House Prog: Short-cut to Classical Music: Story of the Conductor (6-7.11.2021

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6.11.2021 7.11.2021 (星期六 Sat) 7:30pm

© YVONNE CHAN

(星期日 Sun) 3pm

香港大會堂音樂廳 HK City Hall Concert Hall 桂冠音樂總監/指揮/主持 Music Director Emeritus/Conductor/Presenter

葉詠詩 Yip Wing-sie 香港小交響樂團由香港特別行政區政府資助 Hong Kong Sinfonietta is financially supported by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

香港小交響樂團為香港大會堂場地伙伴 Hong Kong Sinfonietta is the Venue Partner of the Hong Kong City Hall



《古典音樂速成》:樂團指揮的故事 Short-cut to Classical Music: Story of the Conductor 桂冠音樂總監/指揮/主持 Music Director Emeritus/Conductor/Presenter

葉詠詩 Yip Wing-sie 節目

G大調第三勃蘭登堡協奏曲,BWV1048:I(快板)

巴赫 莫扎特

《魔笛》,K620:序曲 F大調第八交響曲,作品93:II 諧謔曲般的小快板

貝多芬 孟德爾遜

《仲夏夜之夢》,作品61:諧謔曲

韋伯/白遼士配器

《舞會邀請》,作品65

-中場休息15分鐘-

白遼士

《羅馬狂歡節》序曲,作品9 A大調第七交響曲,作品92:I 稍為綿延的 — 活潑的

貝多芬 伯恩斯坦

《錦城春色》:三首舞蹈間奏

華格納

《紐倫堡的名歌手》,WWV96:前奏曲

Programme

Bach

Brandenburg Concerto No 3 in G, BWV1048: I (Allegro)

Mozart

The Magic Flute, K620: Overture

Beethoven

Symphony No 8 in F, Op 93: II Allegretto scherzando

Mendelssohn

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Op 61: Scherzo

Weber/Berlioz orch

Invitation to the Dance, Op 65

– 15-minute intermission –

Berlioz

Roman Carnival Overture, Op 9

Beethoven

Symphony No 7 in A, Op 92: I Poco sostenuto – Vivace

Bernstein

Three Dance Episodes from On the Town

Wagner

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, WWV96: Prelude

場地規則 House Rules 各位觀眾 Dear Patrons: 為了令大家對今次演出留下美好印象,我們希望各位切勿 在場內攝影、錄音或錄影,亦請勿吸煙或飲食。在節目進 行前,請關掉手提電話、其他響鬧及發光的裝置。多謝各 位合作。 In order to make this performance a pleasant experience for the artists and other members of the audience, please refrain from recording, filming, taking photographs, and also from smoking, eating or drinking in the auditorium. Please ensure that your mobile phones and any other sound and light emitting devices are switched off before the performance. Thank you for your kind co-operation.

香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 問卷調查 Audience Survey 感謝您蒞臨欣賞香港小交響樂團的演出,現誠邀您提供對是次音樂會的 意見。請登入網頁或於前台索取並填妥問卷,將有機會獲得精美紀念品 一份。 Thanks for coming to our concert! We would love to have your feedback. Please complete our questionnaire online or at the reception for a chance to win a limited edition gift.

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香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 桂冠音樂總監 Music Director Emeritus: 葉詠詩 YIP Wing-sie 首席客席指揮 Principal Guest Conductor: 柏鵬 Christoph POPPEN

香港小交響樂團是香港的旗艦樂團之一,銳意 「培育文化新一代」,並以富創意的節目及充滿熱忱 的演奏稱譽本地及海外樂壇。

攝,拓展古典音樂觀眾的層面。 樂團自 2006 年起舉辦「駐團藝術家」計劃,邀請

自 1999 年起,與香港小交響樂團合作過的國際知

本地不同界別的藝術家與樂團緊密合作及交流,培

名音樂家及藝團包括阿爾斯達德、法蘭、格林高

育新一代藝術家之餘更為古典音樂創造新的可能

特、赫姆森、麥米蘭、納卡里亞科夫、彭德雷茨

性。樂團灌錄過多套唱片,收錄不少華人作曲家的

基、凱拉斯、塞伊、薜高維茨基、馬林斯基大劇院

優秀作品;由DECCA發行的三輯《就是古典音樂》

芭蕾舞團、莫斯科大劇院芭蕾舞團、英國皇家芭蕾

系列,均獲白金及金唱片佳績。雙 CD《一屋寶貝

舞團、英國國家芭蕾舞團、美國芭蕾舞劇院、紐約

音樂廳》於2018年由DECCA出版。

市芭蕾舞團、斯圖加特芭蕾舞團及翩娜.包殊烏珀 塔爾舞蹈劇場等。樂團亦經常應邀與本地藝術節及 藝團合作,如香港藝術節、法國五月、香港芭蕾舞 團及香港歌劇院等。 2018 年舉辦第一屆香港國際 指揮大賽,吸引了 310 位來自 49 個國家及地區的 參賽者。 香港小交響樂團自 2009 年起為香港大會堂的場地 伙伴,每樂季演出逾100場次。除了傳統的管弦樂 章外,樂團每年均委約作曲家為樂團譜新曲,並銳 意與不同界別的藝術家製作新節目, 2020 年躍進 大銀幕,推出音樂電影系列《Back On Stage》 ,大 獲好評。2021年更進一步,與MOViE MOViE聯合 呈獻「Life is Art 盛夏藝術祭」電影節,以更多面

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《Tiny Galaxy Concerts》 ,在香港別具特色的旅舍拍

樂團經常應邀作客海外,包括:美國紐約林肯中心 羅斯劇院、加拿大多個以出色音效著稱的音樂廳; 南美洲的巴西、阿根廷及烏拉圭;在歐洲計有法國 的拉羅克.昂迪榮國際鋼琴音樂節和蒙頓音樂節 等、德國東弗里斯蘭「浪潮」音樂節、波蘭貝多芬 復活節音樂節、意大利米凱朗傑利國際音樂節和維 琴察音樂節、葡萄牙馬爾旺國際音樂節、立陶宛的 兩個音樂節、瑞士蘇黎世、日內瓦和弗里堡;北京 中國交響樂之春(國家大劇院)、中國上海國際藝 術節(世博會「香港活動周」閉幕節目)、韓國統 營國際音樂節、新加坡及台灣,並五度獲邀參與東 京《

》音樂祭演出。

向推廣古典音樂。樂團亦針對不同年齡的觀眾,舉

樂團 2002 年至 2020 年由著名指揮家葉詠詩擔任

辦多套別樹一格的普及音樂會,包括《寶寶/幼兒

音樂總監,期間致力推動本地古典音樂發展。

愛音樂》、《古典音樂速成》、 《古典音樂知多少》

葉詠詩現為樂團的桂冠音樂總監,她會在樂團委

和《我個名叫麥兜兜.古典音樂小計劃》等節目,

任新總監前,與首席客席指揮柏鵬一起負責樂團

而且不限於音樂廳等場地,例如網上室樂系列

藝術發展事宜。


One of Hong Kong’s flagship orchestras, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has achieved significant local and international recognition for its passionate performances and innovative programming which have brought music closer to the community. Since 1999, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has collaborated with an illustrious array of international musicians and groups, including in recent years Nicolas Altstaedt, Vilde Frang, Ilya Gringolts, Martin Helmchen, James MacMillan, Sergei Nakariakov, Krzysztof Penderecki, JeanGuihen Queyras, Fazıl Say, Dmitry Sitkovetsky, Mariinsky Ballet, Bolshoi Ballet, The Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, New York City Ballet, Stuttgart Ballet and Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch. A regular participant at all the major festivals in Hong Kong including the Hong Kong Arts Festival and Le French May, the orchestra also partners regularly with Hong Kong Ballet and Opera Hong Kong in their staged productions. In 2018, the orchestra organised the 1st Hong Kong International Conducting Competition, which attracted 310 applications from 49 countries/regions. As an avid believer of keeping music alive and contemporary, Hong Kong Sinfonietta – the Venue Partner of the Hong Kong City Hall since 2009 – performs year-round with over 100 performances a season, presenting not only standard orchestral repertoire but also newly commissioned works, as well as specially-designed concert series for different audiences and age groups, including Good Music for Babies/Kids, Know Your Classical Music, Short-cut to Classical Music and HKS McDull Music Project. The orchestra also frequently ventures into new initiatives, recently receiving wide acclaim for its groundbreaking Back On Stage concert film series, as well as the Tiny Galaxy Concerts online series featuring performances recorded at a fascinating hostel in Hong Kong. In 2021, the orchestra co-curated the “Life is Art” film festival with MOViE MOViE, while continuing to break down barriers between music and audience with free chamber concerts held regularly at Hong Kong City Hall.

Launched in 2006, the HKS Artist Associate scheme provides a platform for intensive collaboration with local artists from different arts disciplines to expand the horizon of classical music. The orchestra’s discography includes CDs of works by Chinese composers on HUGO, and three double-CD albums This is Classical Music on DECCA which have been awarded Platinum and Gold Records. In 2018, The Passage Beyond in Concert by Leon Ko, was released on DECCA. On tour, Hong Kong Sinfonietta has been invited to perform in North America in Canada and New York City; in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America; in Europe at prestigious festivals in France including Festival International de Piano La Roque d’Anthéron and Festival de Musique Menton, in Germany at Gezeitenkonzerte Ostfriesland, at Beethoven Easter Festival in Poland, in Switzerland at Tonhalle Zürich, Geneva Victoria Hall and Fribourg, at festivals in Italy including the Michelangeli Festival, in Portugal at the Marvão International Music Festival, and in Lithuania; in China at China Shanghai International Arts Festival (Expo 2010), in Beijing at the National Centre for the Performing Arts; in Japan at La Folle Journée and Asia Orchestra Week; in Korea at the Tongyeong International Music Festival and in Singapore at the Esplanade, and at National Concert Hall Taipei and National Taichung Theater. Hong Kong Sinfonietta has thrived under the direction of Music Director Yip Wing-sie – one of Asia’s most respected conductors – since 2002. Having taken on the new role of Music Director Emeritus since May 2020, she and Principal Guest Conductor Christoph Poppen are responsible for the artistic development of the orchestra before the next Music Director is appointed.

香港小交響樂團有限公司是註冊之慈善團體。 The Hong Kong Sinfonietta Limited is a registered charity. 香港灣仔譚臣道 98 號運盛大廈 3樓 3/F Winsan Tower, 98 Thomson Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong 電話 Tel : (852) 2836 3336 電郵 Email: enquiries@hksinfonietta.org 網址 Website: www.HKSL.org

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桂冠音樂總監/指揮/主持 Music Director Emeritus/Conductor/Presenter

© YVONNE CHAN

葉詠詩 YIP Wing-sie

亞洲樂壇備受尊崇的指揮家葉詠詩,於 2002 年起

年曾指揮的歌劇包括香港小交響樂團伴奏的《詩人

出任香港小交響樂團音樂總監, 2020 年 4 月底卸

李白》、香港藝術節兒童歌劇《愛麗絲夢遊仙境》

任,轉任桂冠音樂總監。

及台灣愛樂的《畫魂》。

葉詠詩在1985年贏得法國貝桑松第 35屆國際青年

葉詠詩繼 2004 年帶領香港小交響樂團代表中國參

指揮大賽冠軍及「金豎琴」獎,並在 1988 年獲第

加「中國在法國」文化年的成功演出後,經常獲邀

八屆東京國際指揮比賽獎項。她曾先後出任香港大

赴世界各地演出,當中包括美國、加拿大、巴西、

學的學院藝術家、新加坡國立大學楊秀桃音樂學院

阿根廷、烏拉圭及台灣,以及法國、德國、波蘭、

王鼎昌傑出客座教授、廣州交響樂團的首席指揮和

意大利、葡萄牙、日本、韓國和立陶宛的音樂節。

音樂總監及香港管弦樂團的駐團指揮。

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生於廣州,香港長大的葉詠詩,憑香港皇家賽馬會

葉詠詩經常獲邀擔任世界各地樂團的客席指揮,曾

音樂基金獎學金遠赴倫敦皇家音樂學院攻讀;後於

合作的包括中國中央樂團、中國國家交響樂團、上

美國印第安納大學取得小提琴及指揮碩士學位。

海交響樂團、首爾愛樂樂團、大阪管弦樂團、新日

1986和1992年夏季,她分別獲得哥士域斯基獎學

本愛樂交響樂團、札幌、讀賣、台灣、布里斯本、

金及小澤征爾獎學金前往鄧肯活音樂中心研習指

墨爾本、昆士蘭等交響樂團及新西蘭的奧克蘭愛樂

揮。指導過她的指揮大師包括狄瑪爾、伯恩斯坦、

樂團等。在歐洲,她曾與法國圖盧茲國家樂團、貝

小澤征爾、米亞及艾德敦。葉詠詩於 2007 年獲法

桑松室樂團、波蘭華沙愛樂樂團、西班牙特納里夫

國「藝術及文學騎士勳章」,2010年獲英國皇家音

島交響樂團、捷克科希策省樂團合作演出。此外,

樂學院頒授院士榮銜(FRCM), 2013 年獲香港各

她亦曾率領廣州交響樂團於國際知名的維也納音樂

界婦女聯合協進會頒發「香港六藝卓越女性」獎及

協會會堂(黃金大廳)演出及參與北京國際音樂

由香港政府授勳銅紫荊星章。 2015 年,她獲法國

節。葉詠詩曾與多位國際知名的獨奏家合作,包括

政府頒發「國家榮譽騎士勳章」,表揚她在音樂界

杜美、傅聰、明茨、普爾曼、穆特及蘇嘉文等;近

的傑出成就。


A highly respected and influential figure in Asia’s

children Alice in Wonderland, and La Peintre with

orchestral music scene, conductor Yip Wing-sie

Taiwan Philharmonic.

shifted from being the Music Director of Hong Kong Sinfonietta – a position which she had held since 2002 – to Music Director Emeritus in May 2020. Other positions she had previously held include Principal Conductor and later Music Director of Guangzhou Symphony Orchestra and Resident Conductor of Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Winner of the First Prize as well as “Lyre d’Or” in the 35th Concours International de Jeunes Chefs d’Orchestre de Besançon, France in 1985 and a prizewinner in the 8th Tokyo International Conducting Competition in 1988, Yip is in great demand as a guest conductor in Asia. Orchestras she has conducted include the Central Philharmonic Orchestra of China, China National Symphony Orchestra, Shanghai Symphony Orchestra, Seoul Philharmonic, Osaka Philharmonic, New Japan Philharmonic, Tokyo Mozart Players, the symphony orchestras of Sapporo, Yomiuri, Taiwan, Tasmania, Melbourne and Queensland as well as the Auckland Philharmonia of New Zealand. In Europe, Yip’s engagements have included concerts with the Orchestre National du Capitol de Toulouse and the Chambre Orchestre de Besançon in France, Warsaw Philharmonic in Poland, Spain’s Tenerife Symphony Orchestra and the Czech State Orchestra of Košice. She has also conducted at prestigious venues and festivals such as the Vienna Musikverein (Grossersaal), Beijing Music Festival, Fukuoka’s Asian Month Festival in Japan, Hong Kong Arts Festival and Macao International Music Festival. Yip has collaborated with such renowned artists as Augustin Dumay, Fou Ts’ong, Shlomo Mintz, Anne-Sophie Mutter, Itzhak Perlman and

As Music Director of Hong Kong Sinfonietta, Yip has taken the orchestra on tour in recent years to France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Lithuania, Canada, the USA, Japan, Korea, Beijing, Shanghai, Taiwan, and in South America in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Born in Guangzhou and brought up in Hong Kong, Yip graduated from the Royal College of Music in London and the Indiana University at Bloomington, USA, where she obtained her Master’s Degree in violin performance and conducting. As the winner of the Koussevitsky Scholarship and the Seiji Ozawa Fellowship Award, Yip also attended the conducting seminar and fellowship programmes at the Tanglewood Music Center. Her mentors included great maestros such as Norman Del Mar, Leonard Bernstein, Seiji Ozawa, Gustav Meier and David Atherton. Accolades Yip has received internationally include “Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Mérite” bestowed by the French Government (2015), “Chevalier dans l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres” by the Ministry of Culture and Communication of France, Fellow of the Royal College of Music (FRCM), and she was also named the Ong Teng Cheong Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music, National University of Singapore. In Hong Kong, she was awarded “Hong Kong Women of Excellence in the Six Arts Award” by the Hong Kong Federation of Women and the Bronze Bauhinia Star (BBS) by the Hong Kong Government, and was University Artist at The University of Hong Kong (2011- 2012).

Pinchas Zukerman. Operas she has conducted include Guo Wen-jin’s Poet Li Bai and the world premières of Pierangelo Valtinoni’s opera for 5


節目介紹 指揮的工作其實是甚麼?除了站在樂隊前頭,背對著觀眾,看似很重要之外?關於使 用指揮棒的首次記載可追溯至 200 多年前。現在正好借此機會讓我們回顧一下,為何 在演奏台上和歌劇院的樂池中,指揮變得那麼重要。 這場音樂會旨在向大家介紹指揮的重要角色 — 指揮實際上要做的工作,並非只是打拍 子那麼簡單(你大概不知道這也有多難) ,打拍子只是可見的部份,其實還要確保樂隊 的音準(要調好交響樂團中多至100件樂器的音準不是一件容易的事),以及掌握好作 曲家筆下那些複雜的節奏及和聲。指揮大部份的工作都在綵排中完成,公開表演時是 看不到的。 儘管指揮成為「正式」的工作只有200多年之久,但背後的概念其實在將近3000年前 就形成了。有史料提到,公元前 709 年的一場 800 人的演奏,是由「柏特拉的費雷西 底,節奏的賦予者」(Pherekydes of Patrae, giver of rhythm)所統領的。他坐在高處, 四周圍繞著演奏者,上下揮舞金色的權杖,使所有人以一致的節奏表演。在中世紀和 文藝復興時期,我們沒有類似的記載,但卻不難想像,當格里高利素歌(Gregorian plainchant)這種最早期被寫下來的音樂出現時,大概會有一位領唱像指揮般打手勢將 合唱者撮合在一起。而當宗教音樂發展成多聲部,或人們在酒館和家庭之中演奏通俗 音樂(歷史上這類記載更少)時,必然會有人擔任打拍子的角色。 但要直至1600年代,當歌劇成為被宮廷接受的娛樂節目時,指揮的概念才再次被真確 地記錄下來。蒙台威爾第(Monteverdi)和法國巴羅克時期的大師會在樂隊的演奏者 席上,指揮他們的歌劇,通常他們都彈奏古鍵琴。而在音樂會的舞台上,有些作曲家 則坐在樂團首席的位置指揮。莫扎特在兩個位置都得心應手,他既可以拉奏小提琴, 又能彈奏鍵琴。 其中一位最早「重新發現」古希臘指揮方式的,是呂利(Jean-Baptiste Lully,1632–1687) , 他是路易十四的宮廷樂長。然而,他大概也是第一位因指揮而喪命的人。在演奏其 《感恩頌》(Te Deum)的時候,他被用來打拍子的碩大沉重的權杖擊傷了腳趾。他拒 絕療傷,結果因傷口出現壞疽而在兩個月內一命嗚呼。 接下來的發展,是以較為輕巧的物件來代替沉重的權杖。有好一段時間,人們都源用 了紙卷來指揮,包括 19 世紀初德國歌劇作曲家韋伯(Carl Maria von Weber)。直至 1820年4月10日於倫敦的一場音樂會上,施波爾(Louis Spohr)開始使用指揮棒。自 此這枚細長的木棒便成為了指揮採用的工具。現時有些指揮選擇不用指揮棒,單純用 6


手來指揮。事實上這很合乎19世紀指揮概念的發展 — 當時華格納特別指出,握著指 揮棒的右手是用來打拍子的,而左手則可以向演奏者傳達樂曲的情感。 這場音樂會節目,由巴羅克時期和古典主義時期的巴赫和莫扎特(他們都在鍵琴和 第一小提琴的位置指揮)開始,一直延展至伯恩斯坦鬧哄哄的百老匯音樂劇《錦城 春色》,後者肯定需要一位指揮把所有演奏者的節奏統一起來。今次呈現的作品,面世 時都由它們的作曲家指揮。只是到了大約上個世紀,指揮才在音樂界成為一種新的 專業,正如這場音樂會的指揮葉詠詩那樣,他們唯一的工作就是指揮,而不是演奏或 作曲。

巴赫(1685–1750)

莫扎特(1756–1791)

G大調第三勃蘭登堡協奏曲, 《魔笛》,K620:序曲 BWV1048:I(快板) 勃蘭登堡協奏曲完成 70 年後,莫扎特走到短促一 巴赫是一個顯赫音樂家族中最著名的成員,不少其

生的盡頭,1791年12月5日他去世時,才35歲。

祖輩中的作曲家現已被遺忘了,他和他兩任妻子生

在這最後一年他完成了兩部歌劇 —《魔笛》和

下的孩子中,也有好幾位作曲家。雖然巴赫從未離

《狄托的仁慈》(La Clemenza di Tito),單簧管協奏

開過德國,但曾在國內幾個不同的宮廷任職,最後

曲 和 還 在 創 作 ( 不 無 諷 刺 地 ) 的 《 安 魂 曲 》。

在萊比錫度過餘生。他正職是撰寫聖樂,而他的器

《魔笛》和《狄托的仁慈》兩部歌劇都在 1791 年

樂曲都是較小型的作品。像他在 1721 年 3 月為勃

9月首演,前者在維也納,後者在布拉格。

蘭登堡侯爵路德維希(Christian Ludwig)撰寫的

《魔笛》是一部德語歌劇(singspiel),由莫扎特在

一套六首的勃蘭登堡協奏曲,他自己便形容為「給

薩爾茨堡的共濟會朋友席卡奈德(Emanuel

好幾種樂器演奏的六首協奏曲」。這些協奏曲的配

Schikaneder)填詞(他們曾一起玩撞柱遊戲)。席

器都不同,而侯爵的宮廷樂隊似乎沒有足夠的樂

卡奈德在維也納城外擁有可容納 1000 人的維也納

�,因�這套作品始�沒有在侯爵的宮廷�演奏,

維登劇院(Theater auf der Wieden) ,那是相當受

手稿也直到巴赫去世後才出版。不過,現在這套協

歡迎的音樂廳,而在該處上演的最著名劇種就是

奏曲堪稱是巴赫最有名的器樂作品了。

「魔法歌劇」,例如《魔笛》。這是莫扎特近10年來

第三勃蘭登堡協奏曲只供弦樂演奏(跟第六首一

第一部德語歌劇,採用了多種不同的風格。莫扎特

樣),中間也沒有慢樂章(除了兩個和弦)。第一樂

起初沒有預料到它會成為他最成功的歌劇,在他去

章中九件主奏樂器的聲部巧妙地交錯:小提琴、中

世後的兩年內,《魔笛》共上演了197場。

提琴和大提琴各有三部,實際上九部都有獨奏的

序曲與劇情似乎沒甚麼關連,因為只有一個樂句在

旋律,沒有一部比其餘更突出。這個輕快和令人

歌劇中重現,那就是發展部前的三下和弦,後來在

雀躍的樂章,用上類似迴旋曲的迴復曲式

第二幕的審判前出現。序曲以輝煌的和弦展開,如

(ritornello),鮮明的主題在不同的樂調中重複,

歌劇中的其他地方一樣,這些和弦重複了三次。接

最後再回到G大調主和弦。

著,莊嚴而宏亮的弦樂,以加長版的引子形式緩緩 進入,突出的長號回應了開頭的和弦,繼而出現了 著名的、燦爛的主題。這兩個主題代表了整首序 曲,而木管的回歸則預示了根據賦格主題而寫的發 展部的到來。 7


貝多芬(1770–1827)

孟德爾遜(1809–1847)

F大調第八交響曲,作品93: 《仲夏夜之夢》,作品61: II 諧謔曲般的小快板 諧謔曲 20 多年後,在 1814 年 2 月 27 日,貝多芬推出了其 九首交響曲中的第八首。與充滿舞蹈節奏的第七交 響曲比較,這首作品有時會被認為相對遜色,遑論 雄偉的第九交響曲「合唱」了。但貝多芬對這首他 稱為「我的小交響曲」的作品卻情有獨鍾,在此曲 中他回到他的老師海頓那種小型而頗有幽默感的交 響曲風格。而且他仍像以往一樣富有創意,在通常 較慢的第二樂章中,他就寫出了出人意表的東西。 貝多芬以降 B 大調的諧謔曲式小快板來代替慢樂 章,其特色是 16 分跳音的木管和弦,幾乎沒有停 頓下來。在和弦的支持下,弦樂奏出嘉禾舞曲般的 優美主題。有人說貝多芬在此處是要開拍子機的玩 笑(這在當時是一個新發明,可隨任何調校好的速

往後 30 多年,我們就來到了浪漫時期,遇到了當 時的一位巨星孟德爾遜,他並不比莫扎特長命多 少。他在 17 歲的時候,便根據莎士比亞的《仲夏 夜之夢》寫了一首序曲。 16 年後,普魯士國王威 廉四世要求他為此劇配樂,他因而再為這套戲劇創 作了12首配樂。新的劇作在1843年10月14日於波 茨坦新皇宮舉行首演。其後,純樂曲部份在 1844 年5月27日的音樂會演出。 著名的G小調諧謔曲,出現在第二幕之前,場景搬 到���,�有��的��。�就像一首小型的交 響曲樂章,在呈現部有兩個主題(由啁啾的木管樂 展開,八度的弦樂再嘎嘎地將音量減輕,隨後木管 樂重現,音量再次加強),經過發展部到再現部, 由始至終都展現了孟德爾遜飄逸的創作風格。

度打出固定拍子),或者是向拍子機的發明者梅塞 爾(Mälzel)致敬;但兩種說法都沒有任何實質的 根據。貝多芬對於速度標號的處理非常嚴格,之前 人們認為這個樂章速度之快有點令人難以置信。然 而,根據現時對原用古樂器(authentic instrument) 的最新研究,以當時的運弓方式和演奏技巧來說,

韋伯(1786–1826) 配器:白遼士(1803–1869)

《舞會邀請》,作品 65

貝多芬給出的節奏並沒有問題。對此,現代的指揮

韋伯的《舞會邀請》作於 1819 年,當時他正努力

必須了然於心,才可把演奏者融為一體。

要成為歌劇指揮(首先在布拉格,繼而在 1816 年 前往德累斯頓),而此作品最為人知的版本,大概 是白遼士 1841 年於韋伯的歌劇《自由射手》(Der Freischütz)中為新加進的芭蕾舞段落所編的管弦 樂版。其後,俄羅斯芭蕾舞團的經理賈吉列夫 ( Sergei Diaghilev) 也 曾 用 於 《 玫 瑰 花 魂 》 (Le Spectre de la Rose)一劇中。 韋伯的作品是典型的圓舞曲:切切實實的三拍子 (第一拍強,另外兩拍和應),不同的圓舞曲主題輕 而易舉地融為一體,前後再加上一段前奏和尾聲, 兩者同樣是對一場舞會的深情回憶,而整首作品似 乎都是在緬懷跳舞。作品的副標題是「華麗的迴旋 曲」(Rondo Brillant)。第一節圓舞曲,開頭的號 曲由一段下行的樂句回應,這一節會不斷再次出現 連接貫穿整首樂曲。最後的高潮前出現一些較為平 和的插曲,結束時又回到開頭懷舊的樂音。

8


上半場我們看到,在莫扎特和孟德爾遜的

貝多芬(1770–1827)

兩首作品中,指揮的位置並不局限於演奏

A大調第七交響曲,作品92: I 稍為持續的 – 活潑的

台上。在歌劇院中,他們經常會出現在台 下的樂�中,��大�是指揮這一�業� 正開始的地方。我們最後四首作品中的三 首,都與此有關。

我們最後一次回到演奏台上,再次聽貝多芬的作 品。去年,他的250週年冥壽本應在全球獲得盛大 慶祝。現在,離他 251 週年冥壽(12 月 17 日)大 約只有六個星期了,我們就為大家帶來他第七交響

白遼士(1803–1869)

《羅馬狂歡節》序曲,作品9 雖然《羅馬狂歡節》序曲可以獨立成篇,但它本來 是由白遼士創作於 1834 年的首部歌劇、描寫意大

曲中令人振奮的首樂章。這首作品完成於 1812 年,在 1813 年 12 月 8 日首演。 200 年來,它都引 起人們的關注:對於第一樂章的結尾,韋伯就曾驚 嘆貝多芬「準備要進瘋人院了」,而華格納則將之 形容為「神化的舞曲」。

利藝術家和金匠本.切利尼(Benvenuto Cellini)

貝多芬在此曲的開頭鋪設了一段緩慢的、足有 62

的同名歌劇而來。談及該劇的創作動機時,白遼士

個小節之多的 4/4 拍引子。短促的強奏和弦在一個

聲稱:「他奇特的事業給我留下很深的印象,我愚

柔弱的2分音段之間穿插,首先由雙簧管奏出,然

妄地以為,其他人一樣會認為他的故事很有戲劇性

後是單簧管,再接著是圓號(雙簧管和單簧管增加

和趣味性」。白遼士於在1830年贏得了法國年輕音

了流動的8分音)以及所有的木管樂。弦樂上行的

樂家最重要的獎項 — 羅馬大獎,獲得旅居羅馬梅

16 分音階靜靜地出現,和木管樂輕柔的、下降的

迪奇別墅(Villa Medici)四年的機會。

2 分音對答。忽然樂隊強而有力的齊奏令我們精神

《本.切利尼》1838年在巴黎歌劇院的首演評價頗 劣,受到觀眾嘲諷,亦有人離席以表不滿。白遼士 不甘於讓當初的努力付諸東流,他把歌劇中的一些 �段�接到其他作品�,��為小��和樂隊�寫 的《沉思和隨想曲》(Rêverie et Caprice) ,而第二 幕結尾有關狂歡節的嘉年華音樂,則構成了 1843 年的《羅馬狂歡節》序曲。1844年2月3日首度公 演後,《羅馬狂歡節》便一直是音樂會序曲類別中 最活力四射,具挑戰性的作品之一。

一振,為樂章注滿活力及戲劇性!然後雙簧管吹出 了一節哀怨的切分音,為後來活潑的快板埋下伏 線,而更為特別的地方就是採用了與基調關係疏離 的C大調。接著哀怨的主題再度出現,這次由長笛 在更為疏離的F大調奏出,與重複的16分音交替出 現。隨著弦樂和木管樂之間的緊張度越來越強,貝 多芬巧妙地利用靜止與音符,清理了五彩紛繁的樂 音,讓 6/8 拍活潑的快板以切分節奏的形式悄悄地 湧進來。這個被白遼士視為農夫舞曲的段落得到充 裕的發展,但卻以極強的E大調上行音步收束,接

開首狂熱的薩爾塔雷洛舞曲(saltarello,在歌劇�

著是兩小節驚人的靜默。發展部以基本的切分節奏

原本是一段合唱)忽然減弱,讓英國管吹奏出第一

帶出了的極輕音樂段,大致上跟隨常見的奏鳴曲式

幕戀人二重唱的主題。接著是白遼士一貫的序曲作

而寫。注意貝多芬很多時都採用極端的音量:一個

風,一段快速的引子,帶出較舒緩的主題,經過幾

簡單的強音(forte)標號通常都不足夠,用上極強

次不同樂調的重複後,進入主體的快板段落。定音

音(fortissimo)刺激多了!

鼓、敲擊樂和銅管樂開始不斷醞釀舞曲的出現,儘 管戀愛主題仍震耳欲聾。開首的薩爾塔雷洛舞曲重 現時,我們忽然發覺自己身處狂歡節之中。在結句 的高潮來臨前,只有一刻稍稍的舒緩。銅管樂令人 震慄的和弦過後,弦樂和敲擊樂在最後幾小節出人 意表地退出,只剩下木管樂奏出最後的和弦。

9


伯恩斯坦(1918–1990)

華格納(1813-1883)

《錦城春色》:三首舞蹈間奏 《紐倫堡的名歌手》, 大情人 WWV 96:前奏曲 寂寞的小鎮 時代廣場:1944年

在 20 世紀,沒有比伯恩斯坦更全面的音樂人了。 他既是古典和音樂劇的作曲家,也是指揮和音樂教 育家,可說是名副其實的音樂多面手。 1943 年 11 月 14 日,伯恩斯坦代替抱恙的華爾特(Bruno

較《錦城春色》早 80 多年前,自命為德國浪漫主 義歌劇救星的華格納創作的喜歌劇《紐倫堡的名歌 手》,在1868年於慕尼黑由比洛(Hans von Bülow) 指揮首演。華格納自 1845 年 7 月起動筆,前後花 了20多年才完成。

Walter)指揮紐約愛樂樂團的午間音樂會,由於是

前奏曲是整套歌曲最先完成的一部份,創作於

電台直播節目,結果使他一晝成名,而 1944 年在

1861年11月至1862年5月之間。主題是華格納由

創作方面的豐收更進一步提高了他音樂界名人的地

威尼斯坐火車到維也納的途中想出來的,同樣重要

位。他的第一交響曲「耶利米」 (”Jeremiah”)在1月

的是他在創作時的情�:「�個黃�我從家�的�

28日於匹茲堡首演,他的第一部舞台製作 — 芭蕾

台看到美麗的日落,把『金黃的美因茨』和莊嚴地

舞劇《自由幻想》(Fancy Free , 4 月 18 日於紐約

流動的萊茵河映照得燦爛奪目,《名歌手》的前奏

大都會歌劇院首演,由羅賓斯 [Jerome Robbins]

忽然清楚地在我心中湧現,我即著手起草,在樂譜

編舞),年底則有靈感源自《自由幻想》的百老匯

記下的與今天出現的分毫不差⋯⋯」從不會錯過任

舞台劇《錦城春色》面世。 《錦城春色》描述三個水手 — 加比(Gabey)、

何機會的華格納,在 1863 年 12 月 2 日在音樂會中 率先指揮了這首前奏曲的首演。

奇帕(Chip)及奧西(Ozzie)在紐約僅 24 小時的

前奏曲逐一介紹了劇中的主要角色:首先是那些名

經歷。作品在 12 月 28 日於百老匯的艾德爾菲劇院

歌手,繼而是他們的徒弟們(木管的跳音模仿了

(Adelphi Theatre)首演,這時美高梅(MGM)已

第 一 主 題 )。 然 後 是 伊 娃 ( E v a ) 和 華 爾 特

和他們簽定了一紙電影版的合同。三樂章的組曲則

(Walther)的情歌:他要在名歌手的比賽中贏得她

於1946年2月在三藩市首演。 「大情人」以絢爛的圓號展開,形容加比在尋找夢 中情人、海報女郎艾薇(Ivy)時那種又渴望又疑 懼的心情。哀怨低沉的單簧管和加了弱音器的小 號,在「寂寞的小鎮」中勾勒出大城市缺乏人情味 的一面,這是一節緩慢、誘人的雙人舞,齊奏的主 題中穿插著下行的樂句,抑揚起伏,象徵了短短一 天�愛情�上的種種��。繼而���的「時代廣

的芳心,而支持他們的是其中一位名歌手,鞋匠薩 克斯(Hans Sachs)。鎮�的人在向薩克斯和這對 情侶高聲喝采。隨著開首的進行曲再次出現,前奏 曲在熱血沸騰、光芒四射的名歌手主題中結束。 對此華格納說過:「情歌在一連串名歌手的旋律中 響起:一絲不苟的學究與瀟灑浪漫的詩歌調和在 一起。『一起向薩克斯歡呼!』群眾的呼聲越來越 響亮」。

場」將三段故事劃上句號,曲中選取了舞台劇第一 幕末段的名曲「紐約,紐約」,節奏減慢下來後, 銷魂的薩克斯管、銅管和大鳴大放的敲擊樂串燒起 眾多主題,包括希爾迪(Hildy)令人讚嘆不已的 歌曲「來我住的地方」,歌詞介紹了奇帕的父親曾 經目睹、而現在已無復舊觀的昔日城市面貌。

英文節目介紹:Nick Breckenfield 英國作家 Nick Breckenfield 專門撰寫節目介紹, 曾任whatsonwhen.com的古典音樂及歌劇版編輯13年, 現於支持青年音樂家的博萊蒂-布托妮信托基金會工作。

中文翻譯:行之

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Programme Notes What do conductors really do? Apart from standing at the head of the orchestra looking really important, with their back to the audience? It is just over 200 years since we have evidence for the first use of a baton, so it is a great time to look back as to how the conductor became so important to music both on the orchestral platform and in the opera pit. This concert aims to give an inkling of how the role of the conductor became so important, and how much a conductor actually does. It is not even just a question of beating time (and you might not appreciate how difficult that is) – that is just the visible bit – but there is also ensuring the orchestra plays in pitch (correcting the tuning of perhaps up to 100 instruments in a symphony orchestra is no easy task) and the clear management of all the rhythmic and harmonic difficulties that composers are happy to compose. Most of a conductor’s job is done in rehearsal, hidden from the public. Even though conducting has only become a “proper” job in the last 200 years or so, the idea behind it is at least nearly 3000 years old. There is a report from 709 BC about a performance with 800 performers overseen by “Pherekydes of Patrae, giver of rhythm”, seated on high with the players around him, waving a golden staff up and down to keep everyone together. Even if we have no evidence for similar activities during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it is not difficult to imagine a performance of some of the first music ever written down – austere Gregorian plainchant – helped along by a chorus master moulding the music with just his hands. Even more so as religious music developed into polyphony or for (notably less historically recorded) popular music in pubs and houses, where somebody must have been keeping time. But it was not until the opera became an acceptable court entertainment, from 1600, that the idea of a conductor became a historical reality again. Monteverdi and the French Baroque masters would direct their operas from a position of a player in the orchestra, mostly from the harpsichord, and this was reflected on the concert platform as well, with some composers preferring to direct from the position of first violinist. Mozart was equally at home in either position, as violinist or at the keyboard. One of the first to “rediscover” the ancient Greek method was Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687), who was Louis XIV’s master of music. However, he was also possibly the first fatality from conducting. At a performance of his Te Deum he stabbed his toe with the large, heavy staff with which he beat time. He refused medical treatment and his toe turned gangrenous; he died within two months. The next development was for the replacement of the heavy staff for something more versatile. For many years the chosen article was a roll of paper, still used by the likes of German opera composer Carl Maria von Weber in the early 19th century, but it was Louis Spohr who had already claimed to have used a baton – in London on 10 April 1820 – and it was that thin shaft of wood that became the norm. Nowadays some conductors opt for no baton at all, simply moulding the music with their hands. In essence that is the logical result of how conducting developed in the 19th century, when Wagner particularly argued that while the right hand (with the baton) should beat time, the left hand could be used to express emotion to the players. 11


Our concert moves from the Baroque and Classical periods, with Johann Sebastian Bach and Mozart directing from the keyboard or playing first violin, to the helter-skelter world of Leonard Bernstein’s Broadway musical On the Town where a conductor is definitely needed to keep everything in exact time. All the works represented tonight would have been first conducted by their composers – only in the last century or so have there been a new professional type of musician, not a player nor a composer, who could make their living by conducting alone: just like our conductor Yip Wing-sie.

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)

Brandenburg Concerto No 3 in G, BWV1048: I (Allegro)

The Magic Flute, K620: Overture

Bach was the most famous member of a long-lasting musical dynasty, preceded by many now-largely forgotten Bachs, and followed by Johann Sebastian’s own large brood of composers with his two wives. Although he never left Germany, he did have a number of jobs with various courts during his career, ending up in Leipzig. His day job was providing sacred music and his instrumental music was for relatively small forces, like his set of six Brandenburg Concertos which he himself described in French, “Six Concerts avec plusieurs instruments” when brought together in March 1721 for the Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg. Each concerto requires a different set of solo instruments, and it seems that the Margrave’s musicians were so limited in number that the concertos were never performed there. Bach’s manuscript remained unpublished until after his death, although they are now perhaps his most famous instrumental works.

70 years on from Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos, we meet Mozart in the last year of his tragically short life. He died on 5 December 1791 – just 35 – but that year he had composed two operas, his Clarinet Concerto and was working (ironically) on a Requiem when he died. Both The Magic Flute and La Clemenza di Tito were premiered in September 1791, the former in Vienna, the latter in Prague.

The Third Brandenburg Concerto is for strings alone (like the Sixth) and – apart from two chords – has no slow middle movement. We hear the first movement, where the nine instrumental lines (violins, violas and cellos all have three parts apiece) are in effect solo lines, with not one part achieving total prominence. This fast, cheerful and lively movement shows a clear example of what is called ritornello, often used in concerto form of this period, where a strong thematic statement is repeated in various keys throughout the movement, before finally appearing again in the tonic (in this case G).

In respect of the overture, the plot seems barely relevant, as there is only one phrase reused in the opera itself (this is the three chords before the development, which reappear prior to the Act II trials). It starts with grand chords, which are, as much in this opera, repeated three times. Slowly, solemnly and sonorously the strings join in, in the form of an extended introduction, with distinctive trombone answering chords before the famous, brilliant fugue enters. These two thematic strands characterise the whole of the overture, with the wind chords returning to herald the development, which is based on the fugal theme.

The Magic Flute is a singspiel, to a libretto by a Salzburg friend and fellow Mason, Emanuel Schikaneder (they used to play skittles together). Schikaneder owned the 1000-seater Theater auf der Wieden just outside Vienna’s city walls, which was a popular music hall, and his most popular promotions were “magic operas”, such as The Magic Flute. It was Mozart’s first German opera for nearly a decade and he obviously revelled in its variety of styles. He did not know it, but it turned out to be his most successful opera, with 197 performances in the two years following his death.


Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)

Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809–1847)

Symphony No 8 in F, Op 93: II Allegretto scherzando

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Op 61: Scherzo

Two decades on, on 27 February 1814, Beethoven unveiled his Eighth (of nine) Symphony, sometimes regarded as rather insignificant when compared to the irrepressible dance rhythms of his Seventh Symphony, let alone the majesty of the Ninth, the “Choral”. Yet Beethoven had a sneaking liking for what he called “my little symphony”, in which he returned to the smaller scale and cheeky humour of his teacher Joseph Haydn’s symphonies. He was still as inventive as ever, as we can see in the second movement which offers something different to the expected slow movement.

Our leap forward this time is just over 30 years, where we find ourselves in the Romantic period, when one of its major stars was Felix Mendelssohn, even if he did not live much longer than Mozart. At just 17 he composed an overture to Shakespeare’s fairy comedy A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Then, some 16 years later, King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia commissioned Mendelssohn for incidental music to the whole play, and so he wrote 12 pieces for a staged production in the New Palace Potsdam on 14 October 1843, before conducting the first concert performance of incidental music in London on 27 May 1844.

Beethoven instead composed an Allegretto scherzando in B-flat, characterised by the pulsating wind chords, playing staccato semiquavers almost without a break. Over this, the strings have a graceful gavotte-like theme. It is said that Beethoven here was either mocking the metronome (a new invention to reliably give a regular beat at any set speed) or paying tribute to its inventor, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, but neither story has any clear-cut corroborative evidence. Beethoven was very strict with his metronome markings, until recently thought to be ludicrously fast. However, with recent advances in authentic instrument research, it is now understood that given the thencommon bowing styles and playing techniques, there are no problems in Beethoven’s given tempi. A modern conductor needs to bear all of this in mind in getting the players to come together.

The music includes the famous Scherzo, which precedes Act II just as the action moves into the forest, and is distinctly elf-like. In G minor, it is like a mini-symphonic movement, with two themes in exposition (chirpy wind to open, then strings chugging away in octaves before rising in pitch to allow the wind back in), developed and then recapitulated, all in Mendelssohn’s unmistakable gossamer style.

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Carl Maria von Weber (1786–1826) Orchestrated by Hector Berlioz (1803–1869)

Invitation to the Dance, Op 65 Weber’s Aufforderung zum Tanz (Invitation to the Dance) was composed in 1819, while he was forging a career as an opera conductor (first in Prague then, from 1816, in Dresden), and is perhaps best known in an orchestral guise which Berlioz made in 1841 for an interpolated ballet sequence in Weber’s later (and probably most famous) opera, Der Freischütz. Much later, Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev used it for his Ballets Russes work Le Spectre de la Rose. It is in typical waltz form where the unmistakable three beat rhythm (strong first beat, a paired response on the other two) effortlessly moves between a variety of waltz themes, topped and tailed by an introduction and coda. Here, as it happens, the introduction and coda are the same, wistful – nay nostalgic – memory of a ball, with perhaps the whole sequence really a memory of dancing. The work is subtitled Rondo Brillant and the first proper waltz, with its fanfare opening phrase followed by a descending answer, returns throughout the piece as a connecting thread, with a number of calmer episodes before the final climax and return to the nostalgic opening music to close. In such music the conductor has to dance!

As we have already seen in two works (Mozart and Mendelssohn), conductors are not just confined to the concert platform. They (can) spend a lot of time in the orchestra pit of an opera house or theatre, which is probably where the profession of conducting really began. Three of our final four works have connections to the stage.

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Hector Berlioz (1803–1869)

Roman Carnival Overture, Op 9 Although standing alone as a separate concert work, Berlioz’s Roman Carnival Overture reworks music he composed in 1834 for his first-completed opera Benvenuto Cellini, based on the Italian artist and goldsmith whose “strange career had made such an impression on me that I stupidly concluded that it would be both dramatic and interesting to other people”. Berlioz had eventually won the Prix de Rome in 1830, which allowed him to live in Rome for four years at the Villa Medici. But the opera’s première in Paris in 1838 was a failure met with laughter and walk-outs. Never one to waste anything, Berlioz salvaged some of the opera’s music for other works, including the violin concertante Rêverie et Caprice and the overture Le Carnaval Romain, constructed in 1843 mainly from the carnival scene at the end of the opera’s second act. Premiered on 3 February 1844, it remains one of the most energetic and virtuosic concert overtures in the repertoire. The opening fiery saltarello (originally sung in the carnival scene) dies away suddenly for the English horn to play the theme from the Act I love duet (a typical Berliozian gambit: a brief fast introduction prefacing a slower theme). Traversing a number of keys, this leads into the main Allegro. The timpani, percussion and brass become insistent to start the dance, despite the apparent deafness of the love theme, and then suddenly and explosively we find ourselves right in the middle of the carnival, with the return of the opening saltarello. Only one quieter respite is allowed before the climactic end, with overwhelming brass chords and a surprise in the last bars: the strings and percussion leaving only the wind for the final chords.


Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990)

Symphony No 7 in A, Op 92: I Poco sostenuto – Vivace

Three Dance Episodes from On the Town

We return a final time to the concert platform and to Beethoven, whose 250th birth anniversary should have been roundly celebrated last year. Now, some six weeks before his 251st birthday (17 December) we hear the thrilling opening movement of his Seventh Symphony, dating from 1812, and premiered on 8 December 1813. It has continued to cause a stir for 200 years: Weber exclaimed about the end of the first movement that Beethoven was “quite ready for the madhouse” and Wagner described it as the “apotheosis of the dance”.

The Great Lover Displays Himself Lonely Town: Pas de Deux Times Square: 1944

Beethoven prefaces the first movement with a slow introduction: 62 bars of it, in stately 4/4 where forte, short chords cut through a piano minim phrase, first for oboe then clarinets, then horns (with oboes and clarinets adding moving quavers) and all winds. Quietly the strings enter with semiquaver rising scales, alternating with the wind gently intoning falling minims and, suddenly, the full force of the orchestra makes us sit up: drama and life are all here! The oboe’s subsequent plaintive, syncopated passage hints of a rhythm to what follows, but more remarkably it is pitched in the remote key of C major. A sequence of repeated semiquavers alternates with the plaintive theme (now on flute, in the even more remote key of F), with tension building between strings and wind, which stealthily leads to the syncopated germ of the 6/8 Vivace that powers the rest of the movement, which Berlioz thought of as a peasant dance. Building to an E major fortissimo climax followed by an extraordinary two bars of silence, the development section, with the basic syncopated rhythm ushered in pianissimo, follows expected sonata form. Beethoven also goes for extremes in volume: a simple forte is never usually enough, when fortissimo is so much more exciting!

In the 20th century there could be no better example of a musical all-rounder than Leonard Bernstein: classical and show composer, conductor, educator – a veritable musical polymath. On 14 November 1943, Bernstein stood in for an indisposed Bruno Walter at a New York Philharmonic Orchestra matinée concert that was broadcast across the nation; he became an “overnight” sensation. His celebrity status was confirmed with major compositions in 1944. His First Symphony, “Jeremiah”, was premiered on 28 January in Pittsburgh, followed by his first stage work, the ballet Fancy Free (choreographed by Jerome Robbins at the Metropolitan Opera, New York and premiered on 18 April). At the very end of the year, his musical On the Town opened on Broadway, directly inspired by Fancy Free. Following the story of three sailors – Gabey, Chip and Ozzie – on shore leave for only 24 hours in New York, and packed full of memorable characters and songs, On the Town opened at the Adelphi Theatre on Broadway on 28 December 1944, already with an MGM contract for a filmed version in the bag. A three-movement suite soon followed, premiered in San Francisco in February 1946. “The Great Lover Displays Himself”, opening with horns blazing, depicts Gabey and his lovelorn hopes and fears as he searches for poster girl Ivy, with whom he is besotted. Mournful low clarinets and muted trumpet explore the utterly impersonal nature of a big city in “Lonely Town” – a slow, sensual pas de deux, punctuated by descending phrases that rise to a central climax and fall back again, about the difficulty of falling in love, especially in just a day. By contrast, the hustle and bustle of “Times Square” brings the three episodes 15


to a close. Taken from the end of the show’s first act, it reprises one of the great songs “New York, New York” and slows for slinky saxophone, jazzy brass and cheeky percussion in its medley of various other themes, including the verses to Hildy the cab driver’s showstopper, “Come Up to My Place”, driving Chip round New York trying to find long-demolished city sights.

are supported by one of the Mastersingers, the cobbler Hans Sachs. The townsfolk greet Sachs, and the lovers, with great voice. As the opening march reappears, the Prelude ends with a fullblooded statement of the Masters’ theme in blazing array. Here Wagner says: “the love song rings out to the strains of the Masters’ own melodies: pedantry and poetry are reconciled. ‘All hail to Hans Sachs!’, the mighty cry goes up”.

Richard Wagner (1813–1883)

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, WWV96: Prelude Some 80 years earlier, the self-appointed saviour of German Romantic opera, Richard Wagner’s comedy Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) was premiered in Munich in 1868, conducted by Hans von Bülow. It had taken Wagner over 20 years to complete, having first drafted its libretto in July 1845. The Prelude was the first of the music he composed, between November 1861 and May 1862. The theme came to him on the train between Venice and Vienna, but equally important was the mood he was in during composition: “Watching one evening from the balcony of my house a fine sunset, lighting up in glory the splendid view of ‘golden Mainz’ and the majestically flowing Rhine, the Prelude to my Meistersinger suddenly sprang up clearly in my mind, and I proceeded to draft it out precisely as it appears today in the score”. Never one to miss a trick, Wagner first conducted it on the concert platform on 2 December 1863. The Prelude introduces the main figures of the plot: first the Mastersingers themselves and later their apprentices (a staccato woodwind parody of the main theme). There is the love music for Eva and Walther: he has to sing a song in the Mastersingers’ contest to win her hand, and they 16

© Nick Breckenfield, 2021 British programme-note writer Nick Breckenfield was the Classical Music and Opera Editor for whatsonwhen.com for 13 years and now works for the Borletti-Buitoni Trust which awards young classical music artists


香港小交響樂團 Hong Kong Sinfonietta 桂冠音樂總監 Music Director Emeritus: 葉詠詩 YIP Wing-sie 首席客席指揮 Principal Guest Conductor: 柏鵬 Christoph POPPEN 駐團藝術家 HKS Artist Associates

鄺展維 Charles KWONG

小提琴 Violin 格德霍特 樂團首席

(2020-2022)

金仁善

麥兜 McDull

李海南

(2019-2020)

高世章 Leon KO (2018-2019)

陳慶恩 CHAN Hing-yan (2016-2018)

石家豪 Wilson SHIEH (2015-2016)

朱�� CHU Pak-him (2014-2015)

麥淑賢 MAK Su-yin (2014-2015)

羅詠媞 Wendy LAW (2013-2014)

盧思泓 LOO Sze-wang (2012-2013)

伍宇烈 Yuri NG (2011-2013)

李嘉齡 Colleen LEE (2010-2011)

黎志華 Jason LAI (2009-2011)

楊嘉輝 Samson YOUNG (2008-2009)

伍卓賢 NG Cheuk-yin (2006-2008)

署理助理樂團首席 第二小提琴首席

蔡柏沂 陳劭楠 周止善 賈舒晨 顧洛臻 羅莎莉 呂灝然 羅蔚敏 彭曉筠 潘迦薇 陽旻佑 楊宇思 葉紹羲 中提琴 Viola ● 陳子信 ▼ 劉琛彥 卞思琦 陳敏聰 顏星安 ★ 龍君蔚 ★ 鄧詠旋 大提琴 Cello ● 張培節 ▼ 貝樂安 何國芝 李恩率 朴詩媛 葉俊禧

長笛 Flute 上杉晃代

Akiyo UESUGI

KIM In-sun

雙簧管 Oboe 福原真美

LE Hoai-nam

Mami FUKUHARA

單簧管 Clarinet ● 方曉佳 陳秋媛

FONG Hiu-kai Johnny CHEN Chiu-yuan

巴松管 Bassoon ● 秦慶生(休假) 田口美奈子

CHIN Hing-sang (On Leave) Minako TAGUCHI

圓號 Horn ● 包文慶 東出真澄 岑慶璋 ★ 陳珈文

PAW Man-hing Hermann Masumi HIGASHIDE SHUM Hing-cheung CHAN Kar-man Cheryl

小號 Trumpet ● 黃山 文曦

HUANG Shan MAN Hay

長號 Trombone ● 羅澤基 陳學賢

Christopher RODGERS CHAN Hok-yin

James CUDDEFORD Concertmaster

Acting Assistant Concertmaster Principal Second Violin

CAI Pak-yi CHAN Shaw-nan Sharon Kiann CHOW JIA Shu-chen John KRUER Sally LAW Ambrose LUI LUO Wei-min PANG Hiu-wan POON Ka-mei Camille YANG Min-yu YANG Yu-si YIP Siu-hay Elvis CHAN LAU Sum-yin Christina BEAN Ringo CHAN NGAN Sing-on LUNG Kwan-wai Kenny TANG Wing-shuen Rebecca CHANG Pei-chieh Laurent PERRIN HO Kwok-chee Karey LEE Eun-sol PARK Si-won YIP Chun-hei Eric

低音大提琴 Double Bass Masami NAGAI ● 永井雅美 Santiago COSTA MARTÍNEZ ▼ 柯斯達 HUANG Tun-pin 黃敦品

Notes 1. Guest Principal Flute 客席長笛首席 – HUI Wing-hang Bob (許榮鏗) 2. Guest Principal Oboe 客席雙簧管首席 – SZE Yu-hey Kenneth (薛宇曦) 3. Guest Principal Bassoon 客席巴松管首席 – AU Kai-see Tiffany (歐啟詩) 4. Freelance Musicians: Violin 小提琴: Samuel AU (區駿熙), CHUA Vince Eliezer N. (蔡君賢), FENG Lok-yee (馮諾兒) Double Bass 低音大提琴:CHAN Ping-chi (陳秉智) Flute 長笛:Ada POON (潘安婷) Clarinet 單簧管:FUNG Chi-hang Eric (馮智恆) Saxophone 薩克斯管: WONG Tak-chiu (黃德釗) Trumpet 小號:CHAN Kin-sing Kinson (陳健勝)*, TUNG Wai-lok Jimmy (董煒樂) Percussion 敲擊樂: Samuel CHAN (陳梓浩)*, CHENG Mei Kwan Emily (鄭美君)

低音長號 Bass Trombone 江子文 KONG Tze-man Jason 大號 Tuba ● 林榮燦

LAM Wing-tsan

定音鼓 Timpani ● 村本曉洋

Akihiro MURAMOTO

敲擊樂 Percussion ● 周展彤 小山理惠子

CHAU Chin-tung Rieko KOYAMA

豎琴 Harp ● 黃士倫

Ann HUANG

鍵琴 Keyboard ● 朱偉恆

Alan CHU

● 首席 Principal ▼ 助理首席 Assistant Principal ★ Orchestral Associate

* Fellow of The Orchestra Academy Hong Kong, co-directed by HK Phil and HKAPA

17





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• 北山堂基金 Bei Shan Tang Foundation • 亞洲保險有限公司 Asia Insurance Company Ltd • 陳鋈鋆先生 Mr Chan Yuk-kwan • 冼為堅基金有限公司 Sin Wai Kin Foundation

• • • • • • •

Lowell and Phyllis Chang 鍾陳碧璋女士 Mrs Shirley Chung Ms Cadence Hsiung 林育義醫生 Dr Lam Yuk Yee Paul Ruth & Sidney 謝智剛教授 Prof C K Michael Tse 多位無名氏 Anonymous

STAR Donors (HK$10,000 to HK$29,999)

• 陳文偉博士 Dr Chan Man Wai

• Ms Sandra W M Lee

• 張�昌博士 Dr Thomas H C Cheung, MH, FCII

• Mr Allan Leung

• 張綺年醫生 Dr Vivian Cheung

• Dr & Mrs Arthur Van Langenberg

• Ms Bebe Pui Ying Chu

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• Mr Eugene Fung Donors (HK$1,000 to HK$9,999)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

BELIEVING MUSIC CAN 加拿大琴行 Canada Piano Co Ms Chan Ching Yi Ms Cynthia Chan Jonman, Monika & Joel Chan Family In Memory of Ms Mariette Mimi Chan 陳燕婷 陳騰龍先生 德仔 sir 鄭慶弘先生 Mr Howard Cheng Mr C Y Chow In Memory of Esther Ms Roselanie Ho 何汝祥醫生 Dr Ho Yu Cheung

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• • • • • • • • • • • •

Ms Hung Ying Kwan 郭立成律師 Mr Chris Kok Miss M Kwok 黎慧德女士 Ms Wai Tak Lai Mr Dennis Lam Ms Law Jessica Yun Pui Mr Sung Chak Kyle Lee Ms Mary Leung Abido Lim & Dka Nara Kwok 林燕女士 Ms Lemon Lim Ms Luk Yee On 大通會計事務所 Masterpoint Professional Ltd • 莫心柔、莫心維 • 吳志強先生

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Mr John Ngan Mr Victor Paraschiv Poon Shing Chi & Liao E Wen Ms Jojo Sin John & Anthea Strickland Ms Elsie Tam Mr Robert Tang The Music Place Ltd Mr Paul Tsang 謝建宏先生 Mr Penny Tse Ms TT Tsui Mr Wang Weiyao 多位無名氏 Anonymous


學生票資助計劃 Student Ticket Scheme Donors Diamond Donors (>HK$100,000)

Pearl Donors (HK$10,000 to HK$29,999)

• 潘燊昌博士及夫人 Dr & Mrs Patrick S C Poon

• Mr Iain Bruce

• 芝蘭基金會 Zhilan Foundation

• 趙俊良先生 Mr Chiu Chun Leong David

• 張德賢博士伉儷 Dr & Mrs Douglas Cheung • 林定國先生夫人 Mr and Mrs Lam Ting Kwok Paul

Jade Donors (HK$50,000 to HK$99,999)

• Mrs Florence Ng

• CLP Holdings Limited

• PLC Foundation

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• 沈昊翔先生 Mr Shum Ho Cheung • 九龍倉集團有限公司 The Wharf (Holdings) Limited

Ruby Donors (HK$30,000 to HK$49,999)

• 王煒東先生 Mr Wong Wai Tung

• 孫永輝施熙德伉儷 Edith & Stephen Sun

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

Opal Donors (HK$1,000 to HK$9,999) • BELIEVING MUSIC CAN

• 紀念劉葉珍女士

• 鄭新文教授 Prof Tseng Sun Man

• Jonman, Monika & Joel Chan Family

• Ms Luk Yee On

• 蔡雄及區慕英 Andy Tsoi & Mary Au

• 鄭慶弘先生 Mr Howard Cheng

• 吳榮奎先生 Mr Ng W F Nicholas

• Mr Wong Kai Chun

• Ms Fiorella Fong

• 魏玉華小姐 Miss Winnie Ngai

• Mr Marcus Woo

• Gavin Gonsalves & Family

• Mr Adrian Tam

• Ms Yeung Lai Fong Alice

• 郭立成律師 Mr Chris Kok

• Mr Robert Tang

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

Premium Friends

感謝以下各機構對香港小交響樂團一直的支持! Thank you to the following parties for their continued support!

• 陳鋈鋆先生 Mr Chan Yuk-kwan

• Association Culturelle France Hong Kong Ltd

• 周莉莉女士 Ms Lily Chow

• CASH音樂基金 CASH Music Fund

• 鍾陳碧璋女士 Mrs Shirley Chung

• 法國駐港澳總領事館 Consulat Général de France à Hong Kong et Macao

• Dr Jennie Lee & Mr Jonathan Lee

• 德國駐港總領事館 German Consulate General Hong Kong

• 潘燊昌博士及夫人 Dr & Mrs Patrick S C Poon

• 香港歌德學院 Goethe-Institut Hongkong

• 澳洲駐港總領事館 Australia Consulate-General Hong Kong

• 民政事務局 Home Affairs Bureau

• 冼為堅博士 Dr David Sin Wai-kin

• 邁騰路通有限公司 Maestro GT Limited

• 唐柏泉醫生 Dr Tong Pak Chuen Patrick

• 荷蘭駐香港及澳門總領事館 Netherlands Consulate General in Hong Kong and Macao

• 謝智剛教授 Prof C K Michael Tse

• Mr Ozawa Kazuo

• 阮偉文博士 Dr Andrew S Yuen

• 通利琴行 Tom Lee Music Co Ltd

• 多位無名氏 Anonymous

• 康樂及文化事務署 Leisure and Cultural Services Department

• MOViE MOViE • Mr Jiři Votruba 23


香港小交響樂團有限公司 Hong Kong Sinfonietta Limited 監察委員會

Board of Governors

榮譽監察委員

Honorary Governors

潘燊昌博士(主席)

Dr Patrick S C POON (Chairman)

金董建平女士

Mrs Alice KING

翟紹唐先生(副主席)

Mr JAT Sew-tong (Vice-chairman)

施永青先生

Mr SHIH Wing-ching

鍾思源醫生(司庫)

Dr CHUNG See-yuen (Treasurer)

楊雪姬女士

Ms Serena YANG

周莉莉女士

Ms Lily CHOW

何汝祥醫生

Dr HO Yu-cheung

劉文文女士

Ms LAU Man-man Lisa

義務公司秘書

Honorary Company Secretary

陳智文先生

Mr Stephen TAN

徐行悅醫生

Dr Michelle TSUI

黃偉雄先生

Mr Addy W H WONG

阮偉文博士

Dr Andrew S YUEN

Tricor Corporate Secretary Limited 義務骨科專科醫生

Honorary Orthopaedic Surgeon

傅偉俊醫生

Dr Dan HOOLEY

樂團行政 Administration 行政總裁 Chief Executive Officer 楊惠惠 Margaret YANG 總經理 General Manager 李浩儀 LEE Ho-yee 行政秘書 Executive Assistant to CEO 何淑娟 Rose HO 會計經理 Accounting Manager 李靄玲 Judith LEE 行政統籌 Administrative Coordinator 柯玉嬌 Noel QUAH 行政助理 Office Administrator 楊瑞遠 YANG Jui-yuan

市場推廣及發展 Marketing & Development 高級市場及業務拓展經理 Senior Marketing & Development Manager 莫皓明 Amanda MOK 市場及業務拓展經理 Marketing & Development Manager 何珮鈴 Pauline HO 助理市場經理 Assistant Marketing Manager 袁穎芝 Christine YUEN 市場及業務拓展主任 Marketing & Development Officer 柯娉庭 Pantane OR

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樂團事務及節目 Orchestra & Programme 樂團經理 Orchestra Manager 陳成美 Marylu CHAN 節目經理 Programme Manager 丘靄雪 YAU Oi-suet Icy 特別節目經理 Special Projects Manager 黃紫菱 Athena WONG 助理樂團經理 Assistant Orchestra Manager 黎希潼 Carvina LAI 節目主任 Projects & Programme Officer 林海欣 Hayley LAM 製作經理 Production Manager 陳冠宏 Eddie CHAN 當代音樂研究 Contemporary Music Research 鄺展維 Charles KWONG 藝術行政主任 Arts Administration Officers 羅希寧 Kening LAW 梁悅程 Marcus LEUNG 朱嘉懿 Denise CHU


“Remarkable achievement of Hong Kong Sinfonietta combining music and film – what we learnt during the pandemic is how to treasure the intense communication of music with live audience in the most casual atmosphere of a cinema. Indeed, a new and much welcomed creative achievement – BRAVO Hong Kong Sinfonietta!!” Dmitry Sitkovetsky (violin)