’s holistic goal moving him forward–bottlenecks and all.

Addressing Customer Needs As a young dairy farmer, Kelly Bruns wanted to restore profitability and fun to his farm, while supporting his community. One early step in this process was to convert his machinery- and capitalintensive, silage-based dairy to a forage-based operation. As he made more changes, like trying all-grass feeding, people started coming to the farm to buy fresh milk. Some of those customers

wanted old-fashioned, cream-topped milk, while others wanted the nutritional attributes of grassbased or unpasteurized milk. Some of those customers drove hours to get milk, but sales were erratic and difficult to manage as talkative customers showed up at the farm at all hours. Eventually Kelly and his brother, Kirk, who dairied next door, decided to build an on-farm processing plant to bottle milk and make cheese. A few years earlier, Kelly had built the first open-air milking parlor in the state. He knew that it would take both good design and cooperation from the state agriculture regulators to succeed. Kelly showed the officials his designs, explained his plans, and got suggestions and cooperation throughout the construction process. He overcame two obstacles with good communication and good relations–the requirements for milk parlor doors to have screens and for the walls to be washable. Since the regulators were by now working alongside Kelly to design what they had come to call a “trial facility,” they easily decided that since there were no doors, he didn’t need screens, and since he had no walls, he wouldn’t need to wash them. Kelly’s milking setup became a regular stop for farm tours, and the milk inspector was a frequent guest speaker. That successful experience led Kelly to believe he could work through the regulations as he designed his processing plant, again among the first in the state. He again involved the regulators, from the local inspector to the agency division head, from the beginning of his design process. He showed them his current operation, his plans, data from other states, and research results, particularly where regulations were designed for industrial processing rather than farm-scale facilities. As they talked about design ideas, the officials were often concerned that, while they could again call Kelly’s facility a “trial” setup and give some regulatory leeway, what would they do with future dairy processors? Kelly repeatedly made the point that he wanted continued on page 2

Kelly Bruns faced a regulatory bottleneck – he needed to change state legislation so he could bottle his own milk on a small scale without a large outlay of capital for a bottling machine. Read Wyatt Fraas’ story on this page to learn how Kelly used his holistic goal to work the system and ultimately move him forward–bottlenecks and all.

FEATURE STORIES Keys to Influence Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Wyatt Fraas

Policy Change–– A Holistic Perspective

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Fred Hays

The Sustainable Production System–– Linking Beef Producers to Consumers . . . 6 Abbey Kingdon

Zimbabwean Cornfield Update . . . . . . 7

LAND & LIVESTOCK On Twin Creek Ranch

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Jim Howell

Rancho San Jacinto

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Jim Howell

Holistic Management® Biological Monitoring ––Basic Monitoring For Results . . . . . . . . . 12 Jody Butterfield, et. al.

Mini Trial Photo Monitoring

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NEWS & NETWORK Book Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 World Vision–-Kenya Update . . . . . . . . . . 16 Grapevine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Certified Educators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Network Affiliates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Marketplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


A Holistic Focus

Holistic Management International is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting resource management that restores land to health and operations to profitability. As the worldwide pioneer of Holistic Management, we’ve worked successfully with ranchers, farmers, pastoral communities and other entities since 1984. FOUNDERS Allan Savory



Jody Butterfield

STAFF Shannon Horst, Executive Director Peter Holter, Senior Director of Marketing and Product Development Bob Borgeson, Director of Finance, Accounting and Administration Jutta von Gontard, Director of Development Kelly White, Director of Educational Services Constance Neely, International Training Programs Director Ann Adams, Managing Editor, IN PRACTICE and Director of Publications and Outreach Maryann West, Executive Assistant Donna Torrez, Administrative Assistant

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Ron Chapman, Chair Ben Bartlett, Vice-Chair Jody Butterfield, Secretary Sue Probart, Treasurer Ivan Aguirre Brian Marshall Jim McMullan Ian Mitchell Innes Jim Parker Jim Shelton Dennis Wobeser

ADVISORY COUNCIL Robert Anderson, Corrales, NM Michael Bowman,Wray, CO Sam Brown, Austin, TX Sallie Calhoun, Paicines, CA Lee Dueringer, Scottsdale, AZ Gretel Ehrlich, Gaviota, CA Cynthia Harris, Albuquerque, NM Clint Josey, Dallas, TX Doug McDaniel, Lostine, OR Guillermo Osuna, Coahuila, Mexico York Schueller, Ventura, CA Africa Centre for Holistic Management Private Bag 5950, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe Tel: (263) (11) 404 979; email: hmatanga@mweb.co.zw Huggins Matanga, Director HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE (ISSN: 1098-8157) is published six times a year by Holistic Management International, 1010 Tijeras NW, Albuquerque, NM 87102, 505/842-5252, fax: 505/843-7900; email: hmi@holisticmanagement.org.; website: www.holisticmanagement.org Copyright © 2006.

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(milk not rapidly heated and cooled to kill all bacteria). State law prohibits advertising or delivering unpasteurized milk, although it’s ok for customers to travel to the farm to buy it. These people, a sizeable number, wanted to open up this market, and were willing to help Kelly get changes for his processing plant, too. Kelly met with his state representative, who happened to be a grocer from a small town, and explained his needs, his customers’ interest, and how his milk processing business could be an economic development activity in his small town if it could get off the ground. Not coincidentally, the representative noticed that a number of his constituents– townsfolk as well as farmers–were asking for his help with this. The representative wholeheartedly agreed to sponsor legislation to fix Taking It to the the current regulations’ Next Level shortcomings. The representative The processing plant hosted several roundtable design give-and-take discussions locally and at continued until it came to the capitol to get opinions the bottle-capping and options for the process. State regulations One of Kelly Brun’s first attempts at proposed legislation. Kelly said he must attach influencing policy was his “experimental” and his allies (other bottlecaps by machine, milking parlor. He worked with state farmers, an extension rather than by hand, for regulators to accept a dairy barn without agent, some customers, sanitation reasons. That walls which meant he didn’t need to have and some alternativemachine would cost tens screens on non-existent windows. medicine doctors) made of thousands of dollars, sure to attend these discussions in force and to but the projected volume of sales was far from provide credible information at each meeting. It supporting that expense. By now the regulators recognized that Kelly was serious about sanitation became obvious that linking the processing issue with the unpasteurized milk sales issue would be and safety. They agreed with him that the problematic, as unprocessed (“raw”) milk has processing regulations were inappropriate for his been considered a source of disease by regulators facility, but said the only way to change the rule and health officials, while pasteurized milk is was to change state law. considered “damaged” by some of the “health Kelly had successfully influenced dairy food” public. regulation policy in building his milk parlor a After learning of the officials’ reluctance to few years earlier, but now he needed to step accept unpasteurized milk, Kelly tried to learn the beyond his local inspector and a state agency to science behind their concerns. In the process, he the state legislature level. He had no experience identified every report of illness related to working with state senators or designing legislation. To bridge that knowledge gap, he met unpasteurized milk, and was surprised to find that none were directly attributed to unpasteurized with policy organizers at the Center for Rural milk. Although he discussed his findings with the Affairs (a nonprofit organization experienced regulators, they were not convinced. with state and national policy processes) for Obviously, Kelly wanted to keep the bottleadvice about how to proceed. He learned the capping and unprocessed milk issues separate, if general legislative process, which gatekeepers to possible. However, during the legislative session, sway, and the bargaining points to use. And he the legislator introduced two bills, but they were learned that as the lone advocate for his immediately combined into a single bill that situation, he didn’t have much leverage. Kelly soon found out that other dairy farmers, included both issues. Prior to the Agriculture Committee public and some of Kelly’s walk-in milk customers, wanted better access to sales of unpasteurized milk hearing, which preceded any legislative debate, to provide a safe, healthful product for his customers. He surprised the officials, however, when he insisted that they develop stringent farmscale monitoring and labeling processes to apply now, not just to future farm bottlers. But Kelly wasn’t thinking only about his startup problems– he was looking at his future production: he wanted flawless procedures to ensure continued customer satisfaction, he wanted a model facility from the regulators’ perspective, and he wanted to make it as difficult as possible for industrial dairies to break into his market. He figured that if the rules called for the highest quality and management, a farmer-owned and -operated business would take the time and care to do so, while an industrial farm staffed with hourly employees could not.

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Kelly and his allies met with known and potential opponents, such as the Veterinarians Association and the Farm Bureau, to find out where any differences were and whether there would be active opposition. His presentations brought three of the most influential agricultural organizations to support the legislation. The supporters met to divide up the discussion points among several people and practiced their presentations. They requested the “radical” supporters to attend the hearing, but not speak. At the hearing, the supporters spoke first and made a good impression. However, they were followed by opponents, including university faculty and Department of Agriculture, who unexpectedly predicted disease outbreaks and infant mortality if unpasteurized milk sales were allowed. The supporters were unable to rebut these statements at the time, and their written statements did little to reduce the emotional impact of the “experts” testimony. The bill eventually made it out of committee unopposed (a success in itself), but the aura of “official” opposition never left it, and it made no further progress, dying on the statehouse floor.

Passion & Persistence Kelly later met with reluctant university faculty, who expected him to be furious. He was, instead, gracious and polite, but firm in his conviction that the university was not only incorrect in its statements, but had no research basis for the statements that had been made. He expects them to continue to take the position that the health risk is too great. This past legislative session, Kelly and his group again worked with the local legislator to introduce the bill that had made progress the previous year. This time, it sailed through the agriculture committee with no opposition at all (probably since it had made it out of committee the year before). But once again, it made no progress once it hit the statehouse floor, and died at the end of the session. The local legislator who sponsored the bill is now term-limited out of office and his likely successor has expressed his opposition to the whole concept, so Kelly doesn’t know that he’ll be able to find another sponsor for either part of the bill. The onfarm processing plant on Kelly’s brother’s farm, now intended primarily for cheese production, still sits idle, just short of completion. However, Kelly and his brother certified their farms as organic this spring and are now selling their milk to an organic milk processing startup in southwest Iowa. They are selling their milk for about $27/cwt, which is fully double what they got for their last delivery to their commodity milk buyer. The economics, and the incentive, to

undertake the risk and work of their own new processing facility have been severely shaken. But, because they did not undertake the processing plant construction with borrowed money, and are under no pressure to recover those sunk costs, they have time to determine their next move. Kelly’s supporters, the ones who pushed the raw milk issue in the first place, are still active. All their work led the university to recall its ill-advised fact sheet on raw milk (un)safety, and they received approval to develop a publication specifically addressing the issues and methods of handling unprocessed milk for those who choose to do so. The group sponsored a National Raw Milk Summit, which 80 people from 14 states attended, and which developed the outline for the new publication. While Kelly’s holistic goal led him to address obstacles (policies) that infringed on his economic objectives, he’s not focused on those obstacles now. Instead, he found another means

to achieve his profit targets (organic milk premiums). Perhaps that’s the lesson? In creating our holistic goal, we must remember in our forms of production, when we write about creating profit, we don’t need to (really shouldn’t) specify a particular method of making the profit–our testing will assure what is an appropriate amount for that moment in time and that our quality of life and landscape objectives are taken into consideration as well. Because of Kelly’s knowledge of Holistic Management and his commitment in working toward his holistic goal, he continues his work to change state legislation, which affects not only his quality of life but that of his consumers and other farmers Wyatt Fraas is the Rural Opportunities and Stewardship Program Assistant Director at the Center for Rural Affairs in Lyons, Nebraska. He can be reached at: wyattf@cfra.org or 402/254-6893.

Keys to Influence Policy • Get your facts straight. Become the factual expert on the topic, especially in rebutting the opposition’s issues. • Identify the public’s benefit in your proposal. If it’s just about you, it’s not worth the agency’s or the legislature’s time. • Talk to the regulators. Their job is to enforce the laws and to protect the public interest, so approach them expecting that they take that job seriously. While your proposal may be a public benefit, and regulators may be sympathetic to your cause, their hands may be tied by legislation. Show them that you’re willing to work for what’s right, and they at least won’t actively oppose your efforts to change policies or laws. If they’re called to testify, they’re already on your side and are perceived as having the public’s interest at heart. • Talk to the “experts.” You may learn from them. Find out their biases and actual experience before they make public statements about your project. If you (knowledgeably and politely) challenge them where fact turns to opinion, scientists will be reluctant to publicly express more than the facts and the areas of controversy, which gives you space to build the social, economic and emotional benefits of your proposal. • Engage your state lawmakers directly. Bring in the local ones first and often, and identify others with special interest in your topic. Show them why it will benefit them or their constituents and give them opportunities to look good supporting your good ideas. • Know your opposition. Know their arguments and be able to counter them. Better still, include those in the planning who could veto your project. They can’t honestly oppose you if they help build the proposal, and your idea will be stronger for their critical scrutiny and for building a monitoring plan that satisfies the skeptics. • Find allies. Whether it’s other landowners, customers, environmental groups, or professionals, you speak with a louder voice as a group than as an individual. “Economic development” issues are inclusive of many special interests. And these days, unexpected allies may surface to support a clean environment or healthy food. • Don’t give up. Even if you aren’t successful the first time, you’ve identified your opponents and their arguments and their strategies. You can be better prepared next time. If you’ve behaved professionally, you will have made a good impression on both your opponents and supporters, and the next round will be easier. —Wyatt Fraas N u m b e r 10 9

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Policy Change– A Holistic Perspective by Fred Hays

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ight years ago The West Virginia Ginseng Growers Association (WVGGA) was founded to promote the development of ginseng farming as an economic alternative for struggling rural landowners in Appalachia. I was one of the founders of this organization and at the time could not have imagined the impending consequences of the decision to create a new organization.

Humble Beginnings

“cultivated” forms of production. CITES also holds in their mission a support system to develop artificial forms of propagation to replace demand for the wild harvest of traded species. The obvious problem was cultivated ginseng yields very low value and is not a substitute for wild ginseng harvest, yet USFWS clearly claims ginseng of high value, which is being propagated by our group, falls into the wild classification and, therefore, the rules and policies for managing wild populations. It was from this insight that our group began to work on legislation that would certify growers formally by a government program so exports of our products could not be infringed upon by USFWS and CITES. After two years, we were

ten years old would be a detriment to ginseng. As growers, we already knew ginseng viability reduces significantly after eight years of age. The losses to growers, if banned from selling their farm-raised products, were unacceptable. The same was true for people who traditionally harvest from wild stands of ginseng. It was essentially a ban of ginseng without the scientific evidence to prove such a ban valid.

A Seat at the Table

The intent of this organization was to bring Struggling with how to approach this problem, together forest farmers and to provide combined which seemed insurmountable, seemed beyond knowledge and resources for new growers, while at my ability. At this point, I really began to think the same time looking for economic buying and about how to bring Holistic Management to bear selling power. As an individual, one on this problem. I started with, would have little clout with some “What is the root cause of this product. By putting these resources problem?” The intermingling of together, the group could become a different bureaucracies, none of price setter not a price taker. whom had the ability to consider the One such example is the annual consequences of their actions, had seed purchase in which we combine created what seemed to be an every one’s orders to gain great bulk insurmountable obstacle. discounts. The same is true with root Moreover, we, as resource sales where larger buyers are attracted managers and forestland owners, were when more products are on the table. not at the decision-making table. This has all been in keeping with the Therefore, the USFWS did not have original mission. access to cumulatively thousands of My involvement with Holistic years of understanding about ginseng Management did not occur until and its habitat from their several years after WVGGA’s constituents. Decisions were being beginnings. But as I learned more made that impacted us severely, while about the Holistic Management® there was no protocol for our Framework and worked with WVGGA, Cultivated ginseng is on the left side of the picture. The wild ginseng is on involvement. Their research failed to certain issues came up which lent include historical, cultural, and the right and is worth 20 times what the cultivated ginseng is worth. themselves to a holistic perspective– economic factors in the data including the work around how and whether or successful getting legislation passed to address our collection, while USFWS maintained these issues not to formally organize as a non-profit and were not scientific and could not influence their concerns, with one catch. The USFWS would not evaluating the resource base of the organization. accept the fact we have been growing ginseng for decisions. USFWS data also differed significantly from producer/harvester data regarding the years and would not permit the state to The Value of Wild grandfather in growers that already existed. At this number of plants available for harvest. At a meeting four years ago, I worked with The biggest challenge was we had gone to time our state legislature told us they could do no WVGGA using the testing and diagnosis mode of great ends to figure out how to simulate wild more-any further changes would have to be on Holistic Management around the issues of wild conditions to get a valuable plant that resembles the federal level. versus cultivated ginseng. The testing and Again, we were back to a dead end about what wild and is just as valuable as the wild category. diagnostic process revealed that U.S. Fish and actions to take. Advocating for our future industry The USFWS was essentially creating a situation Wildlife Service (USFWS) Scientific Authority and is a key part of our goal. But, getting legislators to where they would only permit us to sell plants at CITES (Convention On International Trade of a $20/pound price tag when they were really view economic, cultural, and ecological issues as Endangered Species), a treaty of 169 countries to worth $500 dollars/pound. We felt we should be interrelated aspects of a larger whole placed us protect species of plants and animals traded given credit for doing something truly squarely in an adversarial position against a internationally, didn’t recognize what we were meaningful for the conservation of the plant powerful federal agency. doing with our “wild cultivated ginseng.” instead of being penalized. In 2005, the USFWS made new findings, CITES and USFWS recognize “wild” and While the growers in West Virginia had claiming the harvest and export of roots less than 4

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International Affairs told me he would be developed a network of producers, and had went on, and I turned up the heat even more. I actually gotten legislation passed on the state level, found that as long as we could casually plant ideas supervising the actions of the USFWS Finally, the USFWS set a meeting in West the same was not true of every state east of the in these circles, so these ideas could emerge later, Virginia. It was one of the most constructive Mississippi. We all needed to come together to people would use the tools we gave them to speak meetings with the USFWS we ever had, address this issue on a national level. with earnest discussions and increased How could we integrate a more holistic support for how to deal with approach to this issue in a system that international issues and address issues seemed so linear and reductionist? about regulation and policy. The ten-year ruling brought people in As a result of this meeting, the USFWS various states together in discussion. A must now use our input as part of their regular core group of us from different decision-making procedure. While the states began talking online. I found many new findings and regulations have not ginseng researchers equally astounded at been officially released, we anticipate fair the difference in the data the USFWS and guidelines based on a holistic perspective. their researchers were presenting versus We are excited about the new potential what was available within the ginseng for collaboration with the USFWS, industry. One of the largest obstacles for us producing ever healthier stands of was the USFWS seemed to call upon one ginseng and a viable, sustainable source biology professor for data. of income for those poverty-stricken, The first action plan was to hold a meeting at West Virginia University and The Center for Sustainable Resources hosts a field day each spring ginseng growing counties affected by such policy. invite the professor and the USFWS. We to share information and new findings to the public in West The moral of the story is a ragtag also wanted to get people of stature in the Virginia. This year Fred explained how animal impact has scientific community to the meeting. This addressed such problems as stilt grass infestation as well as more band of forest people succeeded in influencing national policy because we meeting proved fruitful, in that we did information on the cultivation of ginseng. used the principles of Holistic manage to have people from various Management to guide us in our diagnosis of states attend. Unfortunately, the professor in for us and give us a place at the table through unfair national policy and our efforts at changing question and the USFWS did not attend. their positions of power. I also began to provide that policy. A holistic perspective, when presented Out of this meeting, we formed a more social and economic data to back up our claims correctly, is very powerful, especially when it is organized interstate group, which also included and recruited many others to bring more and backed up by a diagnostic approach that requires major industry stakeholders and exporters. The more data to the table–data showing the American Botanical Association jumped on board economic importance of ginseng trade to very poor cooperative, applied research, using the Holistic Management® framework in the research mode. with us at this time. counties with little or no other sources of income. Next, we developed a focused agenda. From Likewise, we demonstrated the long history of At least three other university-affiliated this meeting I developed a letter, which outlined ginseng cultivation in this country as more research departments have come forward with the issues and problems, while also including evidence of the long-term history of wild plans to conduct research based on social solutions to solve the problems, based on my simulation. understanding and the economic importance of understanding of the issues from a holistic As we proceeded to accumulate our own data, ginseng, while at the same time seeking to verify perspective. During conversations, I continually we found the senior member of the Congressional biological data long understood by forest people. A mentioned the lack of historical, cultural, and Natural Resource Committee was a congressman new kind of research is being oriented as a result economic data used in decisions by the USFWS. from our state. The letter I developed became the of our efforts. Soon, other researchers in our group began accepted first statement for actions from Georgia My understanding of Holistic Management asking, “Why doesn’t the USFWS consider social to New York. The letter emphasized the lack of a gave me the confidence and conviction to continue and economic issues that influence the results of holistic perspective point by point and was sent to through adversity with this cause, just by being their decisions?” This question prompted more the congressman. At the same time, we had letters able to recognize breaking through old policy discussions about using cultural “research” and and meetings with congressional representatives paradigms would eventually lead us toward a goal historical data along with economic issues taking place in various states. of more inclusive and holistic policy. As others associated with ginseng. Applied research versus We were told our congressman requested a joined our ranks and shared their common sense, linear research became another primary meeting with the head of the USFWS and went we developed a united front. Best of all, those who discussion among these academics. The letter through the letter point by point. The Director was had never had the opportunity to participate in this developed from the meeting was widely distributed to address these concerns and report back to us democratic process at this level were empowered and ended up in the hands of congressional how they would be fixed. Several months went by through this process, sharing their stories and representatives from every ginseng state. with no response from the USFWS. When we providing insight to those in power–demonstrating International Affairs called me wanting a copy of questioned the USFWS, they began setting up just how far astray policy can be for the people the the letter since congressional staff members were public meetings for public input on their findings, policy was designed to serve. using the outlined points. but it seemed they were avoiding our state. We again approached the congressman, Fred Hays is a Certified Educator in Elkview, West Turning Up the Heat noting we are still being left out of the decisionVirginia. He can be reached at: 304/548-7117 making process. At this time, the Director of or sustainableresources@hotmail.com. I was stunned by this response. Then, a light N u m b e r 10 9

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The Sustainable Production System– Linking Beef Producers to Consumers by Abbey Kingdon

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ost beef producers in the commodity business and a small ranch in Montana in order beef. They also supply Burgerville, a Portland market don’t know the consumers of to purchase a large high desert ranch near hamburger chain, with natural beef. Their their product. After cattle trucks haul Brothers, Oregon. They said they wanted to prove major markets are natural food stores in the animals away from the ranch, Portland, Seattle and San Francisco. they could run cattle in harmony with nature. At the producer’s segment of the production cycle is that time, they were raising commodity beef; today “Our customers are really concerned that the complete. beef is produced free of antibiotics and hormones. they have “de-commodified” their operation in But for Country Natural Beef ranchers, this They realize Country Natural Beef is a different order to survive on the land. isn’t the case. They are responsible for the beef product than meat that can be purchased (at It was a conversation in a fitness club that they produce clear through to the meat counter. changed their life and planted the seed that mainstream chain grocery stores),” said Corey Country Natural Beef producers even visit with Bybee, a meat department employee in the Whole became Country Natural Beef. Connie Hatfield consumers of their product at retail stores. They went to Bend, Oregon to ask a fitness trainer’s Foods store of Bellevue, Washington. speak with potential producers and consumers, opinion of red meat. Ace, the trainer, said he A Family-Run Business even communities and organizations outside of recommended it three times a week to clients. producer-consumer relations. All the time off the But, he wanted Argentinean beef, because it was Country Natural Beef is not an average ranch, driving to different states and cities, grown without hormones or antibiotics and had cooperative. It is not run by a five-member happens because the members of Country less fat than American beef. Ace recommended board of directors. In fact, every ranch family is Natural Beef believe this creates a sustainable this beef to fitness clients because he determined a director on the board. “Five-member boards production system. it was a healthy product. On her drive back to have destroyed a lot of agricultural cooperatives The original organizational holistic goal for the ranch, Connie Hatfield realized a market because directors tend to become overly Country Natural Beef includes this statement: need for beef that wasn’t being filled. impressed with their importance and are slow to “Our goal is to provide change to meet the realities sustainable means through a of the times,” says Doc group to profitably market Hatfield. “Our product is more than beef quality beef products desired There is no profit incentive it’s the smell of sage after a summer thunderstorm, by the consumer, while for the Country Natural Beef retaining every possible bit of cooperative itself. The co-op is the cool shade of a Ponderosa Pine forest. independence.” a service, the Hatfields It’s 80 year-old weathered hands While each family of explained, with the purpose of Country Natural Beef has moving money from the saddling a horse in the Blue Mountains, ownership in the holistic consumer straight back to the the future of a 6-year-old goal, the reason they choose land. “The goal is to create a ranching is something sustainable system in which in a one-room school on the High Desert. unique, something woven the profit goes back to the It’s a trout in a beaver built pond, between the lines of the ranches,” says Doc Hatfield. haystacks on an Aspen framed meadow. holistic goal. It is humble The structure of the co-op and ordinary but strong, like breaks the mold in other It’s the hardy quail running to join the cattle for a meal, ways. The the fabric of a work shirt or agreements the welcome ring of a dinner bell at dusk.” worn leather boots. It’s told between ranchers and in a conversational-tone, like retailers set the price of the –Doc Hatfield a story in the days of oral product, knocking the traditions, and with the heart volatile commodity market and hands as much as the voice. The purpose of One week later she invited Ace, several ranch out of the food production system and putting Country Natural Beef is more than producing a ranchers directly in business with retailers and families and others interested in marketing healthy food product; it is the art of families natural beef to the Hatfield’s High Desert Ranch. consumers. Country Natural Beef ranchers visit etching out a living in the landscape. It is the their natural food retail partners’ stores in San This was the first meeting of the Country culture of loving the land. Francisco, Seattle and Portland to chat with Natural Beef cooperative. When their first beef consumers of their product. “Farmers and product hit the retail market six months later, Beyond Whining there were 14 families in the co-op, representing ranchers are liked in these cities,” says Connie In 1986, with a low cattle market, a poor Hatfield. 10,000 mother cows. Now, the co-op has 70 consumer perception of red meat, decreasing land active members representing 106,000 mother Seniority doesn’t exist in Country Natural Beef. prices and high interest rates, Doc and Connie cows. This year, Country Natural Beef generated Families new to the coop have just as much say in Hatfield were, “going broke and whining about $40 million in sales. The co-op has a long-term charting the direction of the group as the original it.” They had sold their veterinary practice families. And family means family. Husbands and partnership to supply Whole Foods with natural 6

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wives work together on their operation and both serve on the board, as well as children and grandparents. There is no separation of duties or decision-making. Families work as teams to grow and market their product. To become a producer of Country Natural Beef, a family ranch must be nominated by current co-op producers. Because all producers of Country Natural Beef affect each other equally, each ranch family has a vested interest in ensuring fellow co-op members are producing a product their consumers want and by standards in line with their goal. Each member can see the costs/profit spreadsheet for every lot of Country Natural Beef that goes through the program. The Hatfields say this builds trust and competition. The Country Natural Beef is certified by the Food Alliance of Portland, whose third party certification stamp indicates that the product was produced with methods that are in line with social justice, low chemical use, humane handling and a wildlife plan, that means co-op members have an ecologically sound grazing plan.

Creating Direction In 1986, the original group of ranch families

Doc and Connie Hatfield started Country Natural Beef in 1986 when they realized they could fill a niche for healthy beef. All the producers at Country Natural Beef take time to educate consumers about their product and how they can be part of a sustainable food system. wrote an organizational holistic goal for Country Natural Beef. It includes these guidelines:

“To be grass roots producer controlled, to contain a bare minimum of administrative costs, and for the costs of operation to come from a percentage of producer’s revenue. Country Natural Beef is an idea that needs to be constantly examined, not an entity that can be bought and sold.” The mission statement of the organization was created in 1991 and includes this sentence: “By striving to market our livestock in a sustainable manner, the members of Country Natural Beef will take care of and respect the customers, communities and lands which sustain us.” Doc and Connie Hatfield attended a Holistic Management session led by Allan Savory, before they founded Country Natural Beef. From the understanding of Holistic Management they gained at this session, they learned the critical role a holistic goal plays in a successful organization or partnership. The Hatfields said the original rancher group spent a lot of time making clear what they wanted in their goal. And, it’s held for 19 years, creating direction for a very successful beef cooperative.

Zimbabwean Cornfield Update hand. We also measured the two fields and questioned him about the total yield from each. The elephant-proof field yielded approximately 15 times the yield per acre! Following this impressive difference, we are seeing marked interest from other villagers. As a consequence, in the present dry season planning, the main herd is being kraaled overnight on many fields in turn. In this way, we combine the predator-friendly herding, reversing desertification, and overnight kraaling in lionproof kraals with better crop production.

I

n IN PRACTICE 107 we shared with you the new elephant-proof crop field we were working on with Libian Sibanda, one of the Monde villagers as part of our USAID project. Libian surrounded this field with a trench onemeter (yard) wide and deep to protect the field from elephants (elephants don’t jump). He then concentrated all the livestock he could (other villagers provided animals) on the field night after night for a month or so before simply planting into that soil. There was no plowing or cutting of trees despite the local belief that corn (maize) would not grow under large trees. As we noted previously, the response to the field was tremendous at the beginning of the growing season.

In the picture on the left above is the animaltreated cornfield during the rains in February. On the same day, we took a picture (on right above) of Libian’s main field alongside the elephant-proof field. At the end of the growing season, the difference in response from the two fields was quite dramatic. The picture at right shows the maize/corn from the elephant-proof field in Libian’s right hand (on left side of picture) and the maize/corn from the conventional field in his other N u m b e r 10 9

 IN PRACTICE

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LIVESTOCK

&

On Twin Creek Ranch–

Acting on “Change Requests” in the Sagebrush Steppe by Jim Howell

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n January of 2001, I was given the opportunity to speak at the annual Mexico and southeastern Arizona in the mid-90s. I immediately blurted out, gathering of the Colorado Branch of Holistic Management, in Boulder, “I would have tried to manage for longer recovery periods.” I had seen what Colorado. As a result of traveling and working in a broad range of 18+ month recovery periods could do on that low production, desert range. brittle-tending environments, I was starting to recognize some patterns That was typically enough time to grow plenty of forage to both feed the and tendencies, and my talk in Boulder was my first attempt to articulate livestock and accumulate some older material to serve as a source of soilthese observations. covering litter. The palatable shrub species also had the chance to recover These ideas were centered around my realization that the brittle, but very spectacularly. When I related these experiences to Tony, he nodded productive, savannas in the high rainfall tropics of Africa, though sharing the knowingly and then responded, “Our collapse happened when we shortened same essential traits, are quite recovery periods and started a bit different than the low grazing twice per season.” production, highly brittle, Since then, Tony and semi-desert steppelands wife, Andrea, have shifted characterizing so much of the their grazing planning to American West–particularly grazing each pasture three when it comes to practical years out of four, with considerations of typically at least 14 months management. In nervous between grazing periods. A haste, I spit out my speech, pasture grazed in the spring feeling that I’d probably done will be grazed in the summer an inadequate job of making of the following year, and my point. But afterwards, a then not until the fall the guy named Tony Malmberg next year. During the fourth approached me. year, that pasture will have Aerial view of the valleys, slopes, hills, and mesas through which the Twin Creek cattle the entire year off, and then are daily herded. Three Out of Four will be grazed in the spring He told me that for years, since the initiation of thoughtful grazing of the fifth year. That early grazing, with the new season’s leaves coming up planning on their central Wyoming ranch, Twin Creek–16,000 acres (6,400 through last year’s grass, gets lots of litter on the ground (no winter grazing ha) in a 12-inch (300 mm) precipitation, highly brittle, low production, takes place on Twin Creek due to snow cover). This broad policy put the sagebrush steppe environment–production and the health of the land had Twin Creek landscape back on the mend, and has resulted in the Malmbergs been improving. As fencing and water had been developed and the control of being able to weather a bad string of drought years with only minimal time become increasingly refined, new grasses had come in, bare ground destocking. This year (the toughest year anyone remembers), the pastures was healing over, and riparian areas had blossomed. But, for the previous that had last year off (i.e. the 20-25 percent that weren’t grazed) have several years, a sudden negative trend had ensued. Bare ground was back on yielded from 100-120 percent of their 10-year average harvest, while those the rise and bluebunch wheatgrass, one of the sagebrush steppe’s most grazed after June 14 last year are only yielding 50 percent. valuable perennial grasses, was on the decline. A Thoughtful Response Before Tony told me what he’d changed in his management to bring about this backward slide, he asked me what I would have done differently But that’s not it, not by a long shot. It’s the way in which each pasture is on the High Lonesome Ranch–also a low production, highly brittle ranch grazed that deserves some serious further explanation. Before I get into that, my wife and I managed in the Chihuahua Desert of southwestern New you need to understand that Tony is a thinking cowboy. He has a passion for 8

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Two of a new set, he lets them choice out the easy-to-get-to and most land, cows, and horses bordering on fanatical, and is constantly trying to palatable areas. In the case of Twin Creek, that’s frequently along the learn and incorporate those lessons into his daily management. He consistently observes and questions, reads classical novels for their enduring riparian corridor running through a pasture. That’s where the cattle want to be. Driving them away from those spots only stresses them. Moreover, you truths, and recites timeless poetry to support his points. He and Andrea emphasize that “We have developed the habit of listening for the unexpected want the cattle to graze those areas anyway, just not camp on them and overuse them. So, it makes sense to let the cows use the good spots in the request for change and acting on that request. If one does not act, it beginning, when that’s where they want to be anyway. becomes a habit of ignoring the facts.” Then, in successive days, Tony and his dudes will arrive at the water in So if twice per season grazing is taking the land in the wrong direction, mid-morning after the cattle have watered. They will decide on a direction to you don’t bury your head in the sand. You listen and act. If cattle take them, and get movement started accordingly. As soon as the cattle drop performance is struggling as you force them into the far corners of every their heads, they release the pressure and push no further. What’s that mean pasture, you don’t ignore those results; you sort out a new tack and change. when the cattle drop their heads? It means they’re entering fresh ground that So, that brings us back to how the grazing actually happens in each pasture. First, with the use of portable electric fence, each permanent pasture hasn’t been fouled or grazed. Usually when trying to locate cattle, we push them across all sorts of country is further subdivided so that grazing where they’d be happy to stop and periods are typically no longer than The pastures that had last year off have yielded eat. But no, we decide we’re going to five days. Tony calls this miniget them to the top of the ridge or grazing period within a permanent from 100-120 percent, while those grazed the back side of the pasture, so we pasture a “set.” Lots of folks would last year are only yielding 50 percent. keep pushing. Now, instead of trying call it a “break.” Where possible, to get to the pasture’s back corner on these portable wires are strung Day Two of a five-day set, Tony will get there on Day Five, dropping the cattle through the sagebrush to minimize the need for posts. Most of Twin Creek’s off on the way there, each day a little further out. By Day Five, the back upland country (outside the riparian and flood/sub-irrigated meadows) produces on the order of 10 stock days per acre (.4 ha) in one grazing period corner is where the cows want to be, because that’s where the last unfouled, ungrazed ground is. If they drop their heads to graze, the cattle are telling per year. So, that means that over five days, 600 lactating cows worth 1.5 you that “This will do, please leave us here and let us fill our bellies.” stock units will have on average access to 450 acres (180 ha). So, to reiterate the principle, let the cattle graze out the choicest, easiest Cow Communication areas first, and then in the following days start gradually drifting them away from these spots until they drop their heads. By the last day, the cattle will walk That’s already pretty good stock density in a highly brittle, semi-arid, to the back of the pasture voluntarily and with no stress, because by then it’s cold steppe landscape. The vast majority of Wyoming ranchers would be doing great to come anywhere near that level of animal concentration. But, the best spot in the pasture. This makes it lots easier on cows, horses, people, Tony takes his grazing management to one further level of refinement. This and bank accounts. In the old days, Tony claimed that it took cattle from new custom grazing clients three years to adjust to his grazing management. Now, last step, Tony admits, came as a result of their ranch guest vacation by daily drifting cattle to fresh feed, new cattle never miss a beat. enterprise. Tony and Andrea take in wannabe cowboys and cowgirls and The other positive is that during the actual herding, Tony is able to integrate them into whatever daily activities happen to be taking place. This achieve herd effect across the areas the cattle are driven across. In these lowlast level of refinement is daily herding, and evolved as a solution to production, highly brittle environments, herd effect never happens unless “figuring out something for the dudes to do,” as Tony says. animals are intentionally bunched. Daily herding gets this done on But, it’s not just herding. Over the years, lots of observation and hard significant stretches of country. knocks have transformed Tony’s herding paradigm. It’s a style of herding We just visited Twin Creek on a ranch tour we led in May. The past five that runs counterintuitive to what most of us might envision when we years have been tough drought years for the most part, but this year is think of herding. The reason we traditionally herd (as in drifting animals turning out to be a killer. In late May, the grass had already lost most of its where we want them to go, not gathering or rounding up) is to improve green at what should have been the most lush (lush for Wyoming) time of grazing distribution and increase stock density and animal impact to the year. Twin Creek looked pretty rough, but then we went and looked at the levels that no amount of fencing can do. Most of the time, this means we neighbor’s place, and if Twin Creek was tough, the neighbor’s country was push our animals into corners or onto slopes or any hard-to-get-to spots double tough. The difference in plant vigor and bare ground was striking that animals don’t voluntarily cover on their own. The key word there is (striking, that is, if your eye is in the habit of closely examining soil surface push, as in “against their will.” detail in sagebrush country). Then we went and looked at a decades-old That’s the old paradigm. Tony and his dudes did that for a long time. exclosure, and the difference was even more pronounced. The first day in a new pasture, they’d pick the cattle up off of water in late Despite all their challenges, lessons learned, hard knocks, and setbacks, morning and drive the cattle to the top of the ridge, or to the back corner three miles away, or just a long ways from water, whatever the direction. The Tony and Andrea are making progress through “listening for the unexpected request for change,” and acting accordingly–not just at the soil surface, but problem is that the cattle didn’t like doing that, and they suffered. And it in their lives and on the ranch as a whole. Now that I think about, that’s didn’t work that great anyway, because the cattle seldom stayed where you wanted them for length of time you wanted them there. They weren’t happy. really just a fancy way of expressing one of Holistic Management’s crucial tenets–when managing land, assume you’re wrong and monitor (listen) for So, true to form, Tony finally listened to this “unexpected request for the signs that you’re off track (need to change), and then control and, if change” and acted (he’s better at it now than he used to be–to listening, necessary, replan (act) to get back on track. With a clear, deeply meaningful that is). Now, what’s the objective? Generally, to get cow tracks on every holistic goal driving them, Tony and Andrea have become masters at square foot of pasture, use the grass evenly, and achieve good animal monitoring and adapting. I’d recommend planning a visit to Twin Creek to performance (i.e. minimize or eliminate stress). Now, instead of attempting to get animals into the back of the paddock from Day One, on Days One and see for yourself. N u m b e r 10 9



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Rancho San Jacinto–

Tapping Potential in the Baja Badlands by Jim Howell

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n the last issue of IN PRACTICE, I wrote about the ranching and ecotourism potential of the steppe landscapes of Santa Cruz, Argentina–the bottom tip of Patagonia. As my wife Daniela and I travel to different agricultural and ranching regions around the world, each of our typically international clientele mix sees “potential” through a uniquely shaped lens. I see lots of potential in Patagonia through my lens of the dry, cold mountains and mesas of western Colorado. Some of the Australians we traveled with to Patagonia last year had a difficult time recognizing any Patagonian potential. Because their lens had been shaped by the rolling, grassy abundance of Australia’s Great Dividing Range, Patagonia looked like a windswept, frigid, barren wasteland. Why would anybody want to struggle in this Godforsaken place? The fertile Pampas looked a whole lot better. Another client from Patagonia-like Wyoming had a hard time getting too enthusiastic about the Pampas. But as our plane descended over wide-open Patagonia, he opined “things were looking better–a guy can turn his horse around out here.” If there’s grass, I can usually see potential, no matter how steep, cold, hot, ugly, or isolated. But just this past June, during a week of Holistic Management training my wife Daniela and I were leading in Baja California, Mexico, I had the chance to broaden my definition of “potential” beyond the presence of grass.

Why Bother? During our training week, we spent two days visiting ranches in the hills and mountains within a two-hour drive of Baja California’s Pacific coast. This is winter rainfall country, just like coastal California’s Mediterranean climate to the north, but it is steeper and a whole lot rockier than most of California’s coastal ranges. It is the only corner of Mexico where the rains come in the cool season. As our bus meandered up and over rugged passes

and down and through the sinuous valleys, our students, all from summer dominant (or year round) rainfall climates, and many from much less topographically challenging, and much more productive, areas, all struggled to see much potential. This is a big issue, because there is a lot of land around the world that, at first glance, doesn’t appear fit to bother with. During much of our drive, I hate to admit it, but that’s what I was thinking. The valley bottoms and gentler hills–no problem–-but the overwhelmingly dominant, highly brittle, near vertical mountains, covered up in dense chaparral and no visible grass, appeared beyond the reach of significant husbandry Rancher Francisco Jimenez by humans. Okay, maybe a little explaining his water development goat herding, but as a New project in the 3,000 acre pasture Zealander might say, “You’d have behind him. to be bloody keen, mate.” So, right up until the moment we drove onto Rancho San Jacinto, I was stumped. Daniela asked me, “So, what do the cows eat here?” I had no idea.

Brush Cows

The truck in front of us, driven by rancher Francisco Jimenez and guiding us into this labyrinth of brushy cliffs, stopped inside the ranch gate. We all got out, and Francisco began to talk. Francisco is a lifelong rancher, and has a 10-year lease on Rancho San Jacinto. So, immediately, I’m thinking, “This guy doesn’t own this place, has no intergenerational attachment to it, and could theoretically lease any other ranch with much more obvious potential. But no, he has found his way to this very isolated, insanely difficult patch of rocks by choice. What am I missing?” Francisco is educated, well-spoken, seemingly well-to-do, and humble. He drives a clean, wellmaintained mini-pickup and owns other ranches in Mexicali, across the border from the huge irrigated agricultural area of El Centro, California. So, he’s been around and knows there is more to life than chaparral, rocks, and gravity. As he talks, we find out the ranch is 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) and currently carrying 300 mother cows plus a couple hundred weaners. What? Here? I’d been in lots of country that looked better than this that would take three or four times that much ground for that many cattle. Oh, and this year, the normal winter deluge of 10-12 inches (250-300 mm), which typically begins in November and finishes by April, didn’t start until mid-March. This year’s total added up to a whopping 3.5 inches (88 mm) before the summer arrived, which, in A few of Francisco’s Charolais cattle headed back up the mountain after coming to Mediterranean climates, is the guaranteed dry season. water. Francisco went on to explain that the ranch currently has 16 10

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pastures, mostly smaller ones around the headquarters, and that he was still confused, but Francisco said his cows could climb. We loaded back into currently in the process of implementing a land plan on the bulk of the our bus and started down a very rough, bus-unfriendly road toward the ranch, which was in three big pastures. He has had some exposure to Holistic pasture where the cows were. Pretty soon I noticed a brand new fence on our Management training, and one of our students, Victor Morales (from the left, and cattle tracks on the other side. There really were cows here. Baja town of Ensenada) is working alongside Francisco as they develop and The only reason the fence looked new was due to the shiny new three implement this plan. This year, because of the late rains, very little grass grew stands of barbed wire. All the posts looked like salvaged sticks from a burn (these Mediterranean environments are dominated by cool season annual pile (and they were). On his ranch in Mexicali, Francisco burns patches of grasses), but he assured us that most years, a handful of annual grasses and the native mesquite and other shrub species while they’re green, then forbs provide a high energy diet through the winter and spring. harvests the charred trunks for posts. He says they last forever. The Because of this ephemeral but usually reliable pulse of cool season green, topography on the other side of the fence was flat for zero to 20 his Charolais and Red Brangus cows start calving in January and continue yards/meters, then rose precipitously. Suddenly, we stopped for no apparent through the winter. Despite lactation, mother cows gain weight fast (usually reason, and we all got out. It seemed Francisco could sense my (and they’re in good shape at calving, because in most years they will have had at probably everybody’s) skepticism. He pointed to the slope at our side, and least two months of green prior to calving). Calves typically stay on the cow with a concentrated focus, I suddenly realized that those white and buff straight through the summer and are weaned in colored boulders on the side of the mountain early fall. This winter’s lack of annuals, however, had weren’t all boulders, but Charolais cows acting pulled the cows down through lactation, and like mountain goats. Francisco had been progressively early weaning since This was previously a 5,000 acre pasture (2,000 March to preserve cow condition. ha) that had been split in two. The steep side had At this point we’re still just inside the ranch gate, been fenced off from the less steep side we were and I’m still confused. If no annuals grew this year, driving through, where historically the cows had what’s he going to live on for the next six lingered for excessive stretches of time and had months–the first likely chance of new grass? So I really stuffed up a lot of country. Francisco’s land asked. And I was given a stare that made me feel plan aimed at alleviating this unhealthy pattern, stupid. Wasn’t it obvious? They eat the brush. What and hence the new fence splitting the 3,000 upland else are they going to eat? See this white flower on acres (1,200 ha) from the bottoms–the first of this spindly little thing? Cows love that, and dry several divisions planned in this part of the ranch cows can get fat on it. My eyes started to focus on (Incidentally, Francisco’s arrangement with the what I had been assuming was marginal bee food, ranch owner trades developing this new and suddenly I saw a lot of it–some potential. infrastructure in exchange for a free lease during Francisco went on to explain that his cows will pick the lease’s first five years). High up on the mountain at just about every shrub on the whole place. there was also a strong spring, producing maybe ten They’re brush cows and don’t know any better. gallons (38 liters) per minute. This spring naturally Or, more accurately, they do know better. rose from the rocks, filled a little pool, and then Suddenly, the work of Fred Provenza (see my article disappeared twenty or thirty yards down the slope as One of San Jacinto’s highly palatable shrub “Cows Have Culture, Too” in # 82 IN PRACTICE), it soaked into the gravel. species showing serious signs of browsing. the Utah State University animal nutritionist / Through a truly heroic effort, Francisco has These shrubs will recover through the summer behaviorist who has demonstrated through sound, developed a pipeline system that gravity feeds this with help from moisture in the frequent fogs unequivocal research that animals learn what and spring water to five strategically placed water points that roll into the mountains from the nearby how much of what to eat (it’s not all instinct), across this 3,000 acre pasture. As a result of the new Pacific. leaped into mind. fence and water, these cows were now covering Francisco’s cows, the living members of a cattle culture that had been nearly every square foot of this 3,000 acre mountainside. “Te felicito,” I told surviving and thriving on Baja California browse for decades, know how Francisco, which means “congratulations.” Putting Charolais cows in such much of what they can eat. And, as we were to see, they knew they could eat places is not an easy thing to do. everything to a greater or lesser extent. Essentially all shrubs contain toxins But he was doing it, and making money in the process. He was clearly that are anti-herbivorous. That is, after a certain level of consumption, they motivated by his achievements and excited about the path of management poison the animal. But, just like we can eat a certain quantity of brussel refinement that lay ahead. On our drive back out of the mountains, I looked sprouts or broccoli before we get sick, Francisco’s cows can take a few bites of at them all with a new perspective, imagining guys like Francisco developing each of these Mediterranean shrub species without any ill effects. And just like springs and building fences and making a living from the land. The reality we have to learn to eat brussel sprouts and broccoli from our elders, the same that very few people have the skill or “ganas” (Spanish for desire) to live a goes with cows. Calves learn what to eat from mom. It’s really tough to plop life on the land, especially this type of land, is sobering. down a bunch of cows from anywhere else onto the brushy slopes of Baja and I guess getting people to climb these mountains is tougher than coaxing expect them to know how to make a living. Think about it. European settlers up a few cows. But how else will we ever have a sustainable food economy in new lands had a heck of a time until they learned what to eat from the and ecologically healthy land, based on local farms and ranches, without natives. local people, intimate with their cherished landscapes, owning and managing them? At the end of the day, this is the only model that can work Climbing Cows in the long term. And when the time comes that we have no choice but to go So, these cows were eating the brush, but from our vantage point, it looked back to the land, hopefully there will still be a few guys like Francisco like most of the brush was growing where cows were unlikely to venture. I was Jimenez who can show us the way. N u m b e r 10 9



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Holistic Management® Biological Monitoring–

Basic Monitoring For Results by Jody Butterfield, et. al. make changes before damage is done. Old-time coal miners found it wiser to monitor air quality in the shaft by counting dead canaries instead of dead miners, because canaries died first. Similarly, a drop in conception rates shows a problem–but after the fact and without any clue of how to correct it. Many of the numbers we ardently compile and ponder fail us in the same way. Obviously, you can steer a ship better looking over the bow than back at fundamental principle of Holistic Management is that success the wake, but only if you know requires what to monitor. Ideally, planning–and Completed Monitoring Data Form biological monitoring should successful planning Biological Monitoring Data - Basic pick up changing conditions requires implementation (of (Five needed per transect) Harris Ranch 1-2 1-2 Property _____________________________________ Transect/Plot Number________ Photo No’s _________ and deviations from plan so course), monitoring, 6-21-05 John, Amy you won’t miss an opportunity controlling, and replanning. Date________________ Examiner(s)___________________________________ to change course and replan. The textbook makes this 1. Soil Surface. Describe the nature Most of the surface has recently broken capping & fair amount nature of the bulk of the soil surface As you apply any one of the point in many ways and between plants. (Is it bare,capped, of litter. Still some patches (+/-5%) of mature capping. broken, covered with litter, covered management contexts, and earlier chapters with algae and lichen, hard, soft, tools–technology, animal in this handbook have porous, etc.? Are their signs of soil movement/erosion, such as pedestaling, impact, fire, grazing, rest, or repeated it. In any situation siltation in low points, etc?) living organisms–you will you manage, you should be 2. Animal Sign. What signs of Lots of insect sign, mostly ants. Rabbit droppings. animal life are present (small or large need to determine what monitoring to make happen animals, birds, insects, reptiles)? criteria you can monitor that what you want to happen–to will give the earliest warnings bring about desired changes of adverse change. Monitoring in line with your holistic 3. Litter. If there is litter present, Litter is all fresh—all from this year. describe its quality/ condition (fresh, changes in plant or animal goal. Monitoring old, or breaking down so it is hard to distinguish where litter ends species, a common practice, is developments in the and soil begins). a measurement that comes biological sphere, however, 4. Perennial Grass Condition. If Most plants now healthy (5); one is dying from overrest (gray). too late, indicating deserves its own treatment perennial grasses present, describe considerable change has because much of what we do their condition. (Are they healthy, mature, young, seedlings, dead/dying, already occurred that may not as land managers may lead overrested, overgrazed?) have been in line with your to unanticipated effects. 5. Grass Species. List grass species holistic goal. You want to Anytime you plan to alter Little Bluestem. in the plot if you know their names. detect changes well before ecosystem processes in any that. way, you must always You must address this assume you could be 6. Other Plants. List or comment One new legume of unknown species. A few weeds (species challenge on three levels. wrong because the land is on other non-grass plant species present (legumes, forbs, etc.). unknown). First, you must cultivate a more complex than humans general and ongoing will ever understand. awareness of the condition of The livestock industry 7. Points of Interest. Note any other points of interest, including The overrested plant is the same species as the healthy ones— the four ecosystem processes traditionally monitors many things that might not show well Little Bluestem! (water cycle, mineral cycle, aspects of animal in the photo. energy flow and community performance. In the cattle dynamics) and how the tools business, the statistics on you apply affect them. conception rates, bull Second, each year you must carry out an annual assessment of the soil performance, daily gain, weight per day of age, calf and weaner weights, surface and the life upon it based on one of the procedures described in more or less define the quality of an operation in traditional terms. With the development of Holistic Management, ranchers are beginning to “Monitoring Your Land,” which will help you to predict changes and trends. understand what crop farmers have long understood: that yield per acre or Third, if you are managing livestock you must also monitor growth rates, hectare is more important to profit than yield per plant or animal. While water supplies, the development of unfavorable grazing patterns, and so on, it is important to monitor animal performance, it is even more important to when working to a Holistic Management grazing plan. monitor the land’s performance, its ability to convert sunlight to grass, and thus to saleable livestock products, other potential enterprises (wildlife, Basic Monitoring recreation), and ultimately money. In assuming that any action we plan to take could go wrong because of the If you haven’t ever done it before, taking the responsibility for monitoring land’s complexity, we want to have the earliest possible warning so we can your land yourself should symbolize a significant shift in your whole

Editor’s Note: This is another excerpt from the soon to be published Holistic Management Handbook: Healthy Land, Healthy Profits, to be released in October 2006. Order your copy by filling out the enclosed insert and mailing or faxing it to us today!

A

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Completed Monitoring Analysis Form

Biological Monitoring Analysis - Basic (Use one per transect)

Harris Ranch Property _____________________________________

1-1 to 1-5 Transect/Plot Numbers_________

6-21-05 Date________________

John, Amy Examiner(s)___________________________________

1-1 to 1-5 Photo No’s _________

1. What are we trying to achieve in the area surrounding this transect? Community Dynamics: Water Cycle: Mineral cycle: Energy flow:

Effective—100% biological decay. High

2. What progress have we made his year, compared to last? Water Cycle: Mineral cycle: Energy flow:

Improvement! Lots of new plants, grass & forbs.

Great improvement—less capping, more litter. Improved. Far less oxidizing grass. Improved greatly—healthier plants, more of them green.

3. What natural or management

Rain average, and good distribution.

factors might have influenced what we are seeing on the ground?

4. If adverse changes have occurred or no change, where change was planned: What is the underlying cause—what tools have we applied, and how have we applied them?

5. What are we going to change in this next year to keep our land moving toward the future landscape described in our holistic goal?

Magnetic stud finder, if rebar is used instead of whisker spikes Pad of paper (or small dry-erase board) and marker pen Clipboard and pen or pencil Monitoring data forms (five per transect) (*Only required the first time when establishing transects)

Selecting Monitoring Transects

Healthy grassland with legumes & other forbs in open country.

Very effective to restore groundwater.

Community Dynamics:

• • • •

All tools working to plan. If anything, stocking rate still low since there’s still a lot of old grass.

Increase stocking rate slightly, as product conversion is still the financial weak link in the cattle operation.

You will need to select your monitoring sites carefully. Pick areas to sample that are either typical of the whole area, or where you particularly want to produce a lot of change. The more uniform the land, the fewer the sites necessary. On uniform ranches a minimum of three to five transects give good information. At each site establish a transect line by hammering the first post well into the ground. Make sure posts extend high enough above ground to be clearly visible to anyone traveling on a fourwheeler or motorbike. To discourage animals from rubbing against posts and dislodging them, try piling stones around them. Once the first post is in place, string out the 100-foot (30meter) tape, to the East or West, and hammer in the second post. Leave the tape tautly stretched between the posts. Next go along the tape and at five equally spaced measures–10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 feet (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 meters)–hammer in a short rebar rod flush with the soil surface. The tape will help you relocate the rod each year, but you may also need a stud finder. Alternatively, you can mark each spot with survey “whiskers”–bright-colored plastic frills that protrude about 5 inches (12.5 cm) above ground after you have secured them with an 8-inch (20 cm) spike. Their color will fade over time, but they generally provide an effective marker for several years. In the U.S. these are readily available from any company selling surveying equipment.

Recording Transect Information approach to management. Almost all stock growers weigh their animals at least once a year. When you realize that the stock functions only as a broker in the marketing of solar energy, it makes even more sense to “weigh” the primary agent in this transaction–your land. And just as you would never consider calling in a stranger to weigh your stock, you shouldn’t trust the monitoring of your land to anyone but yourself. This monitoring is all most managers require as a routine monitoring procedure, and it’s also handy for monitoring test applications, or “mini trials,” of different tools or techniques in test areas. It shouldn’t take more than a day of your time each year–about 45 minutes per transect (depending on your observation skills); a few hours or less for a mini trial. Although simple, this monitoring procedure is effective in that with minimum work it allows you to observe changes closely and also provides a good record of those changes.

Equipment • A digital (preferably) camera • Substantial metal posts, or heavy-duty plastic stakes, to be driven well into the ground at either end of a line as permanent markers (2 per transect)* • Metal tape of 100-foot (30-meter) length • 5 short lengths of rebar rod (about a foot, or 30 cm long), or heavy-duty plastic survey “whiskers” with spikes * • Heavy hammer adequate to hammer rebar rods fully into the ground, if rebar is used * • 1 square yard (meter) frame made of lightweight PVC

Fill in the required information (except photo numbers) at the top of the Basic Monitoring Data Form. You will need five forms per transect, one form for each plot. Assign a number to the transect (e.g., “1”), and to each plot (e.g., “1-1,” “1-2,” etc.). Note the date, and the name of the person recording the information. Use the back of each sheet to record any other information you feel you need to record.

Taking Photos Start by taking two photos, one from each end of the transect line, to show the general view in each direction. Each photo should include onethird sky and two-thirds foreground. Once you have printed the photos, label them using the transect number and direction photo was taken. For example, if the line for transect 1 runs East-West, the photo taken from the West end looking East could be identified as 1-E (Eastern view), and vice versa. Note the photo information in the blank area at the top right hand corner of the first Monitoring Data Form you fill in. If there are no fixed features in either of the two photos, and you risk not being able to identify them later, write the identifying detail (1-E, etc.) and date on a large piece of paper that can be tent-folded so it stands up. Two dry-erase boards hinged together with straps and set upright like a tent also work well. Place the paper or board within the camera’s field of vision and close enough that the writing is visible. Next, at each marker along the transect, lay down the PVC frame so that one corner is sitting over the rebar peg or plastic marker and one side is flush

N u m b e r 10 9



continued on page 14 Land & Livestock

13


Holistic Management® Biological Monitoring with the stretched tape. Write the plot number and the date boldly on a piece of paper, or dry-erase board, large enough that the letters will show clearly in the photo. Place this piece of paper, or the board, in one corner of the frame. (You will need to position the frame and the piece of paper or board in exactly the same place each time you retake the photos.) Take a photo of each of the five plots along the transect with the camera directly above the center of the plot and at such a height that the entire PVC frame is within the view of the camera.

Recording Your Observations After taking the photo at each plot, use the Basic Monitoring Data form to record your observations. Start by filling in the information at the top of the form, including the photo number. • Soil Surface. Describe the nature of the bulk of the soil surface between plants. • Animal Sign. What signs of animal life are present? • Litter. If there is litter present, describe its quality/condition. • Perennial Grass Condition. If perennial grasses are present, describe their condition. • Grass Species. List grass species in the plot if you know their names. • Other Species. List or comment on other non-grass plant species present. • Points of Interest. Note any other points of interest, including things that might not show well in the photo.

Analyzing Your Observations Remember that the primary purpose of this monitoring is to make happen what you want to happen. Based on what you observed at each of the photo plots, you can begin drawing conclusions on where you stand relative to your holistic goal and what action you need to take to ensure you keep moving toward it. Fill in one Monitoring Analysis form for each transect. Start by recording the details at the top of the form. If your files ever become separated, there

continued from page 13 should be no doubt about which Monitoring Data Forms are covered by this one. Review each of the Monitoring Data Forms filled in for the transect and summarize your findings relative to each of the questions asked on the Monitoring Analysis Form. In the first year the photos and your analysis will serve as “baseline” information. In subsequent years the information you record on the Monitoring Analysis form becomes the basis of a great many decisions you will make. Record your answers to the following questions, using the back of the form as needed:

Future Landscape Description What are we trying to achieve in the area surrounding this transect? The landscape described in your holistic goal should have been expressed in terms of the four ecosystem processes. Describe the future condition of those four processes specific to the area surrounding each transect.

Progress Check What progress have we made this year, compared to last? Review each of the Monitoring Data Forms to get a sense of where you are now. Note specific positive or adverse changes, or no change at all, in terms of community dynamics, water and mineral cycles, and energy flow.

Influencing Factors What natural or management factors might have influenced what we are seeing on the ground? Think in terms of natural forces–a fire or flood that swept through the transect area during the year; weather factors, such as a heavy downpour or a hailstorm that occurred in the area a few days before you made your observations, or a complete rainfall failure. If your stock have been in the paddock covered by the transect very recently, or not for months, that would be worth noting. If you created herd effect with an attractant, the land will be different than it would have been otherwise, and you should note that it occurred. continued on page 17

Mini-Trial Photo Monitoring In the photos shown here, all that was done for the trial was to take fixed-point photos of an area before and after receiving ultra-high animal impact for a week to break up some very hard capping. Animal impact was the tool on trial to see if it could have an effect on land that had been bare and hard-capped for decades. If you want to do something similar, the key is to make sure you have fixed features in the camera viewfinder so there is no doubt that you’re looking at the same piece of ground. This area on HMI’s learning site in Zimbabwe had been capped hard and bare for several decades and was believed by many to be beyond reclamation. A herd of between 300 and 600 cattle and goats had made no impact in four years. This photo was taken at the end of the dry season. The same area six months later at the end of the growing season in a drought year (8 inches/200 mm of rain received in a 30-inch/750 mm rainfall area) after a herd of 200 cattle and just over 100 goats spent each night for one week bunched in a temporary predator-proof corral. The resulting spurt of growth, in a drought year, was all the manager needed to see to be convinced that this and other hard-capped areas could be healed with very high animal impact (herd effect). It also ruled out the possibility that some soil factor was inhibiting growth, or nearby trees poisoning the soil with toxins released by their roots. 14

Land & Livestock



September / October 2 0 0 6


Book Review

by Ray Travers

Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan and Al Switzler. 2002. McGraw Hill and

Crucial Confrontations: Tools for Resolving Broken Promises, Violated Expectations and Bad Behavior Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan and Al Switzler. 2005. McGraw Hill

H

ow often have you thought after a stressful verbal exchange, especially with someone in authority or an adversary, “I wish I had known then, what I know now!” Or, “Too soon old, and too late smart!” When enlightened by the knowledge contained within Crucial Conversations and Crucial Confrontations, we now have some new concepts and tools for successfully navigating encounters with people in important, but hard to deal with, situations. Moreover, I have found these two books very complementary to Holistic Management, especially when the stakes are high, and the desired outcome is effective action with a win-win solution. As the authors state, these books are cousins–with radical ideas that can help managers of change transform a moment of breakdown to an opportunity for breakthrough. Crucial conversations and crucial confrontations are similar in that in both situations the stakes are high, likely to be stressful and emotional. These situations are also different in some ways. The primary characteristic of a crucial conversation is the disagreement that occurs when two or more individuals do not know how to resolve their differences. The consequences of poorly managed disagreements are stressed relationships, inferior decisions, and often damaging results. The primary characteristic of a crucial confrontation, in contrast, is the disappointment that occurs when promises are not kept, performance falls below expectations, and other types of less than acceptable behavior. Confrontations occur when an agency and/or someone fails to do what they were supposed to do. Confrontations, when handled well, are the beginning of accountability. Confrontations end when a solution is found. Holistic Management advocates and practitioners, by our very nature, “think outside the box” of existing resource management paradigms. Because we know from experience that resource management dilemmas can often be overcome by better understanding of the whole context, seeing the possibilities, recognizing and seizing opportunities, we are

sometimes surprised when non holistic thinkers write us off as “Well meaning, but not realistic!” Impractical! Or flaky! It is my observation that when in a crisis, those ill-equipped for positive change will hang on to old ways even tighter because that is what they know. The results often are tragic losses with life savings, health, marriages, families and healthy productive land unnecessarily being sacrificed, even with the best of intentions, and hard work by practitioners of the status quo. This is tough territory. What Kerry Patterson and his colleagues have provided are helpful simple concepts and methods for building positive human relationships and real whole system solutions where one does not have to be a psychologist or a therapist to successfully use them. At the core of every successful crucial conversation and confrontation is the free flow of relevant information. But, this cannot occur, until there is a feeling of safety between all those involved. A difficult time for a crucial conversation is often at the beginning, when others we are trying to work with are threatened by new ideas, or compelling information that questions longstanding paradigms of the “way we do things around here,” especially when these issues involve sensitive issues such as livelihoods and incomes. Emotional responses under these situations can vary from silence (with behaviors of withdrawing, avoidance, masking) to perhaps even violence (with behaviors of controlling, labeling, and attacking). The radical ideas in these two books are about learning how to be graceful under pressure. To do so requires working on ourselves, especially our motivations and natural behavioral tendencies under stress. The authors’ advise is to focus first on what one really wants. Holistic Management practitioners recognize this as the holistic goal including quality of life. Once you have your holistic goal, you can prepare for a crucial conversation by keeping your holistic goal in mind while asking yourself: What do I really want for myself? For others? For the

relationship? We can also use the society and culture, social weak link, and sustainability tests internally to help us explore win-win solutions that work for all. Another difficult time for a crucial conversation is at the end when decisions are made. Again, Holistic Management can help at this juncture because the seven testing questions help create a conversation where people can explore the merits of alternatives and input through a shared outcome (the holistic goal) in which everyone has ownership. The key is to integrate those questions in a way that is comfortable for all involved. The beginning and end of a successful crucial conversation and confrontation is the creation of a “pool of shared meaning” between all involved. When everyone feels safe by demonstrated mutual respect, and a sense of mutual purpose, the breakthrough conditions for a win-win solution can be created, with the breakthrough possibility for effective action and meaningful results following. Both books include self-assessment tests where readers can rate their current capacity and skills to be successful in a crucial conversation and/or confrontation. These books also discuss processes to conduct meaningful dialogue, identified by acronyms of keywords to guide our thinking and behavior when in the midst of a difficult situation. The authors also reply to the “yeah, buts” to help persuade people unconvinced of their advice on difficult or tough cases. They also make suggestions on how to think and act even more effectively when things do go right. Patterson and his colleagues have made a major contribution for breakthrough management of human affairs. I wish had read these books and learned these skills thirty years ago. With effective handling of crucial conversations and confrontations, we can all become better Holistic Management practitioners, and speed our progress towards a more peaceful, prosperous, healthy, and ecologically sustainable world. For more information, consult the website www.crucialconversations.com. N u m b e r 10 9

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World Vision–Kenya Update by Craig Leggett

W

e continue to have numerous meetings with the Maasai throughout the Loodariak region of Maasai as part of our efforts to share Holistic Management. Because I’ve been here long enough working, some of the World Vision staff can talk with the Maasai. For example, Marias, a volunteer community member, talked about ecosystem processes with pre-schoolers from Inyonyori Primary School. He has a good way with them, and they respond well. They talked about erosion: how it gets started and what they can do to slow it down. At their tender years, they know about one–rock dams. As part of our community outreach, we attended a “Celebration of the Girl Child” event. They had skits by the children, speeches by the dignitaries, and awards to outstanding mothers and daughters. There is a lot of work going on for the empowerment of women (and girls), and it was good to see public recognition of it. Education in general, and of girls specifically, was stressed, and one primary school won an overall award. They broke out in song and danced around the ceremony ground. Likewise, I am sharing Holistic Management with other NGO’s (non-governmental organizations) and government agencies. I met with Patrick Siparo and the management committee of the Namunyak Wildlife Conservancy Trust and gave them a brief overview of Holistic Management. They are from the Samburu District and are part of the Northern Rangeland Trust. Their group ranch covers 187,500 acres (75,000 ha). Currently we are only doing the biological monitoring with the core team–Marias, Philip, and Sam. Eventually we will bring in more of the community. We did a transect at Ilmasin near a

16

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compound and community water hole. We did another one in Ensonorua on community land near the river where they water where the land is over 80 percent bare. On the valley bottom transects, the vegetation is nearly 100 percent annuals, and the litter is left over annuals that will not be around long enough to do much good. There are other places that have perennial grass cover, but we side stepped them at this time because for our purposes at this point we wanted to monitor the more “typical” sites. This is the more brittle of our areas. The transect in Ilmasin had over 80 percent covered ground. Most all were graze-tolerant perennial grasses. This area is higher, cooler, with a longer rain period, and biodiversity is low. We also had a meeting with the chief and a chairman from Ilkilorit. The chief had been at the first Eremit workshop in January, and we have had two other workshops since then. He told us how people took what we said and started fencing their boundaries with brush and controlling the grazing on their land so they will have grass through the dry season. We then went on to Enkoireroi. They told us how much sense it made when we had explained about managing grass, and how healthy grass equals healthy cows and the two cannot be separated (we had been here twice in March). Since then, they went out and started fencing their land to control the grazing. At another meeting in Ensonorua I tried out my new illustration of the sigmoid curve of grass growth using 5”x 7” cards, plastic animals, and the square–they quickly got the concept. The inspiration for it came while playing (many) hands of solitaire. If

September / October 2 0 0 6

you can imagine how the cards are dealt out then relate each row to a grazing period and each column to a paddock, you will get the idea. Grass growth increases over time, exponentially, then it tapers off–thus the sigmoid curve. Deal out one card into each paddock to represent a week (or two) of rain season growth. Put a bull into Paddock 1 on top of the card to represent grazing during a week, but deal out cards to the other paddocks. Move the bull to Paddock 2 and deal out cards to the remaining two paddocks. By the time the bull is in Paddock 4, that paddock has four cards in it, Paddock 3 has three cards, Paddock 2 has two cards, and Paddock 1 has one card. It is easy to see that if you let the grass grow, it grows a lot. We then go through putting a yellow (opposed to green) card in the paddocks to demonstrate regrowth after the bull has left. At the end you can see how much more forage you have to get you through the dry season. It is not technically accurate, but it is practical explanation that gets the point across. As always, I thank Samuel Langat for taking most all of the pictures you see here. He has been much more than a driver for us.


T he news from holistic management international

Africa Centre

A

s part of HMI’s overall strategic planning and implementation effort, we continue to make great strides to enhance the role of the Africa Centre for Holistic Management (ACHM) as one of our two key learning sites. We are currently focusing on the following key objectives: • Design and implement a structure that would place the Africa Centre into closer alignment with HMI, perhaps as an international subsidiary. • Increase support and oversight of Africa operations by senior management at HMI. • Refocus ACHM’s effort on those programs that directly relate to spreading the practice of Holistic Management. In February of this year, Executive Director Shannon Horst and Board Chair Ron Chapman led a first phase of strategic planning with ACHM staff to consider these needs. In October, Shannon and ViceChair Ben Bartlett will continue this planning with the Africa staff. The outcomes will carry us through the

 people, programs & projects

next three years of growth and expansion for the operation. Our primary goal in this effort is to raise the level of performance and the effectiveness of ACHM to unprecedented levels, thus advancing our global mission significantly. This focus will result in growth of our goat banks in the Hwange community, increased training at Dimbangombe Ranch for a variety of clients, and powerful data showing the reversal of desertification accomplished in a challenging environment. Anyone interested in visiting this learning site to see how Holistic Management is helping the Hwange villagers of Zimbabwe during extremely challenging times, should contact HMI at 505/842-5252.

Nebraska Gathering Certified Educator Terry Gompert from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Knox County hosted a Holistic Management Rendezvous at Niobrara State Park in Northeast Nebraska. To maximize the outreach for this event, HMI

collaborated with Terry so the event also included presentations from graduates of the African Certified Educator Training Group. Because of the number of educators, there was also a two-day Certified Educator training following the Rendezvous. Approximately seventy people from nine countries and thirteen states attended this highenergy event, and the exchange was wonderful! Some highlights of these events included: • Pasture walks and workshops with Holistic Management educators and practitioners Tony Malmberg, Jason Virtue, Paul Swanson, Greg Carlson, and Chad Peterson. • Amanda Atwood, a Amanda Zimbabwean Holistic Management educator, shared Atwood how Holistic Management is helping the women she works with address the incredible challenges they face in Zimbabwe. • Performances by Jason Virtue, an Australian Certified Educator and storyteller, and R.P. Smith, famed Nebraska cowboy poet. • Wiebke Volkmann, Namibian Certified Educator, dissected Holistic Management and explained how one helps others to practice. Thanks, Terry for all your hard work in organizing this event!

Holistic Management® Biological Monitoring Change or No Change If adverse changes have occurred or no change, where change was planned: What is the underlying cause–what tools have we applied, and how have we applied them? Positive changes that show you are moving toward your holistic goal are important, but more important, because they require immediate action, are adverse changes, or no change at all where you had planned for change to occur. Carefully consider the tools you have used and note how they could have affected the four ecosystem processes. If the soil surface was bare and capped and you had in the last year increased your stocking rate and reduced the size of your paddocks and still no change occurred, then perhaps the tools you have used–grazing and animal impact–have been trumped by rest (in the form of partial rest).

Proposed Actions What are we going to change in this next year to keep our land moving toward the future landscape described in our holistic goal? What you propose to do or change over the next year as a result of no change or adverse change is critical to making progress toward your holistic goal. In most cases, taking action will require the use of a tool other than the one that led to the adverse change/no change, or a modification in how you applied the tool. To continue with the example given above, you would need to determine

continued from page 14 how to overcome the tool of rest, you have inadvertently applied, if that’s what you think was the problem. Animal impact is what you would look to, but not as you applied it last time. Now you would plan to increase it significantly. The testing guidelines will help you decide which option to pursue. But in the end you’ll assume you’re wrong, and check to see the next time you monitor. Once you’ve completed each of your summary forms, make sure you file them together with their data forms and photos in a way that prevents them being separated. Monitoring a farm or ranch involves both a constant attitude of openness and curiosity and a self-disciplined labor of measuring, recording, and photographing actual data. You’ve got to monitor to understand the difference between myth and substance. And you’ve got to try to understand everything in order to do anything. You won’t get anywhere standing on the top of your hill or sitting behind your desk telling your animals and crops what to do, forgetting for the moment about the thousands of other rebellious and independent creeping, burrowing, flying, thrusting, and twining things that surround you. You have to hark to all of them as well as forces like wind, water, and sun that you never expect to pay attention to you. And you have to record what you learn so you can think about what it means, remember it next year, and pass it on in a comprehensible form to heirs, hands, and others–and most of all so you can use it to keep your planning vital and flexible and get better at what you do. N u m b e r 10 9

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Certified

Educators

To our knowledge, Certified Educators are the best qualified individuals to help others learn to practice Holistic Management and to provide them with technical assistance when necessary. On a yearly basis, Certified Educators renew their agreement to be affiliated with HMI. This agreement requires their commitment to practice Holistic Management in their own lives, to seek out opportunities for staying current with the latest developments in Holistic Management and to maintain a high standard of ethical conduct in their work. For more information about or application forms for the U.S., Africa, or International Certified Educator Training Programs, contact Kelly Pasztor or visit our website at: www.holisticmanagement.org * These educators provide Holistic Management instruction on behalf of the institutions they represent. UNITED STATES ARIZONA Tim Morrison 230 1st Ave N, Phoenix, AZ 85003 602/280-8803 • tim.morrison@az.nacdnet.net CALIFORNIA Julie Bohannon 652 Milo Terrace, Los Angeles, CA 90042 323/257-1915 • JoeBoCom@pacbell.net Bill Burrows 12250 Colyear Springs Rd., Red Bluff, CA 96080 530/529-1535 • sunflowercrmp@msn.com Marquita Chamblee 960 Tulare Ave, Albany, CA 94707-2540 chamblee@msu.edu Richard King 1675 Adobe Rd., Petaluma, CA 94954 707/769-1490 • 707/794-8692 (w) richard.king@ca.usda.gov Tim McGaffic 13592 Bora Bora Way #327, Marina Del Rey, CA 90292 310/741-0167 • tim@timmcgaffic.com Kelly Mulville 3195 Sunnydale Dr. Healdsburg, CA 95448 707/431-8060 (h) • 707/756-7007 (w) jackofallterrains@hotmail.com Christopher Peck 6364 Starr Rd., Windsor, CA 95492 707/758-0171 • ctopherp@holistic-solutions.net Rob Rutherford CA Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 805/75-1475 • rrutherf@calpoly.edu Tom Walther 5550 Griffin St., Oakland, CA 94605 510/530-6410 • 510/482-1846 • tagjag@aol.com COLORADO Joel Benson P.O. Box 4924, Buena Vista, CO 81211 719/395-6119 • joel@outburstllc.com Cindy Dvergsten 17702 County Rd. 23, Dolores, CO 81323 970/882-4222 • info@wholenewconcepts.com Daniela and Jim Howell P.O. Box 67, Cimarron, CO 81220-0067 970/249-0353 • howelljd@montrose.net Craig Leggett 2078 County Rd. 234, Durango, CO 81301 970/259-8998 • crleggett@sisna.com Chadwick McKellar 16775 Southwood Dr., Colorado Springs, CO 80908 719/495-4641 • wonderlandranch@yahoo.com Byron Shelton 33900 Surrey Lane, Buena Vista, CO 81211 719/395-8157 • landmark@my.amigo.net GEORGIA Constance Neely 1160 Twelve Oaks Circle, Watkinsville, GA 30677 706/310-0678 • cneely@holisticmanagement.org 39-348-210-6214 (Italy)

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IDAHO Amy Driggs 1132 East E St., Moscow, ID 83843 208/310-6664 (w) • adriggs@orbusinternational.com IOWA Bill Casey 1800 Grand Ave., Keokuk, IA 52632-2944 319/524-5098 • wpccasey@interl.net LOUISIANA Tina Pilione P.O. 923, Eunice, LA 70535 phone: 337/580-0068 • tinamp@charter.net MAINE Vivianne Holmes 239 E. Buckfield Rd., Buckfield, ME 04220-4209 207/336-2484 • vholmes@umext.maine.edu Tobey Williamson 52 Center Street Portland, ME 04101 207/774-2458 x115 • tobey@bartongingold.com MASSACHUSETTS * Christine Jost Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine 200 Westboro Rd., North Grafton, MA 01536 508/887-4763 • christine.jost@tufts.edu MICHIGAN Ben Bartlett N 4632 ET Rd., Travnik, MI 49891 906/439-5210 (h) 906/439-5880 (w) bartle18@msu.edu Larry Dyer 13434 E. Baseline Rd. Hickory Corners, MI 49060-9513 269/671-4653 dyerlawr@msu.edu MINNESOTA Gretchen Blank 4625 Cottonwood Lane N, Plymouth, MN 55442-2902 763/553-9922 • ouilassie@comcast.net Terri Goodfellow-Heyer 4660 Cottonwood Lane North, Plymouth, MN 55442 763/559-0099 • tgheyer@comcast.net MISSISSIPPI Preston Sullivan 610 Ed Sullivan Lane, NE, Meadville, MS 39653 601/384-5310 • prestons@telepak.net MONTANA Elizabeth Bird 3009 Langohr Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715 406/586-8799 • ebird@montana.edu Wayne Burleson RT 1, Box 2780, Absarokee, MT 59001 406/328-6808 • rutbuster@montana.net Roland Kroos 4926 Itana Circle, Bozeman, MT 59715 406/522-3862 • KROOSING@msn.com

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* Cliff Montagne Montana State University Department of Land Resources & Environmental Science Bozeman, MT 59717 406/994-5079 • montagne@montana.edu NEBRASKA Terry Gompert P.O. Box 45, Center, NE 68724-0045 402/288-5611 (w) • tgompert1@unl.edu NEW HAMPSHIRE Seth Wilner 104 Cornish Turnpike, Newport, NH 03773 603/863-4497 (h) 603/863-9200 (w) seth.wilner@unh.edu NEW MEXICO * Ann Adams Holistic Management International 1010 Tijeras NW, Albuquerque, NM 87102 505/842-5252 • anna@holisticmanagement.org Mark Duran 58 Arroyo Salado #B, Santa Fe, NM 87508 505/422-2280 • markjodu@aol.com Kirk Gadzia P.O. Box 1100, Bernalillo, NM 87004 505/867-4685 • fax: 505/867-9952 kgadzia@earthlink.net Ken Jacobson 12101 Menaul Blvd. NE, Ste A Albuquerque, NM 87112; 505/293-7570 kbjacobson@orbusinternational.com * Kelly White Holistic Management International 1010 Tijeras NW, Albuquerque, NM 87102 505/842-5252 • kellyp@holisticmanagement.org Sue Probart P.O. Box 81827, Albuquerque, NM 87198 505/265-4554 • tnm@treenm.com David Trew 369 Montezuma Ave. #243, Santa Fe, NM 87501 505/751-0471 • trewearth@aol.com Vicki Turpen 03 El Nido Amado SW, Albuquerque, NM 87121 505/873-0473 • kaytelnido@aol.com NEW YORK Erica Frenay 454 Old 76 Road, Brooktondale, NY 14817 607/539-3246 (h) 607/279-7978 (c) • efrenay22@yahoo.com Phil Metzger 99 N. Broad St., Norwich, NY 13815 607/334-3231 x4 (w); 607/334-2407 (h) phil.metzger@ny.usda.gov Karl North 3501 Hoxie Gorge Rd., Marathon, NY 13803 607/849-3328 • northsheep@juno.com John Thurgood 44 West St. Ste 1, Walton, NY 13856 607/832-4617 • 607/865-7090 • jmt20@cornell.edu NORTH CAROLINA Sam Bingham 394 Vanderbilt Rd., Asheville, NC 28803 828/274-1309 • sbingham@igc.org NORTH DAKOTA * Wayne Berry University of North Dakota—Williston P.O. Box 1326, Williston, ND 58802 701/774-4269 or 701/774-4200 wayne.berry@wsc.nodak.edu Steven Dahlberg 386 8th Ave. S Fargo, ND 58103-2826 701/271-8513 (h) 218/936-5615 (w) sdahlberg@wetcc.org OKLAHOMA Kim Barker RT 2, Box 67, Waynoka, OK 73860 580/824-9011 • barker_k@hotmail.com


OKLAHOMA Kim Barker RT 2, Box 67, Waynoka, OK 73860 580/824-9011 • barker_k@hotmail.com PENNSYLVANIA Jim Weaver 428 Copp Hollow Rd. Wellsboro, PA 16901-8976 570/724-7788 • jaweaver@epix.net TEXAS Christina Allday-Bondy 2703 Grennock Dr., Austin, TX 78745 512/441-2019 • tododia@sbcglobal.net Guy Glosson 6717 Hwy 380, Snyder, TX 79549 806/237-2554 • glosson@caprock-spur.com Jennifer Hamre 602 W. St. Johns Ave., Austin, TX 78752 512/374-0104; yosefahanah@yahoo.com Peggy Maddox P.O. Box 694, Ozona, TX 76943-0694 325/392-2292 • westgift@earthlink.net * R.H. (Dick) Richardson University of Texas at Austin Department of Integrative Biology Austin, TX 78712 512/471-4128 • d.richardson@mail.utexas.edu Peggy Sechrist 25 Thunderbird Rd. Fredericksburg, TX 78624 830/990-2529 • sechrist@ktc.com Elizabeth Williams 4106 Avenue B Austin, TX 78751-4220 512/323-2858 • e-liz@austin.rr.com WASHINGTON Craig Madsen P.O. Box 107, Edwall, WA 99008 509/236-2451 madsen2fir@gotsky.com Sandra Matheson 228 E. Smith Rd. Bellingham, WA 98226 360/398-7866 • mathesonsm@verizon.net * Don Nelson Washington State University P.O. Box 646310, Pullman, WA 99164 509/335-2922 • nelsond@wsu.edu Maurice Robinette S. 16102 Wolfe Rd., Cheney, WA 99004 509/299-4942 • mlr@icehouse.net Doug Warnock 151 Cedar Cove Rd., Ellensburg, WA 98926 509/925-9127 • warnockd@elltel.net WEST VIRGINIA Fred Hays P.O. Box 241, Elkview, WV 25071 304/548-7117 • sustainableresources@hotmail.com Steve Ritz HC 63, Box 2240, Romney, WV 26757 304/822-5818; 304/822-3020 steve.ritz@wv.usda.gov WISCONSIN Heather Flashinski 1633 Valmont Ave., Eau Claire, WI 54701-4448 715/552-7861 • heather.flashinski@rcdnet.net Andy Hager W. 3597 Pine Ave., Stetsonville, WI 54480-9559 715/678-2465 • ahager@tds.net Larry Johnson W886 State Road 92, Brooklyn, WI 53521 608/455-1685 • lpjohn@rconnect.com * Laura Paine Wisconsin DATCP P.O. Box 8911, Madison, WI 53708-8911 608/224-5120 (w) • 608/742-9682 (h) laura.paine@datcp.state.wi.us

INTERNATIONAL AUSTRALIA Mark Gardner P.O. Box 1395, Dubbo, NSW 2830 61-2-6882-0605 mark.g@ozemail.com.au George Gundry Willeroo, Tarago, NSW 2580 61-2-4844-6223 • ggundry@bigpond.net.au Steve Hailstone 5 Lampert Rd., Crafers, SA 5152 61-4-1882-2212 sh@internode.on.net Graeme Hand “Inverary” Caroona Lane, Branxholme, VIC 3302 61-3-5578-6272 • 61-4-1853-2130 gshand@hotkey.net.au Helen Lewis P.O. Box 1263, Warwick, QLD 4370 61-7-46617393 • 61-7-46670835 helen@insideoutmgt.com.au Paul Griffiths P.O. Box 3045, North Turramura, NSW 2074, Sydney, NSW 61-29-1445-3975 • pgpres@geko.net.au Brian Marshall P.O. Box 300, Guyra NSW 2365 61-2-6779-1927 • fax: 61-2-6779-1947 bkmrshl@northnet.com.au Jason Virtue Mary River Park 1588 Bruce Highway South, Gympie, QLD 4570 61-7-5483-5155 jason@spiderweb.com.au Bruce Ward P.O. Box 103, Milsons Pt., NSW 1565 61-2-9929-5568 • fax: 61-2-9929-5569 blward@holisticresults.com.au Brian Wehlburg c/o “Sunnyholt”, Injune, QLD 4454 61-7-4626-7187 brian@insideoutmgt.com.au CANADA Don Campbell Box 817 Meadow Lake, SK S9X 1Y6 306/236-6088 • doncampbell@sasktel.net Don and Randee Halladay Box 2, Site 2, RR 1 Rocky Mountain House, AB, T0M 1T0 403/729-2472 • donran@telusplanet.net Noel McNaughton 5704-144 St., Edmondton, AB, T6H 4H4s 780/432-5492 • noel@mcnaughton.ca Len Pigott Box 222, Dysart, SK, SOH 1HO 306/432-4583 • JLPigott@sasktel.net Kelly Sidoryk Box 374, Lloydminster, AB, S9V 0Y4 403/875-4418 • hi-gain@telusplanet.net MEXICO Ivan Aguirre La Inmaculada Apdo. Postal 304, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 tel/fax: 915-613-4282 rancho_inmaculada@yahoo.com Elco Blanco-Madrid Hacienda de la Luz 1803 Fracc. Haciendas del Valle II Chihuahua Chih., 31238 52-614-423-4413 (h) • 52-614-107-8960 (c) elco_blanco@hotmail.com Manuel Casas-Perez Calle Amarguva No. 61, Lomas Herradura Huixquilucan, Mexico City CP 52785 52-55-5291-3934 (hm) 52-55-54020090 (c) naturalezayvida@prodigy.net.mx

Jose Ramon “Moncho” Villar Av. Las Americas #1178 Fracc. Cumbres, Saltillo, Coahuila 25270 52-844-415-1557 jvillarm@prodigy.net.mx NAMIBIA Gero Diekmann P.O. Box 363, Okahandja 9000 264-62-518091 • nam00132@mweb.com.na Colin Nott P.O. Box 11977, Windhoek 264-61-228506 canott@iafrica.com.na Wiebke Volkmann P.O. Box 182, Otavi 264-67-234-557 or 264-81-127-0081 wiebke@mweb.com.na NEW ZEALAND John King P.O. Box 12011 Beckenham, Christchurch 8030 64-3-338-5506 succession@clear.net.nz SOUTH AFRICA Sheldon Barnes P.O. Box 300, Kimberly 8300 barnesfarm@mweb.co.za Johan Blom P.O. Box 568, Graaf-Reinet 6280 27-49-891-0163 johanblom@cybertrade.co.za Ian Mitchell-Innes P.O. Box 52, Elandslaagte 2900 27-36-421-1747 blanerne@mweb.co.za Norman Neave P.O. Box 69, Mtubatuba 3935 27-084-2452/62 norberyl@telkomsa.net Dick Richardson P.O. Box 1806, Vryburg 8600 tel/fax: 27-53-927-4367 judyrich@cybertrade.co.za Colleen Todd P.O. Box 21, Hoedspruit 1380 27-82-335-3901 (cell) colleen_todd@yahoo.com SPAIN Aspen Edge Apartado de Correos 19 18420 Lanjaron Granada (0034)-958-347-053 aspen@holisticdecisions.com ZAMBIA Mutizwa Mukute Pelum Zambia Office P.O. Box 36524, Lusaka 260-1-261119/261124/261118/263514 pelum@kepa.org.zm ZIMBABWE Liberty Mabhena Spring Cabinet P.O. Box 853, Harare 263-4-210021/2 • 263-4-210577/8 fax: 263-4-210273 Huggins Matanga Private Bag 5950, Victoria Falls 263-11-404-979 hmatanga@mweb.co.zw Elias Ncube P. Bag 5950, Victoria Falls 263-3-454519 achmcom@africaonline.co.zw

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Network Affiliates

There are several branch organizations or groups affiliated with Holistic Management in the U.S. and abroad (some publish their own newsletters.) We encourage you to contact the group closest to you:

I N T E R N AT I O N A L

U N I T E D S TAT E S ARIZONA HRM of Arizona Norm Lowe 2660 E. Hemberg, Flagstaff, AZ 86004 928/214-0040 • loweflag@aol.com

Central NY RC&D Phil Metzger 99 North Broad St., Norwich, NY 13815 607/334-3231, ext. 4 phil.metzger@ny.usda.gov

CALIFORNIA Holistic Management of California Tom Walther, newsletter editor 5550 Griffin St., Oakland, CA 94605 510-530-6410; tagjag@aol.com

NORTHWEST Managing Wholes Peter Donovan 501 South St., Enterprise, OR 97828 541/426-2145 • www.managingwholes.com

COLORADO Colorado Branch For Holistic Management Megan Phillips, newletter editor PO Box 310, Mesa, CO 81643 970-487-3515 edit@coloradoholisticmanagement.org

OKLAHOMA Oklahoma Land Stewardship Alliance Charles Griffith, contact person Route 5, Box E44, Ardmore, OK 73401 580/223-7471 • cagriffith@brightok.net PENNSYLVANIA Northern Penn Network Jim Weaver, contact person 428 Copp Hollow Rd., Wellsboro, PA 16901 717/724-7788; jaweaver@epix.net

MONTANA Beartooth Management Club Wayne Burleson RT 1, Box 2780, Absarokee, MT 59001 406/328-6808 rutbuster@montana.net

TEXAS HRM of Texas Peggy Cole, Executive Director 5 Limestone Trail, Wimberley, TX 78676 512-847-3822 pcole@hrm-texas.org • www.hrm-texas.org West Station for Holistic Management Peggy Maddox PO Box 694, Ozona, TX 76943 325-392-2292 • westgift@earthlink.net

NEW YORK Billie Best Regional Farm & Food Project 295 Eighth St., Troy, NY 12180 518/271-0744 www.farmandfood.org billie@farmandfood.org

NAMIBIA Namibia Centre for Holistic Management Burkart Rust, contact person P.O. Box 23600, Windhoek 9000 tel: 264-62-503816 burkart@iway.na

AUSTRALIA Judi Earl 73 Harding E., Guyra, NSW 2365 61-267-792286 judiearl@auzzie.net CANADA Don Campbell Box 817 Meadow Lake, SK S9X 1Y6 306/236-6088 doncampbell@sasktel.net

NEW ZEALAND John King P.O. Box 12011 Beckenham, Christchurch 8030 64-3-338-5506 succession@clear.net.mx

MEXICO Fundacion para Fomentar el Manejo Holistico, A.C., Jose Ramon Villar, President Ave. Las Cumbres Saltillo Coahuila 25270 Phone: 52-844-415-1557 jrvillarm@prodigy.net.mx Elco Blanco-Madrid, Director of Education Hacienda de la Luz 1803 Fracc. Haciendas del Valle II Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31238 52-614-423-4413 (h) 52-614-107-8960 (c)

SOUTH AFRICA Community Dynamics (Newsletter in English) Dick & Judy Richardson P.O. Box 1806, Vryburg 8600 tel/fax: 27-53-9274367 communitydynamics@cybertrade.co.za SPAIN Aspen Edge Apartado de Correos 19 18420 Lanjaron Granada (0034)-958-347-053 aspen@holisticdecisions.com

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20

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HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT TRAINING & CONSULTING

By World Famous Dr. Grandin Originator of Curved Ranch Corrals The wide curved Lane makes filling the crowding tub easy. Includes detailed drawings for loading ramp, V chute, round crowd pen, dip vat, gates and hinges. Plus cell center layouts and layouts compatible with electronic sorting systems. Articles on cattle behavior. 27 corral layouts. $55. Low Stress Cattle Handling Video $59. Send checks/money order to:

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Contact: Kirk Gadzia P.O. Box 1100 Bernalillo, NM 87004 kgadzia@earthlink.net www.resourcemanagementservices.com Ph: 505/867-4685 Fax: 505/867-9952

HANDS-ON AGRONOMY BASIC SOIL FERTILITY GUIDELINES

The new edition of Hands-On Agronomy: Understanding Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use is available this month! Preorder now to receive your copy. Or order the 80-minute video today to learn the highlights of Neal Kinsey’s work! Visit www.kinseyag.com to learn more about the basic soil fertility guidelines $30 and check on course offerings. (postpaid to US addresses)

For consulting or educational services contact:

Kinsey’s Agricultural Services $30

297 County Highway 357, Charleston, Missouri 63834 Phone: 573-683-3880; Fax: 573-683-6227 Email: neal@kinseyag.com

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22

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September / October 2 0 0 6


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HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT MAIL ORDER EMPORIUM Subscribe to IN PRACTICE

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Planning and Monitoring Guides

_ Gift Subscriptions (same prices as above). _ Special Edition: An Introduction to Holistic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5 _ Audio Cassette Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$12 _ Compact Disk Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$14 _ Bulk subscriptions available. _ _

_The Complete Holistic Management® Planning and Monitoring Guide September 2000, 192 page 3-ring binder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$45

_Financial Planning

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May 2000, 44 pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15

_Aide Memoire for Grazing Planning May 2000, 46 pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15

_Early Warning Biological Monitoring— Croplands April 2000, 26 pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$14

Books & Multimedia

_Early Warning Biological Monitoring—Rangelands and

Holistic Management: A New Framework for Decision-Making,

Grasslands January 1999, 32 pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$14

_ Second Edition, by Allan Savory with Jody Butterfield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $30 _ Hardcover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $55 _ 15-set CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $99 _ One month rental of CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35 _ Spanish Version (soft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25 _ Holistic Management Handbook, by Butterfield, Bingham, Savory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25 _ At Home With Holistic Management, by Ann Adams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $20 _ Holistic Management: A New Environmental Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10 _ Improving Whole Farm Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10 _ Video: Creating a Sustainable Civilization— _ _ _ _ _

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Software

_Land Planning—For The Rancher or Farmer Running Livestock January 1999, 36 pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$17

Planning Forms (All forms are padded - 25 sheets per pad) _Annual Income & Expense Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$17 _Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$ 7 _Livestock Production Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$17 _Control Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$ 5 _Grazing Plan & Control Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$15 MAKE A TAX DEDUCTIBLE DONATION Amount $_____________ Please designate program you would like us

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#109, In Practice, Sept/Oct 2006