Page 1

The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Teacher’s Guide

Ceremonial Secrets at Mound Key. Painting by Theodore Morris, www.floridalosttribes.com.

This program is sponsored by

The Mary Alice Fortin Foundation, INC.


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................2 COURSE OF STUDY AND STANDARDS ..................................................3 MATERIALS ..................................................................................................4 VOCABULARY .............................................................................................5 TIME POSTS AND TIMELINE.....................................................................6 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ................................................................7 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................14 PLACES TO VISIT ......................................................................................47 INSTRUCTION FOR USING PUMP DRILL..............................................51 BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................52 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................53

1 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Introduction This trunk contains various items that teachers can use when discussing the Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga tribes. The trunk is designed mainly for fourth grade but teachers can easily adapt it for other grades. The information provided in the teacher’s guide aligns with Florida’s Sunshine State Standards. A reading assignment and assessment test, “The Calusa of Southwest Florida,” from the Florida Heritage Education Project 1994, is included. The Ancient People of South Florida Trunk is a great tool for use when teaching students about the ancient Floridians of south Florida. All items in the trunk can be handled by the students with adult supervision. Though artifacts are reproductions, they must be handled with care. Information about each reproduction artifact is provided with a picture for the teacher. A student handout is provided. It can be used in class and/or can be taken home. A DVD, “Shadows and Reflections: Florida’s Lost People,” is included in the trunk. It is 27:30 minuets long. Teachers may want to view the tape before showing it to your class. You may want to show the whole video of just portion of it. The DVD “Domain of the Calusa” has been added also. It is about 27 minutes long and discusses the Calusa Indians of southwest Florida. In the guide is a list of all items in the trunk. Please check the list to be sure you have everything. Before returning the trunk, please complete the Evaluation form. It will assist us in maintaining and improving the trunk for future use.

2 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Course of Study Grade 4 Florida History Next Generation Sunshine State Standards and Florida Standards: Social Studies: SS.4.A.2.1, SS.4.A.3.2, SS.4.A.3.10, SS.4.A.4.2 Language Arts: LAFS.4.RF.3.3, LAFS.4.RF.4.4, LAFS.4.RI.3.9, LAFS.4.SL.1.1, LAFS.4.L.2.3, LAFS.4.L.3.4, LAFS.4.W3.8 Visual Arts: VA.4.F.1.1, VA.4.H.1.3, VA.4.H.2.1, VA.4.S.1.3, VA.4.S.3.1 Objectives 1. To introduce students to the early native inhabitants of south Florida, the Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga, in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. 2. To exercise students’ skills in reading and in extracting and synthesizing information. 3. To encourage students to help preserve and protect the archaeological remains of the Native Americans.

3 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Materials The following materials are included in The Ancient People of South Florida Traveling Educational. 1 Shell pick ax with wood handle 1 Piece of cord made from sabal palm fur

1 Antler fishhook 1 Shell chisel/awl

1 Piece of cord made from sabal palm fiber

1 sample replica of pump drill with wood block

1 Piece of cord made from sabal palm leaf

1 Hammer stone 1 Florida’s First People 12 Prints (6 Calusa; 1 Calusa Village; 3 Tequesta; 2 Jeaga)

1 Crafts of Florida’s First People

1 Shell dipper

1 Florida’s Lost Tribes

1 Map of Florida with tribes

1 Florida: Native People

1 Shell necklace

1 Native Americans in Florida

1 Shark tooth-cutting tool

1 Journeys With Florida’s Indians

1 Wood bowl

1 Florida Native American Heritage Tail

1 Wood painted mask (Calusa) 1 Ceramic Calusa Mask

1 DVD “Shadows and Reflections: Florida’s Lost People”

1 Ceramic Key Marco Feline statue

1 DVD “Domain of the Calusa”

1 Pottery shard, St. Johns plain type

1 Teacher’s Guide USB Drive

1 Jute weaving example

1 Vinyl poster Florida’s Mounds

1 Y-loom

1 Discover Box with ancient artifacts (NOT TO BE OPENED)

1 Spanish moss 1 Ceramic human effigy statue 1 Fishnet 1 Celt (shell blade on wood handle) 1 Sabal palm fiber 1 Bone fish hook with cord 1 Sabal palm fur 4 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Vocabulary Breechcloth

A man’s basic garment, consisting of a piece of material about a foot wide and six feet long, supported at the waist by a belt of leather or other material.

Cacique (kah-SEE-kay)

King, chief, or ruler.

Caloosahatchee

River of the Calusa. This river was the “highway” for the Calusa who could travel in canoes from the west coast of Florida all the way to Lake Okeechobee.

Dugout

A canoe made by hollowing out the inner part of a large log.

Estuary

A water passage where the tide meets a river current.

Lake Mayaimi

This is what the early Native Americans called Lake Okeechobee.

Midden

Deposits of refuse (or garbage) resulting from human activities.

Mound

Man-made earthen hills, produced by Native Americans and by many other peoples around the world. Mounds were often built as burial places or to be topped by temples or dwellings for important people.

Shard or Sherd

Broken pieces of any kind of pottery or ceramics.

Tribe

A group of people bound together by a common culture and ancestry.

5 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Time Posts The following time posts will help you take your students back in time. This will assist them in understanding of time. 100 years ago (1906)

President Theodore Roosevelt is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in negotiating peace in the RussoJapanese War (1905)

200 years ago (1806)

Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery (1804-1806) return to St. Louis after exploring the Louisiana Purchase, the land from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean

300 years ago (1706)

Benjamin Franklin is born in Boston, Massachusetts

400 years ago (1606)

Rembrandt (died 1669), the famous Dutch painter, is born

500 years ago (1506)

Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of the West Indies, dies in Spain

Time Line 10,000 B.C.

Paleo-Indians are living in southeast Florida

2,000 B.C.

Florida Native Americans begin making fiber-tempered pottery

1513 A.D.

Juan Ponce de Leon explores the Florida coast line and stops at Jupiter Inlet (Jeaga), Biscayne Bay (Tequesta), Charlotte Harbor (Calusa).

1500-1700 A.D.

During this period, the Calusa tribe controls much of south Florida

1696 A.D.

Englishman Jonathan Dickinson, his family, and the crew of the English ship Reformation are shipwreck near Jupiter. They are captured by the Jeaga and sent north along the coast to the Spanish in St. Augustine

1750 A.D.

By this time, most of the original Florida Native Americans are gone. They either died of disease, captured for slaves, or killed in warfare. The Spanish takes small groups of survivors to Cuba. 6 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Background Information for Teachers Florida’s Early Native Americans Florida’s history began long before it was called Florida. About 12,000 years ago, the last Ice Age ended. That is when the first people began to arrive in Florida. They were hunter-gatherers who moved from place to place searching for food and freshwater. Back then Florida had a cooler and drier climate. There was little rainfall so freshwater was difficult to find. Early Native Americans did not leave us written information about their lives. Archaeologists tell their story. Archeologists are scientists who study the past. They learn about these Native Americans from artifacts found at their campsites. Artifacts are tools or items left from the past. They tell about the people who used them. One important clue about the first Native Americans in Florida is the shell mounds. Native Americans created shell mounds when they ate shellfish. They tossed the shells into piles or mounds. These mounds were also called kitchen middens, which are trash heaps. By researching the campsites and the shell mounds, archaeologists have been able to learn about everyday life of the Native Americans. The scientists learned what kinds of food these people ate. They also learned about the tools they used and other items they made. Archaeologists sometimes found European goods at the campsites. This tells us that the Native Americans traded with the European settlers or they collected items when ships wrecked along Florida’s coast. Research has shown that there were thousands of Native Americans in Florida when the European settlers first arrived in the 16th century. Sadly, the story tells us that over the next 200 years, many of these Native Americans disappeared. Most of them died from European diseases. Yet others were killed in warfare. Some Natives were taken away as slaves. The Jeaga The Jeaga lived along the Atlantic Coast from Jupiter to southern Palm Beach County. The remains of some of their villages have been found at Jupiter Inlet, Loxahatchee River, and in Riviera Beach. They are the descendants of the Paleo-Indians that came to Florida over 10,000 years ago. The native population of Palm Beach County was a non-agricultural people who hunted and gathered their food. The Jeaga’s diet included game animals like deer. They also caught food from the sea, such as fish, shellfish, snakes, turtles, and sharks. The Jeaga gathered coco plums, sea grapes, palmetto berries, and roots for food as well. For clothing, the men wore breechcloths of woven grass or animal skins, while the women may have used Spanish moss to create skirts. The men were described by shipwrecked Englishmen has wearing their hair tied in a roll behind their head with two bones stuck in the hair in the shape of a broad arrow and the other a spear. Their homes were simple structures built on high ground or on shell middens. According to an English shipwrecked passenger, Jeaga wigwams were made of poles stuck into the ground that created an arch. Then the arch was 7 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga covered with a thatch of palmetto leaves. The natives sat or slept on mats made of reeds. During special ceremonies Native Americans drank a dark, strong, hot, tea like drink to purify themselves called cassina. It was also known as the ‘black drink.” Only men were allowed to have the black drink which made them vomit to cleanse themselves. Cassina was made from roasted and boiled Yaupon Holly leaves and served in a shell cup. Since there are no deposits of useful chert to make tools and weapons in south Florida, the Jeaga use wood, bone, and shell to manufacture their tools and weapons. Large shells such as the conch were made into dippers, cups, and hammers. Parts of the shell were used as an adz, celts, or shell beads. Woodworkers made bowls and other objects from pine and cypress trees. Shark teeth were used for cutting and carving. The teeth would be mounted on wood or bone handles and used like a knife of drill. Sometimes, the native people would trade for stone to make tools. In 1696 the Jeaga captured the passengers and crew of the English ship Reformation. It was traveling from Jamaica to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania when it was shipwrecked. It happened just north of present day Jupiter. The Jeaga held them for a little while and then allowed them to leave. The Englishmen then journeyed 230 miles to reach safety at St. Augustine. During their travel north along the east coast of Florida, the Englishmen met many different native people. One passenger, Jonathan Dickinson, wrote a book describing the land and the natives they met. He included stories about the Jeaga and the Ais. Dickinson wrote in his journal that the Jeaga lived on top of a large shell mound that overlooked the Jupiter Inlet. Today, a part of their shell mound still stands across from the Jupiter Lighthouse over overlooks the Jupiter Inlet. On top of the mound is the DuBois house, which was built in 1898. It is located in DuBois Park and it is open to the public. The Jeaga’s Neighbors Just to the north of the Jeaga, around present day Hobe Sound in Martin County, were the Jobes, a small tribe that is part of the Jeaga. Further north is the Ais tribe who lived between the St. Lucie River to Cape Canaveral. To the south of Jeaga territory was the Tequesta who’s territory extended from southern Palm Beach County to south of Miami. The Tequesta The Tequesta (teh-KES-ta), also written as Tekesta, Tegesta, and Chequesta, lived in the area south of present day Palm Beach County to southern Miami-Dade County in southeast Florida. By the time of European exploration in the 1500s, the main Tequesta village, called Tequesta, was located near the mouth of the Miami River where it flows into Biscayne Bay. They built camps and villages along rivers, streams, inlets, and on barrier islands. 8 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga They were hunter-gatherers and did not practice agriculture and who most likely lived in so form of palm-thatched homes. Men and women wore clothing of animal skins, woven grass, or Spanish moss. They traveled by dugout canoes to fish. Their diet included deer, alligator, fish, and turtles. From the ocean, the Tequesta gathered oysters, clams, conchs, lobsters, and crayfish. They also collected plants, nuts, wild berries, and roots as part of their diets. Some of these plant foods included palmetto berries, coco plum, and sea grape. Like other Native Americans in the southeastern United States, the Tequesta buried their dead in mounds. They would place the bodies in charnel house to decay. After the body had decayed the bones were gathered and buried in a mound. The Tequesta placed the remains so that the head was face down and pointing to the center of the mound. One surviving burial mound is located on the Deering Estate in Miami. It is cone-shaped and is about seventy-five inches in diameter and six and a half feet high. The estate is a park and is open to the public. In 1513 Juan Ponce De Leon encountered the Tequesta at the mouth of the Miami River when he stopped at a bay called Chequesta (now Biscayne Bay) during his exploration of the Florida coast. Over fifty years later, the governor of Florida, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, established a Jesuit mission at the main village to convert the native people to Christianity. The mission failed when the Spanish and Tequesta began fighting. In the 1740s the Spanish tried once more to establish a mission and a fort but this attempt failed too. The Spanish took the brother of a Tequesta chief to Spain where he converted to Christianity. He later returned to help the Spanish with relations with the Native Americans. During the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, the Tequesta tribe was from time to time allied with the neighbors the Matecumbe of the Florida Keys and the stronger Calusa. Their alliances were formed through arranged marriages of the chief’s families. For example, the chief of the Tequesta was related to the chief of the Calusa. But the agreements between the tribes occasionally fell apart. At various times the Tequesta were in conflict with the Calusa. According to Spanish accounts, the Tequesta protected Spanish shipwreck survivors. On one occasion, the Calusa chief demanded a group of Spaniards and sent warriors to get them. The Tequesta refused and killed the Calusa warriors. The Miami Circle The 1,800 to 2,000 years old Miami Circle was discovered in 1998 when archaeologists were conducting investigation ahead of the construction of a multistory apartment complex. This unique circle has twenty-four large holes and many smaller holes carved into the limestone bedrock. The diameter of the circle measures thirty-eight feet. Ceramics, animal bones, shells, and stone axes were part of the approximately 143, 000 items discovered in the circle area. It was part of the Tequesta main village on the south side of the mouth of the Miami River. The Miami Circle may have been a council house or some form of ceremonial 9 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga structure. The circle is now a protected site and one day will be a park where the public will be able to see the Miami Circle. The Tequesta’s Neighbors To the north of Tequesta territory was the Jeaga tribe of Palm Beach County. On their southern border were the Matecumbe Tribe of lived in the Florida Keys. The stronger, more war-like Calusa lived to the west along the Florida southwest coast. The Calusa The Calusa lived on the southwest coast of Florida near the Caloosahatchee River, which means “River of the Calusa.” The Spanish conquistadors described them as war-like. That is how they were named Calusa, which means “fierce people.” Spanish explorers became the targets of attacks by the Calusa. This tribe is responsible for wounding Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon in 1521. He later died from those wounds. They made their homes on the shores and islands of the estuaries, marshes, bays, and rivers of southwest Florida. This area included today’s Estero Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Pine Island Sound, San Carlos Bay in Charlotte and Lee Counties. The Calusa used dugout canoes to travel their watery world. To help them travel, the native people dug miles of canals across islands and marshes to make travel and trade easier and safer. Calusa canoes were made from hollowedout cypress logs and they were known to travel as far as Cuba in them. Spanish explorers reported that the Calusa attacked their ships while they were sitting offshore. The Calusa also sailed up and down the coast collecting treasure from shipwrecks. Mound Key in Estero Bay was the center of the Calusa domain. It was where the paramount chief, or cacique, lived and ruled from. The Calusa tribe controlled most of southwest Florida and from time to time ruled over the Tequesta, on the southeast coast, the Matecumbe of the Florida Keys, the Jeaga, and the villages and town around Lake Okeechobee. These tribes paid tribute to the Calusa in the forms of food, feathers, captives, gold, silver, and goods from Spanish shipwrecks. This tribe built their homes on stilts and had roofs of palmetto leaves. Like most south Florida tribes, the Calusa did not farm. Instead, they hunted animals such as deer. They also fished for mullet, catfish, turtles, and eels. They ate shellfish like conchs, crabs, clams, lobsters, and oysters. The Calusa made shellpointed spears for fishing and hunting. Shells were used because south Florida did not have stone deposits of chert that could be made into tools. Over the centuries, all of the shells the Calusa discarded created large shell mounds. Some of the mounds were thirty feet high. The native people built some of their homes, temples, and other important buildings on these mounds. In the sixteenth century, the Spanish established a mission at Mound Key. The Spanish wanted to convert the Native Americans to Christianity. The 10 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga mission did not last very long and the Spanish left. They tried again in the seventeenth century but that mission also failed. The Calusa did not want to be converted and would not except Christianity. In the mid sixteenth century, thirteen year old Escalante Fontaneda was captured and held captive by the Calusa when Fontaneda was shipwreck in the Florida Keys. Fontaneda was held for seventeen years before being rescued by Europeans. He later wrote his memories about his captivity by the Calusa and other tribes and villages of south Florida. According to Fontaneda, the Calusa ruled over south Florida and the area around Lake Okeechobee. The Belle Glade Culture The prehistoric people of the Belle Glade Culture Area lived in a time before there was a written record or “history” of them. They had no written language, so there was no self-recording of their beliefs or achievements. No history of them existed until the Spanish explorers arrived in 1513. They flourished from about 2500 years ago to around AD 1700. By 1763, when the Spanish first left Florida, the Belle Glade people had disappeared as a result of disease and slave raids. They were rediscovered in 1934 when a team of archaeologists excavated a mound at Belle Glade and found enough of their cultural material to define them as a distinct culture. Their pottery, in particular, set them apart from other Florida cultures. Modern scholars named them after this site. They probably called themselves “the People.” A better name might have been “the People of the Water.” The People lived around Lake Okeechobee and along the Kissimmee River valley north to Lake Kissimmee. During prehistoric times Lake Okeechobee was larger than it is today with a flow of fresh waters that began in the upper reaches of the Kissimmee River draining southward into the lake, and then seamlessly into the vast Everglades basin. Small rivers, like Fisheating Creek and Taylor Creek, flowed into the lake. The Caloosahatchee River drained westward out of the lake. These creeks and the vast, wet savannahs east and west of the lake were used for settlement, hunting, and fishing. These ancient people developed subsistence strategies that were highly adapted to a world where canoes were the predominant means of transportation. Their material culture was characterized by a unique settlement system of earthworks, mounds, and canals. They built canoes and made hunting and fishing tools from bone, shell, and wood and created a distinctive ceramic tradition and sophisticated art. The prehistoric adaptation to the wet prairies and marshes along the whole length of the Kissimmee River and surrounding Lake Okeechobee contributed to the development of a unique type of settlement. It was as monumental a task in its time to modify, using handle tools, and adapt the watery environment for human use than it was the 20th Century drainage initiatives to adapt the land for cattle and agricultural use. Elevated earthworks and mounds constructed from sand and muck provided platforms for houses and other structures. 11 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Early Belle Glade settlements were placed around a circular ditch with house mounds along the edges. Radiocarbon dates indicate that this settlement system was in place as early as 400 BC at Fort Center (around the time Athens was fading as a world power but before Rome started to win control of the Italian peninsula). By AD 1200 (the time of the Crusades) earthwork settlements had become more complex, characterized by elevated circular ridges with spoke-like linear ridges. Belle Glade settlements stretched across southern Florida northward to Lake Kissimmee and as far south as Boynton Beach in Palm Beach County and an outlier near the present-day Miami International Airport. A typical earthwork complex included a large house mound, smaller mounds, linear ridges and canals, and a burial mound. The hallmarks of the Belle Glade Culture are the impressive, large earthworks that dot the Lake Okeechobee region. These earthworks include mounds, ditches, borrows, and embankments. Sites commonly have combinations of the different types of earthworks. Belle Glade earthen structures are found in all sizes and shapes. Some of the more impressive sites are found in savannahs, mostly along creeks. These ancient sites may include circular ditches, linear embankments, and combination of mound and embankments. The oldest earthworks of the Belle Glade Culture may be the circular ditches, along with some habitation mounds, identified at Fort Center and dating to before 450 BC. Mounds are the most widespread feature in of the Lake Okeechobee Basin. They are found standing alone, in groups or with other types of earthworks. The mounds are have been used for habitation, burials, and as architectural elements. The ancient Belle Glade people hunted and gathered many different types of foods to prepare and eat. Hunting wild game required the use of bows and arrows and spears which were thrown using a spear thrower called an atlatl. A spear with a notch at the one end was attached to the atlatl. The hunter’s hand grasped the spear and atlatl and using the atlatl as an extension of the throwing arm, the spear was launched towards its intended target. Using the atlatl, a spear was thrown farther and faster than just by the hand. The spear would have been used for larger animals as well as the bow and arrow. After an animal, such as a deer, was killed, it was then butchered. All parts of the animal would have been used for food and other necessities. The hide for clothing and bags, bones used for pins, fish hooks, arrow and spear tips, sinew for thread and for wrapping the arrows, spears, and knives, and many other tools and weapons. While the men hunted, women gathered plant foods that included pond apples, coco plums, seagrapes, nuts and berries, roots including that of the coontie plant, and other plants. The root of the coontie required special processing because it is poisonous. The indigenous coontie plant was once found all over south Florida. The ancient Indians gathered the root of the coontie plant to make it into flour for bread. They had to process the root carefully. It was prepared by cutting the root 12 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga into small pieces. The pieces were then put into a mortar and pounded into pulp. Water was added to the pulp and then squeezed out into another container. This water contained starch that would later become flour. The starch settled to the bottom of the container and the water was skimmed off the top as the starch fermented. Once all the water was gone, the pasty-starch was dried in the sun to become flour. The Indians then made the coontie flour into bread. Seminoles and Miccosukees, who arrived in the 1700s from Alabama and Georgia, also used the coontie plant to make flour for bread. What happened to South Florida’s Native Population By the eighteenth century, most of these first Native American tribes of south Florida were gone. They had died of diseases brought by the Europeans, captured during slave raids, and killed during warfare. The survivors left Florida with the Spanish for Spanish territory in the Caribbean. They were replaced by groups of Native Americans who moved to Florida from Georgia and Alabama. These Native Americans became known as Seminoles and Miccosukees. Tools Since there are no deposits of chert to make tools and weapons in south Florida, the Jeaga, Tequesta, and Calusa use wood, bone, and shell to manufacture their tools and weapons. Large shells such as the conchs and whelks were made into dippers, cups, and hammers. Parts of the shell were used as an adz, celts, awls, or shell beads. Woodworkers made bowls and other objects from pine and cypress trees. Shark teeth were attached to wood or bone handles and used for cutting, carving, or drilling. Sometimes, the native people would trade with tribes from central and northern Florida for stone to make tools. Native people collected fiber, fur, and palm leaves from sabal palm trees to make twine and rope. These materials were twisted together in long lengths and used for weaving, to tie things together, and for nets. Twine was also made from Spanish moss and the bark of some trees. Woodcarvers All native Florida tribes used wood for a variety of objects. Probably the best wood workers, however, were the Calusa. Some of the finest examples of wood items comes from Key Marco. In the 1890s Key Marco, one of the main Calusa towns, was excavated and extraordinary wood items such as masks, statues, heads, weapons, bowls, and other objects were found. They used shark teeth tools to make their carvings. The teeth left distinctive groove marks in the wood. That is how archaeologists know what tools were used to make the object.

13 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Activities

14 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Work with the Students Reproduction artifacts in the trunk can be used in this section and can be handled by the students, but they must be supervised by the teacher. Shells Ask the students: Shells can be made into what kind of tools? The south Florida tribes used large shells such as whelks to make many of their tools, utensil, and jewelry. A cup or dipper was made from the outer half of a shell. The inner column, called a columella, was made into an awl after the shell had been chipped away and the tip of the columella sharpened to a point. Holes were made to the outer shell and a wood handle inserted into them to make a hammer or cutting tool. (See Florida’s First People, pages 99-105, 215; see reproduction artifact-shell dipper, shell pick ax, shell necklace, shell awl/chisel) Shark and Barracuda Teeth Ask students: How can shark teeth be used as tools? Teeth from sharks caught in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico were used for tools and jewelry. A hole was drilled into the tooth using another tooth or stone tipped drill. The shark tooth was then attached to a wood or bone handle. Barracuda teeth were also used the same way. Part of a barracuda jaw could be attached to a handle and used as a saw. (See Florida’s First People, pages 99105; see reproduction artifact-shark tooth cutting tool and barracuda cutting tool) Stone Ask students: What is a hammer stone? South Florida natives did not have chert, a type of stone, deposits to use to make into tools and other items. They would have had to trade with other tribes in north Florida where chert is found. Local south Florida tribes did have stones that they collected from rivers and stream to use as hammer stones. Hammer stones were used to make stone stools by striking another stone like chert. They were also used when making shell tools. Holes could be made to large whelks by striking the outer shell with the hammer stone. Small chert points could be attached to wood drills and used to make smaller holes in most types of material used by the Native Americans. (See Florida’s First People, pages 73-76; see reproduction artifact-hammer stone) Bone and Antler Ask students: What could bone and antler be used for? Bone and antler were used by all Native Americans. They made bone knives, jewelry, pins, needles, fish hooks, other every day items. Pieces of antler were 15 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga also used to flake pieces of stone when manufacturing stone tools. (See Florida’s First People, page 214, plate 8.15; see reproduction artifact-antler fish hook) Wood Ask students to name three items that the Native Americans would have used wood for. The ancient tribes of south Florida made dugout canoes from the trees growing in the area to travel their watery world. Every day items like spoons and bowls were carved from a variety of trees such as pine and cypress. The native people also made wood hammers or mallets from parts of the trees. For ceremonial purposes, the Calusa made extraordinary wood masks and then would paint them with natural materials. (See Florida’s First People, pages 112-114, 160-161, 227-228, plate 8.16 and 8.17; see reproduction artifact-wood bowl [only one bowl is available and it is in trunk 1], and wood mallet (only one wood mallet and this is in trunk 2]) Pottery Ask students: When was pottery first used in Florida? Ancient Floridians first used pottery about 2,000 B.C. The different groups of people all used some form of pottery, each with their own distinctive materials and decorations. The first potters found that clay alone was not good enough to make pottery because as it dried or was fired the clay pot would crack. So they added a temper, something that would add structure to the pot. Potters first used fiber from palm trees or Spanish moss. This type of pottery is called fiber tempered pottery. Hundreds of years later, sand tempered pottery was made. For this type of pottery, native people added sand instead of fiber. (See Florida’s First People, pages 79-84, 194-204; see real Florida Native American pottery shard artifact) Cordage and Weaving Ask students: What kinds of plants do you think the Native Americans of Florida used to make cordage (rope, twine, thread…)? Florida natives made cords, twine, rope, and thread from a variety of plant fibers. They gathered a tan fiber from the palm frond of a sabal palm tree to make cordage. The palm frond could also be used by splitting it in to very thin strips. sabal palm fur, found on the trunk, was used to make cordage, too. Once cordage was prepared it, Native Americans used it to make fishing nets and for weaving of ruff fabrics. Fibers from other plants were also used to prepare cordage, Spanish moss, inner bark of the mulberry tree, cypress, and willow. Nets were also made

16 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga from these types of fiber. Shells were attached as weights and pieces of wood as floats. (See Florida’s First People, pages 85-94, plate 8.13 and 8.14; see cords made of palm fiber, palm leaf, palm fur, and the weaving made from jute) Names of the Native Americans in Florida Ask students: How do you think the native people of Florida (those that met the Spanish in the 1500s) got their names? As the Spanish began exploring Florida in the sixteenth century, they gave names to the different tribes they encountered. The name they gave one tribe might have been based on the name of the chief. Another time a tribe could have been named after their village. The Spanish did this because of what they may have heard the Native Americans saying.

17 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County 2006 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Reading Assignment Make copies of the assignment and handout to students.

The Calusa of Southwest Florida Reading assignment from the Florida Heritage Education Project 1994

Over 400 years ago, people who called themselves the Calusa ("the fierce people") lived on the sandy islands along the southwest coast of Florida. Explorers who laid claim to Florida for Spain first wrote home about the Calusa in 1513. For nearly 300 years after that, Spain ruled Florida. All during that time, the Spaniards, always thorough record keepers, went on writing letters and reports about the Calusa. Today, we know about the Calusa through these records and through archaeological work in southwest Florida. What the Calusa Ate Indians who lived in north Florida at the same time as the Calusa made their living by farming, growing crops like corn, beans, and squash. The Calusa never did. They made their living from the sea. Men and boys caught pinfish, pigfish, catfish, and mullet by the hundreds using nets made of palm fiber. From the shallow water around the islands, women, children, and old people picked up shellfish like conch, oyster, and clam. A visiting Spaniard, describing a meal served to him, said in some amazement that there were "many kinds of very good fish, boiled and roasted, and raw, boiled, and roasted oysters, without anything else!" He probably exaggerated some, because we know the Calusa also collected and ate fruits like prickly pear and seagrape as well as a mysterious root that archaeologists have not yet identified. Calusa Towns Life by the sea affected Calusa towns as well as diet. Most of their island homes were low-lying, just above sea level. But hundreds of years of shellfish collecting by the Calusa and their ancestors meant that millions of discarded seashells lay all around their houses. In fact, after a while people started building their houses on top of the shell heaps. Later still, the Calusa shaped the shell heaps into flat-topped mounds and dug canals across the islands to make canoe travel easier and safer. Some of the shell mounds stood more than 30 feet high, as tall as a three-story house. Today some islands are made almost entirely of the discarded shells of the Calusa and the people who came before them. Calusa Artifacts Some of the shells were not thrown away but were made into hammers and axes and other kinds of tools. Usually pre-industrial people make tools out of stone, but in south Florida very little stone exists so shell and bone were used

18 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga instead. With the shell tools, the Calusa carved wood, making everything from canoes to little decorated boxes. Because fishing was so important to them, the Calusa had all kinds of tools and utensils connected with fishing, things like fish hooks, tools for making nets, net weights, and net floats. In contrast to the great variety of shell and wood artifacts, the pottery made by the Calusa was plain, practical, and limited to a few simple shapes like bowls and jars. Calusa Religion For the Calusa, everyone had three souls. The innermost soul, said to be immortal, lived in the pupil of the eye. Perhaps because of this, one Calusa god was said to eat human eyes. The Calusa, to please this god, sacrificed people to him (usually shipwrecked Spaniards became the sacrificial victims). Calusa religious ceremonies far outshone Spanish Christian rituals in color and splendor. In one, for instance, Calusa priests picked special people to wear painted wooden animal masks and take part in a religious procession through the town. Along with the masked worshippers walked hundreds of women and girls singing religious songs. Several times through the years, the Spanish government sent Catholic missionaries to try to convert the Calusa to Christianity, but the Calusa always stayed faithful to their own religion. The Cacique The king of the Calusa, the Cacique, ruled over almost all of south Florida, from Fort Myers to Miami and as far south as the Keys. From all over south Florida, towns and villages sent tribute to the Cacique. Fruit, brightly colored feathers, Spanish captives, and gold and silver from Spanish ships wrecked off the coast arrived at the foot of the tall shell mound that held the Cacique's house. Sometimes a village even sent the daughter of its leader to marry the Cacique (who had many wives). Villages sent the Cacique the best they had to offer, hoping to please him. Displeasing the Cacique sometimes proved fatal. Once, some towns dared to rebel against the Cacique Felipe. When he heard about it, Felipe ordered the town leaders to be beheaded. Felipe and the Caciques who came before and after him lived in a town on a small island in the middle of a bay, said a Spanish geographer in 1575. Archaeologists believe that the Cacique's town was on Mound Key in Estero Bay, southwest of Fort Myers. At Mound Key, an enormous shell mound towers over everything else, rising 31 feet above sea level. All over the island can be found, evidence of Calusa life and even some artifacts that must have been left by visiting Spaniards. The Last of the Calusa The end came for the Calusa in the 1700s. Since the 1500s, all over the Southeast, European diseases such as smallpox and measles had taken their toll on Indian peoples. Sometimes whole villages got sick and died. The Calusa, maybe because of their refusal to take up Spanish ways, stayed strong and mostly healthy 19 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga and followed their traditional way of life until the early 1700s. That was when Spaniards from Cuba began enlisting the Calusa in commercial fishing ventures. About the same time Uchise and Yamasee Indians from the British colonies of Georgia and South Carolina began raiding the Calusa homeland, looking for people to sell as slaves. Fighting enemies who had guns (which the Calusa did not have), and pushed into closer contact with Spaniards (and their deadly European diseases), many Calusa died. For the survivors, years of poverty and hardship followed. Driven out of their island towns where fish were always there for the catching, the Calusa got along as best they could, roaming the swamps and beaches in search of food. In 1763, the last few Calusa set out for Cuba, leaving Florida forever.

20 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Student Assessment (The Florida Heritage Education Project 1994) Name____________________________ THE CALUSA True or False? If the statement is false, turn it into a true statement. ______ 1. The Calusa made few tools out of stone. ______ 2. The Cacique of the Calusa sent tribute to all the villages in south Florida. ______ 3. Many Calusa converted to Christianity after the Spanish government sent missionaries to southwest Florida. ______ 4. The Calusa made fishing nets of palm fiber. ______ 5. Like other people in Florida, the Calusa grew corn, beans, and squash. ______ 6. An anaerobic environment helps preserve wooden artifacts. 7. Imagine that you are a Calusa Indian. What skills would you have needed to live then that you don't have now? List at least two skills.

8. Name two reasons why we know about the Calusa.

9. Name two ways living close to the sea affected Calusa life.

21 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Answers to Assessment sheet (The Florida Heritage Education Project 1994) True or False? If the statement is false, turn it into a true statement. 1. The Calusa made few tools out of stone. [T] 2. The Cacique of the Calusa sent tribute all the villages in south Florida. [F] [The villages in south Florida sent tribute to the Cacique.] ~ 3. Many Calusa converted to Christianity after the Spanish government sent missionaries to southwest Florida. [F] . [Most Calusa stayed faithful to their religion and refused to convert to Christianity.] 4. The Calusa made fishing nets of palm fiber. [T] 5. Like other people in Florida, the Calusa grew corn, beans, and squash. [F] [Unlike some other people in Florida, the Calusa did not grow corn, beans, and squash.] 6. An anaerobic' environment helps preserve wooden artifacts. [T] 7. Imagine that you are a Calusa Indian. What skills would you have needed to live then that you don’t have now? List at least two skills. how to catch fish how to make nets, pottery, shell tools, masks how to collect shellfish how to get the meat out of shellfish how to build a canoe 8. Name-two reasons why we know about the Calusa. from archaeological work because the Spaniards kept a lot of records because anaerobic environments preserved artifacts that would normally have been lost 9. Name two ways living close to the sea affected Calusa life. most food came from fishing or shellfishing tools were made of seashells rather than stone people lived an islands people built houses an shell heaps people traveled a lat by canoe 22 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Reading Assignment Teachers can have students read this in class or for homework. It is in the Student Handout.

Coontie- The Ancient Tequesta People’s Flour The indigenous coontie plant was once found all over south Florida. The Tequesta people gathered the root of the coontie plant to make it into flour for bread. They had to process the root carefully because it is poisonous. It was prepared by cutting the root into small pieces. The pieces were then put into a mortar and pounded into pulp. Water was added to the pulp and then squeezed out into another container. This water contained starch that would later become flour. The starch settled to the bottom of the container and the water was skimmed off the top as the starch fermented. Once all the water was gone, the pastystarch was dried in the sun to become flour. The Tequesta then made the coontie flour into bread.

23 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Early Native American Clay Vessels (Clay Pots) Objective The students will create a clay vessel using the human form. Vocabulary Vessel Utilitarian Human form

A hollow utensil used as a container, especially for liquids. From the word utility. The state of being useful; usefulness. Qualities of the human body.

Materials Clay, popsicle sticks, marker caps, small bowls of water, plastic wrap, and a small piece of cardboard. (Note: This activity may be done in the art room, as part of the art curriculum. If not, the help of the art teacher, with the use of a kiln to "bake" the vessels, will be necessary.) Directions Discuss the vocabulary words with the students. Pass out a small piece of cardboard to each student. The students must keep their clay on this cardboard in order to keep the clay of off their desks as much as possible. 1. Place small bowls of water on every other desk for students to share. Clay must be kept moist while students are working with it. 2. Roll the piece of clay in your hands to make a ball. 3. Once the students have a ball of clay, they should put their thumb in the middle of the ball and press almost all the way to the bottom. 4. Using their fingers, the students should press the sides of the ball to make them thinner, thus opening up the hole and creating a pot. 5. Once the students have created their pots, they may decorate them with the popsicle sticks and marker caps by pressing these items into the clay. 6. The pots must be left to dry for about 3 days. At the end of the 3 days, the pots will be bone-dry. The pots must be handled very carefully at this point, as they are at their most fragile state. 7. The pots are now ready to be put in the kiln. 8. Once the pots are out of the kiln, the students may paint them with a glaze. Using glaze will make the pots able to hold liquids, however, glazed pots must be put in the kiln to bake the glaze in. This will require assistance from the art teacher. 9. The students may paint the vessels with tempera paint or watercolors (if using white clay). Note: These pots will not hold water.

24 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Make Your Own Replica of a Shell Mound This replica of a shell mound is a small scale representation of what a real Native American shell mound may have looked like. Before beginning, you must first decide how big your shell mound will be. Using a piece of sturdy cardboard or poster board, use a pencil to draw and outline of your mound. You will then make the dough that will be used to form your mound. Use the following materials and directions to complete the shell mound. Materials Flour, salt, water, bowl, putty knife, cardboard or poster board, newspaper, very small shells or larger shells crushed into small pieces, sand, and paint. What to Do Mix two parts flour and one part salt in a bowl while adding small amounts of water until the mixture is like dough. Cut the cardboard or poster board to the size you want and place it on the newspaper. Draw an outline of the shape of the shell mound on the cardboard. Take the dough you just made and work it into the shape of your shell mound. Sprinkle sand on the dough and then place the shells all over your mound. If you have dough left over, you can add other land features if you like. Let the mound dry overnight. Once it is dry, you can then paint around the mound making water or other land features.

25 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Map Exercise Using the map of Florida (provided), identify south Florida. Point out where the Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga lived. Then show where their neighbors lived, the Ais, Matecumbe, and Tocobaga. Have students identify these areas and write them on the map in their student handout. Once that is done, point out where Lake Mayaimi (Lake Okeechobee) is and the Caloosahatchee River. Have students write this on their maps.

Tocobaga Ais

Lake Mayaimi Caloosahatchee River

Jeaga

Calusa

Tequesta

Matecumbe

26 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Blank map of southern Florida for student map exercise. If students do not have a copy of this, teachers can Xerox this map for the exercise.

Where is: Lake Mayaimi Caloosahatchee River Where did these tribes live? Write the name of the tribe on the line on the map showing where they lived. Ais Calusa Jeaga Matecumbe Tequesta Tocobaga

27 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Create Your Own Calusa Mask Have students look at the masks in prints 1, 2, and 4 (Calusa). Using the mask outline, have them design their own Calusa mask. (Mask outline is in their student handout)

28 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Make a Calusa Mask You can make your own Calusa mask out of paper mache. There are many recipes for making paper mache. Teachers may already have a mixture they are familiar with. What follows is just one of the recipes that can be used for this art project.

Materials Flour, stirring spoon, water, measuring cup, salt, strips of newspaper, Tablespoon, paint. Directions Use a mixture of flour and water to make the paper mache. In a bowl or bucket, mix one part flour with two parts water until the mixture is about the consistency of a thick glue. Add more flour or water as needed. Mix well so there are no lumps. Add at least two tablespoons of salt to help prevent mold. After you have prepared the paper mache mixture, use a balloon, gallon milk jug, etc‌as the base for the mask. Use newspaper strips and dip into mixture, smoothing of the excess, and place the form. Continue to layer the strips of newspaper until it is strong enough to add features such as eye brows, mouth, etc. Teachers: you can use toilet paper rolls, aluminum foil, Cellu-clay, Shreddi-mix, or other items to add features. Features can then be layered with paper mache. After the mask has dried (drying time may vary) pop the balloon. The mask can then be sanded and painted. If desired, students can embellish their mask with beads, feathers, shells, horse hair, or whatever they might like add.

29 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

What could the Ancient Floridians use the following for: Answers sheet. Note: there could be many other uses for these items. Only a few are listed.

The shell could be used for tools, net weights, and jewelry

Fiber, palm fronds, and palm fur from the trunk could be used for cords/rope

The deer antler could be used for tools, arrow points, fishing hooks, and jewelry

Spanish moss could be used to make cords and clothing

The shark tooth could be used for tools, arrow points, and jewelry 30 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Student Handout Teachers: make copies and handout to class if they do not have the Student Handout packet.

What could the Ancient Floridians use the following for:

_________________ _________________

________________ ________________ _________________ _________________

__________________ __________________ _________________ _________________

31 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

The Spanish Meet the Tequesta For this activity/discussion, use the PowerPoint Presentation, “The Spanish Meet the Tequesta,” on the CD. Show the picture of Spanish galleons to the class. Ask them: -What is the reaction of the Tequesta to seeing a ship for the first time? -What is their reaction when they see a small boat of explorers rowing toward the beach? Show the picture of “The Landing of Menendez” to the class. Ask them: -What do you think is happening? -How do you think the two groups communicated? -What did the Spanish think about the Tequesta? -What do they think the Tequesta thought of the Spanish explorers? -Is this a friendly meeting of two different groups of people? -What eventually happened to the Tequesta?

The Landing of Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles at Tequesta, now Miami, in 1567 by Ken Hughs. Courtesy Historical Museum of Southern Florida.

32

2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Compare the Prints Activities Have students: -Look and the landscape in prints 4 (Calusa), 7 (Tequesta), and 11 (Jeaga). How is the landscape different and what is the same (or similar) in the prints? -Look at the prints 3 (Calusa) and 10 (Jeaga). Which one does your students think is a cacique? Ask them why they made that choice. (Both are caciques. See information on the back of each print) -Look at the Jeaga woman in print 11. Ask your class to try to identify what kind of material her clothes are made of. (Her top is made of Spanish moss and the skirt is deer skin. See information on the back of the print) -Look at prints 2 (Calusa) and 8 (Tequesta) and discuss what they think each man is doing. (See information on the back of each print) -Look at the Calusa woman in print 6. What is her earring made of? (She is wearing a fish bladder as an earring. See information on the back of the print)

Placing Yourself in the Print Have students select one of the prints. Have them closely study at the print. Then ask them to think about and then write down their answers to the following questions. There is no right or wrong answer to the questions. 1. Who do you become in that time and place in the print? 2.

Why did you make those choices?

3. Was there something you perceived in the print that stimulated those choices? (This exercise is adapted from “Conflict and Resolution,� exercise, Education Department, Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida)

33 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

!"#$"%#%&#'(")%*'+,-%#%.#."/%0*.% 1#)"/+#2'% 3#."/%0*.%45%6789%:;679%6/%:<%67=% >0+''6/'% ?#@#9%A#/,%6/%2+("%B#)"/+#2% C,')/*0D6,'% :8  ;8  P8  R8  S8  <8 

E*)%.#."/%0*.%+,)6%')/+.'9%')#/D,-%#)%)F"%2+.%#,G%0*H,-% G6I,%)6%)F"%&6J6B%6K%)F"%0*.8%%L"%'*/"%)6%B#("%#,%6GGM ,*B&"/%6K%')/+.'8%4'""%+B#-"'%:%#,G%;=% NO"/%0*H,-%)F"%0*.9%'./"#G%)F"%')/+.'%6*)8%4'""%+B#-"%P=% Q#("%#%26,-%.+"0"%6K%/#@#9%A#/,9%6/%2+("%B#)"/+#2%#,G%D"% 6,"%",G%)6%6,"%6K%)F"%')/+.'8%%L"-+,%)6%I"#$"%+,%#,G%6*)8% 4%'""%+B#-"'%RM5=% Q6%#GG%B6/"%I"#$+,-%B#)"/+#29%D"%#%,"I%.+"0"%)6%)F"%",G% 6K%)F"%",G%6K%)F"%.+"0"%)F#)%+'%,6I%'F6/)%#,G%06,D,*"% I"#$+,-8% !F",%A6*%-")%)6%)F"%)6.%6K%)F"%0*.9%D"%6T%)F"%2#')%.+"0"% 6K%I"#$+,-%B#)"/+#28%4'""%+B#-"%U=% V6*%,6I%F#$"%#%&#'(")%B#G"%I+)F%#%.#."/%0*.8%4'""%+B#-"% :W=%

CB#-"%;%

CB#-"%<%

CB#-"%:W%

CB#-"%P%

CB#-"%R%

CB#-"%X%

CB#-"%:%

CB#-"%S%

CB#-"%5%

Y+')6/+0#2%>60+")A%6K%3#2B%L"#0F%E6*,)A%

34 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County

CB#-"%U%


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

!"#$$%&#'($)'#% $ 9,:/$0)7*$;/*0$)<8$'5/--$8/+:-,+/$-&:/$(5/$ ,8+&/8($=/)=-/$)1$')7(5$>-)*&?,$7'&8@$'5/--'$1*)3$ (5/$A/,+5B$$ $

*)+#,-)$.%

Courtesy Theodore Morris, $$$$$$ $ www.floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;slostribes.com.

C-&;/$'5/--'$D=&+:/?$7=$1*)3$(5/$A/,+5$)*$ $$$$$=7*+5,'/?$1*)3$,$'5/--$'()*/E$ F,(7*/$1&A/*$(<&8/$'7+5$,'$G7(/$)*$0,*8$ .+&'')*'$ .,8?=,=/*$,((,+5/?$()$,$',8?&8@$A-)+:$)*$ $$$$$'(,=-/?$()$,$=&/+/$)1$!H$I$JH$<))?$)*$,$'-,A$$ $ )1$8,(7*,-$*)+:$'7+5$,'$-&3/'()8/$ $$$$$$$$$$K<-L$'&3&-,*$())-L$)*$-,*@/$=,=/*$+-&=$

$

/0.+,1'+-20.% 34$M,:/$)8/$)-&;/$'5/--$,8?$(5/$',8?=,=/*$,8?$5)-?&8@$(5/$'5/--$&8$ 0)7*$5,8?L$=-,+/$(5/$=)&8(0$(&=$)1$(5/$'5/--$)8$(5/$',8?=,=/*$,8?$ A/@&8$()$;&@)*)7'-0$*7A$(5/$'5/--$(&=$)8$(5/$',8?=,=/*B$$N)$(5&'$ 78(&-$(5/$(&=$5,'$A//8$<)*8$,<,0$,8?$,$5)-/$&'$)=/8/?B$

$ 54$6)8(&87/$*7AA&8@$(5/$'5/--$78(&-$ 0)7$5,;/$,8$)=/8&8@$-,*@/$/8)7@5$()$ /,'&-0$1//?$(5/$(<&8/$(5*)7@5B$ $ 64$C8+/$0)7$5,;/$+)3=-/(/?$(5/$,A);/L$+7($,$-/8@(5$)1$(<&8/$ ,A)7($OPH$-)8@$1)*$,$'&8@-/$'5/--$8/+:-,+/B$$Q)8@/*$-/8@(5'$+,8$ A/$7'/?$&1$(5/$8/+:-,+/$5,'$3)*/$(5,8$!$)-&;/$'5/--'B$

$ 74$>//?$)8/$/8?$)1$(5/$(<&8/$(5*)7@5$(5/$5)-/B$$R1$(5/$(<&8/$ <&--$8)($@)$(5*)7@5L$(,:/$,8$,<-$)*$-,*@/$=,=/*$+-&=$,8?$A/8?$ )8/$/8?$'(*,&@5(B$$R8'/*($&($(5*)7@5$ (5/$)=/8&8@$,8?$(<&'($,$+)7=-/$)1$ (&3/'B$$M5&'$'5)7-?$+-/,*SA*/,:7=$,$(5&8$&8(/*&)*$')$(5/$(<&8/$+,8$ @)$(5*)7@5B$

$ 84$C8+/$(5/$(<&8/$&'$(5*)7@5L$'-&?/$(5/$'5/--$')$&($&'$ +/8(/*/?$)8$(5/$(<&8/$,8?$=)'&(&)8$&($,'$=&+(7*/?B$$M&/$ (5/$/8?'$()@/(5/*B$$F)<$0)7$5,;/$0)7*$;/*0$)<8$'5/--$ 8/+:-,+/$-&:/$(5/$,8+&/8($=/)=-/$)1$')7(5$>-)*&?,B$

$

$

R1$,??&8@$3)*/$)-&;/$'5/--'L$A/$'7*/$()$(5*/,?$,8)(5/*$ '5/--$1*)3$(5/$)(5/*$/8?$)1$(5/$(<&8/$')$(5,($(5/$ )=/8&8@'$)1$(5/$(<)$'5/--'$,*/$1,+&8@$,'$=&+(7*/?B$$T)7$ +,8$?)$(5&'$<&(5$,'$3,80$)-&;/$'5/--'$,'$0)7$-&:/B$

!"#"$%&'()*&+,-$.)+&/(0$)1$2,-3$4/,+5$6)78(0$

35

2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Student Name: Date: Title:

The Name Poem Create a four line poem based upon your observation and discussion of one of the prints. Follow these guidelines for the poem structure. Line 1: a word that comes to mind when looking at the work of art. This will also be the title of your poem. Line 2: an action phrase based on something you see or sense in the print. Line 3: a comparison, using “like” or “as,” between something in the print and something else in the world. Line 4: another word that comes to mind when looking at the print.

(This exercise is adapted from “Conflict and Resolution,” exercise, Education Department, Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida)

36 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Comparing and Contrasting Historical Information Directions: Teachers: Assign students either into groups or work as an entire class to compare and contrast the different information presented in two of the Native American books in the trunks. Then have the students answer the questions below. Students: Look at the two books entitled: Florida: Native Peoples and Florida’s Lost Tribes. Look at the different sections assigned below and then answer the questions on the different sections. 1. Glance over pages 36-40 in Florida’s Lost Tribes. Then, glance over pages 11-12, 20-22, 30-32 in Florida: Native Peoples. a. From first glance, what the differences between the two texts?

b. Why do you think the book Florida: Native Peoples has all of their information spread out? (Hint—look at different title headings and flip through the pages before and after the assigned ones.)

2. Now, read pages 36-40 in Florida’s Lost Tribes and pages 11-12, 20-22, and 30-32 in Florida: Native Peoples. a. Which text gives a more in-depth analysis of the Timucua Indians? Explain your answer.

b. Which text do you find easier to read? Explain your answer.

c. Why do you think it is important to not just read from one historical text? Why should we as students of history turn to multiple sources for information?

37 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Comparing and Contrasting Historical Information ANSWER KEY Directions: Teachers: Assign students either into groups or work as an entire class to compare and contrast the different information presented in two of the Native American books in the trunks. Then have the students answer the questions below. Students: Look at the two books entitled: Florida: Native Peoples and Florida’s Lost Tribes. Look at the different sections assigned below and then answer the questions on the different sections. 3. Glance over pages 36-40 in Florida’s Lost Tribes. Then, glance over pages 11-12, 20-22, 30-32 in Florida: Native Peoples. a. From first glance, what the differences between the two texts? Student answers will vary—but some possible answers include: The first text is more dense, there are no headings for the information, there are no pictures, it is very wordy, the first text has more information. The second text is more scattered throughout the book, it is easier to read, there are pictures, all of the information discussed is central to one topic. b. Why do you think the book Florida: Native Peoples has all of their information spread out? (Hint—look at different title headings and flip through the pages before and after the assigned ones.) Student answer may vary again—but the central point to make is that the second text has organized the book into mini-chapters where one theme can be discussed across five different tribes to compare and contrast more easily. Hint-might want to encourage students at this point to flip through the entire book and glance over the headings and titles to get a feel for how the book is arranged. 4. Now, read pages 36-40 in Florida’s Lost Tribes and pages 11-12, 20-22, and 30-32 in Florida: Native Peoples. a. Which text gives a more in-depth analysis of the Timucua Indians? Explain your answer. The first text- the Florida’s Lost Tribes gives a more in-depth analysis because it is very detailed and contains much more information than the other text. Other variations on this answer are acceptable as well. 38 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga b. Which text do you find easier to read? Explain your answer. Student answers will vary. c. Why do you think it is important to not just read from one historical text? Why should we as students of history turn to multiple sources for information? Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s may have their own opinion on why multiple sources are acceptable, reassure their answers if they sound correct, but also explain to them the importance of having enough information. Possibly create an example when not having the right amount of information can hurt their grade of even give a real-life example. Help students to understand the importance of double-checking the facts they come across to make sure they are indeed facts, not just opinions.

39 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Reading Assignment Directions: Teachers: Make copies of the assignment and handout to students. Students: Read the following information on the Tequesta tribe of Florida and then answer the questions that follow. The Tequesta of Florida General Overview The Tequesta lived in Southeast Florida, where Miami and Ft. Lauderdale are located today. They lived on the coastline of Florida’s rivers and built their home using palm leaves. Because of their location on the waterways of South Florida, the Tequesta were hunter-gatherers, meaning they went out and hunted for their food on the beach or by boat, because they did practice much agriculture or farming. Government A prominent feature of the Tequesta tribe was the power of the chief, who was held in very high status, much like a modern day president or king. The head chief may have lived in the main village, and from there he would have controlled the smaller villages that were spread out. However, the Tequesta chief was not as powerful as the chief of the Calusa, who lived in Southwest Florida (modern day Lee and Charlotte counties). The Calusa chief worked closely with the chief of the Calusa to develop an alliance to ensure that the Tequesta’s tribe members were safe. One reason the Tequesta may not have been as powerful as the Calusa is because the Tequesta were not as numerous, meaning the Calusa tribe members outnumbered the Tequesta. Lifestyle As previously mentioned, the Tequesta did not farm that much, so they depended on their hunting skills to attain food. Some of the food the Tequesta ate included sailfish, sharks, turtles, and deer. In order to hunt on the water, the Tequesta made dugout canoes from tree trunks. They would also make fishing hooks and lines from vines and broken pieces of shell. They also collected wild fruits and vegetables to eat. The men and women of the Tequesta would wear clothing made from animal skins, woven grass, and even Spanish moss. The Tequesta woman would make pottery from clay and would use these pots to hold food and water. Exploration In 1513, Juan Ponce de León and the Tequesta encountered one another, and several dozens of the Tequesta Indians died as a result of exposure to European diseases. By the middle of the 18th century, the Tequesta were no longer

40 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga a distinct tribe in Florida because there numbers had dwindled. Those who did survive merged into another well-known Florida Indian tribe, known as the Seminoles. Some Seminole tribes today identify themselves as Tequesta Indians, rather than as Seminoles.

41 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Reading Assignment Directions: Teachers: Make copies of the assignment and handout to students. Students: After having read the above information on the Tequesta tribe of Florida, answer the following questions. The Tequesta of Florida Student Assessment Name________________________ Date_________________________ THE TEQUESTA 1. What modern day cities did the Tequesta Indians used to live? ______________________ and ______________________ 2. Which tribe had more power, the Calusa or the Tequesta, over one another? ______________________ 3. Where the Tequesta Indians famers? (Yes or no) Explain your answer.

4. What happened to the Tequesta Indians?

5. How would you feel having to abandon the culture you identified with for a new one?

6. Imagine that you are a Calusa Indian. What skills would you have to have in order to survive? Try to list two.

42 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Reading Assignment

ANSWER KEY

Directions: Teachers: Make copies of the assignment and handout to students. Students: After having read the above information on the Tequesta tribe of Florida, answer the following questions. The Tequesta of Florida Student Assessment Name________________________ Date_________________________ THE TEQUESTA 1. What modern day cities did the Tequesta Indians used to live? ____Miami_______ and __Ft. Lauderdale___ 2. Which tribe had more power, the Calusa or the Tequesta, over one another? ___The Calusa__ 3. Where the Tequesta Indians famers? (Yes or no) Explain your answer. No. Because the Tequesta lived on the coastline they were not farmers but instead hunted for their food or gathered food from the land that they did not cultivate themselves. 4. What happened to the Tequesta Indians? Initially, many of the Tequesta Indians died as a result of exposure to European diseases. After their numbers had dwindled so low, the Tequesta Indians that remained assimilated into another tribe, the Seminoles. 5. How would you feel having to abandon the culture you identified with for a new one? Answers with vary from student to student. 6. Imagine that you are a Calusa Indian. What skills would you have to have in order to survive? Try to list two. Possible skills include: The ability to hunt, The ability to fish, The ability to cook, The ability to build a canoe

43 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

! Reading Check Point: Florida: Native Peoples Directions: Teachers: Have students either read in groups or read aloud to them. Make copies of the questions below and have them answer them individually or in groups. Students: Read with or listen along with the teacher and then answer the questions below on the book, Florida: Native Peoples. 1. Name two of the four early tribes in Florida. ____________________ and ___________________ 2. Who was the first European explorer to land on the Florida Shores? What year? _______________________________________ year ___________ 3. How many Seminole wars were there? ____________________ 4. Who was the most powerful person in any Timucua town? ____________________ 5. Which of the following tribes were farmers? Circle all that apply. a. Timucua b. Apalachee c. Tequesta d. Calusa e. Seminoles and Miccosukee 6. Match the custom practices or locations with each appropriate tribe. a. Tattooed their bodies ___ Tequesta b. Celebrated Green Corn Ceremony ___ Seminoles c. Miami Circle ___ Calusa d. Celebrated the corn harvest ___ Apalachee e. Detailed wood carvings ___ Timucua 7. Micanopy was an important Seminole chief who tried to make peace with the United States after the Second Seminole War. Why is it important to try to make peace with someone, especially an enemy?

44 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

! Reading Check Point: Florida: Native Peoples Directions: Teachers: Have students either read in groups or read aloud to them. Make copies of the questions below and have them answer them individually or in groups. Students: Read with or listen along with the teacher and then answer the questions below on the book, Florida: Native Peoples. 1. Name two of the four early tribes in Florida. _Timucua, Apalachee, Tequesta, and Calusa__ 2. Who was the first European explorer to land on the Florida Shores? What year? ___Juan Ponce De Leon ___ year __1513__ 3. How many Seminole wars were there? ___Three (3)____ 4. Who was the most powerful person in any Timucua town? __Chief__ 5. Which of the following tribes were farmers? Circle all that apply. a. Timucua b. Apalachee c. Tequesta d. Calusa e. Seminoles and Miccosukee 6. Match the custom practices or locations with each appropriate tribe. a. Tattooed their bodies C_ Tequesta b. Celebrated Green Corn Ceremony _B_Seminoles c. Miami Circle _D_ Calusa d. Celebrated the corn harvest _E_Apalachee e. Detailed wood carvings _A_ Timucua 7. Micanopy was an important Seminole chief who tried to make peace with the United States after the Second Seminole War. Why is it important to try to make peace with someone, especially an enemy? Answers will vary from student to student

45 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Other activities -Have students select a print for further exploration. Then challenge each student to write a narrative story about his or her print of choice. -Have students weave a piece of cloth using the materials provided: the Y-loom and a roll of jute twine. For the instructions to do this, see The Crafts of Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s First People, pages 17-20. Teachers may want to split their class into groups to do this activity. -Use The Crafts of Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s First People, pages 8-16, and Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s First People, pages 85-91, to make a cord, string, or rope. Have students collect the palm fiber, fur, or palm leaf to do this. Teachers may want to split their class into groups to do this activity. -Create informative newspapers. Pair your students; assign each pair a different region where the ancient Floridians lived. Give them a sheet of drawing paper, which will be the front page of the newspaper, and have them create some informative articles about their region. -Make a Native American Flip Book about one of the south Florida tribes. In it, have students answer the following questions: Where did the tribe live? How was it organized? What type of clothing did the people where? What types of food did they eat? What types of shelter did they use/ What made this tribe different form other Native American groups? Where is this tribe today? -Introduce the different regions of south Florida where the Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga lived by having your students research them. Then have them create a tornpaper mosaic. Assign different regions to different colored paper. Have students title the map and create a key. -Use the map included with the trunk and the book Florida-Native Peoples. Have students read aloud the chapter Organization and History, pages 11-19. Have the class compare and contrast the differences of the tribes discussed in the chapter. -Examine the Calusa feline statue. Ask students what they think it is; what it might represent; is it an animal or a man dressed as an animal. (It most likely is a shaman dressed like a panther. These statues usually represented important people of the tribe or ancestor.) 46 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Places to Visit Palm Beach County Gumbo Limbo Environmental Complex 1801 N. Ocean Blvd. Boca Raton, FL 33432 561-338-1473 www.gumbolimbo.org Gumbo Limbo Environmental Complex is part of the Red Reef Park. It is a nature center that preserves a tropical hammock. A Pre-Columbian shell midden can be seen at Gumbo Limbo. Jupiter Inlet Midden 1 DuBois Park 19075 DuBois Road Jupiter, Florida 33477 This is a Jeaga shell mound with a pioneer house on top of it. The house was built in 1898 by the DuBois family. This mound is where the Jeaga held the English shipwreck survivor Jonathan Dickinson, his family, and the shipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crew of the Reformation in 1696. This mound is one of very few open to the public in Palm Beach County. Loxahatchee River Historical Museum Loxahatchee River Historical Society Burt Reynolds Park 805 N. U.S. Highway 1 Jupiter, Florida 33477 561-747-6639 Museum has exhibits of Jeaga artifacts. The museum also conducts tours of the Jupiter Lighthouse which sites on top of an Indian mound. Broward County Linear Park Plantation Preserve Golf Course & Club 7050 W. Broward Blvd Plantation, Florida 33317 This is a Tequesta burial mound open to the public.

47 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Plantation Historical Museum 511 North Fig Tree Lane Plantation, FL 33317 Permanent exhibits include artifacts from the Tequesta, Seminoles, and other historical exhibits. Items from the Tequesta Burial Mound in Linear Park are on display here. Indian Mound Park SE 13th Street and Hibiscus Avenue Pompano Beach, Florida 33062 A small Tequesta burial mound that faces the Intracoastal Waterway. The park is open to the public. Peace Mound Park On Three Village Road just west of the intersection of Indian Trace Road and Weston Road Weston, Florida 33326 This is a Tequesta burial mound open to the public. Miami-Dade County Arch Creek Park 1855 Northeast 135th Street North Miami, FL 33181 305-944-6111 The park has a Tequesta midden and the small museum on the grounds interprets the site. Deering Estate at Cutler 16701 SW 72nd Avenue Miami, Florida 33157 305-235-1668 www.deeringestate.com An important Tequesta burial mound is located on the grounds of the Deering Estate Park. El Portal Mound: A Tequesta Burial Mound Village of El Portal, Florida In 1949 a bronze plaque was placed at the mound recognizing its historic significance.

48 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga The Historical Museum of Southern Florida 101 West Flagler Street Metro-Dade Cultural Center Plaza Miami, Florida 33130 305-375-1492 www.historical-museum.org The museum has exhibits of south Florida Native Americans and the Miami Circle. Collier County Collier County Museum 3301 Tamiami Trail East Naples, Florida 34112 239-774-8476 www.colliermuseum.com Displays about the history of Collier County including information on the Calusa. Mound Key Sate Archaeological Site The island is located in Estero Bay Estero, Florida 33928 239-992-0311 Mound Key was the main village of the Calusa. Lee County Museum of the Islands 5728 Sesame Drive Bokeelia, Florida 33922 239-283-1525 Exhibits include artifacts from archaeological research including the Calusa. Southwest Florida Museum of History 2300 Peck Street Fort Myers, Florida 33901 239-332-5955 Exhibits of pre-historic Florida and the Calusa.

49 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga The Calusa Heritage Trail (Pineland Complex) Randell Research Center 13810 Waterfront Drive Pineland, Florida 33945 239-283-2062 http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/rrc/calusatrail.htm Follow the interpretive trail into the past. With the aid of illustrated signs or a guided tour, see how the Calusa lived in this well-preserved coastal complex. On the Calusa Heritage Trail, visitors can tour this significant site and learn about Calusa culture and their environment.

50 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Instructions for using the Pump Drill The pump drill pictured is not a real working drill. It is an educational piece for students to understand how this style of ancient tool worked. Place the drill on the item to be drilled. Using the bar, spin it until the cord is wrapped around the drill. Cord Bar Drill Weight Wood to be drilled In a quick downward motion, push the bar down

Then quickly pull up so the cord once again wraps around the drill returning to the starting position.

Repeat the up and down motion in one continuous action

51 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga Bibliography for Teachers Brown, Robin C. Florida’s First People. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, 1994. Dickinson, Jonathan. Jonathan Dickinson’s Journal; or God’s Protecting Providence…1699. Edited by Charles McL. Andrews and Evangeline W. Andrews. Stuart, FL.: Valentine Books, 1975. Fontaneda, Hernando d’Esaclante. Memoir of Do. D’Escalante Fontaneda Respecting Florida,Written in Spain, about the year 1575. Translated by Buckingham Smith, edited by David O. True. Coral Gables: Glade House, 1945. Gilliland, Marion Spjut. The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1975. Hann, John H. Indians of Central and South Florida, 1513-1763. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. Knotts, Bob. Florida Native Peoples. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003. MacMahon, Darcie A. and William H. Marquardt. The Calusa and Their Legacy: South Florida People and Their Environment. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 2004 McCarthy, Kevin M. Native Americans in Florida. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc., 1999. McGoun, William E. Prehistoric People of South Florida. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993. ________________. Ancient Miamians. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002. Milanich, Jerald T. Florida Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. _______________. Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1995. Morris, Theodore, with commentary by Jerald T. Milanich. Florida’s Lost Tribe. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.

52 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


The Ancient People of South Florida The Calusa, Tequesta, and Jeaga

Appendix Student Handout PowerPoint Presentation Slides

53 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Ancient People of South Florida: Educator's Guide  
Ancient People of South Florida: Educator's Guide