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ISSN 2219-4576

DEC 2012 Issue No. 8

第八期

Igniting the Motivational Flame of Gifted Learners 燃點資優生學習動機之火

Feature Article 專題文章

An Interview with Professor Steven Pfeiffer Steven Pfeiffer 教授專訪


Contents 目錄

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What's New 最新消息

Editors' Note 編者的話

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Feature Article (I) 專題文章 (I) An Interview with Professor Steven Pfeiffer: Igniting the Motivational Flame of Gifted Learners Steven Pfeiffer 教授專訪: 燃點資優生學習動機之火

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Feature Article (II) 專題文章 (II) Tips for Motivating Gifted Students by Professor Del Siegle 激勵資優生的竅門

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Frontline Sharing 前線分享

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New Bites 要聞剪影

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Forthcoming Events of The Academy 學苑動向


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Editors' Note 編者的話

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igher order thinking skills, creativity as well as personal and social competence are regarded as the "three core elements of gifted education (GE) in Hong Kong". Following the exploration of how teachers can engage students in the development of higher order thinking in the previous issue, this issue focuses on the enhancement of personal and social competence. Through the theme "Igniting the Motivational Flame of Gifted Learners", we examine why and how motivation matters in nurturing the gifted. In "Feature Articles", we are honoured to have two leading gifted education experts sharing their views on the topic. Professor Steven Pfeiffer, Director of Clinical Training of the Florida State University, highlights the relationship between motivation and giftedness. He also shares his experience in enhancing gifted learners' motivation. In the second article, Professor Del Siegle, Department Head of Educational Psychology, University of Connecticut, provides tips on motivating gifted students. In addition, one of the participants of our "Intermediate Course in GE: Leadership and Management" shares about the GE implementation of her school and how the new Professional Development Framework helps her plan the learning pathways in GE for her colleagues and herself. We hope that by your continuous sharing of your school practice and resources on GE at this professional platform – INSPIRE, we can work together to nurture and provide support to our gifted youngsters. Please let us know if you are interested in sharing through tpd@hkage.org.hk Editorial Team Teacher Professional Development Division The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education

層次思維技巧、創造力和個人及社交能力 被視為「香港資優教育的三大元素」。《匯 賢「資」訊》繼 上 期 探 討 教 師 提 升 學 生 高 層 次 思 維 技 巧 之 道 後,今 期 將 集 中 於 學 生 個 人 及 社交能力的提升。 今期《匯賢「資」訊》主題為「燃點資優生學習動機 之火」,專題剖析學習動機為何、如何影響資優生 培 育。我 們 有 幸 邀 得 兩 位 資 優 教 育 專 家 撰 寫 今 期 的〈專題文章〉。美國佛羅里達州立大學的教授及 臨 床 訓 練 總 監 Steven Pfeiffer 教 授,集 中 討 論 學 習 動 機 與 資 優 教 育 的 關 係,並 分 享 提 升 資 優 生 學 習 動 機 的 經 驗。另 一 篇 文 章 由 美 國 康 涅 狄 格 大 學 教育心理學系主任 Del Siegle 教授執筆,提供激勵 資優生的竅門。一位曾修讀我們舉辦的「資優教育 進階課程:領導與管理」的參與者,分享資優教育 在 她 學 校 實 踐 的 情 況,並 描 述 教 師 專 業 發 展 新 架 構如何幫助她與同事計劃資優教育進修之路。 我 們 希 望 透 過 各 位 於《匯 賢「資」訊》這 個 專 業 平 台 持 續 分 享 資 優 教 育 資 訊 與 資 源,大 家 能 攜 手 合 作 培 育 並 支 援 我 們 資 賦 優 異 的 年 輕 一 代。我 們 歡 迎 各 位 投 稿 分 享 經 驗 及 資 源,請 電 郵 至 tpd@ hkage.org.hk 與我們聯絡。 香港資優教育學苑 教師專業發展部 編輯組

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WHAT'S NEW 最新消息


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Annual Hotung Lecture 2013

Gifted Education: East Meets West in the Oriental Pearl 何東資優教育演講 2013

資優教育:東西匯萃在香江

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he Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education (HKAGE) is pleased to bring together Hong Kong's education leaders and parents in the Annual Hotung Lecture 2013 by Dr. David Yun Dai and Professor Yan Kong, two distinguished experts on gifted education. The HKAGE recognises the significant role that education leaders and parents play in meeting the learning and emotional needs of our bright students. One of our missions is to engage with education leaders and parents so as to support them in their efforts to nurture high-ability students. We are delighted to invite Dr. David Yun Dai and Professor Yan Kong to share their views on gifted education with our education leaders and parents. Dr. David Yun Dai is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Educational Psychology and Methodology at the University at Albany-State University of New York in the USA. Professor Yan Kong is Professor and Chair of the Department of General Education of Humanities, School of Humanities and Social Science at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Beijing. She is also the Founder and Chairperson of the PsychologicalEducation Centre in USTC. In this annual lecture "Gifted Education: East Meets West in the Oriental Pearl", the two speakers will have an interactive dialogue across a number of key GE issues, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the similarities and differences between Chinese and western perspectives on giftedness and to explore how we might best develop GE in Hong Kong to develop the full potential of our young generation. We look forward to your support and participation. Thank you.

港 資 優 教 育 學 苑(下 稱「本 學 苑」)將 為 本 地 教育界領袖及家長舉行何東資優教育演講 2013,主講嘉賓為著名資優教育專家戴耘博 士與孔燕教授。 本學苑深明教育界領袖與家長在照顧聰慧學生的學習及 情意需要方面,擔當着重要角色。本學苑其中一項目 標,是配合並支持教育界領袖及家長栽培高能力學生。 是次演講,我們很榮幸邀請到著名資優教育專家戴耘博 士與孔燕教授,與本地教育界領袖及家長分享對資優教 育的真知灼見。戴耘博士是美國紐約州立大學奧爾波尼 分校教育心理學與方法學系副教授。孔燕教授為北京中 國科學技術大學人文素質教學研究部主任、中國科學技 術大學心理教育中心創辦人兼主任。 在是次題為「資優教育:東西匯萃在香江」的演講中, 兩位主講嘉賓將就多項重要資優教育議題「互動對話」, 彼此交流,比較中西資優教育觀點之異同,探討香港資 優教育發展之良策,令年輕一代得以盡展潛能。 敬希閣下鼎力支持並踴躍參與。 多謝!

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [I]

An Interview with Professor Steven Pfeiffer

Igniting the Motivational Flame of Gifted Learners Q1

Why does motivation matter in nurturing gifted learners? And what does it refer to in the context of gifted education?

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his is an excellent question to kick-off the interview! Motivation matters. Motivation matters for all students, not just for gifted learners. This may seem like an obvious statement, but it is important to state early-on. Motivation is very, very important for learning to occur. Motivation is important at all levels of learning and for students at every age and it is equally important for all learners, both average and high ability. Some high ability students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning – they are extraordinarily passionate and animated when presented with an intellectual challenge, aflame with a desire to learn. They seem to relish engaging in challenging learning activities even homework assignments! These students are, of course, a unique pleasure to have in the classroom. This is the 'prototypical' gifted student, at least as portrayed in the early gifted literature. However, not all gifted learners are equally enthusiastic about learning. Even when gifted students reach graduate school, professors often comment on the observed variability in motivation among their students. I routinely observe significant differences in the amount of motivation and effort among the extremely bright graduate students who register each semester for a popular seminar that I teach. My point is this:

Not all high ability students share equal levels of drive, persistence, effort or passion for learning. Students vary tremendously in terms of their motivation, even at a very early age.

In other words, you can expect, even in a homogeneous gifted classroom, considerable individual differences in drive, enthusiasm, ambitiousness, determination, persistence, and motivation. Gifted educators and parents are particularly frustrated by very bright students with considerable potential but inexplicably low motivation. Gifted students who I waggishly call two-tail learners: Students who fall at the upper end of the normal distribution on ability but at the lower end of the normal distribution on motivation! It is these students of exceptionally high ability and exceptionally low motivation who so desperately need our help so that their muted motivational flame can be reignited. So that they can come to feel excited, inspired and motivated by learning! In my experience, these students are not necessarily easy to motivate. The challenge is finding the right spark to re-kindle the flame. Many can be reached. I have some thoughts about how to re-ignite their motivational flame, which I am very interested in sharing with you and your readers! As many readers may know, the Gifted Rating Scales (GRS)1 (Pfeiffer and Jarosewich, 2003), was developed to help identify gifted students. As first author, I intentionally included a 12-item Motivation Scale to provide teachers with an opportunity to assess motivation. When we developed the GRS, we didn’t view motivation as a component of giftedness, as some leaders in the gifted field do. Rather, we recognised that even very intellectually precocious students can vary tremendously in motivation. In the GRS test manual, we defined motivation as:

a student’s drive or persistence, desire to succeed, tendency to enjoy challenging tasks, and ability to work well without encouragement or reinforcement (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003, p. 7)


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

The GRS recognises that not all highly gifted learners bring an equal level of enthusiasm, passion, drive, or persistence to learning tasks. I believe that it is very useful to measure each gifted student's motivation. By systematically measuring motivation, we can better understand and even begin to predict how much effort each gifted student can be expected to expend and how engaged they will be when facing challenging tasks.

Q2

Could you elaborate about the relationship between motivation and giftedness?

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s I mentioned earlier, and consistent with how the GRS test is used in the classroom, I do not view motivation as a component of giftedness. However, I am a firm believer, perhaps radical in my view, that motivation – and its sister constructs, commitment, passion, and frustration tolerance – are critically important if we expect gifted students to fully develop their innate abilities to the highest levels of expertise and eminence in any field. My most recent book discusses this very concept:

Motivation as an integral component of the full development of talent among high ability students.2 For example, in my work with elite youth female soccer players in the U.S., I saw how important motivation was in transforming quite extraordinary general and specific sport-related abilities of very young athletes into the highly developed soccer skills of world class champions. The same is true in the classroom and science lab, on the soccer field or badminton court, in the courtroom or surgical operating room, or really in any culturally valued arena. Motivation matters a lot.

There is a long history of theorising and research on motivation and its relationship to learning. I would bore most readers discussing this rich literature. Let me only very briefly mention a few noteworthy people in the motivation field. Their important ideas bear directly, in my opinion, on recent thinking on how motivation relates to giftedness. Early pioneers included Henry Murray, who wrote on curiosity as an innate motive (1930’s), McClelland and Atkinson's (1950s) ideas on the concept of achievement motivation, and Pavlov (1920's) and B. F. Skinner's (1950-60s) pioneering research on classical conditioning and operant/instrumental learning. Other important figures in the motivation field include Robert White (1950's), who introduced the competence motive, and in the 1960's, DeCharms' research on self-determination and learning, which contributed to self-efficacy, exploratory behaviour and motivation. Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory (1980's) suggests innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness, which form the basis for what they term self-motivation. Their theory does not directly address achievement motivation, but it does speak eloquently to intrinsic motivation. Most readers are probably familiar with this popular concept. When individuals perform activities not for an external reward but rather because of the personal satisfaction associated with engaging in the activity, we say that they are being inspired or driven by intrinsic motivation. This is in contrast to extrinsic motivation; individuals who perform an activity because there are external incentives or rewards to be gained are said to be extrinsically motivated. A few other important motivational theorists include Bandura and his self-efficacy theory, Seligman’s learned helplessness and more recent learned hopefulness theory, and Carol Dweck's writing on mindset and personality theories. Taken together, these and other motivational theorists provide a comprehensive foundation for understanding the very basic motivation question: Why do we choose to act in the ways we do?

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [I]

Q3

What motivational approaches or strategies would you recommend teachers and frontline practitioners use to engage gifted students in learning? And could you share your experience on enhancing gifted learners’ motivation?

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his question gets to the heart of the issue of how to help ignite the motivational flame that impels gifted students to work hard. Of course, there is no single magical algorithm that applies equally well for all students, much less for any one high ability student whose flame burns low. But there are a number of motivational strategies and techniques that can and often do make a real difference. Some of these strategies and techniques are what I call universal; they are effective with all students, irrespective of learning style or level of ability. They work with almost all students, regardless of geography, gender, or social class! There are some motivational strategies, on the other hand, with more limited or restricted impact; these strategies are effective with some, but not all gifted students. I will list a few examples of both types of motivational strategies3 – the universal and the more limited, less robust strategies. Of course, each gifted student is unique. The reasons why any gifted student displays less-than-adequate motivation reflect, in most instances, many factors that, working together, dampen if not extinguish the motivational flame that once burned bright. It is important to remember when working with a student whose motivational flame no longer brilliantly burns that re-igniting the flame requires patience. In my clinical experience, it can take many months of trialand-error experimentation before we identify the likely culprit for the youngster's poor motivation and establish effective motivational strategies that work for the student. Each situation is distinctive and, as a result, each student requires an individually tailored motivational intervention plan. Here is my short list of motivational approaches that I have found helpful with two-tail gifted students. • Stop telling kids that they are smart. This is a universal recommendation; it is an important principle for all students with motivational issues, especially gifted kids. And it is a recommendation that applies to both parents and teachers alike. All too often, parents and teachers remind the high IQ children how bright they are. This well-intentioned but ultimately problematic message inadvertently conveys to the youngster that because they are so smart, because they have such a special brain, they shouldn't have to work very hard on academic tasks. This creates what Professor Carol Dweck calls a fixed or entity self-conception of

one's intelligence; the bright student comes to view their intelligence as determined at birth and permanent. This unwittingly leads them to believe that they really shouldn't have to work hard because if they had to then they wouldn't really be that smart! You can see how a maladaptive cycle of avoiding putting forth effort can easily develop! The much better message that parents and teachers need to repeatedly communicate to gifted children is how very important effort and working hard, not brains, are for success in life. • Give frequent, early, positive feedback. This is one of the non-universal motivational recommendations that I mentioned; it can be very effective with some, but not necessarily all students with low motivation. It is what we in psychology consider a "behavioural" intervention, based on Skinnerian reinforcement theory and proven principles of learning. When applied in the classroom, especially when a student is learning new material, it can reinforce the student's belief that they can do well. It also can help encourage a student developing 'grit,' a tendency to stay with a task in the face of adversity, tolerate frustration and lack-of-success, and not easily give up. Some gifted students, however, find this and other research-based behavioural techniques, such as charts, happy faces, tokens, and tangible rewards and incentives, manipulative, controlling and even disingenuous. I've had a few gifted young clients in my clinical practice bristle at well-intentioned teachers who use behavioural techniques, calling them "Big Brother" and "Machiavellian!" My advice is to use behavioural techniques with some caution when attempting to increase motivation. These behavioural techniques can and often do work, but not always! • Help the student find personal meaning and value in the learning activity. Put quite simply, "make the learning real" for the gifted student, especially the student with very low motivation. This is another universal motivational strategy. It works for all kids, both boys and girls, all ages, across the globe! If we hope to encourage intrinsic motivation – a virtuous and high-minded goal for all students – then teachers should create learning activities that are clearly relevant and meaningful to the students in their class. For learning to become real and meaningful,


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

teachers need to infuse local examples, current events, and ‘pop culture' into the curriculum and classroom activities, which are introduced in concrete, meaningful and central, not peripheral, ways. It is undeniably critical if we hope to reach the uninspired, the unmotivated, the ‘bored’ gifted student, then

educators must connect the subject matter that they are teaching with their students’ personal interests and the actual world that they live in outside of the classroom. We need to find what interests them outside the classroom and connect this with the concepts that we are teaching in the classroom. This, of course, is no easy task and requires creativity and ingenuity on the part of the teacher! But it is definitely practical. I have observed teachers who are quite adept at finding out about the personal lives and interests of their students and helping them connect personal interests with classroom learning activities. • Build relationships with your students. This is another universal strategy; it works for all kids, and is especially effective in helping re-ignite the motivational flame with the unmotivated student. Connecting with the unmotivated student on a personal level can create a sometimes substantial positive shift in how the student views you as an adult and authority figure. I know firsthand from my experience as a child therapist that students who believe that an adult respects, is interested in, and cares about them personally are much more ready to listen to them. Whatever the topic of discussion might be! You gain leverage when you can develop a sincere, caring relationship with your students. Of course, this same universal principle holds for parents. Taking the extra time to really listen to the students' reasons for their perceived boredom, frustration, criticism and disapproval of school and school work helps build a trusting, deep and caring relationship with the students. Even the most disenfranchised and angry student is willing to at least listen to an adult who the student perceives as caring about him/her.

Professor Steven PFEIFFER Professor Steven Pfeiffer is a Professor at Florida State University, where he is also the Director of Clinical Training. Prior to his tenure at Florida State, Prof. Pfeiffer was a Professor at Duke University, where he served as the Executive Director of the "Duke Talent Identification Program" (TIP). Prof. Pfeiffer is also a certified and licensed psychologist. He provides counselling for gifted children and adolescents and their parents. Prof. Pfeiffer served two terms on the Board of the gifted organisation SENG (Supporting the Emotional Needs of the Gifted). He has authored almost 150 articles and books on social, emotional and behavioural issues in children and youth. He is the first author of the Gifted Rating Scales (GRS) which helps teachers to identify gifted students. He is the editor of "Handbook of Giftedness in Children", published in 2008. His newest book for school practitioners, "Serving the Gifted: Evidence-Based Clinical and Psychoeducational Practice", is published this year. Steven Pfeiffer 教授是美國佛羅里達州立 大學的教授及臨床訓練總監,他擔任現 職之前在美國杜克大學任職教授及該校 「才能鑑別計劃」的行政總裁。Pfeiffer 教 授是美國的註冊及持牌心理學家,他為 資優兒童、青少年和他們的父母提供輔 導及教育工作。 Pfeiffer 教授是美國「支援資優人士情緒 需要機構」(SENG) 的兩屆董事局成員。 他 撰 寫 約 150 篇 文 章 與 書 籍,內 容 涵 蓋兒童及青少年的社交、情感及行為事 宜。他是美國一份為教師提供參考的「鑑 別 資 優 評 量 表」 (GRS)首 位 編 撰。他 是 2008 年 出 版 的 Handbook of Giftedness in Children 的 編 輯。他 為 教 育 專 業 人 員 撰寫的新作 Serving the Gifted: EvidenceBased Clinical and Psycho-educational Practice,亦已於今年出版。

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [I]

There are many, many other motivational strategies and techniques that can re-ignite the motivational flame. Some are universal, others are not. What follows is we in the U.S. call a "baker's dozen":

• balance the assigned level of difficulty so that it is slightly above the student's current ability level; • make homework assignments stimulating, creative and enjoyable; don't assign stupid, boring or tedious homework that students prefer to ignore; • avoid threats and use praise and encouragement; • provide student options and choices that encourage a degree of student autonomy; • identify role models and mentors in the community who are willing to spend time with unmotivated students; • create learning agreements ("contracts") with unmotivated students; • provide opportunities for community activities and interaction with interesting members in the community with a wide variety of life experiences; • emphasise mastery and learning (a love for the "process" of learning) and de-emphasise focusing on grades and performance; • limit excessive or intense competition among gifted students and frequently highlight effort; • be excessively enthusiastic ("contagiously excited") about what you are teaching – "spread enthusiasm like a virus" to increase interest; • have open discussions with your students about what makes their best classes "most motivating" and see if you can apply ("steal") some of these ideas; • give early, concrete and immediate feedback, especially negative or corrective feedback, and be clear that your comments relate to the student's work, not the student; and • promote goodwill in your classroom and create an atmosphere that is open and positive, where students feel that they are valued members of the classroom community.

Notes: 1. Pfeiffer, S.I. & Jarosewich, T. (2003). Gifted rating scales. San Antonio, Texas: Pearson Assessment. http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8130-502&Mode=summary 2. Pfeiffer, S.I. (2012). Serving the gifted: Evidence-based clinical and psycho-educational practice. New York: Routledge Press. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415997508/ 3. Same as Note (2).

Reference: Pfeiffer, S.I. & Jarosewich, T. (2003). Gifted rating scales: Test manual (pp.7). San Antonio, Texas: Pearson Assessment.


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Steven Pfeiffer 教授專訪

燃點 資優生學習動機之火 問題

為何學習動機對培育資優生如此重要?在資優 教育的情景下,學習動機所指為何?

問以這問題開始真好!學習動機的確重要, 不僅對資優生,對所有學生都很重要。這點 好像不言而喻,但必須事先聲明。學習動機 啟動學習過程,故萬二分重要。在所有程度的學習活 動、對所有年齡的學生,學習動機一樣重要,對所有學 習者來說,不論是能力一般還是高能力,學習動機同等 重要。 一些高能力學生,彷彿天生熱愛學習,遇到智性挑戰 時,他們會顯得興致勃勃,躍躍欲試,求知慾望強烈。 他們彷彿熱愛具挑戰性的學習活動,哪管它是家課!一 個課室裏有這些學生當然與別不同,他們是「樣辦式」 資優生,猶如早期資優文獻所描繪的一樣。不過,並非 所有資優生都熱愛學習。 就算資優生進入研究院,教授都常評論學生各異的學習 動機。我負責講授的一個報名踴躍的研究班講座,每學 期都不乏有聰明絕頂的研究生報讀。我經常觀察到他們 之間的學習動機與付出的努力有着差別。我的觀點是: 並非所有高能力學生都有同樣的學習幹勁、堅毅精神、 努力或學習熱誠。就算是年幼的學生,學習動機也有極 大差異。 換言之,就算在同質分組的資優班,學生在幹勁、熱 忱、上進心、決心、堅毅精神及學習動機都有相當大的 差異。特別令資優教育工作者及家長感到困惑的是聰明

非常,潛質優厚,但學習動機低的學生。我謔稱這類資 優生為「雙尾生」(two-tail learners):能力在正常分佈的 上端;學習動機在正常分佈的下端!這些能力特高但動 機欠奉的學生極需協助,使他們微弱的動機之火得以重 燃,學習時感到興奮、有啟發、有動力。依我經驗,提 高這些學生的學習慾望不易。尋找合適的火花重燃他們 的學習動機才是挑戰。如何重燃他們學習動機之火,我 有一些看法欲與你及貴刊讀者分享。 許多讀者或許知道,「鑑別資優評量表」 (GRS)是用來 識別資優生。身為首席作者的我,刻意加入 12 項「學 習動機量度」,幫助教師評估學生學習動機。我們設計 GRS 時,並非如一些資優教育界領袖一樣,視學習動機 為資優的元素。我們知道極之早慧的學生,他們的學習 動機都可以有極大差別。我們在 GRS 測驗手冊(Pfeiffer 與 Jarosewich, 2003, p.7)中,界定「學習動機」為「學 生的幹勁或堅持不懈、求成之心、樂意執行富挑戰性工 作的心態、在無鼓勵或強化下表現出能幹」。GRS 發現 並非所有高度資優的學生具有同樣的學習熱忱、激情、 幹勁或堅毅精神。我認為評量學生的動機極為有用。我 們可通過有系統的評量,更了解甚至開始預測每位資優 生會付出的努力和應付具挑戰性工作時的投入程度。

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [I]

問題

可否闡釋學習動機與資優的關係?

如 我 早 前 提 過,亦 正 如 GRS 在 課 堂 上 的 用 途,我不視學習動機為資優的元素。不過, 儘管我的看法是較為與別不同,我仍深信, 如果我們期望資優生全面發展天賦才能,在不同界別都 能將才華發揮得淋漓盡致,動機及其相關構念、熱忱、 熱誠、挫折承受力等至關重要。我最近的著作正討論這 概念:學習動機是高能力學生全面發展才能的主要構成 部份。舉一個例,我研究美國精英年輕女子足球員時, 見證到學習動機如何將年輕球員一般的與特定的運動相 關能力,轉化成世界級冠軍的精湛球技。同樣情況亦發 生在課堂、科學實驗室、足球場或羽毛球場,在法庭或 手術室,或任何有文化價值的場境。學習動機極為重 要。 有關動機與學習的關係,早已有人提出理論和進行研 究。這些文獻資料豐富,在此不贅,現僅扼要簡述動機 理論界幾位重要人物。我認為他們的重要思想,直接影 響近代對動機與資優關係的思考。早期先驅包括 Henry Murray,他 寫 到 好 奇 心 是 天 生 動 機(1930 年 代), McClelland 與 Atkinson(1950 年 代)提 到 有 關「成 就 動

問題

機」概 念 的 意 見,Pavlov(1920 年 代)及 B.F. Skinner (1950-60 年代),率先對經典制約及操作/工具性學習 進行研究。動機論領域的重要人物還有提出「能力動機」 的 Robert White(1950 年 代),及 1960 年 代 DeCharm 對「自決」與學習的研究,促使「自我效能」、「探索行 為」及「學習動機」等概念的出現。 Deci 與 Ryan 的自決理論(1980 年代),提出天生對能 力、自主、關聯性的心理需要,成為「自主動機」(selfmotivation) 的基礎。他們的理論沒有直接提及成就動 機,卻清楚提及「內在動機」。大多數讀者很可能對這 個概念耳熟能詳。但凡非為外在獎勵而是為個人滿足感 的行為,即被視為受內在動機所激勵或驅動。這正與 「外在動機」相反,為外在誘因或獎勵而行者,受外在 動機驅使。另外幾位重要的動機理論學者包括提出「自 我效能」理論的 Bandura、提出「習得無助」及近期「習 得希望」理論的 Seligman,以及論述思維模式與人格理 論的 Carol Dweck。總括而言,這些動機理論家為我們 打下全面基礎,去了解以下的根本動機問題:「為何大 家會選擇這樣做?」

你會建議教師和前線教育工作者用甚麼激勵方法 或策略去令資優生投入學習?可否分享你提升 資優生學習動機的經驗嗎?

問題正好帶出議題的重點:如何燃起動機之 火,使資優生努力學習。適用於所有學生的 不二法門當然沒有,更遑論適合任何一位低 學習動機的高能力學生的策略。不過,有幾種激勵策略 及技巧確然有效。

不要急於重燃他那團火。我的臨牀經驗是,我們可能要 經過多月的反覆試驗方能找出青少年學習動機薄弱的主 因,以及有效的激勵策略。每位學生處境不同,故此需 要訂立個別化的動機介入計劃。以下是我認為能幫助 「雙尾資優生」的激勵方法:

這些策略與技巧,一些是普遍適用,對所有學生都有 ���,無論他們的學習模式或能力水平、所處地理位置、 性別或社會階級,同樣奏效!另一些激勵策略則限制較 多且效果有限,這些策略只會對一些資優生有效。我試 就兩種激勵策略 —「普遍適用」與「應用範圍與效果皆 有限」兩類列舉例子。

不要再讚孩子聰明。這是普遍適用的建議。這是對所有 學習動機出問題的學生的最重要原則,尤其是資優兒 童。這建議亦適用於家長與教師。家長與教師時常向高 智商兒童提及他們如何聰明。這些意願良好卻最終引起 問題的信息,不經意地向年輕人灌輸了他們很聰明,因 為他們有與別不同的腦袋,故毋須在學業上十分努力的 想法。這產生 Carol Dweck 教授所說的固定或實體智力 的自我觀念,聰明學生開始視本身的智力為天生註定, 一生不變。不知不覺中令他們相信不勞而獲也可,因為 他們認為既然要負出努力就不是真聰明了!較理想的做

每位資優生各有特點。深究資優生動機不足的原因,往 往反映出旺盛一時的動機之火,在多個因素共同影響下 會消磨殆盡。照顧動機之火不再熊熊燃燒的學生,緊記


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

法是:讓家長與教師明白他們需要向資優生不斷強調努 力與勤奮才是人生成功的關鍵。 給予經常、及早、正面的回應。這是上文提及非普遍適 用的激勵方法之一,對一些低學習動機學生十分有效, 但並不一定普遍適用。心理學視之為「行為」介入,此 又根據 Skinner 的強化理論及具實證支持的學習原則。 「行為介入法」應用於課堂教學,尤其是學生學習新事 物時,可增強學生自信,鼓勵學生鍛鍊堅毅性格,臨難 不懼,百折不撓,屢敗屢戰,鍥而不捨。應用這些及其 他研究為本的行為技巧,例如圖表、笑臉、紀念品及實 質的獎勵與誘因,一些資優生覺得被擺布、被控制甚至 感到此等方法虛偽。我臨牀實習時面對幾位資優兒童, 他們不滿善意的教師運用行為技巧,指他們是「扮老大 哥」和「口是心非」!我認為,運用行為技巧提升學習動 機必須謹慎。這些技巧很多時有效,但不是萬試萬靈。 幫學生在學習活動中尋找意義與價值。簡而言之,要令 資優生覺得「學習是真實的」。這對低動機的資優生尤 其重要。這是另一個「普遍適用」的激勵策略,適用於 所有兒童,無分男女、年齡、放諸四海皆準。要激發學 生的內在動機,教師設計的學習活動應令資優生覺得相 關而有意義。教師如果希望令學生學習變得真實而有意 義,應在課程與課堂活動中滲入「本地例子」、「時事」、 流行文化」等元素,並以具體、有意義、核心(非邊緣)

方式推行。想接觸得不到鼓勵、學習動機薄弱、「感到 煩悶」的資優生,這點無疑重要。教育工作者須將教授 中的主題與學生的個人興趣與現實世界連結起來。我們 需要找出他們的課外興趣,然後將之融入課堂中教授的 概念。這並非易事,需要教師發揮創意與別出心裁的本 領,但肯定是可行之策。我觀察到一些教師,十分擅長 揣摩學生個人生活和興趣,然後將之與課堂學習活動融 合。 與學生建立關係。這是另一種普遍適用策略,對所有兒 童都有用,尤其對需要激活學習動機的學生而言更甚。 對學習動機未明的學生而言,了解他們的個人生活,可 令他們對你大大改觀,視你為權威的成年人。我以兒 童治療師身份,親身了解到獲得成年人尊重、注意、重 視的學生會特別願意聆聽成人的說話,不論討論主題為 何!能與學生發展真誠而充滿關懷的關係,你的影響力 會增加。這策略同樣適用於家長。撥出時間聆聽子女解 釋感到沉悶和氣餒的原因,以及對學校和功課的批評和 不滿,有助建立互相信任、深厚和充滿關切的關係。就 算最無社會歸屬感,最憤怒的學生,都願意聆聽關懷他 的成年人的說話。

激發學習動機的策略與技巧林林總總,當中一些 普遍適用,一些不然。 以下是美國人所謂的「麵包師的一打加一條」: ˙

調節難度,使之稍高於學生當時的能力水平;

˙

增加家課的啟發性,使其更有創意、更令學生樂意完成;不要給予無聊、沉悶乏味而會令學生不屑 一顧的家課;

˙

避免恐嚇學生,應多讚賞鼓勵;

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給學生選擇,讓學生有一定程度的自主;

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尋找願意與學習動機未明學生相處的社會榜樣與良師;

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與學習動機未明學生訂定學習「契約」;

˙

提供參與社區活動、與閱歷豐富的社會人士交流的機會;

˙

強調通達與學習(對學習過程的喜愛),淡化分數與表現的重要性;

˙

限制資優生之間過份或劇烈的競爭,經常強調所付出的努力;

˙

要全情投入(「興奮得能感染他人」)你所教授的主題,如病毒般散播學習熱誠,提高興趣;

˙

與學生暢談如何令課堂「最能激發學習動機」,從中向他們「偷師」,研究學生建議是否可行。

˙

給予及早、具體、即時的回應,尤其是負面的或修正性的,事先聲明評語只是針對學生的作業而不 對人;

˙

營造開放正面的良好氣氛,令學生產生歸屬感,感到受重視。

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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [II]

Professor Del Siegle, Ph.D Department Head, Educational Psychology University of Connecticut

Tips for

Motivating Gifted Students Individuals are motivated to achieve for a variety of reasons. What inspires one student to put forth effort and achieve may not motivate another. Although unmotivated students differ from each other on the reasons why they fail to embrace achievement (McCoach & Siegle, 2003), those who are achievement oriented appear to share three beliefs and exhibit a shared resulting behaviour (Siegle & McCoach, 2005). First, successful students are confident that they have the skills to be successful. Second, they find their school experiences meaningful. Finally, they expect to succeed, and they trust that their environment and their significant others in it will support their efforts.

When students have positive perceptions of their skills, value the task or outcome, and believe there are opportunities for success, they are more likely to set realistic expectations for themselves and apply appropriate strategies that ensure their academic success. In other words, motivated students find ways to answer "Yes" to the following three questions:

Am I smart enough?

Is this important to me?

Can I be successful here?


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

"Am I Smart Enough?" – Motivation Tips to Recognise Growth

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Professor Del Siegle, Ph.D Department Head, Educational Psychology University of Connecticut

Del Siegle 教授

Before attempting any task, individuals must believe they have the necessary skills or ability to perform it. This is true whether individuals are auditioning for a play or tackling a difficult mathematics problem. This confidence is referred to as self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986). Although a number of factors influence students' confidence to tackle challenging situations, their past performance and the performances of others around them have dramatic effects. The common saying, "Success breeds success" hits the mark with self-efficacy. Students who have been successful in the past will tend to believe that they can be successful in the future. Unfortunately, students who have previously performed below their own or others' expectations probably lack confidence in their skills and may believe they are not good enough to succeed at challenging tasks. Teachers can increase students' confidence by helping them to recognise their past successes and the role that effort played in their achievements. For example, teachers can keep samples of students' work throughout the year and periodically review this previous work with students. At the end of the school year, when students review their work from the beginning of the year, they are amazed how easy that earlier work now appears. Student portfolios can effectively be used to help students recognise their growth and improvement. Video recording is another useful method. For example, a young student who has been practising solo verse speaking for a number of months may not believe she has been making any progress. However, the student will notice striking differences in her performance when comparing a recently recorded performance with one that was recorded six months or in past years. Charting the progress of various activities such as the student's progress in mastering multiplication or addition facts can let students visualise the new accomplishments while enjoying updating their charts. Students become aware of the progress they are making with each update. By helping students acknowledge their past growth, teachers help promote future growth. Teachers can also verbally recognise students' progress. Successful students are those students that understand they have the skills to do well while simultaneously recognising the important role effort plays in high levels of achievement. Therefore, including acknowledgement of students' skills and attributions of their growth in specific feedback and compliments can reveal what they do or master well. Praise such as "Good work!" provides students with very little information about what they did well and does little to help them recognise their ability or to help build their confidence that they have ability. Compliments should be specific in terms of skills development, for example, "You've learned to include appropriate topic sentences in each paragraph you write." By using phrases such as "you have learned," "you are becoming," and "your practice paid off," teachers are sending students messages that the students themselves are responsible for their skill development and the skills they currently possess. With additional effort, students can also be responsible for acquisition of future skills.

康涅狄格大學 教育心理學系主任

Dr Del Siegle is a professor and the Head of the Department of Educational Psychology in the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut. Prior to earning his PhD, Del worked as a gifted and talented coordinator in Montana. He is a past president of the National Association for Gifted Children. He is the co-editor of Gifted Child Quarterly and authors a technology column for Gifted Child Today. Dr. Siegle is also coauthor with Gary Davis and Sylvia Rimm of the popular textbook, Education of the Gifted and Talented. As a former teacher, and now university professor, Dr. Siegle has spent two decades addressing the issue of gifted underachievers and exploring ways to teach with technology. Del Siegle 博士為美國康涅狄格大學內亞 教育學院教育心理學系教授兼系主任。 他是美國全國資優兒童協會前會長,並 曾任蒙大拿州資優教育統籌員。他現任 Gifted Child Quarterly 編 輯 及 Gifted Child Today 期 刊 科 技 專 欄 作 者。Siegle 博 士 與 Gary Davis、Sylvia Rimm 等 學 者 合 著 Education of the Gifted and Talented。 Siegle 博士執教鞭多年,現為大學教授, 已用二十年研究潛能未展資優生問題並 探討科技教學之法。

Am I smart enough?


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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [II]

"Is This Important to Me?" – Motivation Tips to Make Learning Meaningful Students find their school tasks meaningful for a variety of reasons, and these reasons can vary from one student to another. For example, one student in a language arts class may work for top grades because she wants to attend a prestigious college or earn an important college scholarship. She perceives herself as a good student and this identity motivates her to work hard for achieving. A second student may be hoping to become a writer and wants to sharpen his writing skills which become a powerful motivator for academic achievement. A third student may simply enjoy and be interested in writing. Although each of these students is motivated to achieve in language arts, each is motivated to do well for a different reason. Educators can make school more meaningful for students and increase student motivation by capitalising on these motivating factors. Understanding and helping students see beyond an immediate task to its long-term benefits through setting short and long-term goals is an effective strategy. Teachers can begin every lesson with an explanation of how the information students are learning is useful and why students are learning it. What students wish to achieve in the future certainly influences the effort they place on current tasks which echoed with Friedrich Nietzsche's saying a century ago that "the future influences the present as much as the past." Short-term goals are generally more effective with young people who sometimes have trouble relating to longer-term goals. The purpose is to help students who do not particularly enjoy an academic task recognise a positive outcome it produces and make school more meaningful.

what occurred before and after them. An example is I am impressed with digital cameras. However, young people who are interested in photography do not share my awe because they have only known the digital medium and film is foreign to them. Once they recognise what came before digital photography, what was happening at the time digital photography was developed, and the effects of digital photography, they will have a greater appreciation for it. This principle can be applied to any new content students are asked to embrace (Kaplan, 2006). Finally, there are times when rewarding students for doing well is the best motivator. Educators should avoid providing rewards when students are already motivated to perform tasks. Developing a reward system for an intrinsically motivated student can actually be detrimental for that student's longterm intrinsic motivation. On the other hand, when students are not motivated and other strategies such as setting goals or exploring student interests are ineffective, a reward system for completing work and performing well can be useful. Rewards should be used sparingly, however, and students should be weaned off them as they gain confidence and appreciation for performing the task.

Is this important to me?

Educators should pay attention to student interests. Interest is one of the strongest self-reported predictors of achievement across a wide variety of domains (Siegle, Rubenstein, Pollard & Romey, 2010). When students are interested in topics, they tend to excel at them. Educators can be aware of students' interests and tie those interests to the topics students are learning. In addition, educators can inform parents of the ways to encourage their children to incorporate their interests into their school projects. School topics become more meaningful when students understand

Because gifted students often master their school content earlier than other students, educators can provide engaging material that is optimally challenging to make learning more meaningful. Classroom activities should be appropriate to students' current knowledge and skill levels and, like all learning, be designed to be intellectually stimulating. Offering students a choice of tasks to complete can also be an effective strategy for engaging students. Students appreciate being given options even when the options reflect equally challenging tasks.


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"Can I be Successful Here?" – Motivation Tips to Help Students Expect Success Students must believe they have the prerequisite skills to perform a task and recognise the importance of attempting the task. These two attitudes are not sufficient motivators by themselves. Students' view of their supportive learning environment should also be considered. They must perceive their learning environment as friendly and likely to support a positive outcome if they put forth effort. Successful students believe that environmental factors such as parents, teachers, peers, and the curriculum support their effort and do not prevent them from being successful. Phrases such as "You don’t understand," "I can’t learn the way he teaches," or "It doesn't matter what I do, I won’t be successful," are indicators that students do not view their learning environment as friendly and result in not believing they can succeed even if they try. Students' perceptions of the support they are receiving in their environment may or may not be accurate. For example, the learning environment is not always supportive of gifted students when some teachers are threatened by gifted students. In some situations, low motivation may represent a coping strategy whereby students strive to adapt to an anti-intellectual school environment (Cross, 1997). They may reveal the curriculum is not appropriate. There are three options for students inhabiting an unfriendly environment: change their behaviour to be successful in the environment, change the environment to meet their needs, or find a more appropriate environment where they can be successful. Robert Sternberg (2001) has suggested that wisdom involves determining which of these three options will most likely lead to success for the individual. Support and assistance to handle the changes are essential to both

students and teachers. Teachers and supporting school practitioners can discuss with gifted students what is within their control, what is not within their control, and the best option for being successful.

Can I be successful here?

Students should also realise that their perceptions of the situation might be distorted. One successful strategy for addressing this is a technique called active listening, which involves paraphrasing back to the student what he or she says. The purpose is threefold. First, it lets the student know that the listener is interested in what the student is saying. Second, it is meant to clarify for the listener what the student is saying to ensure that the listener actually does understand. Third, it allows the student to reflect on and clarify what he or she is saying. Through this reflective process, the student and listener often come to understand hidden issues that may be bothering the student.

Concluding Remarks No single strategy works with every student but the combination of strategies presented here can help increase the awareness about how to motivate gifted and talented students. Changing motivation patterns takes time and the decision to achieve lies ultimately with the student. However, with the support of caring teachers, parents, and friends, unmotivated gifted students can change their behavior and go on to lead fulfilling lives.

References Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Cross, T. L. (1997). Psychological and social aspects of educating gifted students. Peabody Journal of Education, 72, 180-200. Kaplan, S. (2006, July). Gifted students in a contemporary society: Implications for curriculum. Keynote at the 29th Annual University of Connecticut Confratute, Storrs, CT. McCoach, D. B., & Siegle, D. (2003). Factors that differentiate underachieving students from achieving students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 47, 144-154. Siegle, D., & McCoach, D. B. (2005). Motivating gifted students. Waco, TX: Prufrock. Siegle, D., Rubenstein, L. D., Pollard, E., & Romey, E. (2010). Exploring the relationship of college freshman honors students' effort and ability attribution, interest, and implicit theory of intelligence with perceived ability. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54, 92-101. Sternberg, R. J. (2001, July). Successful intelligence. Boise, ID: Annual Edufest Institute.


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FEATURE ARTICLE 專題文章 [II]

Del Siegle 教授 康涅狄格大學 教育心理學系主任

激勵資優生的竅門 人為各種理由發奮達成目標。能令一位學生發奮圖強的策略,對另一位可能亳無效果。雖然欠缺動 機的學生之未能達成目的原因各異(McCoach & Siegle,2003),但以成就主導的學生都不約而同懷 有三種信念,並體現一種共通行為(Siegle & McCoach,2005): 第一,出色學生胸有成竹,掌握達至成功的技巧。 第二,他們覺得學校學習經歷很有意義。 最後,他們預期自己會成功,相信周遭環境以及對其重要的人會支持其付出的努力。

只 要 學 生 對 自 己 的 技 能 滿 有 信 心, 重視工作 / 課業或成果,相信有成功 機 會,他 們 就 會 定 下 合 理 目 標,運 用 適 當 策 略 確 保 學 業 順 利 (academic success)。換言之,受激勵而發奮的學 生會設法對以下三個問題都答「是」:

我夠

這對我

我可以

聰明嗎?

重要嗎?

成功嗎?

「我夠聰明嗎?」— 肯定學生進步的 激勵竅門

任何人試做任何工作 前,不 管 是 參 加 話 劇 面試或是解答數學難 題,須 相 信 自 己 具 有 執行那份工作的所 需技巧或能力。這份信心稱為「自我效能」 (Bandura, 1986)。學生應付困境的信心固然受多個因素影響,當 中以學生本身的過往表現及周遭人士的表現最具影響。 所謂「一順百順,一通百通」,正是「自我效能」之意。 嘗過成功滋味的學生會相信自己今後也會成功;曾經讓 自己或身邊的人失望的學生,對自己的技能缺乏信心, 認為自己無力應付艱巨工作。 教師可透過幫助學生肯定過往成就及當中所付出的努 力,以增加他們的信心。例如,教師可於學期內抽樣保 存學生的作業並定期與學生重溫,學期終時學生會赫然 發現之前的作業有多容易。選用學生作品集 / 學習檔案 可幫學生了解他們的成長與進度。另一實用方法是錄 影。舉例說,已練習個人讀誦數月的年幼學生未必相信

自己一直有進步。不過,當她將近期表現的片段與先前 數月拍下的錄影片段比較,就會發現自己的表現有顯著 分別。讓學生用圖表記錄學習活動的進度,如乘法或加 法學習,令學生樂於更新紀錄之餘,亦能對本身進度一 目了然。教師幫助學生肯定過往的進展,可促使學生今 後繼續進步。 教師也可口頭肯定學生的進度。成功的學生既明白自己 表現出色因具備應有技能,亦知道必須付出努力方能 達到更高成就。因此,對學生的反饋意見與讚許,如能 做到具體明確,例如認同學生的技能及進步原因,就更 能顯出學生的長處和才華。「做得好!」之類的讚譽對 學生來說太過空泛,他們根本無法知道並肯定自己的長 處,亦無助他們建立自信心。讚美應具體提及學生的技 能發展,例如:「你學會在每段寫入合適的主題句。」教 師可透過多說「你學會了」、「你變得」、「你的苦練有回 報」之類的話,讓學生知道須為自己的技能發展及現有 技能作出承擔,只要加倍努力,亦可肩負學習新技能的 責任。


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「這對我重要嗎?」— 讓學習變得有意義的 激勵竅門

學生因不同理由覺 得學校課業有意 義。例如,一位學 生會為了入讀名校 或獲取重要的大學 獎學金,而全力於語文科爭取高分。她視自己為好學 生,而這個身份驅使她努力做好任何學校課業。另一位 學生則希望成為作家而鍛鍊寫作技巧,興趣正成為激勵 他追求學業成就的有力手段。第三位學生純粹享受寫 作,並視之為興趣。雖然以上學生都在語文科追求好成 績,但發奮理由各異。 教育工作者可利用激勵因素,使學生覺得上學具有意 義,提升學生的學習動機。為當下課業定立短期和長期 目標能有效幫助學生預視課業的長遠好處。教師可在每 課開始時先向學生解釋所學知識的用途與學習原因。學 生將來的抱負如何,正正影響其為目前工作付出多少 努力,正如尼采於一個世紀多之前提出「將來對現在與 過去的影響一樣大。」有著異曲同工之感。定立短期目 標對年輕人通常較有效,因年輕人有時難以定出長期目 標,而短期目標旨在幫助不甚好學的學生,了解課業帶 出的正面成果,使他們覺得上學更具意義。 教育工作者應注意學生的興趣。興趣是預測學生在多個 範疇成就的最強自報指標(Siegle、Rubenstein、Pollard & Romey,2010)。學生對其有興趣的主題通常也表現 卓越。教師可告知家長們如何鼓勵子女將興趣融入學校

「我可以成功嗎?」— 幫助學生預期成功的 激勵竅門

學生須相信他們 有 必 備 技 能,以 及認同嘗試的重 要 性。但 這 兩 種 態度不足以驅使 學生發奮,學生對學習環境能否提供支援的觀感同樣舉 足輕重。學生須覺得學習環境有利他們發揮所長,並覺 得付出努力後會有成果。成功學生相信環境因素如家 長、教師、同儕及課程都有助他們付出努力,並且無阻 他們邁向成功。「你不懂」、「我不能從老師的教學方法 學到甚麼」或「無論我做甚麼,我都不會成功」之類的 話,均顯示學生並不認為學習環境有利,導致就算嘗試 了都不會成功的想法。 學生對環境支援的感覺未必準確。例如有些教師被資優 生嚇怕了,學習環境就不一定對資優生有利。在某些處

的專題研習。教育工作者可留意學生的興趣,並將之與 教學主題作連結。當學生了解學校所教授的主題及學習 目的的前因後果,學生就覺得上學更有意義。例子之一 是我對數碼相機印象深刻,但醉心攝影的年輕人並不如 我般感到驚奇,因為他們人生只有數碼媒體,未曾經歷 過用菲林年代。只要他們知道數碼攝影時代之前的事, 數碼攝影興起時的情況,數碼攝影的影響力等,就會懂 得對數碼攝影多一分欣賞。這原則適用於向學生教授任 何新知識(Kaplan,2006)。 最後,獎勵表現良好的學生有時可能是最奏效的激勵方 法。教育工作者應避免向已有奮鬥動機的學生再給予獎 勵。為已受內在動機激發的學生設立獎勵制度,效果只 會適得其反,損害他的長遠內在動機。若然學生已失去 學習動機,或者制定目標、探索學生興趣等策略一旦無 效,獎勵制度則不妨一用,鼓勵學生完成作業,盡力而 為。獎勵策略應慎用,在學生信心增強並獲得讚賞後, 獎勵可慢慢減少,以免學生產生倚賴。 資優生較其他同學早通曉學校課程內容,教育工作者亦 應提供具吸引力並具挑戰性的教材,讓他們覺得學習 更有意義。課堂活動設計上應配合學生的知識與技能水 平,並像設計所有學習活動一樣能啟發學習及作智性挑 戰。給予學生課業類型選擇亦是吸引學生的另一有效策 略。可選擇的課業類型縱然同樣艱難,但學生對於有選 擇權仍會感到欣喜。

境下,低動機可能是學生竭力適應反智學校環境的對策 (Cross, 1997),或反映課程之不恰當。當學生身處對 他們不利的環境時會有三個選擇:改變行為適應環境、 改變環境迎合他們需要,或者找一個更合適的環境讓他 能 夠 發 揮。Robert Sternberg(2001)認 為 能 決 定 哪 一 個選擇可邁向成功是種智慧。教師與學生均需支持與協 助。教育工作者及其他支援 / 專業同工可與資優生討論 甚麼是控制範圍之內,甚麼不是,再選出能達至成功的 最佳出路。 學生亦應明白他們對處境的理解可能扭曲了。幫助學生 處理這情況的成功策略之一是積極聆聽,它包括重述學 生說的話。這做法目的有三,第一,讓學生知道聆聽者 對學生的說話感興趣。第二,確保聆聽者沒有誤解學生 的說話。第三,讓學生反思並釐清他說的話,從而讓雙 方能對困擾着學生的潛藏問題有所理解。

結語 激勵學生的策略不一而足。本文提及的各種策略冀能提升大家對激勵資優生的意識。改變激勵模式需時,追求 成就與否最終由學生決定。不過,欠缺動機的資優生在充滿關懷的教師、家長和朋友的支持下定可改變行為, 活出美滿人生。

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資優教育的規劃及專業團隊的準備 天主教聖安德肋小學分享 洪美華副校長

顧學習差異,因材施教,歷來是教育工作者的其中一項重要職能。本文訪問了一位曾修讀由香港資優教育 學苑舉辦的「資優教育進階課程:領導與管理」的學員 — 洪美華副校長,分享她任教學校以照顧學習差異 作切入點,推動及發展資優教育的情況,並闡述「資優教育教師專業發展新架構」1 如何幫助她規劃該校教 師專業發展之路。

開展資優教育的切入點 一切由照顧學習差異開始 回顧學校推動資優教育的原因,洪副校長指出主要的 原動力是來自照顧學生的個別需要和提升他們學習動 機。她形容該校開辦初期學生個別差異較大,自 20052006 學年開始實施下午課時以能力分組,希望讓不同 能力的學生在學科上得到更適切的照顧及發揮。此外同 事們亦覺察到以往較專注於「保底」工作,但班中不乏 高能力或具有不同資賦優異學生,他們的需要亦不容忽 視,因此大家認同透過發展各類「資優培育」課程,讓 學生盡展所長。洪副校長強調學校的專業團隊對「資優」 認識與認同,有助學校開展資優教育的工作,亦成為推 動教師發展資優教育課程的動力。

發展校本資優教育政策及推行情况 上文提及天主教聖安德肋小學自 2005-2006 學年開始 ( 即開校第二個學年 ) 已設有機制照顧校內學生的學習

差異,讓不同能力的學生 ( 包括高能力 / 資優學生 ) 在學 習上得到更適切的照顧及發揮。洪副校長表示該校在檢 視校情後,建基於學校已有照顧學習差異的經驗,選擇 在一般課堂推行試點課程,將科組學習與資優教育元素 結合,在為所有學生而設的課程中滲入「資優教育三大 元素」2,即高層次思維技巧、創造力和個人及社交能 力。並根據教育局建議的資優教育「三層架構」3 模式推 展。學校希望透過普及資優教育,使所有學生受惠,並 提高學與教質素。 經過數年的試行期及成效檢討,該校於 2008- 2009 學 年將校本資優教育計劃提升至校政層面,開始設「資優 小組」( 行政組別)並將之納入學校常設組別,負責策劃 推動校本資優教育課程,而且將資優教育發展制定為全 校「關注事項」。以下為該校推展資優教育的持續發展 階段 ( 見表一):


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

階段一:醞釀及構思 特色:

建基於學校已有的經驗

2005-2006

檢討: ➣ 教師發現高能力組別學生能力及學習動機比預期高 → 在一般課堂中加以關注及照顧 ➣ 課外活動小組表現出色 → 發掘不同才能的學生加以培育

階段二:推行資優教育試點課程 特色:

科組學習與資優教育元素結合 ➣ 優化按能力分組的「智能增值課」(VIP) 課程 ˙ 在一般課堂內加入資優教育的三大元素,即第一層次 ( 全班式一般性增潤 ) 課程 ➣ 逢循環周六進行科本活動、訓練思維策略等的「SMART」課程等

階段三:反思及自我改善 2008-2009

➣ 檢視校本資優教育計劃 ➣ 加強「校本資優小組」成效,籌建「人才庫」,協調人力資源分配

階段四:提升至校政層面 2008-2012

➣ 開始設「資優小組」( 行政組別) ˙ 為學校常設組別,負責策劃推動校本資優教育課程,擴展不同推行層次的 ( 全班式 及抽離式 ) 資優教育課程 例如:數學小博士、English Superkids、領袖培訓、視藝小精英 ˙ 小組成員須定期開會,商討及策劃資優教育課程的工作,並監察工作進度

特色:

➣ 將校本資優教育發展制定為全校「關注事項」 ˙ 提升至校政層面 ˙ 鞏固經驗:提問技巧、資優教育三大元素 ˙ 凝聚力量:行政配合、共同研發 ˙ 協作發展課程

表一 天主教聖安德肋小學 校本資優教育的持續發展階段 * 請登入學校網站查閱詳情。網址:http://www.sacps.edu.hk/academic/gifted_education/index.html

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FRONTLINE SHARING 前線分享

「資優教育教師專業發展新架構」的啟示 洪副校長表示校方深明加強教師對資優教育的認識,以 及提升教師的專業教學水平之重要性。故此在推出這個 「資優教育教師專業發展新架構」之前,她與學務主任 定期留意教育局及香港資優教育學苑舉辦的課程,從而 選擇報讀一些配合校情發展的課程,回校後與同事分享 當中的得着。現時有了這個新架構,擔任不同職能的同 事可更清晰看到自己在資優教育方面的專業發展途徑, 對他們的專業成長及職業發展很有幫助! 另一方面,這個架構亦有助學校管理層 / 校內「資優教 育專責小組」規劃有關方面的教師專業發展。洪副校長 認為新架構可幫助她為學校不同職能的同事規劃資優教 育專業發展的優次。她並強調全校的專業團隊對資優教 育有基礎認識,則有利學校擬定共同的發展目標和願 景,以及建立共同的語言和共識。由這個學期開始, 她已經鼓勵同事先修讀「資優教育基礎課程 ( 網上學 習 )」 ,預期全體同工將會於兩年內完成這個網上課程, 為推展資優教育作好準備。至於負責統籌及管理資優教 育發展的同事,她亦會推介他們繼續修讀新架構中的進 階及深造課程,因為她本人於數月前已完成「資優教育 進階課程:領導與管理」,在課程中透過與導師及他校 同工互動交流,獲取在規劃、實踐、評鑑資優教育課程 各方面的啟發,以優化該校現有發展資優教育的機制與 安排。在這個新架構下,不同職能的學校專業同工可因 應校情及各自職能上的需要計劃資優教育的專業發展之 路。 相片及資料提供:天主教聖安德肋小學

註 1: 教育局資優教育組及香港資優教育學苑協力制定了一個「資優教育教師專業發展新架構」,藉以配合學校各主要持份者推行校本資優 教育的需要,提供不同的專業發展途徑。這新架構下的課程已於 2012 年2月開始接受報名。請登入學苑網站內的「教師園地」查閱 詳情。網址:www.hkage.org.hk 註 2: 有關「資優教育三大元素」的詳細解說,請登入教育局資優教育組網頁 http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/TC/Content_3640/app_1.pdf 查閱有關詳情。 註 3: 有關教育局建議的資優教育「三層架構」推行模式的解說,請查閱以下網頁 www.edb.gov.hk/cd/ge


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Frontline Sharing by St. Andrew’s Catholic Primary School: Gifted Education Implementation and Readiness of the Professional Staff (Summary)

C

atering for learner diversity is always one of the key responsibilities of educators. In this issue, we interviewed Ms Hung Mei Wah, Vice-Principal of St. Andrew’s Catholic Primary School, who had taken our "Intermediate Course in Gifted Education: Leadership and Management", to share about the gifted education (GE) implementation and development in her school with the use of catering for students’ individual needs as an entry point. Ms Hung also shared how the new Professional Development Framework in GE1 helped her plan the GE professional development for her colleagues.

class teaching). Thereafter, the three core GE elements, including higher order thinking, creativity as well as personal and social competence, have been infused into different academic subjects as the school-based pilot GE programmes. After a few years of implementation and the review of the positive impacts on students' learning, the school decided to formalise the GE development in the school development plan and established a "GE Team/Core Group" to oversee all related matters including developing the school-based policy, planning, monitoring and evaluating various GE programmes3.

GE Entry Point

Insights from the New Professional Development Framework in GE

Catering for learner diversity had been the major concern of the school since its second academic year (i.e. 2005-2006 school year). Students were re-grouped in accordance with their abilities in different academic subjects to attend the afternoon class in which teachers observed that the needs of those high ability groups had not yet been met. Recognising the individual needs and diverse talents of students, all teachers of the school agreed to provide students with appropriate support and challenges in their regular teaching. Hence, it was natural to kick off the GE development in her school by an entry point of catering for students' individual needs and developing their potential.

Development of School-based GE Policy and its Implementation 2

By adopting the three-tier operation mode recommended by the Education Bureau (EDB), the school planned to start with the enhancement of all students' learning at Level 1 (whole-

Ms Hung highlighted that the new Professional D e ve l o p m e nt Fra m e wo r k p rov i d e d h e r a n d h e r colleagues with a clear picture to plan their GE professional development. In order to develop the common language and shared vision amongst the staff members, Ms Hung has encouraged all her colleagues to attain the basic knowledge in GE by taking the "Foundation Course in GE (Online Learning)". For those GE Team members and other middle managers of the school, she would recommend them to continue the professional development pathways by participating in the intermediate and advanced courses organised by the HKAGE and the EDB respectively. At last, Ms Hung reiterated the importance of empowering her colleagues with the understanding of giftedness and the professional knowledge and skills so as to facilitate sustainable development of GE in the school.

Notes: 1 New Professional Development Framework in GE The EDB and the HKAGE have jointly established a new professional development framework in GE for all school practitioners since February 2012. Please visit the "Teacher Zone" of the Academy's website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 2 Three-tier operation mode: For details of the description, please visit the EDB's website: http://www.edb.gov.hk/cd/ge_e 3 More information about the GE programmes of the school is available at the school's website: http://www.sacps.edu.hk/academic/gifted_education/index.html

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NEWS BITES 要聞剪影

News Bites 要聞剪影 Teacher Professional Development Programmes 教師專業發展課程(6/2012 – 11/2012) Professional Development Framework Courses 教師專業發展架構課程 The HKAGE and the Gifted Education Section of the Education Bureau (EDB) jointly established a new Professional Development Framework in Gifted Education (GE) in February 2012. Under the new framework, several flexible and sustainable professional development pathways are provided to address the needs of the school stakeholder groups in gifted education and to facilitate sustainable development of gifted education in schools. Our Academy offers various professional development programmes for all in-service primary and secondary school practitioners. For instance, a flexible online learning course entitled "Foundation Course in Gifted Education" and the "Intermediate Course in Gifted Education: Leadership and Management" for GE managers and coordinators are provided. 香港資優教育學苑及教育局資優教育組已於 2012 年 2 月為全港教師制定了一個資優教育教師專業發展架構。新架構 旨在為配合各學校持份者推行校本資優教育的需要,提供多種靈活兼持續的專業發展途徑,以促進校本資優教育的 持續發展。在這新架構下,本學苑負責為在職中、小學專業同工提供不同的專業發展課程,當中包括學習時間靈活 的「資優教育基礎課程 ( 網上學習 )」和專為在校負責管理或統籌資優教育同工而設的「資優教育進階課程:領導與管 理」。

Foundation Course in Gifted Education (Online Learning: 4 modules)(All year round) 資優教育基礎課程(網上學習:四個單元) (任何時間) This foundation course provides in-service primary and secondary school practitioners with a pathway to acquire the essential and fundamental knowledge and skills in gifted education and to increase awareness of catering for the needs of gifted learners. It consists of four online modules including Conceptions of Giftedness, Gifted Characteristics, Identification and GE Provisions and Curriculum. In the learning modules, participants will go through diverse interactive activities like reading feature articles, watching videos, forum discussion, writing reflections, browsing websites and so forth. All participants on successful completion of the course can proceed to the “Intermediate Course on GE Leadership and Management” and / or the enhancement courses in GE offered by the HKAGE and the EDB respectively. Being a flexible learning platform in learning pace and time, the course has attracted over 1,000 educators since its launching in February 2012. 這個基礎課程為在職中、小學同工提供一個讓他們掌握資優教育之基礎知識與技能的渠道,並且讓學校專業 同工關注照顧資優生的需要。課程由四個網上學習單元組成,包括資優概念、資優特質、識別資優,以及資 優培育安排及課程。互動學習活動包括閱讀專題文章、觀看影片、互動討論、撰寫反思及瀏覽相關網站等。 成功修畢此課程的學員可繼續進修由本學苑主辦的「資優教育進階課程:領導與管理」及 / 或由教育局提供的 資優教育增益課程。此網上學習模式能為前線同工提供一個富彈性的學習平台,亦可讓參加者靈活安排學習 進度與時間,故此這課程自 2012 年 2 月推出後,已吸引逾 1,000 位教育同工修讀。


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Intermediate Course in Gifted Education: Leadership and Management (To be held in Feb, Jul, Oct and Dec each year) 資優教育進階課程:領導與管理(每年二月、七月、十月及十二月舉辦) After the completion of the Foundation Course, the GE development key drivers (GE Managers and GE Coordinators) in school can be enabled to initiate GE provision in schools from the perspectives of leaders and management roles by taking the Intermediate Course in GE. Comprising three themes including Educational Planning and Evaluation for Gifted Learners, Differentiation and Instructional Strategies and Leadership for Change in GE, the course aims at: > empowering the participants by acquiring knowledge and skills to facilitate change in school for GE; > acquiring practical strategies in planning and monitoring GE programmes in school; > exploring the principles and strategies of differentiation to cater for gifted learners’ needs; and > evaluating the outcomes of GE development under a whole-school approach. The course is organised in February, July, October and December each year. The Intermediate Course is the prerequisite of taking the advance courses in GE offered by the Education Bureau. Following the professional development pathway, teachers can become professional GE practitioners. 完成基礎課程後,校內資優教育發展的主要推動者 ( 即資優教育行政主管及資優 教育統籌主任或科主任 ) 可透過參加由本學苑主辦的進階課程繼續進修,更深 入了解作為領導者及管理層如何在學校內推行資優教育。進階課程包括三個學 習主題:配合資優生需要的教育規劃及評鑑、適異性課程與教學的實務策略及 領導學校發展資優教育。課程旨在讓主要推動者能更掌握推動校內資優教育發 展或改進的知識與技巧、計劃與管理校內資優教育服務的實用策略、認識適合 資優生需要的適異性課程原則與策略,以及了解如何評鑑以全校參與模式開展 的資優教育發展成效。這個進階課程於每年二月、七月、十月及十二月舉辦。 完成此課程後,學員可繼續參加由教育局資優教育組舉辦的深造課程,持續專業發展,成為專業的資優教育 實踐者。 Feedback from participant 學員回饋: This course helps me understand more about the strategies of monitoring the development of gifted education (GE), especially the ways to implement GE policy and establish the talent pool. The importance of close linkage amongst programme objectives, student selection, learning assessment and the training/provisions given was highly emphasised in the course. The course tutor could explain clearly and facilitate the participants to explore the purposes and ways of differentiation in great depth effectively. Through cooperative learning, interactive discussion amongst the participants on the strengths and limitations of using differentiation were enhanced. In addition, I admired much how the tutor helped us consolidate the success factors of differentiation by using a video clip. On the whole, I was very much impressed by the well-designed and prepared programme and the sincere guidance by each tutor. We learnt a lot and were fully engaged in the course. Thank you so much! 此課程加深我對資優教育的管理策略和方法的認識,特別是如何落實校本資優教育政策及建立人才庫的形式。課程內容更強調資 優教育的目標、甄選、學習評估及培訓緊扣關係的重要性。 導師能清晰及有效地引導學員深入探討適異性教學的目的及方法。透過合作學習,學員互相討論適異性教學之優點及限制。我亦 很欣賞導師透過一段短片,讓學員分析和掌握推行適異性教學的成功因素。 整體來說,我十分欣賞各導師精心設計及準備此進階課程,還有他們的真誠引導,使我們投入學習,獲益良多。本人衷心致謝! by Ms Wong Kit Lin, Principal of Baptist Lui Ming Choi Primary School 由浸信會呂明才小學黄潔蓮校長提供

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NEWS BITES 要聞剪影

Thematic Past Events (June – November 2012) 已舉辦專題課程(2012年6月至11月) Seminar 專題講座

Overview of Affective Needs of Gifted Learners 資優生情意需要概覽 •

15 June 2012 (Primary Session) 2012 年 6 月 15 日(小學場次)

21 June 2012 (Secondary Session) 2012 年 6 月 21 日(中學場次) Workshop 專題工作坊

Strategies to Address the Affective Needs of Gifted Learners 拆解資優生的情意需要及支援 •

22 June 2012 2012 年 6 月 22 日

Workshop 專題工作坊

Introduction to GE 資優教育簡介 Part I: Evolving Concepts of Giftedness and Characteristics of Gifted Learners 「資優」概念的演變及資優生的特質 Part II: Identification Issues and Gifted Education Programmes and Services 識別資優的議題及資優教育課程與服務 •

13 and 21 September 2012 2012 年 9 月 13 及 21 日 Feedback from participant 學員回饋: The programme helps me understand more about the concept of giftedness. I have learnt a lot and it is practical in both my personal growth and in work. I will recommend this workshop to my colleagues. 這課程加深了我對「資優」概念的認識,並令我得益不少,無論對個人成長及工作都很實用。我會向同事推介這個課程。 by Mr Wong Po San, Teacher from the Hong Kong Institute of Education Jockey Club Primary School 由香港教育學院賽馬會小學黃寶山老師提供

A Counsellor's View of Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Youth

Workshop 專題工作坊

by Prof. Jean Peterson Jean Peterson 教授主講 •

29 October 2012 2012 年 10 月 29 日 Feedback from participant 學員回饋: Some ideas of the course are new to me. The speaker shared some cases which are really great. Therefore, I did learn a lot. 課堂中認識到一些新的見解。講者分享多個寶貴個案,令我獲益良多。 by Ms Lee Wai Sze, Teacher from Methodist College 由循道中學李慧詩老師提供


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Workshop 專題工作坊

Counselling Strategies to the Gifted by Prof. Jean Peterson Jean Peterson 教授主講 •

30 October 2012 2012 年 10 月 30 日

Developmental Challenges for BOTH High and Low Achievers

Workshop 專題工作坊

by Prof. Jean Peterson Jean Peterson 教授主講 •

31 October 2012 2012 年 10 月 31 日

Feedback from participant 學員回饋: It is good to learn ways to help underachievers to overcome and deal with their social and emotional problems. The course emphasises on the complexity of this issue and how we, as teachers, need to keep a lookout for these students. 很開心學習到不同的方法幫助潛能未展的學生處理及克服其社交及情緒問題。課堂強調這個問題之複雜性及教師 本身須對這些學生加強關注。 by Ms Tee Su Yi, Teacher from St. Margret's Co-Educational English Secondary and Primary School 由聖瑪加利男女英文中小學鄭思儀老師提供

Effective Affective Curriculum, In and Outside the Classroom

Workshop 專題工作坊

by Prof. Jean Peterson Jean Peterson 教授主講 •

31 October 2012 2012 年 10 月 31 日

Feedback from participant 學員回饋: The course content is insightful, practical and inspiring. The professor provided a lot of useful tools. 課堂內容很有洞見、實用及具啟發性。教授提供了很多有用的方法。 by Mr Ng Cheuk Lam, Thomas, Master Student in Applied Psychology 由應用心理學碩士學生吳卓林先生提供

Addressing Gifted Learners with Poor Grades: How does the Synergy Work? by Dr. Sylvia Rimm Sylvia Rimm 博士主講 •

5 November 2012 2012 年 11 月 5 日

Workshop 專題工作坊

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FORTHCOMING EVENTS OF THE ACADEMY 學苑動向

Teacher Professional Development Programmes 教師專業發展課程 JANUARY – MAY 2013

2013 年 1 月至 5 月

Programme Title 課程名稱

Target Group 培訓對象

Date 舉辦日期

Foundation Course in Gifted Education (Online Learning: 4 modules) 資優教育基礎課程 (網上學習:四個單元)

Primary and secondary school practitioners 中、小學學校專業同工

All year round 全年任何時間

Intermediate Course in Gifted Education: Leadership and Management (3 themes) 資優教育進階課程:領導與管理 (三個主題)

GE Managers (principals, vice-principals or delegated staff) and GE Coordinators (curriculum leaders, subject panel heads or delegated members) in primary/secondary schools

Primary School Session 小學場次 1 Feb 2013 (Fri) and 6 Feb 2013 (Wed) 2 – 6 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 1 日(星期五)及 2 月 6 日(星期三) 下午 2 時至 6 時

資優教育行政主管:建議由校長、副校長或 獲委派的主任擔任此職務,專責管理校本資 優教育的整體規劃。

Secondary School Session 中學場次 31 Jan 2013 (Thu) 2 – 6 p.m. and 2 Feb 2013 (Sat) 9 a.m. – 1 p.m. 2013 年 1 月 31 日(星期四) 下午 2 時至 6 時及 2 月 2 日(星期六) 上午 9 時至下午 1 時

資優教育統籌主任:建議由課程發展主任、 科主任或獲委派的主任擔任此職務,專責統 籌着重提昇課程規劃與教學素質的校本資優 培育計劃

(This course will be held in February, July, October and December each year) (本課程將於每年 2 月、7 月、10 月及 12 月舉辦)

Thematic Courses / Workshops / Seminars 專題課程 / 工作坊 / 講座 Thematic Workshop (Primary School Session): "Using Higher Order Thinking Questioning to Cater for Gifted Learners' Needs" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Primary curriculum leaders and teachers 小學課程領導及教師

22 Feb 2013 (Fri) 2 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 22 日(星期五)

Thematic Workshop (Secondary School Session): "Fostering Critical Thinking of the Gifted" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Secondary curriculum leaders and teachers 中學課程領導及教師

23 Feb 2013 (Sat) 9 a.m. – 12 noon and 1:30 – 4:30 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 23 日(星期六) 上午 9 時至中午 12 時及 下午 1 時 30 分至 4 時 30 分

Thematic Workshop (Secondary School Session): "Using Higher Order Thinking Questioning to Cater for Gifted Learners' Needs" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Secondary curriculum leaders and teachers 中學課程領導及教師

25 Feb 2013 (Mon) 2 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 25 日(星期一) 下午 2 時至 5 時

Thematic Workshop (Primary School Session): "Enhancing Concept Development of Gifted Learners" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Primary curriculum leaders and teachers 小學課程領導及教師

26 Feb 2013 (Tue) 2:30 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 26 日(星期二) 下午 2 時 30 分至 5 時

Thematic Workshop (Primary School Session): "Fostering Critical Thinking of the Gifted" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Primary curriculum leaders and teachers 小學課程領導及教師

27 Feb 2013 (Wed) 9 a.m. – 12 noon and 1:30 – 4:30 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 27 日(星期三) 上午 9 時至中午 12 時及 下午 1 時 30 分至 4 時 30 分


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

Thematic Workshop (Secondary School Session): "Enhancing Concept Development of Gifted Learners" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Secondary curriculum leaders and teachers 中學課程領導及教師

28 Feb 2013 (Thu) 2:30 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 28 日(星期四) 下午 2 時 30 分至 5 時

Thematic Workshop: "Nurturing Self-Regulation in Multitalented Gifted Students for BOTH Academic and Career Planning" By Prof. Thomas Hébert (In English)

Teachers, guidance teachers, school social workers and educational psychologists in primary and secondary schools 中、小學教師、學生輔導教師、學校社工 及駐校教育心理學家

13 Mar 2013 (Wed) 6:15 – 8:15 p.m. 2013 年 3 月 13 日(星期三) 下午 6 時 15 分至 8 時 15 分

Thematic Workshop (Primary School Session): "Self-Regulation in Gifted Children: How to Infuse it in Regular Classrooms?" By Prof. Thomas Hébert (In English)

Teachers, guidance teachers, school social workers and educational psychologists in primary schools 小學教師、學生輔導教師、學校社工及駐 校教育心理學家

14 Mar 2013 (Thu) 2 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 3 月 14 日(星期四) 下午 2 時至 5 時

Thematic Workshop (Secondary School Session): "Self-Regulation in Gifted Adolescents: How to Infuse it in Regular Classrooms?" By Prof. Thomas Hébert (In English)

Teachers, guidance teachers, school social workers and educational psychologists in secondary schools 中學教師、學生輔導教師、學校社工及駐 校教育心理學家

15 Mar 2013 (Fri) 2 – 5 p.m. 2013 年 3 月 15 日(星期五) 下午 2 時至 5 時

Thematic Course: Introduction to GE (Part I): Evolving Concepts of Giftedness and Characteristics of Gifted Learners [Foundation Level] (In Cantonese) 專題課程︰資優教育簡介 (I) -「資優」概念的演變及資優 生的特質 [ 基礎程度 ] ( 粵語講授 )

Primary and secondary school practitioners 中、小學學校專業同工

May 2013 2013 年 5 月

Thematic Course: Introduction to GE (Part II): Identification Issues and Gifted Education Provisions [Foundation Level] (In Cantonese) 專題課程︰資優教育簡介 (II) -識別資優的議題及資優教 育的安排 [ 基礎程度 ] ( 粵語講授 )

Primary and secondary school practitioners 中、小學學校專業同工

May 2013 2013 年 5 月

Symposium cum Resource Pack Dissemination I and II: "Differentiation for the Gifted by Using the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM)" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Primary and secondary curriculum leaders and teachers 中、小學課程領導及教師

May/June 2013 2013 年 5/6 月

Thematic Workshop: "Differentiation for the Gifted in Practice" By Dr Kimberley Chandler (In English)

Primary and secondary curriculum leaders and teachers 中、小學課程領導及教師

May/June 2013 2013 年 5/6 月

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the "Teacher Zone" of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述課程資料以本學苑網頁內公佈為準,請登入學苑網站內的「教師園地」查閱詳情。網址:www.hkage.org.hk

Parent Support 家長支援服務 JANUARY – MAY 2013

2013 年 1 月至 5 月

Free-of-charge Outreach Parent Seminars 免費到校家長講座 ABCs of Giftedness 資優基本法 Nurturing the Gifted 如何培育資優兒 Affective Needs of Gifted Children 情意百寶袋 Deconstructing Creativity 解開創造力之謎 Nurturing Higher Order Thinking 高階思維

A 1.5-hour school-based seminar will be provided. Schools and organisations are welcome to call 3940 0104 for details and appointment. 以校本形式提供 1.5 小時的講座,歡迎學校及機構致電 3940 0104 預約及查詢。 Priority will be given to applications by the same school sponsoring bodies; or a joint-school event; or an event with more than 200 participants. 以同一辦學團體,或最少三間學校,或多於二百位與會者名義提出的申請,將獲 優先考慮。

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FORTHCOMING EVENTS OF THE ACADEMY 學苑動向

Parent Education Programmes: Seminar 家長講座

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Fee 費用

Nurturing the Gifted 培育資優兒

Parents of gifted children 資優兒童的家長

22 Feb 2013 (Fri) 7:00 – 8:30 p.m. 2013 年 2 月 22 日(星期五) 下午 7 時至 8 時 30 分

Free of charge 免費

The Challenges of Gifted Parents and PEP Certificates Presentation 現今資優兒家長的挑戰及家長學堂證書 頒獎典禮

Parents of gifted children 資優兒童的家長

Jul 2013 2013 年 7 月

Free of charge 免費

Parent Education Programmes: Workshop 家長工作坊

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Fee 費用

Coping Developmental Issues of Gifted Adolescents 處理資優青少年成長問題

Parents of gifted secondary school students 就讀中學資優生的家長

6 and 13 Apr 2013 (Sat) HK$200 10:00 – 11:30 a.m. 港幣 200 元 2013 年 4 月 6 及 13 日(星期六) 上午 10 時至 11 時 30 分

Parent Education Programmes: Parent Group 家長小組

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Fee 費用

19, 26 Jan, 2 and 16 Feb 2013 (Sat) 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon 2013 年 1 月 19、26 日及 2 月 2、16 日(星期六) 上午 10 時至正午 12 時

HK$400 港幣 400 元

Helping Gifted Secondary School Students Develop Career Plans 協助中學資優生升學就業策劃

Parents of gifted secondary school students (Priority will be given to the parents of the HKAGE student members) 就讀中學資優生的家長 (香港資優教育學苑學生家長將獲優先 考慮)

Enhancing Parents' Counselling Skills with Their Gifted Child 提升家長輔導資優兒技巧

Parents of gifted children 資優兒童的家長

2, 9, 16, 23 and 30 Mar 2013 (Sat) 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon 2013 年 3 月 2、9、16、23、 30 日(星期六) 上午 10 時至正午 12 時

HK$500 港幣 500 元

Developing Executive Skills for 2E Child 發展雙重特殊資優兒執行功能

Parents of twice-exceptional gifted children 雙重特殊資優兒的家長

25 May, 1, 8 and 15 Jun 2013 (Sat) 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon 2013 年 5 月 25 日及 6 月 1、8、15 日(星期六) 上午 10 時至正午 12 時

HK$400 港幣 400 元

Parent Education Programmes: Parent Support Group 同儕支援 小組

Target 對象

Date 舉辦日期

Fee 費用

Parent Peer Support Group 家長「資」音人網路

Parents who are interested in gifted education 所有對資優教育有興趣的家長

The first Wednesday of each month, Sep 2012 – Jul 2013 7:30 – 9:30 pm 2012 年 9 月至 2013 年 7 月 每月第一個星期三 晚上 7 時 30 分至 9 時 30 分

Free of charge 免費

Charged Customised Programmes 收費特定工作坊 Customised consultancy and training in schools 特定諮詢服務及駐校培訓課程

We also offer customised workshops and consultation services to schools and organisations for a modest charge. They can be tailor-made to meet the needs of parents. For details and appointment, please contact us at 3940 0104 / consultation@hkage.org.hk. 我們亦為學校及機構提供適度收費的特定工作坊及諮詢服務,其內容可另作擬定及剪裁,以滿足 家長的需要。歡迎致電 3940 0104 或電郵 consultation@hkage.org.hk 預約及查詢。


INSPIRE ISSUE NO.8 匯賢「資」訊第八期

The information provided on the previous page is subject to confirmation. Please visit the "Parent Zone" of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上頁的活動資料以本學苑網頁內公佈為準。請登入學苑網站內的「家長園地」查閱詳情。網址:www.hkage.org.hk Consultation and Assessment Centre Information 諮詢及評估中心 Hotline 熱線電話 : 3940 0106 Email 電郵 : consultation@hkage.org.hk

Student Programmes and Services 學生服務 JANUARY – MAY 2013

2013 年 1 月至 5 月

Humanities 人文學科

Mathematics 數學

Communication and New Media: From Now to Then (Online Learning Programme) 溝通與新媒體:今昔發展(網上學習課程)

Maths Ignition 2012/13 – Coordinate Geometry 數學燃動課程 2012/13 – 坐標幾何

Psychology III (Online Learning Programme) 心理學 III(網上學習課程) Advanced Course in Psychology 心理學高階課程 Advanced Course in Film Art and Culture 電影藝術與文化高階課程 Advanced Course in English Creative Writing 英文創意寫作高階課程 Advanced Course in Cultural Studies 文化研究高階課程

Mathematics Analysis: An Overture II 數學分析入門(二) International Mathematical Olympiad Training 2012-13 Phase III 2012-13 國際數學奧林匹克訓練第三期 Geometry II (Online Learning Programme) 幾何學二(網上學習課程) Winter Mathematics Workshop 香港冬季數運會 Maths Ignition 2013/14 - Geometry 數學燃動課程 2013/14 - 幾何 Sciences 科學

Leadership 領導才能 Communication Skills Workshop 溝通技巧工作坊 Project Planning – Change Management Workshop 項目規劃 ― 變更管理工作坊 Adaptive Leadership (AQ and EQ) 適.變.Teen ― 領袖適應力訓練計劃

Personal Growth and Social Development Series 個人成長及社交發展系列 Talk about Perfectionism 講座:完美主義 Brain-based Learning Workshop 腦基礎學習工作坊 Love.Community 2013 愛.社區 2013 Thematic Talk 主題式講座 Academic talks in each domain are held regularly 定期舉辦各範疇學術講座

Engineering the Human Machine 人體工程 2012-13 Enhancement Programme for Gifted Students in Physics 物理奧林匹克培訓課程 2012-13 Physics Mechanics (Online Learning Programme) 物理力學(網上學習課程) Chem Is Try (Online Learning Programme) 化觀察為學問(網上學習課程) Online Technology Course – Basic Software Development Programme I (Online Learning Programme) 在線技術課程-基礎軟件開發(網上學習課程) Chemist in Laboratory II (Online Learning Programme) 應用及分析化學入門(網上學習課程) Competition 比賽 Hong Kong Physics Olympiad 2013 2013 香港物理奧林匹克 International Mathematical Olympiad Preliminary Selection Contest - Hong Kong 2013 2013 國際數學奧林匹克 - 香港選拔賽

The above information provided is subject to confirmation. Please visit the "Student Zone" of our website: www.hkage.org.hk for details. 上述各項活動資料以本學苑網頁內公佈為準。請登入學苑網站內的「學生園地」查閱詳情。���址:www.hkage.org.hk

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TITLE 刊物名稱

INSPIRE: The Gifted Education Magazine for Educators 匯賢「資」訊 AUTHOR 作者

Teacher Professional Development Division of The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education 香港資優教育學苑 教師專業發展部 EDITORS 編輯

Clara Tam, Man-kit Ng, Carman Chan, Nelson Lai, Patrick Lam 談勵紅、吳文潔、陳海文、 黎永業、林克忠

Subscribe to INSPIRE Issue No.8 訂閱《匯賢「資」訊》第八期 If your school/organisation is interested in subscribing to this issue of INSPIRE, please fill in the form below and fax it to 3940 0203. 假如 貴校 / 機構有興趣訂閱今期《匯賢「資」訊》,請填妥下列資料, 並傳真至 3940 0203。 Subscription service for INSPIRE, order quantity 訂閱數量 □ 50 copies or less 50 本或以下

□ 51-100 copies 51-100 本

□ 101-200 copies 101- 200 本

□ 201 or more 201 本或以上

Contact information 聯絡資料 Name 姓名: Position 職位: Telephone 電話:

TRANSLATOR 翻譯

Wesley Wu

Name of School / Organisation 學校 / 機構名稱:

胡永耀 PUBLISHER 出版

The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd 香港資優教育學苑有限公司

The electronic version of INSPIRE is available on our website. 學苑網站備有《匯賢「資」訊》網上版,

Contact Us 聯絡我們 If you have comments and suggestions to improve INSPIRE, please contact us. You are welcome to contribute articles to this magazine! 假如你對今期內容有任何意見及建議,歡迎聯絡我們。 歡迎各位踴躍投稿!

可供參考及下載。

Email 電郵:tpd@hkage.org.hk

The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education 香港資優教育學苑 Sha Kok Estate, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong 香港新界沙田沙角邨 Tel 電話:(852) 3940 0103 Fax 傳真:(852) 3940 0203 Email 電郵:tpd@hkage.org.hk Website 網址:www.hkage.org.hk Copyright © 2012 by The Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education Ltd. Printed in Hong Kong. All rights reserved. 香港資優教育學苑有限公司 2012 年 © 版權所有 香港印刷。未經許可,不得轉載。


燃點資優生學習動機之火 Igniting the Motivational Flame of Gifted Learners-Inspire teacher Issue 8