House Prog: An American Songbook(11.9.2021)

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Copl

and

11.9.2021 香港大會堂音樂廳 HK City Hall Concert Hall

© ALYONA SEMENOV (ALYONA PHOTOGRAPHY)

(星期六 Sat) 7:30pm

© DAVID NOLES

Artworks Courtesy of Jiří Votruba

stein

Bern

女高音 Soprano

邱芷芊 Vivian Yau 香港小交響樂團由香港特別行政區政府資助 Hong Kong Sinfonietta is financially supported by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 香港小交響樂團為香港大會堂場地伙伴 Hong Kong Sinfonietta is the Venue Partner of the Hong Kong City Hall

指揮 Conductor

林敬基 Ken Lam



美.樂時光 An American Songbook 指揮 Conductor

節目

林敬基 Ken Lam

麥蒂

女高音 Soprano

柯普蘭

邱芷芊 Vivian Yau

很久以前 簡單的禮物 小馬兒 我買了一隻貓 蓋希文/斑尼特編 選自《波吉與貝絲》:引子及夏日時光 伯恩斯坦 選自《夢斷城西》: 序曲(佩雷斯編) 我好漂亮 某處 伯恩斯坦 《憨第德》序曲

香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 問卷調查 Audience Survey 感謝您蒞臨欣賞香港小交響樂團的演出, 現誠邀您提供對是次音樂會的意見。請登 入網頁或於前台索取並填妥問卷,將有機 會獲得精美紀念品一份。 Thanks for coming to our concert! We would love to have your feedback. Please complete our questionnaire online or at the reception for a chance to win a limited edition gift. 場地規則 House Rules 各位觀眾 Dear Patrons: 為了令大家對今次演出留下美好印象,我們希 望各位切勿在場內攝影、錄音或錄影,亦請勿 吸煙或飲食。在節目進行前,請關掉手提電 話、其他響鬧及發光的裝置。多謝各位合作。 In order to make this performance a pleasant experience for the artists and other members of the audience, please refrain from recording, filming, taking photographs, and also from smoking, eating or drinking in the auditorium. Please ensure that your mobile phones and any other sound and light emitting devices are switched off before the performance. Thank you for your kind co-operation. 封面作曲家插畫:Jiří Votruba Cover illustrations of composers – courtesy of Jiří Votruba • 捷克國寶級藝術家、插畫及設計大師 • 以古典音樂及布拉格舊城為題的畫作 尤其深受大眾喜愛 • Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist • Well-known for his works exploring the topics of classical music and historical Prague Jiří Votruba音樂偉人插畫展 現於尖沙咀誠品書店舉行 More of Jiří Votruba’s iconic prints of composers on exhibition at Tsim Sha Tsui Eslite Bookstore 16.8 (Mon) – 19.9 (Sun)

《環迴》(1990)(香港首演) 選自《美國早期歌曲》第一及第二集:

-中場休息15分鐘-

柯普蘭 巴伯 巴伯

《阿帕拉契亞之春》組曲 弦樂慢板 《第二管弦樂隨筆》,作品17

Programme

Cindy McTee

Circuits (1990) (Hong Kong première)

Copland

From

Gershwin

From

Old American Songs, Sets 1 & 2: Long Time Ago Simple Gifts The Little Horses I Bought Me A Cat

Bennett arr

Porgy and Bess: Introduction & Summertime

Bernstein

From

Bernstein

Candide Overture

West Side Story: Overture (Maurice Peress arr) I Feel Pretty Somewhere

– 15-minute intermission –

Copland

Appalachian Spring Suite

Barber

Adagio for Strings

Barber

Second Essay for Orchestra, Op 17 1


香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 桂冠音樂總監 Music Director Emeritus: 葉詠詩 YIP Wing-sie 首席客席指揮 Principal Guest Conductor: 柏鵬 Christoph POPPEN

香港小交響樂團是香港的旗艦樂團之一,銳意 「培育文化新一代」,並以富創意的節目及充滿熱忱 的演奏稱譽本地及海外樂壇。

攝,拓展古典音樂觀眾的層面。 樂團自 2006 年起舉辦「駐團藝術家」計劃,邀請

自 1999 年起,與香港小交響樂團合作過的國際知

本地不同界別的藝術家與樂團緊密合作及交流,培

名音樂家及藝團包括阿爾斯達德、法蘭、格林高

育新一代藝術家之餘更為古典音樂創造新的可能

特、赫姆森、麥米蘭、納卡里亞科夫、彭德雷茨

性。樂團灌錄過多套唱片,收錄不少華人作曲家的

基、凱拉斯、塞伊、馬林斯基大劇院芭蕾舞團、

優秀作品;由DECCA發行的三輯《就是古典音樂》

莫斯科大劇院芭蕾舞團、英國皇家芭蕾舞團、英國

系列,均獲白金及金唱片佳績。雙 CD《一屋寶貝

國家芭蕾舞團、美國芭蕾舞劇院、紐約市芭蕾舞

音樂廳》於2018年由DECCA出版。

團、斯圖加特芭蕾舞團及翩娜.包殊烏珀塔爾舞蹈 劇場等。樂團亦經常應邀與本地藝術節及藝團合 作,如香港藝術節、法國五月、香港芭蕾舞團及香 港歌劇院等。 2018 年舉辦第一屆香港國際指揮 大賽,吸引了 310 位來自 49 個國家及地區的參 賽者。 香港小交響樂團自 2009 年起為香港大會堂的場地 伙伴,每樂季演出逾100場次。除了傳統的管弦樂 章外,樂團每年均委約作曲家為樂團譜新曲,並銳 意與不同界別的藝術家製作新節目, 2020 年躍進 大銀幕,推出音樂電影系列《Back On Stage》 ,大 獲好評。2021年更進一步,與MOViE MOViE聯合 呈獻「Life is Art 盛夏藝術祭」電影節,以更多面

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《Tiny Galaxy Concerts》 ,在香港別具特色的旅舍拍

樂團經常應邀作客海外,包括:美國紐約林肯中心 羅斯劇院、加拿大多個以出色音效著稱的音樂廳; 南美洲的巴西、阿根廷及烏拉圭;在歐洲計有法國 的拉羅克.昂迪榮國際鋼琴音樂節和蒙頓音樂節 等、德國東弗里斯蘭「浪潮」音樂節、波蘭貝多芬 復活節音樂節、意大利米凱朗傑利國際音樂節和維 琴察音樂節、葡萄牙馬爾旺國際音樂節、立陶宛的 兩個音樂節、瑞士蘇黎世、日內瓦和弗里堡;北京 中國交響樂之春(國家大劇院)、中國上海國際藝 術節(世博會「香港活動周」閉幕節目)、韓國統 營國際音樂節、新加坡及台灣,並五度獲邀參與東 京《

》音樂祭演出。

向推廣古典音樂。樂團亦針對不同年齡的觀眾,舉

樂團2002年至2020年由著名指揮家葉詠詩擔任音

辦多套別樹一格的普及音樂會,包括《寶寶/幼兒

樂總監,期間致力推動本地古典音樂發展。葉詠詩

愛音樂》、《古典音樂速成》、 《古典音樂知多少》

現為樂團的桂冠音樂總監,她將會在樂團委任新總

和《我個名叫麥兜兜.古典音樂小計劃》等節目,

監前,與首席客席指揮柏鵬一起負責樂團藝術發展

而且不限於音樂廳等場地,例如網上室樂系列

事宜。


One of Hong Kong’s flagship orchestras, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has achieved significant local and international recognition for its passionate performances and innovative programming which have brought music closer to the community. Since 1999, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has collaborated with an illustrious array of international musicians and groups, including in recent years Nicolas Altstaedt, Vilde Frang, Ilya Gringolts, Martin Helmchen, James MacMillan, Sergei Nakariakov, Krzysztof Penderecki, JeanGuihen Queyras, Fazıl Say, Mariinsky Ballet, Bolshoi Ballet, The Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, New York City Ballet, Stuttgart Ballet and Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch. A regular participant at all the major festivals in Hong Kong including the Hong Kong Arts Festival and Le French May, the orchestra also partners regularly with Hong Kong Ballet and Opera Hong Kong in their staged productions. In 2018, the orchestra organised the 1st Hong Kong International Conducting Competition, which attracted 310 applications from 49 countries/regions. As an avid believer of keeping music alive and contemporary, Hong Kong Sinfonietta – the Venue Partner of the Hong Kong City Hall since 2009 – performs year-round with over 100 performances a season, presenting not only standard orchestral repertoire but also newly commissioned works, as well as specially-designed concert series for different audiences and age groups, including Good Music for Babies/Kids, Know Your Classical Music, Short-cut to Classical Music and HKS McDull Music Project. The orchestra also frequently ventures into new initiatives, recently receiving wide acclaim for its groundbreaking Back On Stage concert film series, as well as the Tiny Galaxy Concerts online series featuring performances recorded at a fascinating hostel in Hong Kong. In 2021, the orchestra co-curated the “Life is Art” film festival with MOViE MOViE, while continuing to break down barriers between music and audience with free chamber concerts held regularly at Hong Kong City Hall.

Launched in 2006, the HKS Artist Associate scheme provides a platform for intensive collaboration with local artists from different arts disciplines to expand the horizon of classical music. The orchestra’s discography includes CDs of works by Chinese composers on HUGO, and three double-CD albums This is Classical Music on DECCA which have been awarded Platinum and Gold Records. In 2018, The Passage Beyond in Concert by Leon Ko, was released on DECCA. On tour, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has been invited to perform in North America in Canada and New York City; in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America; in Europe at prestigious festivals in France including Festival International de Piano La Roque d’Anthéron and Festival de Musique Menton, in Germany at Gezeitenkonzerte Ostfriesland, at Beethoven Easter Festival in Poland, in Switzerland at Tonhalle Zürich, Geneva Victoria Hall and Fribourg, at festivals in Italy including the Michelangeli Festival, in Portugal at the Marvão International Music Festival, and in Lithuania; in China at China Shanghai International Arts Festival (Expo 2010), in Beijing at the National Centre for the Performing Arts; in Japan at La Folle Journée and Asia Orchestra Week; in Korea at the Tongyeong International Music Festival and in Singapore at the Esplanade, and at National Concert Hall Taipei and National Taichung Theater. Hong Kong Sinfonietta has thrived under the direction of Music Director Yip Wing-sie – one of Asia’s most respected conductors – since 2002. Having taken on the new role of Music Director Emeritus since May 2020, she and Principal Guest Conductor Christoph Poppen are responsible for the artistic development of the orchestra before the next Music Director is appointed.

香港小交響樂團有限公司是註冊之慈善團體。 The Hong Kong Sinfonietta Limited is a registered charity. 香港灣仔譚臣道 98 號運盛大廈 3樓 3/F Winsan Tower, 98 Thomson Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong 電話 Tel : (852) 2836 3336 電郵 Email: enquiries@hksinfonietta.org 網址 Website: www.HKSL.org

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指揮 Conductor

林敬基 Ken Lam 香港出生的林敬基現任美國查爾斯頓交響樂團及伊 利諾伊州交響樂團音樂總監,同時是北卡羅萊納州 布里瓦特音樂中心駐場指揮、以及香港和聲藝術 總監。 林敬基是 2011 年孟菲斯國際指揮大賽的冠軍。 2008 年,他與另外三位指揮獲史拉堅挑選,在美 國甘迺迪中心指揮美國國家交響樂團。翌年,他在 美國樂團聯盟的華爾特指揮試演中指揮納什維爾交 響樂團,是他在美國的正式職業首演。近年,他曾 指揮辛辛那堤、巴爾的摩、底特律、水牛城、孟菲 斯、夏威夷、布里瓦德、莫里迪恩等美國交響樂 團,以及香港小交響樂團、香港管弦樂團、貴陽交

© ALYONA SEMENOV (ALYONA PHOTOGRAPHY)

響樂團和臺北市立交響樂團等。 在歌劇方面,他曾為布里瓦特音樂中心珍尼克歌劇 院的多個製作執棒,他亦曾在辛辛那堤歌劇院、巴 爾的摩歌劇院和卡斯爾頓音樂節擔任助理指揮。他 在美國斯波萊托藝術節、紐約林肯中心藝術節以及 多倫多光影藝術節指揮過多個歌劇製作,廣受讚 譽。他在皮博迪音樂學院指揮馬斯奈的《曼儂》, 被《巴爾的摩太陽報》讚賞為華盛頓及巴爾的摩區 2010年十大古典音樂節目。 林敬基曾任巴爾的摩交響樂團副指揮(教育)、 辛辛那堤交響樂團助理指揮和香港室樂團首席指 揮。在成為職業指揮之前,林敬基在英國劍橋大學 修讀經濟,並當過十年執業律師。 林敬基曾於美國皮博迪音樂學院跟隨米亞和達加學 習指揮、於亞斯彭的美國指揮學院隨冼文及薜迪連 學習,和於美國國家指揮學院隨史拉堅學習。 林敬基 2015 年獲美國霍普金斯大學頒贈全球成就 獎,表揚他展現出霍普金斯大學優越的傳統,並為 大學及其專業領域作出貢獻。

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Currently Music Director of Charleston Symphony

Other positions Lam has held include Associate

Orchestra and Illinois Symphony Orchestra, Ken

Conductor for Education of the Baltimore

Lam is also Resident Conductor of the Brevard

Symphony Orchestra, Assistant Conductor of the

Music Center in North Carolina and Artistic

Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Principal

Director of Hong Kong Voices.

Conductor of the Hong Kong Chamber Orchestra.

Winner of the 2011 Memphis International

Lam studied conducting with Gustav Meier and

Conducting Competition and a featured conductor

Markand Thakar at Peabody Conservatory, David

in the League of American Orchestra’s 2009 Bruno

Zinman and Murry Sidlin at the American Academy

Walter National Conductors Preview with the

of Conducting at Aspen, and Leonard Slatkin at

Nashville Symphony, Lam made his US professional

the National Conducting Institute. He read

début with the National Symphony Orchestra at

economics at St John's College, Cambridge

the Kennedy Center in June 2008 as one of four

University and was an attorney specialising in

conductors selected by Leonard Slatkin. In recent

international finance for ten years before becoming

seasons, he led performances with the symphony

a conductor.

orchestras of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Pops, Baltimore, Detroit, Buffalo, Memphis, Hawaii, Brevard and Meridian, as well as the Hong Kong Sinfonietta, Hong Kong Philharmonic, Guiyang Symphony and Taipei Symphony Orchestra. In opera, Lam directed numerous productions of

Lam is the 2015 recipient of the John Hopkins University Alumni Association Global Achievement Award, given to individuals who exemplify the Johns Hopkins tradition of excellence and have brought credit to the University and their profession in the international arena.

the Janiec Opera Company at Brevard and was Assistant Conductor at Cincinnati Opera, Baltimore Lyric Opera and at the Castleton Festival. In recent seasons, he led critically acclaimed productions at the Spoleto Festival USA, Lincoln Center Festival and at the Luminato Festival in Canada. His run of Massenet's Manon at Peabody Conservatory was hailed by the Baltimore Sun as one of the top ten classical events in the Washington DC/Baltimore area in 2010.

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女高音 Soprano

邱芷芊 Vivian Yau 被譽為「輕盈、閃亮、銀鈴般的女高音,並擁有令 人讚嘆的花腔」(《美國阿斯彭時報》),香港女高音 邱芷芊於 2021 年香港藝術節,在蘇黎世歌劇院與 香港葉氏兒童合唱團共同委約的兒童歌劇、意大利 作曲家華田朗尼的《愛麗絲夢遊仙境》世界首演中 主演愛麗絲一角,大獲好評。近期重要演出包括在 2021 年法國五月藝術節與香港小交響樂團合作的 《黃金歲月》音樂會,在地中海藝術節節目、阿斯 彭歌劇院的《塞維爾理髮師》中擔任羅西娜,還有 以獨唱身份首度亮相於紐約卡奈基音樂廳,與塞西 莉亞合唱團合作演出巴赫《聖誕神劇》,以及在香 港電台聖誕校園音樂會中為韓德爾《彌賽亞》擔任 女高音獨唱。其他曾經演出的歌劇角色有《蝙蝠》 的阿黛拉、《蒂蕾西亞的乳房》的蒂蕾西亞、《塔 默拉諾》的阿斯特里婭,以及《晚間》的瓦倫蒂

© DAVID NOLES

娜。 邱芷芊經常與世界各地的作曲家合作,首演他們的 歌劇、聯篇歌曲等新作品。她在第 18 屆紐約國際 蕭邦好友音樂節中,為波蘭作曲家浦勒席《彌撒曲》 的世界首演擔任女高音獨唱。 2020 年,她於加州 西�歌劇院的��歌劇、黃�《�����》中出 演蔡文姬一角,又製作了演唱克拉姆《女妖》的音 樂錄像。其他線上演出還有布里瓦特音樂中心珍尼 克歌劇院的《Zoom Speed Dating Tonight!》 、以及 與 #OperaHarmony 和 OperaVision 聲演斯蒂恩及 柏恩鮑姆共同創作的歌劇動畫《APART/MENTAL》 。 邱芷芊先後畢業於紐約茱莉亞學院及三藩市音樂學 院,分別獲音樂學士及音樂碩士學位, 2011 年獲 選為香港電台「我最喜愛的樂壇新秀」。

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Hailed as “a light, silvery, bright soprano with

California, and produced a music video for her

impressive coloratura” (The Aspen Times), Hong

performance of George Crumb’s Apparition. Some

Kong soprano Vivian Yau performed the title role

recent digital performances include Michael

in the world première of Pierangelo Valtinoni’s

Ching’s Zoom Speed Dating Tonight! with the

Alice in Wonderland at the 2021 Hong Kong Arts

Janiec Opera Company of Brevard Music Center,

Festival, a production co-commissioned by the

as well as Ken Steen and Mary Birnbaum’s

Zürich Opera House and Yip’s Children Choir Hong

APART/MENTAL with #OperaHarmony and

Kong. Some other highlights of her career include

OperaVision.

her Hong Kong Sinfonietta début at Le French May 2021, Rosina in The Barber of Seville with Aspen Opera Center and Mediterranean Opera Festival, her Carnegie Hall début as a soloist in Bach’s Christmas Oratorio with the Cecilia Chorus of New York, and soprano solo in Handel’s Messiah in

Yau has been voted “My Favourite Young Music Maker” on Radio Television Hong Kong by public audience. She holds a Bachelor of Music degree from The Juilliard School, and a Master of Music degree from the San Francisco Conservatory of Music.

Radio Television Hong Kong’s annual Christmas Concert. Other operatic roles performed include Adele (Die Fledermaus), Tirésias (Les Mamelles de Tirésias), Asteria (Tamerlano), and Valentina Scarcella (Later the Same Evening). An active advocate for opera as a powerful art form in the modern times, Yau frequently collaborates with contemporary composers, having premiered operas, song cycles and other works of dozens of contemporary composers from all over the world. At the XVIII International Chopin & Friends Festival in New York, she was featured as soloist in Jakub Polaczyk’s mass Missa Apuncta. In 2020, she performed the lead role of Cai Wenji in Joan Huang’s solo chamber opera Eighteen Melodies for Hujia with West Edge Opera in

7



節目介紹 上個世紀中,美國的管弦樂開始有了自己的聲音。從歐洲移居美國的第一和第二代美 國人發展出一套獨特的音樂風格 — 不單指音樂會作品,還有舞台音樂,例如百老匯和 荷里活豐富多彩的音樂劇,此外,非裔美國人也為美國音樂帶來了不可磨滅的影響, 感染力極強的爵士樂就是明顯的例子。 我們第一首聽的作品,由較後期的美國作曲家創作,在1990年首演時,今晚節目表中 的其他作曲家都已仙遊了,或恰好在該年去世。蓋希文不夠40歲便英年早逝,巴伯和 配器高手班尼特(Robert Russell Bennett)都在1981年去世。伯恩斯坦和柯普蘭這兩 位好友也相繼在1990年8月和12月作古,美國管弦樂的黃金一代也由此告終。但他們 的影響猶在,不管是透過他們的音樂,還有他們教導過的年輕指揮家和作曲家。為今 晚節目表中的《夢斷城西》序曲配器的佩雷斯(Maurice Peress,1930–2017),就曾 在1961年於紐約愛樂樂團擔任伯恩斯坦的助手。 毫不出奇地,這晚選來的其中四首作品是為舞台演出而寫。它們包括了三種表演形 式:歌劇(蓋希文的《波吉與貝絲》)、百老匯音樂劇(伯恩斯坦的《夢斷城西》和《憨第 德》)、芭蕾舞劇(柯普蘭的《阿帕拉契亞之春》)。但上半場的節目全與美國歌曲有關, 年代上溯至20世紀以前,柯普蘭的《美國早期歌曲》便是改編自19世紀的民歌。

麥蒂(1953年生)

《環迴》(1990) (香港首演)

「爵士元素的包涵,以及對音樂素材如切分節 奏、突然的移調和並置的有趣操控,都是作品 的特色。」

與今晚節目中的其他作曲家相比,麥蒂屬於年青一

一陣敲擊的齊鳴重複過後,帶出了由弦樂提供的、

輩。 1990 年為德州的丹頓室樂團(Denton

不斷盤旋的節奏主題動機。木管和銅管漸漸加入,

Chamber Orchestra)撰寫的《環迴》是她的早期

像不斷轉動的齒輪。當中有扣人心弦的氣魄和對樂

代表作之一。不久之後她就將之改編給管樂隊,由

器組合的純熟運用,以及令作品擁有源源不斷的動

印第安那大學交響管樂團在 1991 年於堪薩斯城的

能的並置手法。即使在音樂較安靜的段落,或當較

全國學院管樂團總監協會的「金禧紀念」全國會議

抒情的線條在流動的時候,基本的動感還是因為敲

上首演,指揮是克萊瑪(Ray Cramer) 。

擊樂、尤其是木魚的插入而沒有鬆懈。最後再出現

關於原來的室樂團版本,麥蒂寫道:

了一次衝刺,我們就來到了結尾。這是用來展開今

「《環迴》這個標題,意在凸顯作品音樂語言中

晚音樂會的上佳作品。

的幾個重要方面:對於環迴結構例如固定低音 的強烈依賴;結合了多個重複小段的形式設計 的採用;通過採用一分鐘 152 拍的、恆常的 16分音符節奏,呈現持續不懈的動能。 9


柯普蘭(1900–1990)

「小馬兒」是第二套歌曲中溫柔的開篇。它是根據

選自《美國早期歌曲》

一首南方的搖籃曲改編的,作品在 1947 年由收集

第一及第二集:

出版。柔和擺動的音樂,形容不同顏色的拉車馬

很久以前 簡單的禮物 小馬兒 我買了一隻貓

民謠的洛馬斯(John Avery and Alan Lomax)父子 兒,很容易便能哄小孩入睡。 最後是一首無厘頭的兒童歌曲「我買了一隻貓」, 它是第一套的最後一首,頗像英國的兒歌「老麥當 ,讓 勞有個農場」(”Old MacDonald had a Farm”) 歌唱家有頗多模仿農場牲畜聲音的機會。你可能會

柯普蘭在一些重要的作品中表現了美國意識,例如

注意到,有些動物的發聲卻與英國(或者該說香港)

他廣受歡迎的、為葛蘭姆而寫的芭蕾音樂《牧區競

的大為不同,不過因為有很多重複,你很快就能認

技》(Rodeo)、《小伙子比利》(Billy the Kid)和

出牠們哩。

《阿帕拉契亞之春》、歌劇《溫柔鄉》(The Tender Land ,與蓋希文的《波吉與貝絲》不遑多讓,卻 不幸地較少人注意)和氣勢磅礡的第三交響曲(包 含了戰時的《普通人的號曲》[Fanfare for the Common Man]) ,這些作品都有意識地營塑美國音 樂獨有的聲音。 1950 年代初,柯普蘭轉而向美國的民歌尋找靈 感,寫出了兩套《美國早期歌曲》。第一套有五首 歌曲,創作於 1950 年初。它們吸引了布列頓

10

蓋希文(1898–1937) 斑尼特(1894-1981)編

選自《波吉與貝絲》 : 引子及夏日時光

(Benjamin Britten)和皮爾斯(Peter Pears)的注

蓋希文從不認為自己只是一個寫「流行曲」的作曲

意,並在 1950 年 6 月 17 日於他們舉辦的奧德堡音

家。他的朋友柏林(Irving Berlin)曾說:「你永遠

樂節(Aldeburgh Festival)中舉行世界首演,而美

不要忘記,我們其餘所有人都是寫歌的人,(但)

國首演則於 1951 年 1 月 28 日,在紐約大會堂舉

蓋希文卻是一位作曲家。」蓋希文是荀伯格

行,由柯普蘭親自為非裔美國男低中音歌唱家瓦菲

(Schoenberg)的朋友,曾資助錄製他的弦樂四重

爾德(William Warfield)伴奏演出。第二套包括

奏。他在 1928 年造訪歐洲的時候,又認識了伯格

另五首作品,在 1952 年改編而成,題獻給瓦菲爾

( Alban Berg), 出 席 了 後 者 的 歌 劇 《 沃 采 克 》

德,他在 1953 年 7 月 24 再度與作曲家合作舉行了

(Wozzeck)在�城的首演(他在����了較他

首演。柯普蘭後來把兩套作品都改編為管弦樂曲。

年輕的作曲家卡特 [Elliott Carter]) 。事實上,歌劇

如標題所示,歌曲改編自民謠,我們選來第一套中

總是在蓋希文的創作計劃中。

的三首和第二套中的一首。敘事曲「很久以前」寫

1926 年,當蓋希文出城觀看他的《噢!凱》(Oh,

於 1837 年,原本是一首吟遊演唱的歌曲,由霍恩

Kay)的預演時,讀到了海沃德(DuBose Heyward)

(Charles Edward Horn)作曲,莫里斯(George

寫的《波吉》。他大為讚賞,立刻聯絡了作家,

Pope Morris)作詞。這是第一套中的感傷作品,看

商討將之寫成歌劇的可能。雖然這構思因為已有

標題便知道懷舊味濃厚。接著的「簡單的禮物」是

一個舞台劇版本在籌劃而暫時擱置,但蓋希文

一首令人難忘的震教徒(Shakers)頌歌,應與「很

在 1932 年又再度嘗試。除了肯恩/漢默斯坦

久以前」同期,它也被稱為「舞蹈之主」 (The Lord

(Kern/Hammerstein)提議為喬遜(Al Jolson)創

of the Dance) ,之後我們還會聽到,它被柯普蘭用

作的一部音樂劇外(此劇最終沒有成事),蓋希文

作《阿帕拉契亞之春》中的主題動機。

再沒有其他工作任務。接下來的兩年,他和他的哥


哥艾拉(Ira)以及海沃德一起投入《波吉和貝絲》

留給後世不少音像製品和著作。 20 世紀 40 年代

的製作計劃。

末,他從病重的華爾特(Bruno Walter)手中接過

作品終於在 1935 年 9 月完成,趕及在 9 月 30 日於

紐約愛樂樂團指揮的重任,從此平步青雲,同時又

波士頓的殖民劇院(Colonial Theatre)作開幕演 出,由斯莫林斯(Alexander Smallens)指揮。這

和百老匯的劇作家格林(Adolph Green)和康姆頓 (Betty Comden)、編舞羅賓斯(Jerome Robbins)

歌劇雖然最終不算賺錢,但在各地巡迴演出前,已

合作,炮製過《奇妙的生活》(Wonderful Life)、

於紐約一連上演了124場,而且音樂本身也享譽至

《錦城春色》(On the Town)和《憨第德》等音樂

今。如大部份作曲家一樣,蓋希文並不希望自己的

劇,最有名的自然是《夢斷城西》。

作品被冷待,於是把歌劇改編成管弦樂組曲,由斯

由原著勞倫茨(Arthur Laurents)、作詞桑德海姆

莫林斯指揮費城樂團在 1936 年 1 月 21 日首演,當

(Stephen Sondheim)、編舞羅賓斯和伯恩斯坦合

時距紐約的歌劇演出結束還有四天。不知為何,這

作的《夢斷城西》,在1957年9月26日於百老匯的

套樂譜沒有受人注意。蓋希文在次年去世,而樂譜

冬園劇院(Winter Garden Theatre)首演,由克特

在 1958 年才再被發現,他的哥哥艾拉將之稱為

(Larry Kert)飾演東尼,羅倫斯(Carol Lawrence)

《鯰魚巷》(Catfish Row),以與班納特的選段及其

飾演瑪莉亞。它的靈感取自莎士比亞的《羅密歐與

配器的版本區別開來,後者由萊納(Fritz Reiner)

茱麗葉》,只不過將場景搬到現代的紐約,家族的

和匹茲堡交響樂團於 1943 年委約改編,標題是

仇恨變成了兩個敵對幫派 — 飛機幫(the Jets ,

《交響肖像》(Symphonic Portrait)。

美國白人)和鯊魚幫(the Sharks,波多黎各移民)

我們聽的是班納特的配器版本,取自歌劇的最開

之間的衝突。序幕中有一段要求樂手捻響手指,

頭,形容鯰魚巷的繁忙景像,這個貧窮的社區就是

模仿在街頭蹓躂的幫派成員。今晚演出的是佩雷斯

歌劇故事的背景。但所有的喧鬧不久都安靜下來,

的編曲版本。

讓蓋希文其中一首最為著名的歌曲登場,那就是

在這部幾乎所有歌曲都膾炙人口的音樂劇,我們選

「夏日時光」。音樂近似德布西的風格,有朦朧的伴

來了兩首歌曲。首先,「我好漂亮」是第二幕的開

奏,克拉娜(Clara)在歌中以天真的語句描述了

場曲,瑪莉亞暗戀東尼,卻不知道她的哥哥帕納多

即使在像鯰魚巷的地方,夏日的生活也可以很美

(Bernardo)已被謀殺,接下來的情節都因此籠上

好。

了悲劇的色彩。這是一首精神飽滿、充滿喜悅的歌 曲。不久之後出現的「某處」,是芭蕾舞表演的一 部份。瑪莉亞既悲悼他的哥哥,又對東尼的愛滿抱 希望,而一個不知名的女孩就唱出「無論如何,某 天,某處」就有一個安全的地方。依照莎士比亞的

伯恩斯坦(1918–1990) 選自《夢斷城西》 :

悲劇發展,這種幸福的結局不會來臨⋯⋯ 《夢斷城西》最近又將成為大新聞,因為史提芬. 史匹堡執導的電影版本今年底便會上演了。

序曲(佩雷斯編) 我好漂亮 某處 《波吉與貝絲》面世20年後,《夢斷城西》震動了 百老�,�音樂劇的�個生�從此變�不一樣。� 劇作曲家伯恩斯坦可說是美國最全面的音樂家,作 曲以外,他還是指揮家、教育家,對不同的音樂都 有一股孜孜不倦的熱誠。他對推廣音樂不遺餘力, 11


伯恩斯坦(1918–1990)

《憨第德》序曲

《阿帕拉契亞之春》組曲

在《夢斷城西》上演前一年,伯恩斯坦有另一套作

當被熱心支持藝術的庫莉芝(Elizabeth Sprague

品於 1956 年 12 月 1 日在百老匯上演,這套作品之

Coolidge)委約寫一套芭蕾音樂時,柯普蘭的目光

前曾在 10 月 29 日於波士頓試演。不幸的是,演出

朝向早期賓夕凡尼亞州移民建立的清新的阿帕拉契

了 73 場之後,便在 1957 年 2 月停演了。這是根據

亞牧場,因此便有了《阿帕拉契亞之春》這個

18 世紀法國哲學家和文人伏爾泰寫於 1758 年的

標題。

《憨第德》改編、篇幅頗廣的音樂劇,伏爾泰以此 來諷刺、攻擊萊布尼茲(Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz) 的樂觀主義。伏爾泰標題中的英雄遭遇了各種悲 劇,包括橫越大西洋逃往新世界(雖然是南美洲而 不是北美洲)。其後,不知如何,他與愛人古妮岡 德(Cunégonde)最終走在一起,並意識到不用 冒險的簡單生活就是最令人滿足的了。伏爾泰在這 部短篇小說中塑造了幾個精彩的角色:只有半邊臀 部的老女士、長滿水痘的哲學家彭哥洛斯 (Pangloss)、海盜、狡詐的官員和賭徒,以及黃金 國(Eldorado)知足的民眾,他們對周遭的富豪全 不在意。 這作品是劇作家海爾曼(Lillian Hellman),與詩人 威爾伯(Richard Wilbur)、填詞人拉圖許(John Latouche)和女詩人帕克(Dorothy Parker)一 起,建議伯恩斯坦根據《憨第德》一書撰寫諷刺時 弊的音樂劇,它可以說是一種政治取態,當時麥卡 菲主義在美國抬頭,政客偏執地認為共產主義遍佈 每個角落和隙縫。

柯普蘭創作這套芭蕾舞音樂時,卻是在距離這個東 部山脈很遠的地方 — 1943 年在加州, 1944 年在 墨西哥。這讓柯普蘭可以從實際的角度發展出一種 他於 1943 年 4 月 10 日的一封信中形容為「淳樸無 華的音樂語言;我希望我為大家開展了一種我們渴 望已久的音樂的自然性」。 這部芭蕾舞劇用上 13 件樂器,由著名的葛蘭姆編 舞。首演於1944年10月30日在首都華盛頓舉行, 那天是庫莉芝的 80 歲生日。次年柯普蘭將作品改 編給交響樂團,同時也出版了稍為簡短的(約 10 分鐘)的組曲,那就是今晚我們會聽的版本。 組曲出版時,柯普蘭引述了《先驅論壇報》 (Herald Tribune)的樂評人丹比(Eric Denby)的 介紹:「在上個世紀初(即 19 世紀)賓夕凡尼亞 州山區一座新建的農舍,先驅者在歡慶春天的到 來。準新娘和年青的農人丈夫因為即將開展的新婚 生活而懷著既喜且憂的心情。一位年長的鄰人不時 提及那些信心不足的經歷。一位復興主義者和他的 信徒提醒新戶主有關人類命運中陌生而可怕的一

雖然《憨第德》在劇院的受歡迎程度有起有伏,卻

面。最後這對情侶安靜而堅強地留在他們的新

無損其序曲大受歡迎。它在音樂會節目中贏得了一

家。」芭蕾舞的高潮是在感恩節,採用了震教頌歌

席,是美國最有神采和長青的序曲之一。在惑人的

「簡單的禮物」(如前述,也稱為「舞蹈之主」),它

古怪節奏和切分音之中,它產生了連串主題的旋

越來越輝煌,直至音樂漸漸退去,只剩下單簧管獨

風,主要以號曲引子「世間最美好的所在」、戰鬥

奏,就如整部作品開始時一樣⋯⋯

音樂、摘自「啊!幸福的我們」一詩較平和的旋 律,以及一段古妮岡德的精采歌曲「閃耀和快樂起 來吧」為基調。不斷變換的拍子和充滿動能的音樂 軌跡,使這首作品聽起來像音樂的迷宮。

12

柯普蘭(1900–1990)


巴伯(1910–1981)

弦樂慢板

的費城樂團,但因碰上她離婚而擱置。後來才再 委約給紐約愛樂樂團,由剛擔任音樂總監的梅塔 (Zubin Mehta)於1978年9月14日在其首場音樂

巴伯於賓夕凡尼亞州出生, 14 歲起入讀著名的寇

會中首演。

蒂斯音樂學院。 1935 年取得普立茲獎學金,第二

巴伯的管弦樂《隨筆》相當獨特。實際上除了名

年再獲美國學院的羅馬大獎,讓他可以遠赴意大

字之外,它們就是交響詩,每一首都涵蓋了不同

利進�,在那�他首演了他的第一交響曲。

的情調。第一首的開篇,在哀怨的銅管和後來加

同年巴伯創作了他唯一的的弦樂四重奏(作品

入的木管出現之前,情調上和所營造的聲音世界

11),其中的第二亦即最後一個樂章是一首令人迷

與「弦樂慢板」頗為相似。相反,第二首《隨筆》

醉的降 B 小調「甚慢板」。樂曲在平穩的 4 分音節

以木管開始,先是長笛然後是低音單簧管,由隆

奏支持下,逐漸推向高潮,最後淒婉地終結。

隆的大鼓支持:曲折的主題好像要過了一會兒才

意大利指揮家托斯卡尼尼(Arturo Toscanini ,

把整個旋律穩定下來,同時也與相繼加入的樂器

1935年作曲家梅諾蒂 [Gian Carlo Menotti] 將他介

線條交織在一起。最後,在起伏的長笛,然後是

紹給巴伯認識)後來建議巴伯將這個樂章改編成

單簧管之上,中提琴奏起了一段旋律,再由雙簧

獨立的弦樂作品。

管(有動力的)和不安的弦樂接過。單簧管和巴

托斯卡尼尼繼而在 1938 年 11 月 5 日於紐約指揮了 作品的弦樂團版本首演,馬上得到了聽眾的讚 賞。其後在二次大戰多次的國家悼念儀式,以及 羅斯福總統、甘迺迪總統的葬禮上它都被指定為 葬禮曲。神聖莊嚴的樂音,又啟發了巴伯後來將 旋律配上《羔羊頌》(Agnus Dei),成為一個合唱 版本。

松管趁著突如其來的停頓,吹響了不斷翻滾的三 連音(充滿能量的甚快板),這是曲中最長的、有 穩定拍子記號的段落。但拍子記號之後再次改 變,帶出了《隨筆》的開頭,音樂接著進入最後 一段(更寧靜的,但保持移動),以較慢的 2 分音 拍子記號進行(3/2;4/2等)。主要的樂器線條在 定音鼓的催促下,以漂亮的音束一起前進。這首 作品輝煌的結尾為我們這場美國專題音樂會劃上 完美的句號。

巴伯(1910–1981)

《第二管弦樂隨筆》,作品17 巴伯其他的管弦樂作品,除兩首交響曲外,還有 三首《隨筆》。第一首(當時只是稱為《隨筆》, 巴伯不知道後來會再寫兩首)是「弦樂慢板」的 同期作品。事實上,托斯卡尼尼在 1938 年 11 月 5 日於同一場指揮了《隨筆》的首演。但卻是另一 位偉大的歐洲指揮家促進了《第二管弦樂隨筆》 的產生,那就是瓦爾特(Bruno Walter),他在 1942 年 4 月 16 日指揮紐約愛樂樂團首演這首作

英文節目介紹:Nick Breckenfield

始得不甚平坦,作品原由名媛歇爾頓(Audrey

英國作家 Nick Breckenfield 專門撰寫節目介紹, 曾任whatsonwhen.com的古典音樂及歌劇版編輯13年, 現於支持青年音樂家的博萊蒂-布托妮信托基金會工作。

Sheldon)委約給奧曼迪(Eugene Ormandy)和他

中文翻譯:行之

品。第三首《隨筆》隔了超過 30 年才創作,但開

13


Programme Notes By mid-20th century America had come into its own, orchestrally speaking. First and second generation Americans, finding their feet after emigrating from Europe, developed a distinctive musical style, which encompassed not only concert works, but also stage music – just think of the rich seam of Broadway and Hollywood musicals – and also music indelibly influenced by the most infectious of Afro-American musical legacies: jazz. By the time that our first piece – by a later generation of American composer – had been premiered in 1990, all our other composers had died, or would die that very year. Gershwin had died tragically young, not even 40, and both Samuel Barber and the great orchestrator Robert Russell Bennett both died in 1981. In 1990 itself, great friends Leonard Bernstein and Aaron Copland died (in August and December respectively), and a great era of American orchestral music came to an end. But their influence endures, not just in their music, but also in the younger conductors and composers they taught and mentored. Maurice Peress (1930–2017), who orchestrated the overture to West Side Story we hear tonight, was an assistant to Bernstein at the New York Philharmonic in 1961. It is perhaps not surprising that four of our works were written for the stage, encompassing three different forms – Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (opera), Bernstein’s West Side Story and Candide (Broadway musical) and Copland’s Appalachian Spring (ballet), but the connecting thread throughout the first half is American song, which dates back much further than the 20th century, given Copland’s adoption of folk songs from the 19th century in his Old American Songs.

Cindy McTee (born 1953)

Circuits (1990) (Hong Kong première) From a younger generation than the other composers in tonight’s concert, Cindy McTee is represented by one of her early works, composed in 1990 for the Denton Chamber Orchestra in Texas. Shortly thereafter, she arranged it just for wind band, which was premiered by the Indiana University Symphonic Band with conductor Ray Cramer, at the College Band Directors National Association’s “Golden Anniversary” National Conference in Kansas City in 1991. She writes about the original chamber orchestra version: 14

“The title, Circuits, is meant to characterise several important aspects of the work’s musical language: a strong reliance upon circuitous structures such as ostinatos; the use of a formal design incorporating numerous, recurring short sections; and the presence of an unrelenting, kinetic energy achieved through the use of semiquavers at a constant tempo of 152 beats per minute. “The inclusion of jazz elements and the playful manipulation of musical materials using syncopation, sudden transposition, and juxtaposition are also characteristic of the work.” A repeated percussive salvo leads to the strings offering their own rhythmic motifs spiralling around again and again. Gradually the wind and brass join in, like cogs forever turning. There is a


th r illing m om e n tum a n d a n e a r fo r g re a t instrumental combinations and juxtapositions which power the piece on and on. Even when the music is hushed, or when more lyrical lines start to flow, there is no let up in the basic pulse with percussion interjections, particularly from the woodblock. There is one final upward run and we are done. It is a great way to open a concert, especially one that concentrates on American music.

Aaron Copland (1900–1990) From Old

American Songs, Sets 1 & 2: Long Time Ago Simple Gifts The Little Horses I Bought Me A Cat Aaron Copland tapped into the American conscience in a number of major works, such as his popular ballets for Martha Graham, Rodeo, Billy the Kid and Appalachian Spring, the opera The Tender Land (a shamefully neglected cousin of Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess) and the mighty Third Symphony (incorporating the wartime Fanfare for the Common Man), intentionally trying to forge a distinctive American musical voice. In the early 1950s, he turned for inspiration to popular American song for his two sets of Old American Songs. The first set of five songs – composed in the early months of 1950 itself – captivated Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears so much so that they gave the world première at their Aldeburgh Festival on 17 June 1950, with Copland himself accompanying the African-American bassbaritone William Warfield at the American première some six months later on 28 January

1951 at New York’s Town Hall. The second set, setting a further five songs, was arranged in 1952 and dedicated to Warfield who gave the première, again with the composer, on 24 July 1953. Copland later orchestrated both sets. The songs are based on popular songs, as the title suggests, and we hear three from the first and one from the second set. The ballad “Long Time Ago”, originally dating from 1837, was a minstrel-show song by composer Charles Edward Horn, to words by George Pope Morris. It is the sentimental heart of the first set, and – as its title suggests – suffused with nostalgia. The ensuing song in the first set is a memorable Shaker hymn, from around the same time: “Simple Gifts”, the first line of which is “’Tis the gift to be simple”. It is also known as “The Lord of the Dance” and – as we will hear – was used by Copland as a motif in his ballet Appalachian Spring. “The Little Horses” marks the delicate opening of the second set. It is based on a southern lullaby collected and published in 1947 by father-and-son folk-song collectors John Avery and Alan Lomax, and softly rocks a child to sleep by describing the colours of horses pulling a coach. Finally there is a children’s nonsense song, “I Bought Me A Cat”, which ends the first set. Rather like the British “Old MacDonald had a Farm”, it affords the singer plenty of opportunity to imitate various farm animals. You may find, though, that some of these animals have distinctly different accents to British (or indeed Hong Kong) farmyard stock – but then again, given the repetitions, you will soon get the hang of them!

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George Gershwin (1898–1937) Arranged by Robert

From Porgy

Russell Bennett (1894-1981)

and Bess:

Introduction & Summertime Gershwin always saw himself as more than just a songwriter. As his friend Irving Berlin said: “You must never forget that the rest of us were songwriters [but] George Gershwin was a composer.” He was a friend of Schoenberg, helping to fund recordings of his string quartets, and he met Alban Berg on his European visit in 1928 and attended the première of Berg’s opera Wozzeck in Philadelphia (where he was seen by the somewhat younger Elliott Carter). Indeed, opera was always on Gershwin's own agenda. It was in 1926, when Gershwin was on the road with out-of-town previews of Oh, Kay, that he read Porgy by DuBose Heyward and was so impressed that he immediately approached the author to discuss an operatic treatment of it, although this was shelved because a stage version was already in preparation. Gershwin tried again in 1932. Apart from a proposed Kern/Hammerstein musical for Al Jolson – which never got off the drawing board – the way was clear for Gershwin's opera and he, his brother Ira and Heyward worked on the project over the next two years. It was eventually completed in September 1935 in readiness for the opening at Boston's Colonial Theatre on 30 September, conducted by Alexander Smallens. Although not a financial success, it ran nightly for 124 performances in New York before touring (what other opera had an opening run like that?). But the music certainly lived on. In true composers’ style, not wanting to let his music remain unplayed, Gershwin himself arranged an orchestral selection which was premiered by Smallens with the Philadelphia Orchestra on 21 January 1936 – four days before the end of the opera’s run in New York. For some reason this score did not catch on. Gershwin died the following year and the score was only rediscovered 16

in 1958, when his brother Ira called it Catfish Row to distinguish it from Robert Russell Bennett's own selection and orchestration, commissioned by Fritz Reiner and the Pittsburgh Symphony in 1943, called Symphonic Portrait. It is Robert Russell Bennett’s orchestration we hear of the very opening of the opera, which depicts the hustle and bustle of Catfish Row, the poverty stricken wharf community where the action is set. But all that hustle and bustle soon subsides for one of Gershwin’s most famous songs – the lullaby “Summertime”. With an almost Debussy-like, hazy accompaniment, Clara describes in naive terms how good life is in the summertime, even in a place like Catfish Row.

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990) From West

Side Story:

Overture (arranged by Maurice Peress) I Feel Pretty Somewhere Just over two decades after Porgy and Bess opened, Broadway was shaken with a work that would change the face of musical form: West Side Story. Its composer, Leonard Bernstein, was perhaps America's most all-round musician. Also a conductor, a teacher and an indefatigable enthusiast about all forms of music, he remains (through his videos, books and recordings) one of the world’s great musical communicators. In the early 1940s, he not only sensationally took over the New York Philharmonic from an ailing Bruno Walter, which catapulted him straight into the limelight, but also started to work alongside Broadway writers such as Adolph Green and Betty Comden and the choreographer Jerome Robbins on such shows as On the Town (1944), Wonderful Town (1953), and then, in successive years, Candide (1956) and finally West Side Story (1957).


West Side Story opened at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway on 26 September 1957. Its quartet of creatives that rocked the world of musicals were Arthur Laurents (book), Stephen Sondheim (lyrics), Jerome Robbins (choreography) and, of course, composer Leonard Bernstein. The original production starred Larry Kert as Tony and Carol Lawrence as Maria, and it took as its starting point a realistic updating of the story of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, translated to New York itself with the opposing factions being teenage Americans (the Jets) and Puerto Rican immigrants (the Sharks). The Overture (called “Prologue” in the score), with its clicking fingers and percussive interludes, portrays the two gangs on the streets. We hear it in Maurice Peress’ orchestration. In a show in which every song seems to be a hit, we hear two vocal excerpts. First, “I Feel Pretty” is the opening number of the second act, Maria full of secret love for Tony and unaware of the murder of her brother Bernardo, which colours the rest of the plot. It is a song of high spirits, of pure joy. “Somewhere” follows soon after, as part of a ballet sequence. Maria is both mourning her brother but finding hope in her love for Tony, while an unnamed girl sings that there is a safe place “somehow, someday, somewhere”. Following Shakespeare’s tragedy, such a happy ending is not an option… West Side Story is just about to be big news again, with Steven Spielberg’s new film version slated for release at the end of the year.

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990)

Candide Overture The year before West Side Story opened, Bernstein had another Broadway opening on 1 December 1956, after a tryout in Boston from 29 October. Unfortunately the show closed just 73 performances later, in February 1957. This was the sprawling musical based on 18th-century French philosopher and man-of-letters Voltaire’s Candide, written in 1758 as a scurrilous and satirical attack on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s belief in optimism. Voltaire’s titular hero has every sort of tragedy thrown at him, including fleeing across the Atlantic to the New World (although to what we know as South America rather than North America), before – somehow – ending up together with his lovedone, Cunégonde, and realising that the simple life (with no adventures) is the most satisfying. Voltaire populated his short novella with amazing characters: the one-buttocked old lady, the poxridden philosopher Pangloss, pirates, crooked officials and gamblers as well as the contented population of Eldorado, who are totally unconcerned about the riches that surround them. It was Lillian Hellman, along with Richard Wilbur, John Latouche and Dorothy Parker, who suggested to Bernstein he help make a musical out of Candide, something of a political statement in the era of the McCarthy witch hunts, which – in a state of paranoid insecurity – saw communism in every nook and cranny. Whatever the ups and downs Candide suffered on the theatre stage, the winning overture needed no changes, rapidly winning its own place in concert programmes as one of America’s most spirited and lasting preludes. It is made up of a whirlwind of themes in deceptively odd rhythms and syncopations, principally based on the fanfare introduction to “The Best of All Possible Worlds”, the battle music, the smoother verse melody from “O Happy We” and a snatch of Cunégonde’s showstopper, “Glitter and Be Gay”. With all its everchanging time signatures and propulsive trajectory, it is all something like a musical maze.

17


Aaron Copland (1900–1990)

Samuel Barber (1910–1981)

Appalachian Spring Suite

Adagio for Strings

When asked by Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge for a ballet score, Aaron Copland looked to the fresh Appalachian pastures as found by early settlers in Pennsylvania, hence the title Appalachian Spring.

Samuel Barber was born in Pennsylvania and studied, from the age of 14, at the world-famous Curtis Institute in the state capital, Philadelphia. In 1935 he won a Pulitzer travel scholarship, and the following year the American Academy’s Prix de Rome, both of which allowed him to study in Italy, where his First Symphony was premiered.

As it happens, the ballet was composed a world away from the eastern mountain range, in California and Mexico in 1943 and 1944. It afforded Copland a practical way to develop what he described, in a letter dated 10 April 1943, as “a home-spun musical idiom. I like to think I have touched off for myself and others a kind of musical naturalness that we have badly needed”. The ballet, scored for just 13 instruments and famously choreographed by Martha Graham, was premiered in Washington DC on 30 October 1944, the night of Coolidge’s 80th birthday. The following year, Copland orchestrated the work for full orchestra while also publishing a slightly shorter (by about 10 minutes) Suite which we hear tonight. When the Suite was published, Copland quoted the Herald Tribune critic, Eric Denby, who reviewed the scenario thus: “A pioneer celebration in Spring around a newly-built farmhouse in the Pennsylvania hills in the early part of the last century (ie the 19th century). The bride-to-be and the young farmer-husband enact the emotions, joyful and apprehensive, that their new domestic partnership invites. An older neighbour suggests now and then the rocky confidence of experience. A revivalist and his followers remind the new householders of the strange and terrible aspects of human fate. At the end the couple is left quiet and strong in their new house.” The ballet climaxes in thanksgiving, using the Shaker hymn “Simple Gifts” (as we have already seen, also known as “The Lord of the Dance”), building grandly until the music dies away leaving a solo clarinet, which is how the whole ballet began...

18

Barber’s only String Quartet, his Op 11 which also dates from 1936, has a rapt and ultimately uplifting B-flat minor Molto Adagio for its second and final movement. It was the great Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini (to whom Barber had been introduced in 1935 by fellow composer Gian Carlo Menotti) who suggested that Barber should arrange the Adagio for full string forces, thus enhancing the music’s steady accompaniment and slow burn to the central climax before dying away. This became famous as Barber’s stand-alone and heartfelt “Adagio for Strings”. Toscanini conducted the première of this full-string version in New York on 5 November 1938, with the NBC Symphony Orchestra, and – although it was an immediate success – it was only when it was adopted for occasions of national bereavement during the Second World War, and later at the memorial services for both Presidents Roosevelt and Kennedy, that it was enshrined so securely in the repertoire. It was the spiritual nature of the music that later inspired Barber himself to set the words of the Latin Agnus Dei to it as a choral work.


Samuel Barber (1910–1981)

Second Essay for Orchestra, Op 17 Amongst Barber’s other orchestral works, which include two symphonies, are three Essays for orchestra. The first (at that point simply called Essay, Barber not knowing he would return to the form), dates from the same time of the Adagio. Indeed, Toscanini conducted the première of the Essay at that very same concert on 5 November 1938. But it was another great European conductor who was responsible for the genesis of the second Essay for Orchestra: Bruno Walter, who conducted its première with his New York Philharmonic on 16 April 1942. The third and final Essay for Orchestra was composed over 30 years later, but only after a false start, when the divorce of the commissioner, socialite Audrey Sheldon, contributed to the failure of the first commission – for Eugene Ormandy and his Philadelphia Orchestra – only to be recommissioned for the New York Philharmonic. It was eventually premiered on 14 September 1978 in the inaugural concert of Zubin Mehta’s music directorship. The Essay for orchestra is unique to Samuel Barber. In essence a symphonic poem in all but name, each traverses a number of moods. Indeed the First opens very much in the mood and sound world of the Adagio, before the introduction of mournful brass and, finally, woodwind. By contrast, the Second Essay opens with woodwind – flutes then bass clarinet – over a bass drum rumble: a meandering theme that seems to take a while to settle into a full melody, while interweaving amongst a growing number of contributing instrumental lines. Eventually, over fluttering flute then clarinet, the violas make a melodic gambit taken by the oboe (Con moto) then agitatedly assumed by the strings. Clarinet and bassoon take advantage of a sudden stop, attacking a welter of triplets (Molto allegro ed energico) in the longest passage of stable time signature. But eventually the

time signature changes that had populated the early part of the Essay start to return, and the music moves into its final section (Più tranquillo, ma sempre muovendo), slower and written in semibreve time signatures (3/2; 4/2 etc), the main instrumental lines moving together in an impressive bank of sound, urged on by the timpani. It is a grand ending, not only to the piece, but to our visit to America.

© Nick Breckenfield, 2021 British programme-note writer Nick Breckenfield was the Classical Music and Opera Editor for whatsonwhen.com for 13 years and now works for the Borletti-Buitoni Trust which awards young classical music artists

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香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 桂冠音樂總監 Music Director Emeritus: 葉詠詩 YIP Wing-sie 首席客席指揮 Principal Guest Conductor: 柏鵬 Christoph POPPEN 駐團藝術家 HKS Artist Associates

鄺展維 Charles KWONG

小提琴 Violin 格德霍特 樂團首席

(2020-2022)

金仁善

麥兜 McDull

李海南

(2019-2020)

高世章 Leon KO (2018-2019)

陳慶恩 CHAN Hing-yan (2016-2018)

石家豪 Wilson SHIEH (2015-2016)

朱�� CHU Pak-him (2014-2015)

麥淑賢 MAK Su-yin (2014-2015)

羅詠媞 Wendy LAW (2013-2014)

盧思泓 LOO Sze-wang (2012-2013)

伍宇烈 Yuri NG (2011-2013)

李嘉齡 Colleen LEE (2010-2011)

黎志華 Jason LAI (2009-2011)

楊嘉輝 Samson YOUNG (2008-2009)

伍卓賢 NG Cheuk-yin (2006-2008)

署理助理樂團首席 第二小提琴首席

蔡柏沂 陳劭楠 周止善 賈舒晨 顧洛臻 羅莎莉 呂灝然 羅蔚敏 彭曉筠 潘迦薇 陽旻佑 楊宇思 葉紹羲 中提琴 Viola ● 陳子信 ▼ 劉琛彥 卞思琦 陳敏聰 顏星安 ★ 龍君蔚 ★ 鄧詠旋 大提琴 Cello ● 張培節 ▼ 貝樂安 何國芝 李恩率 朴詩媛 葉俊禧

長笛 Flute 上杉晃代

Akiyo UESUGI

KIM In-sun

雙簧管 Oboe 福原真美

LE Hoai-nam

Mami FUKUHARA

單簧管 Clarinet ● 方曉佳 陳秋媛

FONG Hiu-kai Johnny CHEN Chiu-yuan

巴松管 Bassoon ● 秦慶生(休假) 田口美奈子

CHIN Hing-sang (On Leave) Minako TAGUCHI

圓號 Horn ● 包文慶 東出真澄 岑慶璋 ★ 陳珈文

PAW Man-hing Hermann Masumi HIGASHIDE SHUM Hing-cheung CHAN Kar-man Cheryl

小號 Trumpet ● 黃山 文曦

HUANG Shan MAN Hay

長號 Trombone ● 羅澤基 陳學賢

Christopher RODGERS CHAN Hok-yin

James CUDDEFORD Concertmaster

Acting Assistant Concertmaster Principal Second Violin

CAI Pak-yi CHAN Shaw-nan Sharon Kiann CHOW JIA Shu-chen John KRUER Sally LAW Ambrose LUI LUO Wei-min PANG Hiu-wan POON Ka-mei Camille YANG Min-yu YANG Yu-si YIP Siu-hay Elvis CHAN LAU Sum-yin Christina BEAN Ringo CHAN NGAN Sing-on LUNG Kwan-wai Kenny TANG Wing-shuen Rebecca CHANG Pei-chieh Laurent PERRIN HO Kwok-chee Karey LEE Eun-sol PARK Si-won YIP Chun-hei Eric

低音大提琴 Double Bass Masami NAGAI ● 永井雅美 Santiago COSTA MARTÍNEZ ▼ 柯斯達 HUANG Tun-pin 黃敦品

Notes 1. Guest Principal Bassoon 客席巴松管首席 – AU Kai-see Tiffany (歐啟詩) 2. Freelance Musicians: Violin 小提琴:CHENG Ho-chung (鄭皓宗), CHIK Yiu-ting (戚耀庭), CHUA Vince Eliezer N. (蔡君賢), WONG Chun-hong John (黃俊匡), WONG Nina Sin-i (王倩兒) Viola 中提琴:Cecilia HO (何永妍) Cello 大提琴:Bernard CHAN (陳駿軒), CHENG Yan-ho (鄭恩浩) Double Bass 低音大提琴:LEE Shing-chun David (李鋮浚), Harty TAM (譚泳佳) Flute 長笛:HUI Wing-hang Bob (許榮鏗), Ada POON (潘安婷)

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低音長號 Bass Trombone 江子文 KONG Tze-man Jason 大號 Tuba ● 林榮燦

LAM Wing-tsan

定音鼓 Timpani ● 村本曉洋

Akihiro MURAMOTO

敲擊樂 Percussion ● 周展彤 小山理惠子

CHAU Chin-tung Rieko KOYAMA

豎琴 Harp ● 黃士倫

Ann HUANG

鍵琴 Keyboard ● 朱偉恆

Alan CHU

● 首席 Principal ▼ 助理首席 Assistant Principal ★ Orchestral Associate

Oboe 雙簧管:WAN Lok-yu Cecilia (溫樂愉), Rachel WONG (汪楚萍) Clarinet 單簧管: FUNG Chi-hang Eric (馮智恆), NG Lai-man Stephenie (吳麗文) Bassoon 巴松管:SO Lo-ling (蘇鷺玲) Trumpet 小號:CHEUNG Ho-sing (張浩昇) Percussion 敲擊樂:HOI Lei-lei (許莉莉), Mandy LO (勞善雯), VONG Wai-man Raymond (王偉文)


香港小交響樂團有限公司 Hong Kong Sinfonietta Limited 監察委員會

Board of Governors

榮譽監察委員

Honorary Governors

潘燊昌博士(主席)

Dr Patrick S C POON (Chairman)

金董建平女士

Mrs Alice KING

翟紹唐先生(副主席)

Mr JAT Sew-tong (Vice-chairman)

施永青先生

Mr SHIH Wing-ching

鍾思源醫生(司庫)

Dr CHUNG See-yuen (Treasurer)

楊雪姬女士

Ms Serena YANG

周莉莉女士

Ms Lily CHOW

鍾陳碧璋女士

Mrs Shirley CHUNG

何汝祥醫生

Dr HO Yu-cheung

義務公司秘書

Honorary Company Secretary

劉文文女士

Ms LAU Man-man Lisa

陳智文先生

Mr Stephen TAN

徐行悅醫生

Dr Michelle TSUI

黃偉雄先生

Mr Addy W H WONG

阮偉文博士

Dr Andrew S YUEN

Tricor Corporate Secretary Limited 義務骨科專科醫生

Honorary Orthopaedic Surgeon

傅偉俊醫生

Dr Dan HOOLEY

樂團行政 Administration 行政總裁 Chief Executive Officer 楊惠惠 Margaret YANG 總經理 General Manager 李浩儀 LEE Ho-yee 行政秘書 Executive Assistant to CEO 何淑娟 Rose HO 會計經理 Accounting Manager 李靄玲 Judith LEE 行政統籌 Administrative Coordinator 柯玉嬌 Noel QUAH 行政助理 Office Administrator 楊瑞遠 YANG Jui-yuan

市場推廣及發展 Marketing & Development 高級市場及業務拓展經理 Senior Marketing & Development Manager 莫皓明 Amanda MOK 市場及業務拓展經理 Marketing & Development Manager 何珮鈴 Pauline HO 助理市場經理 Assistant Marketing Manager 袁穎芝 Christine YUEN

樂團事務及節目 Orchestra & Programme 樂團經理 Orchestra Manager 陳成美 Marylu CHAN 節目經理 Programme Manager 丘靄雪 YAU Oi-suet Icy 特別節目經理 Special Projects Manager 黃紫菱 Athena WONG 助理樂團經理 Assistant Orchestra Manager 黎希潼 Carvina LAI 節目主任 Projects & Programme Officer 林海欣 Hayley LAM 製作經理 Production Manager 陳冠宏 Eddie CHAN 當代音樂研究 Contemporary Music Research 鄺展維 Charles KWONG 藝術行政主任 Arts Administration Officers 馮碧琪 Betty FUNG 羅希寧 Kening LAW

市場及業務拓展主任 Marketing & Development Officer 柯娉庭 Pantane OR

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謝謝!Thank You Partners! 2021/2022 樂季贊助機構 Sponsors of the 2021/2022 Season

主要贊助機構 Major Sponsors

商業機構贊助計劃 Corporate Members 白金會員 Platinum Member

銀會員 Silver Member

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謝謝!Thank You! 香港小交響樂團對以下的捐款者及機構致以衷心謝意。 Thank you to the following donors and organisations who have supported us with a donation in the past year. 贊助人及捐款者 Patrons & Donors MegaSTAR Patrons (HK$500,000 and above)

STARplus Donors (HK$30,000 to HK$99,999)

• 潘燊昌博士及夫人 Dr & Mrs Patrick S C Poon

• • • • • • • •

陳嘉何醫生夫人 Lowell and Phyllis Chang 鍾陳碧璋女士 Mrs Shirley Chung Ms Cadence Hsiung 林育義醫生 Dr Lam Yuk Yee Paul Ruth & Sidney 謝智剛教授 Prof C K Michael Tse 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• • • • •

Ms Sandra W M Lee Mr Allan Leung Dr Yvonne Ou Dr & Mrs Arthur Van Langenberg 多位無名氏 Anonymous

SuperSTAR Patrons (HK$100,000 to HK$499,999)

• 北山堂基金 Bei Shan Tang Foundation • 亞洲保險有限公司 Asia Insurance Company Ltd • 陳鋈鋆先生 Mr Chan Yuk-kwan • 冼為堅基金有限公司 Sin Wai Kin Foundation STAR Donors (HK$10,000 to HK$29,999)

• • • • • •

陳文偉博士 Dr Chan Man Wai 張�昌博士 Dr Thomas H C Cheung, MH, FCII 張綺年醫生 Dr Vivian Cheung Ms Bebe Pui Ying Chu Mr Eugene Fung 高靜芝女士 Ms Sophia Kao

Donors (HK$1,000 to HK$9,999)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

BELIEVING MUSIC CAN 加拿大琴行 Canada Piano Co Ms Cynthia Chan Jonman, Monika & Joel Chan Family 陳昌奇先生 Mr Kelvin Chan Mr Chan King Fung Thomas Adam In Memory of Ms Mariette Mimi Chan Miss Chan Yin Fei Joyce 陳燕婷 陳騰龍先生 Mr Douglas Cheng 鄭慶弘先生 Mr Howard Cheng 鄭錦德先生 Mr Cheng Kam Tak Mr C Y Chow 鍾寶圈小姐 Miss Pollyanna Chung 鍾穎彤小姐 Miss Chung Wing Tung In Memory of Esther

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ms Roselanie Ho 何汝祥醫生 Dr Ho Yu Cheung Ms Hung Ying Kwan 郭立成律師 Mr Chris Kok Ms Joyce Kwock Miss M Kwok 黎慧德女士 Ms Wai Tak Lai Mr Dennis Lam Ms Law Jessica Yun Pui Mr Sung Chak Kyle Lee Mr Sheung Lee Ms Mary Leung Ms Florence Leung 林燕女士 Ms Lemon Lim Ms Luk Yee On 大通會計事務所 Masterpoint Professional Ltd • 莫心柔、莫心維

• 吳志強先生 • 吳天天先生 Mr Ng Tin Tin Timothy • Mr John Ngan • Mr Victor Paraschiv • Poon Shing Chi & Liao E Wen • Ms Jojo Sin • John & Anthea Strickland • Ms Elsie Tam • Mr Paul Tsang • 謝建宏先生 • Mr Penny Tse • Ms TT Tsui • Mr Wang Weiyao • Ms Carolina Yip • Ms Anka Yuen • 多位無名氏 Anonymous


學生票資助計劃 Student Ticket Scheme Donors Diamond Donors (>HK$100,000)

Pearl Donors (HK$10,000 to HK$29,999)

• 潘燊昌博士及夫人 Dr & Mrs Patrick S C Poon

• Mr Iain Bruce

• 芝蘭基金會 Zhilan Foundation

• 趙俊良先生 Mr Chiu Chun Leong David

• 張德賢博士伉儷 Dr & Mrs Douglas Cheung • 林定國先生夫人 Mr and Mrs Lam Ting Kwok Paul

Jade Donors (HK$50,000 to HK$99,999)

• Mrs Florence Ng

• CLP Holdings Limited

• PLC Foundation

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• 沈昊翔先生 Mr Shum Ho Cheung • 九龍倉集團有限公司 The Wharf (Holdings) Limited

Ruby Donors (HK$30,000 to HK$49,999)

• 王煒東先生 Mr Wong Wai Tung

• 孫永輝施熙德伉儷 Edith & Stephen Sun

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

Opal Donors (HK$1,000 to HK$9,999) • BELIEVING MUSIC CAN

• Ms Fiorella Fong

• 魏玉華小姐 Miss Winnie Ngai

• 郭立成律師 Mr Chris Kok

• 鄭新文教授 Prof Tseng Sun Man

• Mr Chan Kwan Ho

• 紀念劉葉珍女士

• Mr Wong Kai Chun

• Jonman, Monika & Joel Chan Family

• Mr Sheung Lee

• Mr Marcus Woo

• Miss Chan Yin Fei Joyce

• Ms Luk Yee On

• Ms Yeung Lai Fong Alice

• 鄭慶弘先生 Mr Howard Cheng

• 吳天天先生 Mr Ng Tin Tin Timothy

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• 兜仔先生 Mr Dullchai

• 吳榮奎先生 Mr Ng W F Nicholas

Premium Friends

感謝以下各機構對香港小交響樂團一直的支持! Thank you to the following parties for their continued support!

• 陳鋈鋆先生 Mr Chan Yuk-kwan

• Association Culturelle France Hong Kong Ltd

• 周莉莉女士 Ms Lily Chow

• CASH音樂基金 CASH Music Fund

• Dr Jennie Lee & Mr Jonathan Lee

• 法國駐港澳總領事館 Consulat Général de France à Hong Kong et Macao

• 潘燊昌博士及夫人 Dr & Mrs Patrick S C Poon

• 德國駐港總領事館 German Consulate General Hong Kong

• 冼為堅博士 Dr David Sin Wai-kin

• 民政事務局 Home Affairs Bureau

• 唐柏泉醫生 Dr Tong Pak Chuen Patrick

• 邁騰路通有限公司 Maestro GT Limited

Mrs Charlene Chan

• 謝智剛教授 Prof C K Michael Tse • 阮偉文博士 Dr Andrew S Yuen • 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• 澳洲駐港總領事館 Australia Consulate-General Hong Kong

• 香港歌德學院 Goethe-Institut Hongkong • 康樂及文化事務署 Leisure and Cultural Services Department • 荷蘭駐香港及澳門總領事館 Netherlands Consulate General in Hong Kong and Macao • Mr Ozawa Kazuo • MOViE MOViE • 通利琴行 Tom Lee Music Co Ltd • Mr Jiři Votruba 27