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Spanish Explorers of La Florida

Educator’s Guide

Provided by The Mary Alice Fortin Foundation, INC.


This Educators’ Guide to Spanish Explorers in La Florida was produced by the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum with the support from the Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

©2017 Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Hwy| P.O. Box 4364 | West Palm Beach, FL 33402-4364| (561) 832-4164 | www.hspbc.org Writer & Graphic Design: Richard Marconi On Front Cover: Juan Ponce de León. HSPBC

For more information about the variety of educational programming offered by the Johnson History Museum and the Historical Society of Palm Beach Count, please visit our website: www.hspbc.org/in-the-classroom

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Contents Teacher’s Guide to Spanish Explorers of La Florida ...................................................................................... 3 FLORIDA SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS ....................................................................................................... 3 Lesson One: Spanish Explorers of Florida ..................................................................................................... 4 Student Handout 1: A Good Explorer ..................................................................................................... 18 Explorers Chart........................................................................................................................................ 21 Lesson Two: Let’s Go Exploring ................................................................................................................... 32 Activity Worksheet.................................................................................................................................. 37 Vocabulary .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Indian Tool Sheet .................................................................................................................................... 41 Lesson Three: Navigate Like an Explorer .................................................................................................... 43 16th CENTURY NAVIGATION TOOLS ....................................................................................................... 46 Template for Atrolabe............................................................................................................................. 50 How to use an Astrolabe ......................................................................................................................... 54 Lesson Four: Find Your Direction ................................................................................................................ 59 How to Read a Map ................................................................................................................................ 63 Lesson Five: Life At Sea ............................................................................................................................... 67 Student Handout : Sailing to La Florida .................................................................................................. 71 LIFE ON BOARD A SIXTEENTH CENTURY SPANISH SHIP .......................................................................... 73 Parts of a Spanish Ship Handout ............................................................................................................. 77 Answer Key ............................................................................................................................................. 78 A SAILOR'S RATION Sea Biscuit Recipe ................................................................................................... 79 Lesson Six: Till the End of Time ................................................................................................................... 80 Lesson Seven: Map It Out ........................................................................................................................... 88 Vocabulary List ........................................................................................................................................ 92 Early Mapmaking Worksheet .................................................................................................................. 93 Lesson Eight: To Conquer and To Colonize: Founding St. Augustine .......................................................... 94 Warm up Activity: ................................................................................................................................... 98 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................. 101

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Teacher’s Guide to Spanish Explorers of La Florida

The Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum’s Educators’ Guide, in combination with ongoing teacher workshops and field trips to its permanent and temporary exhibitions, will help you structure learning experiences that correspond to the following Florida Sunshine State Standards. This guide contains materials and resources to supplement and enhance student learning in the classroom and during in-gallery experiences, tying the SPANISH EXPLORERS OF LA FLORIDA traveling trunk to the state standards and enhancing school field trips.

Note: The USB found in the Teacher’s Guide has the following: Teacher Guide (PDF) Additional images & powerpoint presentations

Teachers: All sections of this guide may be reproduced for your students.

FLORIDA SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

Social Studies Standards

SS.4.A.1.1 SS.4.A.1.4 SS.4.A.2.1 SS.4.A.3.1 SS.4.A.3.3 SS.4.A.3.7 SS.4.G.1.1 SS.4.G.1.2

Language Arts Standards

LAFS.4.L.2.3 LAFS.4.L.3.4 LAFS.4.L.3.6 LAFS.4.W.2.4

Science Standards

SC.4.E.5.1 SC.4.E.5.3 SC.4.N.1.6 SC.4.P.8.4

Math Standards

MAFS.4.MD.3.5 MAFS.4.MD.3.6 MAFS.4.OA.1.2 MAFS.K12.MP.2.1 MAFS.K12.MP.5.1

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Lesson One: Spanish Explorers of Florida Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1: Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.A.3.1: Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. SS.4.G.1.1: Identify physical features of Florida. LAFS.4.L.2.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. Choose punctuation for effect. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). LAFS.4.L.3.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. LAFS.4.L.3.6: Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases as found in grade level appropriate texts, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). LAFS.4.W.2.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Materials: Teacher: Explorer bios with maps for each explorer(maps on USB), Explorer Quiz-Pre Test and Answer sheet, Student Handout 1: A Good Explorer, KWL Chart, Explorer’s Chart, Who I Am Worksheets, Explorer Quiz-Post Test and Answer sheet, Spanish Explorers Poster(In trunk), Route Map poster (in trunk), Teacher’s USB for maps. Student: Pen/pencil, extra paper, Explorer bios with maps for each explorer for group work, Explorer Quiz-Pre Test, Student Handout 1: A Good Explorer, KWL Chart, Explorer’s Chart, Who I Am Worksheets, Explorer Quiz-Post Test.

Pre Test Before beginning the warm-up and lesson, have students take the pre-test. After grading, start the Warm-up.

Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn about the European explorers who came to La Florida to claim land for Spain, to convert the native population to Christianity, and to seek treasure. The late 15 th century and the 16th century was a great age of exploration. After Christopher Columbus made his famous voyage to the New World for Spain, everyone wanted to venture across the great ocean to find his fortune. Some were successful, however many

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were not. At least six Spaniards and a group of Frenchmen came to La Florida to establish a colony and seek wealth. Only one would succeed in establishing the first settlement, St. Augustine.

Teacher Prompt: Can you name two Spanish explorers or conquistadors who came to Florida?

Traveling to foreign lands must be exciting and scary. Why would these men travel so far?

Teacher Prompt: What does it take to be an explorer in the 16th Century? For as long as we can remember, people have set out to explore new lands. Some explorers are searching for riches, some want to start over, others are looking for freedom, and still others want to claim new lands for their country. Journeys to distant lands can be very hazardous. Many times, these adventurers came to unknown lands with no idea of what to expect.

Teacher Prompt: Did Juan Ponce de León come to Florida seeking the “Fountain of Youth?” do you think this is true or false? Let student answer. See how many say it is true and how many say false.

-Of course it is false. There is nothing in the original documents about searching for the fabled Fountain of Youth. This is myth. The idea of the Fountain of Youth started years after Ponce’s death.

This can be turned into an additional research project for your class. Separate students into groups, distribute Student Handout 1 and complete in class.

Distribute The KWL Chart. Discuss what the students already know about the explorers in the K-column (What I Know) and what the students want to learn in the W-column (What I Want to Learn): Who the explorers were, where did they come from, what did they accomplish etc.

Use all the information (attached bios and other sources) and maps included in the trunk on those teachers may have already found online.

Student can fill out the L-column (What I Learned) after they complete the group exercise about the explorers below and each group has presented their explorer.

Vocabulary: Cacique- Spanish meaning native Indian chief who ruled over a certain province or region Indigenous- Native to the country of origin

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Conquistadors- Early 16th century Spanish explorers who would claim and conquer the land in the name of the king and establish a colony in that particular province

Lesson: Explain to students that in this lesson they will learn about some of the Spanish and French explorers that sailed to Florida search of riches and land. The students will investigate individual explorers, their motivations for exploration, the discoveries they made, the challenges they faced, and their role in the colonization of Florida.

In-depth information on each explorer and relevant activities have been included to facilitate the students' understanding of the overall concepts.

Divide students into groups, assigning each group one of the explorers: Juan Ponce de León, Hernando de Soto, Alonso Alvarez, de Pineda, Pánfilo de Narváez, Luis Cancer, Tristán de Luan y Arellano, Jean Ribault, and Pedro Menéndez de Á viles. Distribute the readings, map that goes with each explorer, and student handouts to the groups.

As students read the handout on their assigned explorer, they are to complete the matrix (although students will be working in cooperative groups, they should record the information on their own matrix).

After students complete their worksheet, have each group share their findings with the rest of the class.

Distribute the Post Test, have students take test, then grade.

Reflection: Review with class the explorers who came to La Florida. Ask students what they have learned about each one.

Assessment: Make sure the students have completed worksheets, class participation, passing Post Test.

Enrichment: To learn more about the 16th century explorers to Florida visit:

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Teaching Florida http://teachingflorida.org/article/european-exploration Imagining La Florida http://www.accioncultural.es/virtuales/florida/eng/index.html

Bio Juan Ponce de León (ca. 1574-1521): Juan Ponce de León y Figueroa was born ca. 1574 In Santervás de Campos in western Spain. As a teenager he was a squire for Don Pedro Núñez de Guzmán during the Reconquista, war to recapture several Spanish kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors. After to end of the Reconquista (1492) Ponce left Cadiz, Spain, on September 25, 1493, as a member of Christopher Columbus’s second voyage to the New World. The small armada of ships arrived in the Caribbean in November 1493. He was present when Columbus sighted Dominica, Martinique, Maria Galante, Guadeloupe, Montserrat (named for a mountain near Barcelona), Santa Maria de la Antigua, Saint Croix, Virgin Islands, Jamaica, and San Juan Bautista (Boriquén; Puerto Rico) and when Columbus landed on Puerto Rico. During the Indian Wars on Española, Ponce de León distinguished himself and was rewarded with governorship of eastern part of the island. He became a successful farmer, a rare occupation for a Castilian at the time. He grew yucca which was ground into a flour for bread which kept well for the voyages to Europe. Juan Ponce was not a greedy slave trader or gold hunter; he was primarily a farmer who earned great respect and supplied most of the explorers who stopped at Española heading to different points west or returning to Europe. He was noted for his fair treatment of Indians and Europeans, a remarkable feat giving the barbarity of that period and he earned the confidence and support of Governor Oviedo and King Ferdinand. Ponce was later named governor of San Juan Bautista and he established first European colony on the island near present day San Juan, Puerto Rico. Between 1506 and 1513, Diego Columbus, son of Christopher Columbus, sued the crown to retain all the entitlements bestowed on his father. Diego won which caused problems for Ponce when Diego arrived in the Indies. Ponce was forced it give up the governorship of Puerto Rico to Diego Columbus because the king was unable to keep this from happening. Though Ponce did retain the office of military captain for the island. Ferdinand suggested that Ponce should explore the region to the north. King granted Ponce the governorship of Biminis that included Florida and the Bahamas. This also helped the king to limit the power of the Columbus family in the New World and allowed Ponce to escape Puerto Rico, which was becoming an island prison under Diego. At his own expense, Ponce outfitted three ships with a total of 65 people including two free Africans, two Indian slaves, one white slave, and one woman. The group set sail on March 3, 1513, from Puerto Rico. The explorers landed on Sunday, April 3, 1513, and named what they thought was an island La Florida for the Pascua Florida, or feast of flowers celebrated at Easter. Sailing south along the east coast, Ponce made another significant discovery—the Gulf Stream which would later speed treasure ships to Spain. 7|Historical Society of Palm Beach County


He continued south past Miami Beach, west through the Florida Keys, and north to the barrier islands near Fort Myers. In this area Ponce encountered the Calusa Indians. There was a small skirmish and afterwards, Ponce sailed away. He backtracked and visited the Dry Tortugas and returned through the Keys and the Bahamas to San Juan Bautista, arriving on October 19, 1513. Upon his return to Spain, Juan Ponce was knighted—the first New World conquistador so honored. This was the first authorized exploration of this region. There were two types of exploration, authorized, that is approval from the Castilian and Spanish crowns and unauthorized, unapproved. Florida had been visited before by unauthorized visits; Europeans looking for slaves. After 1494, slavers had visited the Bahamas Islands to capture slaves. Las Casas made a statement that in 1511 Castilians had visited the land that became known and La Florida and it appears that it is the first documentation of enslavement of Indians by Europeans from any part of what is now the United States. Additionally to this written record a portion of Florida had been mapped by Andres de Morales de Sevilla who labeled it Isla de Beimeni. This map was added to some of Peter Martyr’s Opera, first published in 1511 and is the first map printed in Castilla that shows any discoveries in the New World. The idea that Ponce’s primary purpose was to search for the Fountain of Youth is not correct. He was looking for the land of Bimini. Searching for the fabled Fountain of Youth was a secondary mission. In February 1521, the newly titled Don Juan returned to establish a colony. With two ships and less than 100 people, they settled near Charlotte Harbor. Four months later, Calusa Indians attacked the small colony, killing or wounding many colonists. Don Juan Ponce de León y Figueroa sailed for Cuba where he died of wounds sustained in battle. Some of the survivors of the fail colony sailed to Mexico to join Hernán Cortez. It would be 44 years before Spain successfully established a permanent presence on the peninsula.

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Bio Alonso Alvarez de Pineda (1494-1520) Alonso Alvarez de Pineda was born in 1494 in a small town in Spain called Aldeacentenera, though there are no records documenting this or in fact anything concerning Pineda’s life before 1519. Pineda was an explorer who explored the Gulf of Mexico and is credited to produce the first map of this region. Francisco de Garay, the mayor Hispaniola, traveled to Spain in 1514 and King Ferdinand gave him the title of governor of the island of Jamaica and authorized Garay to explore new land to search a passage to the Orient. Garay commissioned Captain Alonso Alvarez de Pineda for this expedition. Pineda was to explore the lands previously discovered by Juan Ponce de León. Pineda would explore the area of Florida many years later and through his travels would conclude that Florida wasn't an island as León had believed but was instead a peninsula. In the spring of 1519 under orders of Governor Garay, Pineda set off to sea with four ships, 270 men to explore and to find a passage to the orient (To find a channel connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Pacific Ocean). Pineda was at sea for nine months until he reached Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz he wanted to claim this land for Garay but Hernán Cortés had claim to this area already. Pineda left Vera Cruz and sailed up north to Río Grande area or as Pineda called Río de las Palmas. There is some uncertainty whether or not Pineda returned to Jamaica since there are no records of his journey but according to Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Pineda died at Pánuco River in 1520 while fighting with the Indians of the region. It is believed that Garay sent Captain Diego de Camargo to the Pánuco where he learned about Pineda's death. Camargo made an attempt to establish a settlement but the Indians rebelled against him and he and rest of his crew fled to Vera Cruz where he joined Cortés forces. In 1523 after receiving Pineda's map from Garay the Spanish king gave a patent to Garay to establish a settlement in the Río de las Palmas but upon arrival Garay learned that Cortes had establish a small town called Santiesteban del Puerto. It is uncertain whether Garay was taken by force or willing went to Vera Cruz to meet Cortés. They discussed about the rights to colonize the area they came to an agreement and went to Christmas Eve Mass together. Garay fell ill and died three days later. Unfortunately records about Pineda's journey have been lost so there will always be an uncertainty about what exactly Pineda discovered on his journey. We though have the map that Pineda drew of the Gulf of Mexico the first of its kind and his voyage proved that Florida was not an island. After Pineda's death many explorers and conquerors kept on fighting for what Pineda wanted which as to establish a Spanish settlement in Texas.

The text is from: http://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/tejano-history-curriculum-project/alonso-álvarez-de-pineda

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Bio Pánfilo de Narváez (1470-1528)
 Pánfilo de Narváez was from an upper class family who lived in Vallenda, Spain. He joined other conquistadores in the New World to earn himself a fortune. Between 1509-1512, Narváez took part in the conquests of Jamaica and Cuba. In 1520, Diego Valázquez, Governor of Cuba, sent Narváez to Mexico with a 1000 soldiers to capture Hernán Cortez who was conquering the Aztec Empire and exceeding his authority. Narváez and his men fought the forces of Cortez on in May 1520 near Veracruz. Narváez lost the battle because many of his soldiers defected and joined Cortez. Following the battle, Narváez’s remaining men also joined Cortez while Narváez himself, was captured and imprisoned in Veracruz for two years. After his release, Narváez returned to Spain. King Charles V later granted Narváez permission to form and lead an expedition to Florida. In 1527 his armada of five ships with about 600 men set sail for Florida. After reaching the Caribbean, some of his men deserted. He reached Florida in April 1528 landing near Tampa Bay. He went ashore with the hope of establishing a colony. He had several hundred men, horses and supplies with him, but Narvaez and most of his men died. Eight years later, only four survivors made it to Mexico City. One of those survivors was called Esteban, a black explorer slave. During his journey to Mexico, Esteban learned much about the land. He later led Spanish explorers through what is now the southwestern United States.

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Bio Hernando de Soto (ca. 1500-1542)
 Hernando de Soto was born around 1500 in Spain to a poor family, but as a member of the Spanish nobility. After obtaining some education in a university, he was invited in 1514 to join an expedition to the Indies, where he and his compatriots explored territories that now comprise Panama, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Later as second in command of Francisco Pizarro’s conquests of Peru and the Incan capital of Cuzco, de Soto further consolidated his wealth. After earning a fortune, de Soto returned to Spain and a life of leisure. In 1536 King Carols V granted de Soto the title of Governor of Cuba which included La Florida. In April 1538, de Soto departed Spain with about nine ships and 700-1000 men. His fleet arrived at Cuba where they helped Havana after a French attach on the city. De Soto and his fleet departed Cuba in May 1539 sailing for Florida. About ten days later, de Soto landed at Tampa Bay. He and his men explored the present-day states of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. They discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River. After crossing the river, de Soto fell ill and died in late May or in June (the sources do not agree on the date). His men buried his body in the Mississippi River.

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Bio Luis Cancer de Barbastro (d. 1549) A Dominican priest, Luis Cancer de Barbastro was born in Spain. He was one of the first Dominicans to follow Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas to Guatemala. Cancer worked as a missionary with the Indians of Vera Paz and wrote a manuscript of Zapotecan language. He agreed with Las Casas who spoke out against cruel treatment of the indigenous populations under Spanish control. Cancer traveled to Spain to obtain permission to travel to La Florida. He was granted permission but to travel to La Florida’s East Coast and to avoid the Gulf coast to show that using non-violence is better to convert the Indians. In 1549 Caner traveled to Vera Cruz, Mexico, then to Havana, Cuba, and on to La Florida with Fathers Gregoria de Bateta, Diego de Tolosa, Juan Garcia, and Brother Fuentes, and a Christianized Indian woman, Magdalena, who was their interpreter. The ship arrived south of Tampa Bay where they encountered a group of 20 Indians. Cancer, Tolosa, Fuentes, and Magdalena went ashore to meet the Indians. The Indians told them about a great harbor and many villages to the north. Tolosa, Fuentes, a Spanish sailor, and Magdalena went with the Indians while Cancer returned to the ship to sail to the harbor (Tampa Bay). On June 23, 1549, the ship arrived at Tampa Bay and Magdalena and a large group of Indians were there to greet the Spaniards. Magdalena said she had convinced the chief that the Spanish were peaceful. Later, Juan Munos, a Spaniard who had been part of the De Soto expedition and held as a slave, escaped to the Cancer’s ships. He told them the priests had been killed and the sailor held captive. Cancer was warned not to go ashore and that the ship should leave and sail to the east coast, their original destination. Cancer refused and on June 26, Cancer, Beteta, Garcia, and Munos went ashore. As they near the beach, there was a large group of Indians waiting. Cancer jumped overboard and waded to shore. The Indians withdrew while Cancer knelt and prayed. One Indian came forward, and the he and Cancer started walking the group. As they approached, the Indians ran at Cancer and beat him to death. Afterwards, the Spanish ship departed.

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Bio Tristรกn de Luan y Arellano (1519-1573)โ€จ Tristรกn de Luan y Arellano was born in Spain in 1519. He is best known for the short-lived colony at the site of the city of Pensacola, Florida in 1559. De Luna to the New World in 1530-1531. In 1540 he was pat of the Coronado expedition that explored what is now the Southeastern United States and Northern Mexico. Eight years later de Luna put down an Indian revolt in Oaxaca. Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, selected de Luna around 1557 to lead an expedition to establish a colony on the Gulf coast. De Luna was given the title of governor of Florida. With about 1,000 colonists, 500 soldiers, and 240 horses and other items and supplies needed to found a colony, de Luna depart Mexico in June 11, 1559 and landed at Pensacola Bay on August 14. Five days later, a hurricane destroyed most of his supplies and most of his ships. The colony held on until he was relieved of his duties and ordered to Spain January 1561. De Luna did return to Mexico in 1567. His expedition left him broke and he died in Mexico City in 1573.

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Bio Jean Ribault (1520-1565) 
 In 1562 a Frenchman Jean Ribault came to Florida to claim land for France. Ribault landed at the mouth of the St. John’s River. He built a stone monument to mark his claim for France, and then continued his journey north and built a fort on the Carolina coast. Ribault left 30 men to run the fort while he returned to France to get supplies. A number of accidents at the fort caused problems for the men, but they were fortunate to be rescued by a passing British ship. Two years later another Frenchman named Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere led 300 men and four women to Florida to establish a colony. He built Fort Caroline near present day Jacksonville. The colonists ran low on food and became unhappy with
Laudonniere’s leadership. They had decided to leave Fort Caroline. Just then, Ribault arrived with 500 men, 70 women, and supplies. He saved the French colony in Florida. Then, on August 28, 1565, the King of Spain sent Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to Florida. The King wanted Menéndez to drive the French out of Florida. When Menéndez de Avilés arrived, he immediately marched north to destroy Fort Caroline. Ribault had heard from friendly Native Americans that the Spanish were going to attack. Ribault decided to leave the fort for safety. He sailed south with the majority of his men. The Spanish killed those who remained at Fort Caroline, then sailed south and caught up with Ribault. After a short battle, the Spanish killed most of the French. However, Laudonniere was lucky, he escaped the battle and made it back to France. The location where Menéndez killed Ribault and his men became known as Matanzas, which means “massacre.”

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Bio Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (1519-1574)
 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was born in Spain in 1519. He ran away to sea at 14 years of age, although he was the son of a Spanish nobleman. After 15 years of service in European waters, he made several voyages to the New World beginning in 1560. In 1565, King Philip II of Spain signed a contract with Menéndez and named him governor of Florida. Menéndez’s mission was to establish a colony in La Florida and to remove the French colony established in Spanish territory. This also provided him an opportunity to try to locate his so Juan, who had shipwrecked in the Bahamas the year before. He never found his son. Menéndez departed Spain with a small armada of 11 ships and about 2,000 men in July 1565 and arrive in La Florida the following month when he founded St. Augustine. Menéndez quickly destroyed and killed most of the French at Fort Caroline, which was renamed San Mateo. While he was on his way to Fort Caroline, the most of the French had left in several ships to attack the Spanish. However a storm destroyed the French ships wrecking them along the coast. After destroying Fort Caroline, Menéndez then turned to fight the French headed by Jean Ribault. Riabult’s forces were forced to surrender. Menéndez executed them all except for any Catholics (the French in Florida were Huguenot Protestants). He remained in La Florida until he returned to Spain in 1567. He would return one more time. Menéndez died in 1574.

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Explorer Quiz

Pre-Test

1. An explorer is a person who a. travels seeking new discoveries b. comes from Europe c. comes from Spain d. reads every afternoon for an hour 2. _______________________ was an explorer from France a. Sir Frances Drake b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Jean Ribault 3. ___________________ was the first conquistador to claim Florida. a. Hernando de Soto b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 4. The explorer who almost succeeded in establishing a colony at Pensacola was_____________________. a. Tristan de Luna b. Pánfilo de Narváez c. Juan Ponce de León d. Luis Cancer 5. _____________________ explored much of Southeastern United States and was buried in the Mississippi River. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Hernando de Soto c. Jean Ribault d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 6. These three Spansh conquistadores landed, at different times, at Tampa Bay. a. Pánfilo de Narváez, Hernando de Soto, Luis Cancer b. Hernando de Soto, Tristan de Luna, Luis Cancer c. Juan Ponce de León, Jean Ribault, Hernando de Soto 7. The first European explorer to see the Mississippi River. a. Christopher Columbus b. Juan Ponce de León c. Hernando de Soto d. Pánfilo de Narváez 8. _____________________ returned to Florida a second time to establish a colony but was killed by Calusa Indians. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Luis Cancer c. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 9. __________________________ established St. Augustine, the oldest, continually inhabited city in the continental United States. a. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés b. Juan Ponce de León c. Tristan de Luna

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Explorer Quiz

ANSWERS

Pre-Test

1. An explorer is a person who a. travels seeking new discoveries b. comes from Europe c. comes from Spain d. reads every afternoon for an hour 2. _______________________ was an explorer from France a. Sir Frances Drake b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Jean Ribault 3. ___________________ was the first conquistador to claim Florida. a. Hernando de Soto b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 4. The explorer who almost succeeded in establishing a colony at Pensacola was_____________________. a. Tristan de Luna b. Pánfilo de Narváez c. Juan Ponce de León d. Luis Cancer 5. _____________________ explored much of Southeastern United States and was buried in the Mississippi River. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Hernando de Soto c. Jean Ribault d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 6. These three Spansh conquistadores landed, at different times, at Tampa Bay. a. Pánfilo de Narváez, Hernando de Soto, Luis Cancer b. Hernando de Soto, Tristan de Luna, Luis Cancer c. Juan Ponce de León, Jean Ribault, Hernando de Soto 7. The first European explorer to see the Mississippi River. a. Christopher Columbus b. Juan Ponce de León c. Hernando de Soto d. Pánfilo de Narváez 8. _____________________ returned to Florida a second time to establish a colony but was killed by Calusa Indians. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Luis Cancer c. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 9. __________________________ established St. Augustine, the oldest, continually inhabited city in the continental United States. a. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés b. Juan Ponce de León c. Tristan de Luna

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Student Handout 1: A Good Explorer 1. Look at the list below. Choose the qualities you think are important in an explorer by putting a check on that line. A good explorer should be: ____adventurous

____intelligent

____physically strong/healthy

____popular

____courageous

____independent

____reckless

____rich

____able to make decisions

____careful

____curious

____looking for fame

2. Now go back to the qualities you checked. Put them in order from most important to least important. (Give a number "1" to the most important, "2" to the next most important, etc.) 3. Share your choices with your group. Why did you feel your number one choice was the most important quality for an explorer? Did your group disagree on any qualities? 4. Take a class vote. Which three qualities does your class think are the most important? 1. 2. 3.

Adapted from The Age of Exploration, Core Knowledge Lesson Plans

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KWL Chart

What I know

Topic: Explorers of La Florida What I want to know

What I learned

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Explorers

Country (sponsor)

Reason for Exploring

Success/Achievement

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Explorers Chart

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Who am I?

_________________________sailed for Spain. He sailed with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage and eventually became governor of Puerto Rico. ________________________ left Puerto Rico in search of the island of Bimini but became the first European authorized to land here and claim it for Spain. He named it La Florida.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Who am I?

_________________________from Spain. He helped conquer Jamaica and Cuba. ________________________ was governor of Cuba and was later captured by HernĂĄn Cortez. After he was released, he went to Florida to establish a colony landing at Tampa Bay. Only 4 of his men survived.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Who am I?

_________________________was a Nobel-born Spaniard. He came to the Indies and explored Panama, Nicaragua, and Honduras and participated in the conquests of Peru and the Incan empire. Granted title of Governor of Cuba and later explored La Florida and much of the present-day US Southeast. He was buried in the ________________________.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Who am I?

_________________________ was a Dominican priest from Spain. He received permission to go to ___________________ to try peaceful means to convert the Florida Indians. He arrived at Tampa Bay and met with the Indians. The Indians ____________________ him.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 25 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


Who am I?

_________________________from ________. He came to the New World and was part of the Coronado expedition. He was selected to lead and expedition to start a colony on Florida’s _________ coast. He arrived in 1559 at _______________ Bay. A __________________ destroyed his ships and supplies. He was relieved of command and ordered to ________. He died in ________________ City.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 26 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


Who am I?

_________________________from France. He came to Florida to establish a colony and claim it for his country. He landed at the mouth of ______________ River. He built a fort on the _________________ coast and returned to France for more supplies. He finally returned but had to fight __________________________ and was caught and executed. His colony was destroyed.

Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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Who am I?

_________________________from Spain. King _______ of Spain named him governor of ________________ with the mission to establish a colony and to destroy the French colony there. When he arrived, he established _________________________ and destroyed the French. He city he established is the oldest city in the ____________________________. Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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Who am I?

_________________________from Spain. In 1519 he set off to find ________________________________________________. He would be credited with making the first map of the ___________________________. He also found out that Florida was not an ____________________ but a _________________________. Use the bio sheet and map to complete the following questions. 1. Explorer’s country of origin/birth: _________________________________________________ 2. What country did he explore? _________________________________________________ 3. On what bodies of water did he travel? _________________________________________________ 4. What did he discover or what was he looking for? _________________________________________________ 5. Did the explorer survive to return home? If not, what happened to him? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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Explorer Quiz

Post-Test

1. _____________________ returned to Florida a second time to establish a colony but was killed by Calusa Indians. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Luis Cancer c. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 2. ___________________ was the first conquistador to claim Florida. a. Hernando de Soto b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 3. The first European explorer to see the Mississippi River. a. Christopher Columbus b. Juan Ponce de León c. Hernando de Soto d. Pánfilo de Narváez 4. __________________________ established St. Augustine, the oldest, continually inhabited city in the continental United States. a. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés b. Juan Ponce de León c. Tristan de Luna 5. These three Spansh conquistadores landed, at different times, at Tampa Bay. a. Pánfilo de Narváez, Hernando de Soto, Luis Cancer b. Hernando de Soto, Tristan de Luna, Luis Cancer c. Juan Ponce de León, Jean Ribault, Hernando de Soto 6. The explorer who almost succeeded in establishing a colony at Pensacola was_____________________. a. Tristan de Luna b. Pánfilo de Narváez c. Juan Ponce de León d. Luis Cancer 7. An explorer is a person who a. travels seeking new discoveries b. comes from Europe c. comes from Spain d. reads every afternoon for an hour 8. _______________________ was an explorer from France a. Sir Frances Drake b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Jean Ribault 9. _____________________ explored much of Southeastern United States and was buried in the Mississippi River. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Hernando de Soto c. Jean Ribault d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés

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Explorer Quiz

ANSWERS

Post-Test

1. _____________________ returned to Florida a second time to establish a colony but was killed by Calusa Indians. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Luis Cancer c. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 2. ___________________ was the first conquistador to claim Florida. a. Hernando de Soto b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 3. The first European explorer to see the Mississippi River. a. Christopher Columbus b. Juan Ponce de León c. Hernando de Soto d. Pánfilo de Narváez 4. __________________________ established St. Augustine, the oldest, continually inhabited city in the continental United States. a. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés b. Juan Ponce de León c. Tristan de Luna 5. These three Spansh conquistadores landed, at different times, at Tampa Bay. a. Pánfilo de Narváez, Hernando de Soto, Luis Cancer b. Hernando de Soto, Tristan de Luna, Luis Cancer c. Juan Ponce de León, Jean Ribault, Hernando de Soto 6. The explorer who almost succeeded in establishing a colony at Pensacola was_____________________. a. Tristan de Luna b. Pánfilo de Narváez c. Juan Ponce de León d. Luis Cancer 7. An explorer is a person who a. travels seeking new discoveries b. comes from Europe c. comes from Spain d. reads every afternoon for an hour 8. _______________________ was an explorer from France a. Sir Frances Drake b. Christopher Columbus c. Juan Ponce de León d. Jean Ribault 9. _____________________ explored much of Southeastern United States and was buried in the Mississippi River. a. Juan Ponce de León b. Hernando de Soto c. Jean Ribault d. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés

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Lesson Two: Let’s Go Exploring Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1: Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.A.2.1: Compare Native American tribes in Florida. SS.4.A.3.1: Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. SS.4.G.1.1: Identify physical features of Florida. LAFS.4.L.2.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. Choose punctuation for effect. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). LAFS.4.L.3.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. LAFS.4.L.3.6: Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases as found in grade level appropriate texts, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). LAFS.4.W.2.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Materials: Teacher: Map of Hernando De Soto (on USB), the pictures of Safety Harbor, the Activity Sheet, the Indian Tool Sheet, the Map of Florida Coloring Sheet, and the Vocabulary Sheet. Student: pen/pencil, blank sheet of paper, thesaurus, the Activity Sheet, the Indian Tool Sheet, Map of Florida Coloring Sheet, and the Vocabulary Sheet

Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn about the Indian culture of Safety Harbor in Tampa Bay and what it might have been like to experience seeing the Spanish fleets off their coast for the first time. The Map of Hernando De Soto will be introduced for the first time so the students can see how far the Spanish ships had to travel from the Caribbean to the West Coast of Florida. Tocobago Indian Culture (Existed from about 900A.D. to 1500A.D.) Nestled in northern Tampa Bay is the Safety Harbor region. Archaeologist called this area ‘Safety Harbor’ because its abundant natural resources provided food and shelter for the local Indian villages. The Tocobago people had several villages in this region that was united under a cacique ‘kuh-seek’ (the Spanish word for an Indian Chief who

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ruled over a particular province or region). They mostly fished and hunted for their food. The shells and bones of animals were used as tools and weapons. At various archaeological sites, we see evidence of intricate pottery shards that were scattered around burial sites. Studies have shown that the Tocobago were experts in manufacturing pottery.

Their culture had a cast system within the tribe ranging from nobility to slave. The nobility of each village would regularly meet with their own tribe’s chieftain each morning in the temple mound to sip the Black Drink and smoke the pipe. Commoners would fish and hunt for their food. When the tribe went to war, the commoners would also double as the tribe’s warriors. The tribe had its own shaman who would lead the healing and burial processes. There was also a unique class of people, the Europeans called “Berdache.” The Berdache were men who dressed in grass skirts, wore their hair down like the women, and assisted the shaman in the cultural burial processes. Slaves were the lowest of the cast system and were usually Indian prisoners that were captured from other local tribes each of the Tocobago tribes had fought against.

We have been able to study these people with the help of old records the Spanish explorers had made when they came into contact with the Tocobago. Artifacts have been left behind and located that correspond with these records. Unfortunately, the Tocobago people died out long ago from disease and bloodshed during the 17th century which makes it that much harder to interpret the culture for that period. What we do have is the shell mounds they left behind and tools they had used regularly.

Distribute the Indian Shell Tool Sheet and display pictures of the sites at Safety Harbor. Then show the artifacts, shells, and tools they used. Have them label each tool on the sheet.

Student: Think about how the Tocobaga Indians might have felt when they saw the Spanish explorers for the first time. In your activity you will be writing from the perspective of the Indians and how this event might have affected them emotionally. Be sure to use descriptive words.

During their first encounters with the Spanish, the Indians were not always very friendly because the Tocobaga felt that the foreigners were a threat to their existence. When a large group of Spanish soldiers had landed ashore, it could easily intimidate the peaceful Indian villages along the coast. The Spanish soldiers, who also known as “Conquistadors,” had the intent to claim the land for themselves in the name of the King of Spain. They would build forts and colonies trying to establish a new town for their country with very little disregard for the Indians who lived there first. Truces and pacts were made to keep the peace between the two ruling powers but it did not last for very long.

Teacher Prompt: Why do you think that is?

Vocabulary: Cacique- Spanish meaning native Indian chief who ruled over a certain province or region

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Tocobaga- A tribe or group of Indians, who lived in Tampa Bay in the Safe Harbor region; they hunted offshore for shellfish, traded with northern tribes, and manufactured pottery Calusa-A tribe or group of Indians, who lived to the south of Tampa Bay; they were the enemies of the Tocobaga Indigenous- Native to the country of origin Venison- Deer meat that was used as a food source to sustain the Indians Breechcloth- Another name for ‘loincloth’; a piece of cloth that hung down around the hips covering the loin Conquistadors- Early 16th century Spanish explorers who would claim and conquer the land in the name of the king and establish a colony in that particular province Pottery shards- broken pieces of pottery; it was scattered over various burial sites which was thought to signify the release of the spirit attached to the pottery. This way, the spirit would also accompany the Indian’s soul in the afterlife. Midden- A garbage heap of shells, bones, tools, and pottery; the Indians typically would eat and discard the shells or animal bones after every meal creating a massive pile Adz- A shell or pointed stone tied down at the end of a curved branch; this tool was useful to dig for clams and to carve out wood Atlatl- A stick that was used to propel a spear; it is also known as a spear thrower

Lesson: One of the first records on the discovery of Florida was written about the adventures of a Spanish explorer named Pánfilo de Narváez. On April 14, 1528, he and his fleet of men traveled from Spain through the Gulf of Mexico to the coastal waters of Tampa Bay. Alonso Enrigues, one of the men on board with Narváez, rowed out to a nearby island to make contact with some of the local Native Americans offshore where he stayed for several hours trading many of his goods for food. The next day, all the indigenous people had fled from their local villages but Narváez captured four of the Indians to use as guides. Later on, he tried to establish a colony of ‘New Spain’ in Tampa Bay but the Tocobaga fought back. Many of the Spaniards died from either disease or bloodshed. It was both disease and warfare that lead to the eventual extinction of the Tocobaga. Many of Spaniards had been previously sick during the voyage to New Spain and the exposure was deadly to the vulnerable natives.

The great Spanish explorer, Hernando De Soto, arrived in 1539 on the shore of Tampa Bay. He did not directly come upon the Tocobaga tribe but Spanish records mention small Indian villages along the coast. According to these writings, it appears the Tocobaga people were a much smaller and less powerful group. It wasn’t until 1560s that the Tocobaga were mentioned for the first time in Spanish records for the size of their dauntless and powerful tribe. From the 1560s on, the immense size of the Tocobaga intimidated the Spanish explorers when they came on shore.

Hernando De Soto’s visit to Florida was a memorable one. He had set out on an expedition to conquer new territory for the King of Spain and claim wealth from the abundant riches of land. When he had arrived, he encountered a local tribe and found a Spaniard to be among them. Juan Ortiz had been captured years earlier when he had accompanied an expedition that set out to search for the previous expedition of Narváez. The Native

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Americans had made him a slave and during those years he almost died twice if it was not for the quick action of the chief’s daughter, Hirrihigua. Ortiz’ rescue may have been the very first story of ‘Pocahontas.’ Juan was so grateful to be saved from his enslavement. He served as an interpreter and guide for the expedition. Oritz also told the explorer about stories of treasure further north. These were the stories of a great treasure hidden further inland that some Spaniards had obtained great wealth from and others died in their pursuit of abundant wealth. De Soto never found his treasure but he did explore many parts of Florida, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.

In 1567, another Spanish expedition came ashore at Tampa Bay witnessing the wealth the coastal Indians had amassed from the sunken Spanish treasure ships. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, the leader of the expedition, brought with him the Calusa chief and 20 men to meet with the Tocobaga. The Tocobaga along with the allied local chiefs met the Spanish with an oppositional show of force. The Tocobaga had mistaken the Spanish as a threat when they saw the Calusa Chief Carlos among the expedition (the two tribes were currently at war with one another). Fortunately, they were able to temporarily ease the hostility between them and the two tribes. Menéndez tried to create a peace treaty with the Tocobaga because he planned on establishing a new settlement. After Menéndez left a small group of soldiers and missionaries there, the peace did not last long. The Tocobaga and the Calusa grew hostile towards the Spanish and many men were killed. The reluctant men decided to leave the area and the settlement was eventually abandoned.

Teacher: Briefly show the Map of the Explorers to the students. Point out the routes they took and note the location of the Tocobaga and the Calusa.

Distribute the Activity Sheet, the Indian Tool Sheet, Map of Florida Coloring Sheet, and the Vocabulary Sheet.

Have one of the students read the instructions out loud and go over the Vocabulary Sheet with them.

Once the class is ready, have them begin their writing assignment. When they are finished, they can work on labeling the Indian Tool Sheet and coloring the Map of Florida.

After the students finish their assignment, have them all discuss their perspective with the class. Ask them to explain their point of view and where they got their information from. There is no right or wrong answer. This assignment is for critical thinking skills. It is about teaching the student how to clearly interpret a historical event and to put it into their own words. Encourage them to draw their own conclusions as to why the Indian reacted or felt the way that they did when the Spanish arrived for the first time upon their shore.

Reflection: Does this remind you of any current events going on today? Reminder: History tends to repeat itself.

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Assessment: Make sure the students have completed worksheets, and adequate class participation.

Enrichment: To learn more about the Tocobaga, Calusa, and local Florida Indians, visit www.pbchistoryonline.org, the Collier County History Museum, or Tampa Bay History Center.

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Activity Worksheet Think about how the Tocobaga Indians might have felt when they saw the Spanish explorers for the first time. How would they have reacted? Would they be angry or upset? Or would they hide from the explorers out of fear? In this activity, write from the perspective of the Indians and how this event might have affected them. Look back at the lesson, and note how the Indians reacted when they met each explorer. Was it a positive interaction or a negative one? Take out a sheet of paper and be prepared to do the following. Materials: Thesaurus A piece of line paper Pencil Vocabulary Sheet Add descriptive words to dress up your paper to captivate your audience. • •

Example: “The conquistadors were ruthless men who allowed their desire for gold and wealth to be their primary motivation for exploration.” Notice I didn’t say: “The explorers were men who allowed their greediness to be their motivation for exploration.” (It’s not a horrible description but this exercise is meant to expand your vocabulary! Use this lesson to express emotion and creativity).

Expand your vocabulary by using a thesaurus to look up various meanings of descriptive words. • •

Example: Chief, Ruler, Leader, Commander,ect… Try to stick with words that have the same or similar meaning to the original word you are trying to replace. Chief and Leader are very similar and can be used interchangeably when appropriate. Example: “Our leader gave us clear instructions on how to follow the map; he is the chief of the expedition.”

Also, try using your vocabulary sheet and add it into your paper. Before you finish, use the following checklist as a guideline.

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Checklist: o o o o o

Used at least 10 descriptive words. Added at least 5 vocabulary words. Used a thesaurus. Checked for grammar and spelling errors. Turned in assignment on time.

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Vocabulary • •

• • • • • • •

• •

Adz- A shell or pointed stone tied down at the end of a curved branch; this tool was useful to dig for clams and to carve out wood Atlatl- A stick that was used to propel a spear; it is also known as a spear thrower Breechcloth- Another name for ‘loincloth’; a piece of cloth that hung down around the hips covering the loin Cacique- Spanish meaning native Indian chief who ruled over a certain province or region Calusa-A tribe or group of Indians, who lived to the south of Tampa Bay; they were the enemies of the Tocobaga Conquistadors- Early 16th century Spanish explorers who would claim and conquer the land in the name of the king and establish a colony in that particular province Indigenous- Native to the country of origin Midden- A garbage heap of shells, bones, tools, and pottery; the Indians typically would eat and discard the shells or animal bones after every meal creating a massive pile Pottery shards- broken pieces of pottery; it was scattered over various burial sites which was thought to signify the release of the spirit attached to the pottery. This way, the spirit would also accompany the Indian’s soul in the afterlife. Tocobaga- A tribe or group of Indians, who lived in Tampa Bay in the Safe Harbor region; they hunted offshore for shellfish, traded with northern tribes, and manufactured pottery Venison- Deer meat that was used as a food source to sustain the Indians

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Indian Tool Sheet

Label each tool and fill in the spaces below with the correct answers. You can use your vocabulary sheet. Name: ___________ Description: This tool was used to dig out ___________ And carve out _____________.

Name: ___________ Description: The ___________ was used to propel a ________________?

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“Tocobaga Fishermen” by Hermann Trappman. courtesy of Hermann Trappman.

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De Soto received a gift of freshwater pearls from the lady of Cofitachequi. “Cofitachequi” by Hermann Trappman. courtesy of Hermann Trappman.


Lesson Three: Navigate Like an Explorer Grade 4

Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1: Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SC.4.E.5.1: Observe that the patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although they appear to shift across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons. MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MAFS.4.MD.3.6: Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. MAFS.4.MD.3.5: Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. MAFS.4.OA.1.2: Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1: Use appropriate tools strategically.

Materials: Teacher: astrolabe (in box), cross-staff, compass (in box ), hourglass (in box), Led Line, atlas map, soda straw, metal washer, fine-point marker, 12-inch string, cardboard, navigate like an explorer activity sheet (on USB), reference sheet, measurement activity sheet(on USB), vocabulary sheet, and explorer certificate(on USB), venn diagram sheet(on USB). Student: protractor, blank paper, glue, scissors, navigate like an explorer activity sheet, reference sheet, measurement activity sheet, vocabulary sheet, venn diagram sheet, measuring tape, atlas, calculator, cardboard, metal washer, 12-inch string, fine-point marker, and soda straw.

Warm-Up: In this lesson, the student will learn about the navigational tools used by the 16 th century explorers and why it was an essential skill to have on the journey to the new world. They will have to use their critical thinking and problem solving skills in order to complete this lesson. At the end of completion, they will receive their “Explorers Certificate” which certifies them as an expert in navigation. Teacher Prompt: What is navigation? What tools do you think mariners used to find their way across the ocean? Answer: Navigation is controlling the direction of a moving craft or expedition towards a desired location. Tools they might have used were a compass, telescope, hourglass, map, ect. (answers may vary) Have the students form a circle with their chairs. Show and demonstrate how to use each tool starting with the compass, the hourglass, and the map. Then introduce the astrolabe. Teacher Prompt: What do you think an astrolabe does? Answer: A 16th century mariner’s astrolabe was used to find the latitude. It helped the sailors locate their global positioning according to the coordinates on their chart or map. Teacher Prompt: What are some navigational tools do we use today? See below for a few of the modern navigation tools mariners use.

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Draw a venn diagram. Pass out the venn diagram sheet. Together, have the whole class list at least 4-5 tools that we use today and then have them list the tools that were used during the 16 th century. In the middle, have a list of the tools we continue to use to this day. (The compass is one of the tools we used then and we still us e now. Try to emphasize this point.)

Modern Navigation Instruments Gyro Compass: It is used for finding the right direction. Unlike magnetic compass, gyro compass is not hampered by external magnetic field. It is used to find correct North Position, which is also the earth’s rotational axis. Its repeater system must be present in the steering platform for emergency steering. Radar: It is used to determine the distance of the ship from land, other ships, or any floating object out at sea. Magnetic Compass: The magnetic compass work in conjunction with the magnetic field of the earth. It is used to get planned direction for the voyage. Auto Pilot: It is a combination of hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical system and is used to control the ship’s steering system from a remote location (Navigation bridge). ARPA: Automatic Radar Plotting Aid displays the position of a ship and other vessels nearby. The radar displays the position of the ships in the vicinity and selects the course for the vessel by avoiding any kind of collision. Automatic Tracking Aid: Just like ARPA, automatic tracking aid displays the information on tracked targets in graphic and numeric to generate a planned layout for a safer and collision free course. Speed & Distance Log Device: The device is used to measure the speed and the distance traveled by a ship from a set point. By calculating the same, ETA of the ship is adjusted or given to the port authority and agent. Echo Sounder: This instrument is used to measure the depth of the water below the ship’s bottom using sound waves. GPS Receiver: A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is a display system used to show the ship’s location with the help of Global positioning satellite in the earth’s orbit. Sound Reception System: This system is required for a ship with fully enclosed type bridge. It enables the navigating officer inside the cabin to listen to the sound signals and foghorn from other ships. Ship Flags: Various types of ship flags with different colors and signs are used to indicate a ship’s position. Signal flags are they are commonly known, have been used since the ancient times and are still used on all vessels.

Vocabulary: Alidade – It is a technical piece of equipment that is used to survey the distance of an object through angular measurements; referred to as the sighting arm. Astrolabe- A circular, navigational instrument that explorers used as a tool during the 16 th century to find the latitude of the sun and the stars; this required an alidade that would move across a 90 degree arc to determine the angular measurement of an object. Compass- A circular tool with a magnetic hand that always points North; it determines direction i.e. North, South, East, and West. Cross staff- A long staff that measures and determines the latitude through a vane (a perpendicular plane that could be adjusted for accurate measurement). Hourglass- A device that is used to measure time increments; it is usually made out of glass shaped cones that meet with a small cylinder in the middle which allows the sand to slowly seep through to determine time. Latitude- It was the angular measurement (in degrees) from the equator; this gave the distance from the point of measurement to the seen object or point of destination. Lead Line- a device for measuring the depth of the water as well as obtaining a sample of the ocean floor, is one of the oldest of all navigating tools. The word "lead" is pronounced the same way as in “lead pencil.” Map- It is a representation the geographical plane of the earth or the expanse of the heavens. Navigator- A designated person who directs the journey of the expedition towards its desired location; uses navigational tools to figure out the direction in which the group will be traveling. Polaris- The North Star. Quadrant- A navigational tool that is typically used to measure altitude; a 90 degree arc. See Mariner’s Museum, http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/index.php?page=tools for more in-depth explanations of mariner’s navigation tools.

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Challenge: At night, try to use your new astrolabe to find the North Star Polaris. It is the brightest star in the sky and very hard to miss! Imagine the explorers gazing up towards the vast sky and charting their course using the North Star as their guide. Did you know that long before the Age of Discovery, many other people groups used the stars to tell stories and predict future events? The Greeks recognized that the stars formed constellations or pictures in the sky! Constellations are images we see in the stars that are formed from our imagination. It’s like connecting the dots! Find a picture in the sky using your newly built astrolabe and share with us what images you see! Compare your constellations to those that the Greeks and Romans had seen: submit your ideas to us and include your contact information. One of the earliest recorded dates for the compass was in China during the early 3 rd century B.C. In Europe, the compass did not become a mainstream tool until closer to the 15 th century even though it was introduced to Europe previously in the 12th century. During the Age of Discovery, explorers like Columbus used the compass to find magnetic north. What this means is that the magnetic north was not always accurately due North but it would give the navigator an idea of which direction they were heading. For a more precise measurement, they needed to follow the celestial cosmos-the sun and the stars-to find their exact location in route to the New World. As a navigator, you had to have a chart that diagrammed the changing seasons in coordinate with earth’s planetary rotation. Every day, the guiding leader had to study the sun and the stars with attention to detail or they might go off course. Astronomy was a required skill for each navigator. Astronomy is the study of movement of the planets, and the stars in relation to the sun. Navigation incorporates the use of astronomy because it predicts the seasonal movements of the cosmos for accurate readings. Many famous astronomers like Copernicus, and Galileo gave us a model of what the universe looked like. Imagine these geniuses trying to share this valuable information that went against public and religious beliefs about the cosmos. These astronomers sacrificed to change the perspective of what their predecessors thought about astronomy. Navigation may not be what it is today with this invaluable contributions. The 16th century explorers relied on the precision of their celestial charts and apparatuses. Today, we will make an astrolabe. An astrolabe was a circular instrument that had a sighting arm, or an alidade in the middle of it. Explorers would use this tool to measure latitude. Astrolabes are no longer used today because they had been replaced by a quadrant which has since been replaced by the sextant. Quadrants and sextants are similar crafts to that of an astrolabe but have been relatively modified for a higher quality in accurate measurement. A cross-staff could also be used instead of an astrolabe but its simple structure was restricted to measurements between 20°-60°. Measurements taken any higher or lower than that could not be taken accurately. Most importantly, a cross-staff could cause ocular parallax, a symptom causing the human eye not to be able to focus when measuring between two points, like the sun and the horizon for example. It could also be dangerous because if one looks directly into the sun for an extended period of time, it could cause blindness. Hold up Astrolabe and display image of Cross-staff on screen (you can also display image of the astrolabe on screen; show how both tools were used (on image) demonstrate how each one was used separately.

Reflection: Handout worksheets and a paper with questions on the lesson and what they learned.

Assessment: Completion of worksheets, class participation, and completion of astrolabe.

Enrichment: To learn more about an astrolabe, a cross-staff, and other navigational tools that the 16th century explorers used, visit www.pbchistoryonline.org.

Resources: http://www.astrolabes.org/ http://www.wwu.edu/skywise/greekmyth.html http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/hm/0203-1-10-instruments/home.htm www.museumoffloridahistory.com http://noaa.gov

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16th CENTURY NAVIGATION TOOLS During the Age of Discovery methods of navigation developed quickly because of the need of European explorers venturing to the New World discovered by Columbus in 1492. The instruments navigators used varied and included the quadrant, astrolabe, cross staff, hourglass, compass, map or nautical chart, and other devices.

THE COMPASS-The compass was known to be in China as early as the 3rd century B.C. It was not in use in Europe until about the 12th century and was common by the 15th century. The compass did not have degrees marked on it like present-day compasses. Compasses used in the 15th-16th centuries displayed the 32 points of direction known as a compass rose. The points of direction were usually 11.25 degrees apart, indicating north, north by east, north by northeast, etc. The magnetic compass during the Age of Discovery was typically composed of a magnetized metal needle attached to a compass rose by a brass pin so the needle would swing freely. It was then hung by gimbals, which are concentric mounting rings that allowed the compass to remain relatively level during travel, and it was kept in a wood box. One component of the compass was a piece of magnetic iron ore or lodestone, used to re-magnetize the compass needle as needed. These navigation instruments were magnetic so the needle pointed to magnetic north not true north. Navigators found variations of magnetic north depending on your location. So they had to account for this variation when they traveled to different parts of the world. Christopher Columbus reported the variations of true north and magnetic north during his voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. The compass could be used in all weather, day or night. It was not dependent on clear weather for use like other navigation instruments such as the astrolabe or quadrant. QUADRANT-The quadrant was a celestial navigation tool used to find latitude. It was a quarter panel of wood or brass with degrees marked on the outer edge of the arch, a plumb line, and sight along one edge. The instrument was used to measure the altitude of the star Polaris. The reading was taken where the plumb line intersected the degree on the outer edge of the arch. ASTROLABE-Like the quadrant, the astrolabe was used to find latitude. It was a circle made of brass or wood with degrees on the edges and a moveable alidade or sighting arm. It could be used at night to sight in on Polaris to obtain the latitude. If the alidade had a sight with pinholes on either end, it could be used during the day by measuring the sun. The astrolabe was used by holding from the ring at the top and the sight moved until the sun shined through the pinholes. The degree was then read. If used at night, it was held by the ring with one hand, the other hand moved the alidade until it was sighted in on Polaris. Then the degree was read. Sometimes the astrolabe was by a pair of sailors, one to sight and the other to steady the device and take the reading. HOURGLASS-The hourglass was the most common means for counting tie at sea. These were usually four-hour size and a half -hour size. The hourglass consists of two glass bulbs place one on top of the other and connected by a narrow tube. One bulb is filled with sand which flows through the tube into the bottom bulb at a given rate. Once the sand fills the bottom bulb, it can be turned over and time started again. The hourglass was used to measure the day at sea which was divided into six four-hour watches. At the end of the four hours, the glass was turned for a new watch. In conjunction with the four-hour glass, a

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half-hour glass was also used. At the end on a half-hour, the glass was turned and the bell rang. One of the ship’s boys was usually responsible for watching and taking care of the hourglasses.

Another use of the hourglass was with the log or chip log/line used to determine the speed of the ship. A piece of wood was attached to a line that had been knotted at regular intervals. From the stern, a mariner would toss the log into the water and let the line flow freely. When he felt the first knot pass through his hands, he shouted a sailor who turned a thirty-second glass or a one-minute glass. The person holding the line would then count out loud the number of knots that passed through his hand in thirty seconds or one minute. A simple math formula was used to determine the nautical miles per hour of the ship. One calculation gives the speed of “one knot or nautical mile” as equal to about 1.151 miles per hour. The speed is also known as “knots” which is a term still used by mariners today.

CHIP LOG- The log line consisted of a flat piece of wood (the log), weighted at the bottom edge to enable it to float upright in the water. A long rope was wound on a spool so that it could be reeled out after the log was thrown into the water at the aft of the ship. On the rope, knots were tied at intervals of 7 fathoms -- one fathom equals 6 feet. As the ship sailed away from the log, the sailors would count the knots that passed over the rail in half-a-minute. That gave the approximate speed in knots (equal to land miles-per-hour). CROSS-STAFF- A long staff that measures and determines the latitude through a vane (a perpendicular plane that could be adjusted for accurate measurement). KNOTS- The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1.852 km) per hour, approximately 1.151 mph. LEAD LINE- a device for measuring the depth of the water as well as obtaining a sample of the ocean floor, is one of the oldest of all navigating tools. The word "lead" is pronounced the same way as in "lead pencil.” ALIDADE- It is a technical piece of equipment that is used to survey the distance of an object through angular measurements; referred to as the sighting arm. OTHER INSTRUMENTS-Other navigation devices that were in use in the 16th century included the cross staff, used to measure a celestial body over the horizon; the back staff used to sight in on the sun; and the traverse board for keeping track of changes in course and speed of the ship (though used in the 16th century, it was more common in the 17th century).

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Reference Sheet Equation for finding the Hypotenuse C= √đ?‘¨đ?&#x;? + đ?‘Šđ?&#x;? 45°

Equation: A

C=√(đ?‘¨ • đ?‘¨) + (đ?‘Š • đ?‘Š)

C A right triangle has a 90° angle and 90°

45°

Two 45° angles

B Equation for Finding the Tangent Tan a= Aá �

b°

Tan (a°)=Aá �

A

C

Equation:

A=Tan (a°) • �

a° 90°

B

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Tape the drinking straw to the edge of the astrolabe marked "Attach straw to this edge." Be careful to not tape the straw on the astrolabe, but just on the edge. Carefully poke a small hole through the astrolabe where the "X" is marked, pass the string through it, and either knot the string at the back of the cardboard or tape it there. Tie the small weight to the opposite (front) end of the string as shown. You have now constructed an astrolabe! What's Going On The astrolabe was invented in Greece either by Hipparchus, a 2nd century B.C. astronomer, or Apollonius of Perga, a 3rd century B.C. mathematician. For many centuries, it was used by both astronomers and navigators, and especially by the 15th century explorers who used it to determine latitude, longitude, and time of day.

(You can also visit this web site to download all information: from At Home Astronomy http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/AtHomeAstronomy/activi ty_08.html Activity 7: Making a Simple AstrolabeDerived from "Making Measurements of Objects in the Sky": from Science Resources for Schools: Doing Science, Vol 3, No. 1. Copyright 1985 by the American Association 49 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e tfor y the o fAdvancement P a l m B of e aScience c h C&othe u nSmithsonian ty Institution.


Template for Atrolabe

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Using a Simple Astrolabe About this Activity
An astrolabe can be used to measure the altitude of an object, including changes in the Sun's path over the course of the year. Tracking these changes can help explain why days are longer in the summer and shorter in the winter.

What to Do EXPERIMENT 1 Measuring the Altitude of Trees and Buildings To become familiar with how an astrolabe works, practice measuring the altitude (angular height) of trees or buildings. To make a proper measurement, look at the top of the object through the straw. Have someone read the altitude in degrees from the side of the astrolabe. The point where the string crosses the scale is the proper measurement. Practice using your astrolabe by measuring and recording another tree or building of a different height. EXPERIMENT 2 Measuring the Altitude of the Sun Because it is harmful to look directly at the Sun, a new method for measuring the Sun's altitude must be used. Hold the astrolabe so that the straw points in the direction of the Sun. Do not look through the straw.

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Aim the straw so that you see the shadow of the straw on your hand. Move the straw slightly until a small circle of light forms on your hand. The straw is now pointing directly at the Sun. Ask someone to read the Sun's altitude (in degrees) where the string crosses the scale. Take note of the time of day the reading was made. One day a week, at the same time each day, measure the altitude of the Sun with your astrolabe. Make three consecutive measurements and record them in the chart provided. Be sure to include the date. As the weeks progress, look at your measurements of the Sun's altitude. Can you detect a change? Is the altitude increasing or decreasing? Is there a pattern of change? How can you explain these changes? What's Going On The changes you notice will be different depending on the time of year. In the spring, the altitude of the Sun increases. In the Fall, you should notice a decrease. The cause of the change in altitude (i.e., the location of the Sun) is the tilt of the Earth's axis, which causes the Earth to face the Sun at an angle of 23 degrees. Where the Earth is located in its orbit around the Sun will determine both the altitude of the Sun at any given point in time and the length of the day. Since the Earth's location around the Sun is changing continuously, so is the Sun's position in the sky.

(from At Home Astronomy http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/AtHomeAstronomy/activity_08.html Activity 8: Using a Simple Astrolabe Derived 52 | H ifrom s t o"Making r i c a l Measurements S o c i e t y of o fObjects P a l in mtheB Sky": e a cfrom h CScience o u n tResources y for Schools: Doing Science, Vol 3, No. 1. Copyright 1985 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science & the Smithsonian Institution.)


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How to use an Astrolabe The Mariner's Astrolabe The Mariner's Astrolabe was used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea by measuring the noon altitude of the Sun or the meridian altitude of a star of known declination

It was not possible to determine longitude at sea in the early days of transoceanic navigation, but it was quite easy to determine latitude. To go to a place of known latitude, the ship was sailed to that latitude and then sailed east or west along the latitude line until the place was reached. To find the latitude of the ship at sea, the noon altitude of the Sun was measured during the day or the altitude of a star of known declination was measured when it was on the meridian (due north or south) at night. The Sun's or star's declination for the date was looked up in an almanac. The latitude is then 90° - measured altitude + declination .

A number of devices were used to measure the Sun's noon altitude. Among them were the quadrant, cross staff and, later, the back staff and the mariner's astrolabe. All these devices had a single use: to measure the altitude of a celestial body above the horizon. The Mariner's Astrolabe, which was popular in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, was a simple brass ring, graduated in degrees with a rotating alidade for sighting the Sun or a star. The ring was cast brass, quite heavy and cut away to keep it from blowing around in the wind. It was not a very good instrument and errors of four or five degrees were common. (Text from http://www.astrolabes.org/pages/mariner.htm)

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Finding Latitude Using an Astrolabe A Sailor’s Day Sunrise As the sun's rays first appear on the horizon, our sailor identifies the stars (the constellation) visible in the sky around the sun. Noon: As the sun reaches its highest point in the sky during the day, our sailor takes out his astrolabe, holds it waist-high and looks down at the dial to see how many degrees the sun is above the horizon.

Afternoon Then he takes out the Rules for the Astrolabe and using the constellation in which the stars were located that morning (across the top of the table), and the number of degrees that the sun was above the horizon at midday, he looks up the latitude. (from http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/measure.html)

Find Your Latitude Use the North Star Use an astrolabe. At night: lie as close to the ground as possible and find the North Star. Use your astrolabe to find the altitude of the North Star and write it down. This is your zenith angle. Then, subtract this angle from 90 degrees to get your latitude. That's it. Though using an astrolabe may certainly not be the easiest way to find your latitude, it may be the most fun! You can make your own astrolabe using only a protractor, plastic straw, metal weight, and a piece of string. Just tie one end of the string to the hole in the middle of the protractor and place the weight on the other end of the string. Now, all you have to do is tape the straw along the flat edge of the protractor and you're all set. Find the Big Dipper. This constellation is also known as Ursa Major, or the Plough, and looks like a big spoon. Find the back of the "Plough blade." This is the outermost part of the dipper, which is the furthest away from the handle of the spoon. Move four blade lengths along from the back of the blade to find the North Star.

(from http://www.wikihow.com/Find-Your-Latitude)

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Lesson Four: Find Your Direction Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1: Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.G.1.4: Interpret political and physical maps using map elements (title, compass rose, cardinal directions, intermediate directions, symbols, legend, scale, longitude, latitude). SC.4.P.8.4 Investigate and describe that magnets can attract magnetic materials and attract and repel other magnets. MAFS.4.MD.3.5: Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. MAFS.K12.MP.2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1: Use appropriate tools strategically.

Materials: Teacher: compass, 16th century map of Florida (in trunk), Find Your Destination Activity(on USB), Compass Fun worksheets(on USB), compass rose coloring sheet (on USB), map warm-up worksheet, map coloring sheet (on USB), and a picture of a compass rose. Student: pencil and blank paper; activity worksheets, compass rose coloring sheet, map worksheets, sewing needle (1-2” long), refrigerator magnet, small piece of cork, foam cup, pliers, steel nail or screw.

Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn about a purpose of a compass and why it is still one of the most important navigational tools used today. The class will have to apply their critical thinking skills, navigational skills, and sense of direction by using a map to find a location. At the end of this lesson, the student should have a basic understanding of direction and navigation with the use of a compass. Bring out a compass, the 16th century map of Florida, and a picture of a compass rose. Teacher Prompt: Why do we use a compass? Answer: We use a compass to find our location and figure out which direction we are going. Pass around the compass. Hold up the compass rose. Teacher Prompt: This is called a compass rose. A compass rose was used as a place card for a compass. How did the Spanish explorers use a compass rose? What does each point indicate? Answer: A compass rose was composed of 32 points, each indicating a specific direction. The Spanish explorers would use the compass rose to figure out what direction the pointer on the compass had indicated; i.e. north, south, northeast, etc. Compass Rose: (see USB Find Your Direction and use one of the compass rose imgaes and project on screen for class to see or make copies and handout) The compass rose was a place card for the compass. It displays the four cardinal points, North, East, South, and West, and it is divided into 32 points of direction. **For example: Northeast, East northeast, south southwest, North by West, ect. (Hold the compass rose sheet up and point to those directional points indicated as you say them out loud)

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Teacher Prompt: How did the compass rose receive its name? What do you think it looks like? Answer: The 32 points looked like rose pedals to the explorers so that’s where the name compass rose came from. When you look at an old fashioned compass, North is identified with a fancy letter ‘T’ right above it. The fancy script for ‘T’ was Latin for Tramontana which means North Wind; it also represents the Royal Flower of France or Fleur de Lys. Warm Up Activity: Display the vinyl poster of the 16th century map of Florida or use the USB with the image of the map. Using the computer project the image of the 2008 Florida Map. Review map skills. Point out and explain the compass rose, legend, and scale. Compare the 2008 map to the 16th century map of Florida. Ask students what is missing from the 16 th century map. What is different about this map compared to the modern map? Explain how to use a map to navigate. By using a center of location we can use a compass to figure out direction. Hand out map worksheets to the students. For an example, our central location will be Africa. Ex 1: Teacher Prompt: What continent is North of Africa? Point to the location on your map. Answer: Europe Ex 2: Teacher Prompt: What continent is Northeast of Africa? Point to the location on your map. Answer: Asia Teacher Prompt: Now that you understand the basics finding direction, follow these simple instructions to complete the exercise. Separate the class into 3 to 6 teams. Pick a student from each team to represent the leader for that team. For the sake of this activity, we will refer to the team leaders as “Team Navigators” and the rest of team members will be “the explorers.” Give each of the team navigators a list of instructions to follow. Allow the students 5-10 min to complete this activity. When they are done, have them double check their work before submitting it in.

Vocabulary: Cardinal points – the four key points of a compass; North, East, South, and West. Compass rose – a circle indicating cardinal points on a compass, map, or chart. Fleur de lys – the Royal Flower of France; it was often found on a compass to indicate the cardinal point North. Gyrocompass – a compass that does not rely on a magnetic field; it follows true North. Lodestone – a piece of magnetized mineral that was used to magnetize a needle of a compass; it was also used as another name for magnetite. Magnetic north – the way a needle responds to the earth’s magnetic field; it deviates from true North. Magnetite – a mineral ore that is magnetic. Mare clausum- the seas are closed; between mid-November and mid-March. Pivot – a pin point or shaft that revolves around in a circle. Tramontana - it means North Wind in Latin.

Lesson: One of the earliest dates for the compass was recorded in China during the early 3 rd century B.C. In Europe, the compass was not customarily used until closer to the 15 th century; although, it had been previously introduced to Europe in the 12th century. During the Age of Discovery, explorers like Christopher Columbus used the compass to find magnetic north. What this means is that the magnetic north was not always accurately due North but it would give the navigator a general idea of which direction they were heading. For a more precise measurement, they

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needed to follow the celestial cosmos-the sun and the stars-to find their exact location in route to the New World. The navigator, had to have a chart that diagrammed the changing seasons in coordinate with earth’s planetary rotation. It was important to know because there were several seasons out of the year that there was mare clausum which means the seas were closed from mid-November to about mid-March. Every day, the guiding leader had to study the sun and the stars with attention to detail or they might go off course. Traditionally, a compass was created out a needle, a pivot for the needle to rotate on, and a compass rose -a place card with the basic cardinal points. Navigators would keep a lodestone nearby to magnetize the needle during the journey because it would lose its magnetic properties from time to time. They would rub the lodestone on the needle to create this magnetic effect. Lodestone is actually a piece of mineral known as magnetite that contains a northsouth polarity and parallels itself with Earth’s magnetic field. It is a natural resource that men and women have found to have valuable scientific properties. The Chinese were one of the first documented cultures to use a compass. Long before Europe discovered its valuable properties, the Chinese had handcrafted a ladle out of lodestone and placed it on a level bronze plate. This early innovation was the crude prototype for the modern compass. They calculated the direction in which the magnetized ladle pointed and they noticed it had a north-south polarity. The Chinese discoveries of this natural property lead to the foundation for the future scientific endeavors in electromagnetism. Today, we use gyrocompasses. A gyrocompass has the same function as the original compass but it no longer uses a lodestone. Instead, it relies on satellite technology to find true North. The older compass can be sufficient but it could also be somewhat unreliable because the compass would only point where the magnetic field was strongest in Earth’s atmosphere; it wouldn’t point directly North and that could veer the crew off course from their journey. We still use the traditional compass today because it is still an invaluable tool that we can use to calculate direction. Technology can be reliable and accurate but it can also be affected by glitches and errors in the computer’s system; we all need to rely on our natural resources when this happens. So let’s go build a compass! Distribute the Build a Compass worksheet. Have the students follow the instructions and make a compass in class. Challenge: Think of a time when you were using a form of technology and you were having trouble with it. What did you do to solve the problem? What do you think you would do in the future if this happened to you again? Would you rely on your natural resources? Write to us about your story and tell us what you would do in this situation. You may never know your idea could change history! Submit your ideas to us and include your contact information. ***Interesting fun fact: Did you know that the Chinese ladle looks similar to a constellation we see in the stars every day? What is that constellation called? Answer: Ursa Major also known as the Big Dipper.

Reflection: Handout Compass Fun from https://www.teachervision.com/maps/printable/32352.html.

Assessment: Completion of worksheets, class participation, adequate understanding of knowledge learned, and completion of activity.

Enrichment: To learn more about how to use a compass and find cardinal direction, www.pbchistoryonline.org and http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/index.php?page=activities.

Resources: http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/index.php?type=navigationtool&id=2 http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/downloads/compassrose.pdf

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http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/sea.html http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass.html http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/mcd/learnnc_rose.html http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/for_fun/MakeyourownCompass.pdf https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Compass.html http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/ships-and-seafarers/the-magnetic-compass http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/maps/continents-oceans_WMZBN.pdf https://www.teachervision.com/maps/printable/32352.html http://theinstitute.ieee.org/technology-focus/technology-history/a-history-of-the-magnetic-compass

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How to Read a Map Use Map of Florida

1

Check the map's orientation. Most maps are drawn with

north located at the top. Sometimes this may be depicted using a compass rose. Or, it might simply be stated to be the assumption of the map. If there is no indication to the contrary, presume it is north at the top.

2

Understand the scale of the map. The map scale shows you

a ratio of map distance to real distance. These differ in size from map to map. Look for the scale, generally located on the side or bottom of the map. It will look something like 1:100,000, which denotes that 1 unit on the map is the equivalent of 100,000 units in real life. In general, the following scales work best as stated: a. b. c. d.

Get a 1:25,000 map for walking Get a 1:190,000 map for driving Get a 1:24,000,000 map for seeing the whole world. To determine how far your destination is, use a ruler and the scale to measure how many miles it is from point A to B. For example, if your map's scale is 1:250,000, and the distance from point A to point B is 6 inches (15.2 cm), the total distance is 6 * 250,000 = 1,500,000 inches (3,810,000 cm). One mile is 63,360 inches, so the distance from point A to point B is 1,500,000 รท 63,360 = 23.7 miles (1 kilometer is 100,000 cm, so the distance from point A to point B is 3,810,000 รท 100,000, or 38.1 km). Here is an example of a Bar Scale found on a map. The scale shows that about 1.25 63 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


inches equals 5 miles. The smaller increments to the left of zero are each 1 mile and are used to estimate smaller distances. Notice the scale is 1/250000 - that means 1 inch on the map is equal to 250,000 inches on the real land. (5 miles = 5*5280 feet = 5*5280*12 inches = 316800 inches. 316800 inches / 250000 = 1.27 inches)

3

Note the latitude and longitude. If you're traveling to the

next town, this isn't so important. But if you are sailing, flying, or touring long distances, this might be useful. e.

The latitude refers to the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. f. The longitude refers to the distance in degrees east or west of the Greenwich Meridian Line. g. Each degree is divided into 60 minutes, with each minute representing a nautical mile (or 1.15 land miles/1.85km). This means that one degree is the equivalent of 60 nautical miles or 69 land miles/111km. h. The latitude is represented by the numbers on the side of the map. i. The longitude is represented by the numbers at the top and bottom of the map. Where the latitude and longitude cross at your location is your point of reference. Latitude and longitude points are often used when there are no landmarks or roads to help determine a location. Tip: If you have trouble remembering which is which, the longitude lines are "long." The diameter of the longitudinal lines is roughly constant, whereas the latitude lines get progressively smaller, the further they are from the equator.

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4

Learn to read contour lines. How high or flat the land is

represented on the map with contour lines. Each line represents a standard height above sea level. j. When contour lines are close together, this means that the gradient is steep (the closer together, the steeper the gradient becomes). When the contour lines are further apart, the gradient is flatter, so the further apart they are located, the flatter the ground on the map.

5

Examine the legend. Most maps have a legend or key of

symbols on the map itself. Get familiar with how your map represents data—that is key to understanding the rest of the map. In general, maps do the following: k.

Lines in varying sizes, colors, and unbroken or broken lines depict roads, from lanes to freeways and all in between. l. Mountains tend to be shown as brown or green, and are heightdependent: darker at the bottom, lighter or white at the top. m. Rivers, lakes, the ocean and other water bodies are generally shown in blue. n. Forests, woods, parks, golf courses, or other large bodies of trees or green space are usually depicted in green. o. Towns and city limits are often shown in a pastel pink or yellow, and the size and boldness of their names indicate relative population size or importance. Buildings tend to be shown in gray or black colors.

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Lesson Five: Life At Sea Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1: Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.A.3.1: Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. SS.4.G.1.2: Locate and label cultural features on a Florida map. MAFS.4.OA.1.2: Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

Materials: Teacher: Trunk items, Life aboard a 16th Century Spanish Ship, Different Parts of a Ship Worksheet and Answer Sheet, Sailing La Florida worksheet, Life at Sea Activity (on USB), Vocabulary Sheet(on USB), Vocabulary Mix and Match Worksheet(on USB), and Bonus: Starving Sailors Activity Sheet Student: pencil and blank paper; Different Parts of a Ship Worksheet, Life at Sea Activity, Vocabulary Sheet, Vocabulary Mix and Match Worksheet, and Bonus: Starving Sailors Activity Sheet

Warm-Up: In this lesson, students will learn about life on a 16th century ship and the difficulty the passengers faced on their journey to the New World. Their assignment will require them to identify parts of the ship and recognize the items vital for the long enduring journey. Teacher Prompt: What do you think life would have been like on a 16th century ship for three to four months at a time? What kind of hardships might they have faced? Answer: It probably was miserable at times. The crew and its passengers sometimes would starve. Space was limited and cramped. Disease was rampant because of rotting food, malnutrition, and bacteria. (Answers may vary) Pass out items that would have been used aboard a ship and talk about each item briefly. (From the Spanish Explorers Trunk) Show them the diagram of a Spanish 16th century ship. Explain the different parts of the ship and how it functioned. Caravels and Galleons were two types of ships that were used mostly for both exploration and commerce. Caravels were smaller, lighter, and faster whereas galleons were longer, swift, and ornately decorated. In the early 16 th century, caravels were highly utilized for exploration but later on in the mid-16th century, galleons were preferred for their size and seaworthiness. Handout the Different Parts of a Ship worksheet and have the students begin labeling their sheets. Teacher Prompt: What was a typical day like for a sailor?

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Vocabulary: Amputation- a medical procedure of removing an injured limb from the body Barber-surgeon- an individual who would cut hair, tend to the sick, prepare remedies, and perform surgery when necessary Boatswain- an officer in charge of rigging and equipment; he would also command the crew Caravels- a light, small, and fast ship that has 3 masts Cauterization- a method of burning or searing the skin to stop bleeding and prevent bacterial growth from spreading across the body Galleons- an advanced design from its predecessor, the caravel; it was larger, fast, and known for its seaworthiness Hardtack- hard biscuits Maize- corn Mutiny- when the ship’s crew revolts against its leader and takes control of the ship Parson- a pastor or a member of the clergy Rudimentary- an undeveloped or basic form; primitive Unguents- ointments that were used to help treat wounds and illnesses Scurvy- vitamin C deficiency that was caused from malnutrition and a lack of fresh fruits and vegetables Sea Shanties- Sailors would create little songs or ditties about life at sea Quinine- an anti-malarial drug found from the bark of the cinchona tree that lives in South America

Lesson 1: During the 16th century, a ship’s crew would consist of a captain, a barber-surgeon, a parson, a master gunner, a carpenter, a boatswain, and a few other official positions. A typical day for a sailor consisted of ship maintenance, setting the sails, and keeping a watchful eye over the ship’s course. More often than not space was limited on board a ship and sleeping arrangements had to be made on deck. Food had to be rationed so it would last the whole journey. Disease infested rats, mice, and other pests would spread sickness to the crewmembers. On a daily basis, sailors had to overcome these issues and manage to survive while out at sea. Medical treatment onboard a ship was rudimentary and many primitive methods were applied without skill or knowledge. The barber-surgeon would triple as a haircutter, an occasional dentist, and a surgeon. Normally, he would have little to no medical training but he was given the full authority on healing and treating wounds. If a man had become seriously injured, the barber-surgeon would either use cauterization or amputation to prevent further infection. Cauterization was typically used to burn apart of the skin to create a blister like scab over the injured area to stop the bleeding; most of the time this caused more damage to the limb. Amputation was used to sever a battered limb and remove it from the body. At this time, the ships didn’t have any anesthetics to soothe the pain. If the men survived the surgery, many times they died of infection due to unsanitary conditions onboard. Often times, a barber-surgeon was given a crude surgical kit that supplied all his needs. The very little training he did receive before joining the expedition would have been on how to create a concoction of balms and unguents. Sometimes this could take a few days to prepare and did very little to remedy the burn or the wound. In fact, it would usually make the situation worse. For example, butter was thought to heal and soothe burns but the buttery oils will actually worsen the burn. Don’t try this because it can cause further injury. Teacher Prompt: Do you remember a time when you had been sick or injured? What did the doctor give you to help you feel better? Mealtime could be the most challenging part of the day. Refrigerators had not been invented yet so food spoiled quickly. The only foods that could be preserved for the long journey had to be dried, smoked, pickled, or salted. Food was limited and had to be rationed because there was always the possibility that the voyage could last longer than usual or that there would be a shortage of food resources.

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Mariners would eat a consistent diet of hardtack or biscuits, horse beans, chickpeas, salted fish, salted pork, wine, oil and vinegar, water, and cheese. Biscuits were given the name hardtack because the biscuits were dried out and hardened; the only way the explorers could try to eat it would be by soaking it in wine or water to soften it. Imagine eating the same thing every day. Most people would grow sick and tired of it after a while because none of the food was fresh. Towards the latter end of the voyage, many of the passengers and crew members had developed scurvy which is caused by a lack of fruits and vegetables; it caused them to be malnourished because they did not receive enough vitamin C for 3 months. Storage space was limited on 16th century Spanish ships. If there were passengers onboard they would stay in a cramped cabin below deck. Sometimes, the ships officers would rent out their cabins but it did not give much more comfort. The crew members had the option to stay below deck but the living conditions were so terrible down below that most preferred to stay above deck. Often times, the sailors would pass their time by singing sea shanties. These were funny or silly songs the sailors made up about their journey. It was a great pastime activity for those involved. Teacher Prompt: Think about what life would be like at sea. What items would you take with you and why? Handout Life at Sea Activity, Starving Sailors Activity Sheet**Bonus Activity, Vocabulary Sheet, and Vocabulary Mix and Match Sheet Challenge: Sea shanties were songs or silly ditties that mariners would create about their voyages. Imagine that you are sailing the open seas on an exploration. Think of things you might do or see. Read the Starving Sailors Activity Sheet and then create your own little sea shanty! Submit your song to us and include your contact information. We would love to hear from you!

Lesson 2: Sailing to La Florida Student Target MACC.4.OA.1, MACC.4.OA.2, SS.4.G.1.2, SS.4.A.3.1 Materials Map showing the Caribbean and Florida, Pencil or Pen, Blank sheet of paper, Student Handout: Sailing to la Florida Vocabulary Knots- The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1.852 km) per hour, approximately 1.151 mph. Chip log- A chip log is a navigation tool mariners use to estimate the speed of a vessel through water. The word knot, to mean nautical mile per hour, derives from this measurement method. Warm-up During the Age of Exploration, European explorers traveled the world in search of new lands and wealth. To do this, they traveled in various types of sailing ships. Because these ships were depended on wind to move the ships, it took along time to travel from one location to another. On water their speed was called “knots.” A term still used today. Lesson Juan Ponce de León set sail from Puerto Rico for the land Native Americans called Bimini on March 3, 1513, with about 65 people including two free Africans, two Indian slaves, one white slave, and one woman.

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The explorers landed on Sunday, April 3, 1513, and named what they thought was an island La Florida for the Pascua Florida, or feast of flowers celebrated at Easter. Sailing south along the east coast, Ponce made another significant discovery-the Gulf Stream which would later speed treasure ships to Spain. Upon his return to Spain, Juan Ponce was knighted-the first New World conquistador so honored. It took 32 days of sailing for Ponce de León to reach the land he named La Florida. The type of ship he used was called a caravel. The typical caravel was about 21 meters long (69 feet) by 6.5 meters wide (21 feet). The speed at which ships traveled on the water is not called miles per hour like on land. On water it is called “knots.” Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log. This consisted of a wooden panel, weighted on one edge to float perpendicular to the water surface, and thus present substantial resistance to moving with respect to the water around it, attached by line to a reel. The chip log was "cast" over the stern of the moving vessel and the line allowed to pay out. Knots placed at a distance of 47 feet, 3 inches passed through a sailor’s hand, while another sailor used a 30 second sand-glass (just like an hour glass, only smaller) to time the operation. The knot count would be reported and used in the sailing master’s navigation. Today we still used the term “knot” for speed on water. Distribute Student Handout: Sailing to La Florida. Have students read and solve the problem. After they are finish, review the problem with them and check their answers.

Reflection: What fact interested you the most and why?

Assessment: Completion of worksheets, class participation, adequate understanding of knowledge learned, and completion of activity.

Enrichment: To learn more about what life was like on a 16th century Spanish ship, visit www.pbchistoryonline.org and http://exploration.marinersmuseum.org/type/age-of-discovery/.

Resources: Spanish Galleon 1530-1690; pg. 33 By Angus Konstam http://exploration.marinersmuseum.org/type/age-of-discovery/ http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~vaucher/History/Ships_Discovery/ http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/01George/caravela/htmls/Caravel%20History.htm http://www.pbchistoryonline.org/page/life-on-board-a-sixteenth-century-spanish-ship http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/ships-and-seafarers/life-at-sea-in-the-age-of-sail https://suite.io/grant-sebastian-nell/1xv822s

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Student Handout : Sailing to La Florida Solve the Problem: Use a map that shows Caribbean and Florida. Find San Juan, Puerto Rico, and St. Augustine, Florida. To sail from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to St. Augustine, Florida, it is 1066.9 nautical miles or 1977.2 kilometers or 1227.76 statue miles. If you sail straight from San Juan to St. Augustine and you make 3 knots per hour, without making any stops along the way, how long will it take to reach St. Augustine? (1 knot = 1 nautical mile).

1 nautical mile = 1.151 statue miles 1 nautical mile = 1.852 kilometers

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Sailing to La Florida Solve the Problem Answer:

-Speed is 3 knots per hour -There are 24 hours in a day -The distance from San Juan to St. Augustine is 1066.9 nautical miles.

3 knots per hour x 24 hours = 72 1066.9 nautical miles รท 72 = 14.81 days

Answer: 14.81 days or almost 15 days.

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LIFE ON BOARD A SIXTEENTH CENTURY SPANISH SHIP SHIPS USED BY THE SPANISH EXPLORERS Among the ships used by the Spanish explorers in the 16th Century were the Carracks, known in Spain as “naos”, the Caravels, and the Galleons, which were off-springs of the earlier naos and caravels. Naos had great capacity for storing cargo, and were used both as flagships and storage ships. Caravels, on the other hand, were lighter ships with shallower draughts, and were considered the fastest of the large sailing vessels of the era. Galleons were the longest and most streamlined of the ships, and typically carried a decorated balcony, and larger amounts of sail than the earlier ships. Galleons were used for exploration as well as for commerce and warfare. A SAILOR’S LIFE Sailors lived in close quarters and found that areas below decks were inappropriate for most human habitation. Sleeping was most often accomplished on mats provided by the sailors themselves on any available space on the top deck that they could find. One-third of the crew was on watch throughout the night, which did allow some increase in the space available, but the sleeping crew could easily be forced to move when sails were rearranged or for other adjustments on board. “On the armada of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés in 1568”, the menu included the following for each of the rank and file sailors: One and one half pounds of biscuit, one liter of wine, one liter of water, horse beans, chick peas, rice, oil, salt meat or pork and/or cheese. Sailors were provided three meals per day, apportioned from these provisions, and meals were often more available to the sailors on board ships than they had been when the men lived on dry land. Sailors also harvested fish from the ocean for their meals. Violence between personnel could occur regarding the provisions available. Officers, of course, were provided a more interesting and varied diet. Clothing of the rank and file sailors was quite limited, and often included only two shirts and two pairs of trousers, a long and a short jacket, one pair of shoes, and a sea cape When sailors fell ill, there were no physicians on board any but the ships of the commanders of the fleet. Barbers often were used as lay doctors, and some were trained to bleed the sick crew members, which was associated with many deaths. Diets consisting of broths, chicken and white biscuits were provided to assist in the recovery of health, and frequently were more therapeutic than was the work of the barber/physician. Many illnesses were the results of overuse of alcohol products or were the effects of wounds from battles at sea. DIVISION OF LABOR Among the rank and file of the ships were three levels of personnel, including pages, apprentices and sailors. Pages were young children, assigned to the work at eight to ten years of age. They could remain in these positions throughout their adolescence. Some pages served only one master on board, who was generally a person who had a relationship with the page’s family or guardians. Such pages could be groomed for apprenticeships as they worked for their masters. The majority of pages, however, were at the beck and call of any and all of the ship’s crew, and were responsible for the most menial of tasks. Apprentices were to be trained to become sailors on board their ships, but often were treated as scapegoats by the sailors and officers on board. Upon completion of their apprenticeship, at about twenty years of age, they were awarded documents of certification as sailors. 73 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


Among the sailor’s tasks included handling the helm, handling the sounding line, which determined water’s depth and thereby the safety of the ship, and handling the rigging of the ship. More educated sailors learned to use charts and attended schools in which they could learn to be ship’s pilots. Among the more specialized members of the crew were the gunners, who managed the cannons, grenades, and other projectiles on board. Several levels of officer oversaw the functions on board. SHIP’S REPAIRS Sailors were on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If repairs were needed, the captain needed to be able to call on any and all persons on board, who were used to repair sails and mast, man the bilge pumps below decks, or even to leave the ship in order to patch holes in the ship’s sides with wood or sheets of lead that were nailed to the ship. Some were designated as divers who could accomplish these repairs, at great personal risk, under roiling water. SHIP’S CARGO Many Spanish ships carried large cargo, the weight of which the ship depended upon for proper sailing. If the cargo were less fulsome than the hold allowed, heavy stones would be stowed in order to compensate for the weight that was not available. Various sizes of bales and crates were stacked in the hold on top of one another, with the heavier containers below the lighter ones. Ballast was placed underneath the containers, and cloth or lighter bundles filled the spaces in order to avoid shifting of the cargo materials. WEAPONS OF WAR Cannons became more common on ships in the second half of the 16th Century. In addition, various hand-thrown projectiles, some utilizing gunpowder or hot tar, and some including lime in order to blind their victims, were used, along with muskets, swords, crossbows, etc. ENTERTAINING THE CREW Playing games, telling stories or chatting with peers, singing songs, and reading were the most common forms of entertainment available to the sailors on Spanish ships. Various games of chance with cards and dice, although prohibited by law, were common to all sailors. Books were difficult to obtain, but were read by crewmember when possible. Novels were available and were popular among the literate sailors.

WHAT DID SAILORS EAT? Feeding sailors during the long voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World was a challenge. Since refrigerators were not available to preserve food for the voyage, the ship’s provisions had to be able to last trip. The mariners would first eat those foods that spoiled the quickest. To preserve certain foods, such as meat and fish, were dried, salted, smoked, or pickled. They did not have cans so the meat/fish may have been stored in wood barrels or creates. Some ships carried livestock which was butcher and eaten during the voyage. Other foodstuffs would have been similarly stored for the trip. Food would often rot or became invested with weevils. Rats and mice were a problem because they ate the rations and would leave their dropping in the food. Most of the time, provisions had to be rationed during the voyage because it was difficult to have enough food the entire voyage. One would never know if the trip would be quick or if it would take longer than expected to reach their destination. 74 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


According to some 16th century records, ships of the 1568 armada of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés had a daily ration schedule of foodstuffs: Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays:
One and a half pounds of biscuit, one liter of water, one liter of wine, half a peck of a mixture of horse beans and chickpeas for each twelve persons, and one pound of salted fish fro each three persons. (A peck is about 8 dry quarts – used for dry goods) Tuesdays:
A pound and a half of biscuit, one liter of water, one liter of wine, one pound mixed rice and oil for each ten persons, and half a pound of salt pork. Sundays and Thursdays:
A pound and a half of biscuit, one liter of water, one liter of wine, one pound of salted meat, and two ounces of cheese. Each month:
One liter of oil and something more than a half a liter of vinegar per person. (Above information from Spain’s Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the Sixteenth Century by Pablo E. PerezMallaina, trans. Carla Rabn Phillips; Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1998.)

As can be seen, the biscuit or hardtack was a staple of the diet of a Spanish sailor in the 16th century. The biscuit was soaked in water or wine which made it easier to eat since it was hard. Mariners ate a breakfast meal of biscuits, wine, and a little salt pork or some sardines. The Noon meal or dinner was the largest meal of the day and supper was served before sunset and it consisted of a quantity of half of what was eaten at noon.
The salted meat was normally fixed in a stew. During storms or when the enemy was near sailors only ate chesse, biscuits, and wine. No cooking fires were allowed in these instances. Cooking also presented a problem on a wood ship in the middle of the ocean. Most ships of the period did not have a kitchen or galley for food preparation. Cooking and eating were done on the open deck. Cooking fires may have been lit one once a day and then put out because of fear of the ship catching fire. Fresh water presented its own challenge. The crew had to carry all of their drinking water with them in barrels. When possible, the ship would stop during its voyage and go ashore to collect fresh water. However, water had to be rationed which was unfortunate for a sailor because of the meat and fish they ate was preserved in salt. There was always the chance that because of the food rations sailors received which sometimes was not enough, they were susceptible to malnutrition. One effect of malnutrition was scurvy which could be devastating to a crew. This was a vitamin C deficiency from not eating enough fresh foods. Symptoms of scurvy include loose teeth or teeth falling out, gum disease, general weakness, anemia, and skin problems. Scurvy can be prevented and treated by easting fresh fruits such as oranges and lemons and vegetables. ON BOARD MEDICAL TREATMENT In the 16th century most ships did not have a doctor on board. The best a sick or injured sailor could hope for was the assistance of his fellow shipmates or the barber-surgeon, who provided medial treatment, gave hair cuts and performed the periodical tooth extraction when needed. The barber-surgeon, the 16th century’s answer to medical treatment on ships, may have been trained in the preparations of unguents and balms for open wounds and illnesses such as the pox, immobilization and splinting of fractures and dislocations which were common on a sailing ship of the 75 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


period. He had a variety of tools or instruments such as bleeding bowls, amputation knives, bandages, powers, herbs, resins, urethral syringes, linen towels to wipe of and clean tools of the trade and surfaces, and other items that completed his kit. Many of the worst injuries including lethal gunshot wounds from battle were treated right away by cauterization or amputation. Worse injuries and even lethal were those from gunshot wounds and other wounds from battle. Amputation, the procedure of removing and damaged arm, leg, foot or hand, had to be done quickly because there was no anesthesia available and because of serious bleeding during the operation. Some patients did not survive the amputation operation Postoperative infection was always a problem for those patients who did survive the procedure. Any internal injuries and bleeding from injuries sustained in combat led to death. The barber-surgeons could do nothing but they could suture intestines and sometimes repair depressed fractures to the skull. During the 16th century, manuals were printed and available that provided instructions for treatments and compounds for oils, ointments, syrups, and pills that could be used to the treatment of patients. Some of these compounds were very simple to the complex. One example is a mixture of oil of poppy combined with egg to treat a skin infection. Other unguents could require two days to prepare. Butter was thought to easy pain and used on burns. This is something that is not encouraged. Oils from the butter will actually make the burn worse. The on board would-be-doctor treated headaches and coughs with peppercorn and mustard seeds. Sometimes the barber-surgeon had pre-rolled bandages soaked in colophony oil (made from pine resin) that could be used for bandaging flesh wounds. The bandage would often be stitched to the skin because medical tape and ace bandages had not been invented yet. Another treatment for open wounds such as those from gunshots, was cauterization to stop the flow of blood. Medical treatment on board ships in the 16th century was crude at best. Most likely, a sailor was lucky to survive a serious illness or injury. As time past and improvements were made, ships would eventfully have medical doctors on board. (Information for the above from:
Shipboard Medicine on 16th Century English Warships: Medical Practitioners and their Equipment. http://alina.wasteofbandwidth.info/maritimemedicine.pdf)

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Parts of a Spanish Ship Handout

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Answer Key

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A SAILOR'S RATION Sea Biscuit Recipe You can make sea biscuits (hard tack) with the following recipe and experience eating what sailors often depended on to keep alive. There is a prime ingredient missing: the weevils!

• • •

4 Parts Flour 1 Part Water Salt to Taste

Make dough. Roll out on a floured surface about 1/2 inch thick. Cut into pieces about 2 1/2 to 3 inches. Place each cracker on a baking sheet, poke holes in the tip with a fork and bake at 250 degrees for one hour or until lightly browned. These biscuits are hard. Just like we crush crackers in soup they soaked sea biscuits in water, coffee, or stew.

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Lesson Six: Till the End of Time Grade 4 Student Target: SC.4.N.1.6 Keep records that describe observations made, carefully distinguishing actual observations from ideas and inferences about the observations. SC.4.E.5.3 Recognize that Earth revolves around the Sun in a year and rotates on its axis in a 24-hour day. Materials: Teacher: sundial(in trunk), vocabulary sheet, human sundial activity sheet(in appendix), sundial print out sheet(in appendix), timekeeper activity sheet(in appendix), banjo clock and marine chronometer coloring sheets(in appendix), additional activity sheet, chalk, cardboard, markers, thread, tape, glue, watch, mechanical compass, protractor, scissors, pencil, and paper Student: pencil and blank paper; vocabulary sheet, human sundial activity sheet, sundial print out sheet, timekeeper activity sheet, banjo clock and marine chronometer coloring sheets, additional activity sheet Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn how both the mariners and the explorers would measure time using various different methods throughout history. Time became a powerful tool to navigators because it provided the information needed to calculate latitude and longitude. Students will be challenged to use their critical thinking skills. Ancient Egyptians Develop the Sundial The ancient Egyptians were one of the first people to measure time. In 3500 BC, they had developed a method based off the movement of the sun by watching and measuring the length of a shadow cast by a stick they lodged in the ground. They referred to this stick as a gnomon. They split the hours of the day into 12 parts; the hours were etched into the ground so that each shadow could be quickly measured by each marking. At noon, they would turn the gnomon around so that it would accurately measure the shadow in the opposite direction from which it started. This was the first clock known as “the shadow clock� or sundial. Several centuries later, they modified their method and created different variations of the sundial from the 16th century BC to the 8th century BC. For example, obelisks were common Egyptian monuments that would also double as a sundial. Another sundial, called a hemispherical dial, was created out of a piece of cut stone that look like a bowl; it would measure the 4 seasons. The Egyptians were instrumental in the understanding and development of time. Egyptian Calendar At around the same time the sundial was being developed, the Egyptians were also intently studying the stars when they discovered how the movement in the cosmos were directly connected to the seasons we have here on earth. In about 3100 BC, they developed a 365-day calendar to measure the months and the days of the changing seasons. It was important to farmers to know when to plant and harvest

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their crops; they needed to plan ahead because the Nile would flood for a period of time before they could plant their crops. Time and Culture Prior to the Egyptian culture, the Sumerian people of Mesopotamia had been constructing calendars and methods in timekeeping for several centuries. Unfortunately, those records were not passed down on records in history and they disappeared once the civilization became extinct. We do have knowledge of the culture of these people but the detailed knowledge of their scientific discoveries has been ambiguous. This is why it is important to keep a record or document of historical events, scientific findings, and preserving artifacts so we can improve upon our knowledge of the world and pass on a cultural legacy. Teacher Prompt: Why is it important that we study history? Answer: We study history so we can grow and learn from our previous knowledge of the world around us. We want to know where we started so we can improve life and preserve our culture for future generations. (Answer may vary) Teacher Prompt: Why is important that we develop improved methods of measuring time? Why do you think time might have been important to the Egyptians? Answer: We continue to develop improved methods of measuring time to create an efficient schedule for our lives, planting and harvesting season for agriculture, as well as an accuracy of celestial events. It was important to the Egyptians because they relied on their natural resources to survive. Agriculture was essential to them because it produced food for an entire village. The celestial events in the cosmos could indicate natural events that could directly affect their culture and indicate changes in the seasons. Today we still rely on our natural resources but we have improved our way of life so that we are not solely dependent on one source; we can now control parts of our environment to prevent famine and to protect ourselves from nature’s harmful elements. (Answers may vary) Show the students a sundial and pass around a picture of an ancient Egyptian Calendar. Lunar Calendars from Other Ancient Civilizations Two notable cultures, the Babylonian and the Mayan civilizations, each created their own calendars based off the lunar months. A lunar month was determined by the moon’s cycle that lasted around 30 days. Nearly 4,000 years ago, the Babylonian calendar was several days shorter than the calendar we have today; it only lasted about 354 days with each month alternating from 29 to 30 days. During that same time period, the Mayans living in Central America created various calendars starting from a 260 day year to a 365 day year. These calendars had to be adjusted from time to time because of precession; the rotation of earth expands overtime which is why we have to add a day to our calendars every 4 years for a leap year. They also used the fall and spring equinox to determine daylight savings. The Mayans were so accurate in their celestial predictions that we still refer to them today. One of the longest cycles on the Mayan long count calendar ended on December 21, 2012. If you can remember, many people were afraid the world was going to end on this date.

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Teacher: Think back to 2012. Why do you think everyone was saying that “the world is going to end in 2012?” Answer: The Mayan calendar was so scarily accurate to the vary detail that many people took the Mayan calendar way too literally when they learned the calendar was about to end. Many people rushed to conclusions and assumed that a worldwide disaster was going to happen. Unfortunately, some of the ruins were partially damaged because the superstition of such an event drew a large crowd of overzealous tourist to the ancient Mayan sites. Clepsydra; the First Timepiece that didn’t rely on the Celestial Bodies A clepsydra is also known as a “water clock.” In the 4th century BC, the Greeks began to use this method of time measurement and named it clepsydra which means ‘water thief.’ The way a water clock worked depended on how it was constructed. Just like the sundial, the clepsydra had been modified several times. It could be as simple as using a bowl or cistern with a small hole at the bottom to slow the flow of water to a precise calculated rate; the water droplets would be caught underneath in another bowl or cistern and the process would be repeated. Another way to create a water clock was using a metal bowl shaped object with a hole at the bottom and placing it in a slightly bigger bowl filled with water; the metal bowl would eventually fill with water and sink to the bottom at a constant rate which could also be used to measure time. People had used this method all the way up to the 20th century. Suddenly, mechanical clepsydras began emerging from about 100 BC to 500 AD. The Greeks and Romans were creating more complex water clocks that could keep a constant flow rate and use applied pressure to perform functions on its own. One Macedonian astronomer constructed the Horologion or the “Tower of the Winds” which is still standing in Athens to this day. It was a water-powered clock that would move the dial as it rotated across a clock face. This technology was very advanced for the time; it indicated the seasons, the directional flow of the 8 winds, and astrological dates and periods. Teacher: Can you guess what the study of Horology is? Answer: Horology is the skill of timekeeping. Warm Up Activity: Human Sundial Distribute Student Activity Sheet 1 (The Human Sundial Activity). The activity is also available online at http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/topteaching/2012/10/interactive-science-human-sundial. Have the students pick a partner and go outside for this activity. Give each partner one piece of chalk. Have them stand several feet away from each other on the sidewalk, outside basketball court, or an isolated part of the parking lot. One person will be the human sundial and the other will measure the shadow. Follow the activity instructions. Make sure you take note of the time. This should last no more than 10 min. Students should be taken outside three times during the day to complete this activity. For more Human Sundial activities and information, visit: www.crayola.com/lesson-plans/human-sundial-lesson-plan www.fsec.ufc.en/education/k-12/curricula/sm2/documents/sm2_making-sundial.pdf

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Teacher Prompt: What did you see in this activity? Vocabulary: Chronometer – a mechanism of precision that measures time and determines longitude; Clepsydra – a water clock; a device that controls the flow of water to measure time Equinox – When the sun crosses the plane of the equator causing equivalent lengths of both night and day. Incense – a scented stick that when burned produces a sweet smelling aroma Horology – the skill of timekeeping Knots – a measure of speed on the water equaling 1 nautical mile or 1.15 statute miles an hour Pendulum – a swinging bar with a weighted end; used to control the speed of the mechanisms inside of a clock Precession – the rotation of earth’s axis in a circular motion around fixed stars; eventually, the length of the year gradually expands over time because it takes Earth 26,000 years to complete a full cycle. Sandglass – an hour glass; a device that measures time with refined grains of sand and a perfectly calculated flow from one cylinder to the next one beneath it. Sundial – measures time by using a standing plate or object to calculate the sun’s rotational cycle throughout the day; uses the length of shadows to determine the time Timekeeper – an individual that keeps track of the time Watch – it was to keep on guard; a 4 hour shift that a mariner was on duty Lesson: In the warm-up activity, you began an experiment as a human sundial! Today, all we have to do is just look at a watch, a phone, a computer, or an iPad to find the time. Imagine if we lived back several centuries ago; we would not have the luxury of knowing the exact time. Teacher Prompt: What other techniques do you think they used to find the time? Take out a piece of paper and write down at least 2-3 ways of telling the time without the use of technology. What items do you think the explorers used? Write all your answers down on a piece of paper. The Hourglass and the Developmental Progress of Timepieces (From the trunk, show the hourglass [note: the time measurement for this hourglass is 53 min. 42 sec., just short of an hour]) The most familiar object in the history of navigation and time is the hourglass; also known as the “sandglass.” It originated from Egypt and rate of sand flow to the bottom of the hourglass would last for an increment of 4 hours. Changes were made to the hourglass and overtime it was shortened to half hour increments. During an expedition, the cabin boy on board the ship would have the job of rotating it over again every 30 minute and then he would ring the bell to signal every half hour. Painstakingly, he had to continue repeating these steps for a whole watch period which would last 4 hours at a time. It was important that the crew knew the exact time so they could change over shifts to give the men working on deck a break. The hourglass had some complications even though it was fairly reliable. Some of the issues concerning the hourglass were the temperature and the humidity the explorers sailed 83 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


through on their journey. The moisture could get stuck inside causing the sand to clump up which could prevent most of the sand from coming down the middle shaft that connects the two glass cones together. This issue led to some serious problems with time accuracy. Another important aspect to time was speed. The velocity of the ship had to be measured by a device called a “Chip Log” which required the use of an hourglass to figure out the time increments. All speed was calculated in ‘knots;’ a knot was a measurement for speed that represented 1 nautical mile. Besides the hourglass, there were other devices used to tell time. The Oriental communities would burn incense in a stone or metal maze that was regulated and could determine time. Many other early cultures used oil lamps and candles marked in increments. Candles could even be used as an alarm clock. For example, when the candle had fully melted, it would make a loud noise that was caused by a nail falling out of the side of the candle onto the pan below. Pendulum clocks were one of the first modern timepieces that were run by an oscillating mechanism. Christian Huygen was the first credited producer of the Pendulum clock in 1656 but Galileo actually came up with designs for one back in 1582. Galileo died before he was able to build his timepiece. The amazing thing about a pendulum is that it had less than 1 min of error and for that period of time, it was considered the best for its century. The Marine Chronometer For the longest time, many of the ships at sea did not have any accurate way of measuring the time so John Harrison created superior techniques to improve the clock. In 1761, he built the very first marine chronometer that was very accurate because it reduced friction and compensated for the temperature at sea. The only difficulty with this modern innovation was that when it first was developed, it was so expensive that it cost about a year’s worth of a captain’s salary. Teacher Prompt: Today we only have to pay about $10 for a waterproof wristwatch and it is very precise! Imagine if you needed a marine chronometer like many of the explorers probably needed when they went on their journey in the 16th century. Would you give up a year’s worth of pay to buy a clock? Why or Why not? Alright! Let’s get ready to go build a pocket sundial! Teacher, go online to “Making a Pocket Sundial” http://printables.familyeducation.com/sun/printable/59781.html and download and print the instructions to make a pocket sundial. Distribute to students and following instructions to complete the activity. (You can also use the attached work sheets to make copies) Here is another type of Sundial that can be made by your class: Visit the Royal Museum, Greenwich and download the instruction, http://www.rmg.co.uk/node/6993. Then download the sundial template at http://www.rmg.co.uk/sites/default/files/media/pdf/sundial_template.pdf. Print copies and distribute to students. Follow instructions to complete the activity. (Copy is also attached if you would like to use it to make copies for your students) 84 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


Challenge: Create your own water clock and hourglass at home! Once you have made and decorated your items, try testing them out. Set a timer and record how long it takes for each to reach the bottom. Note which one was faster and which one was slower. Do you think these instruments are reliable? Which one do you prefer? The next time you have to do homework, time yourself and see how long it takes you to finish. Can you finish on time before all water or sand hits the bottom? Let us know what your results were on this activity! Submit your results to us and include your contact information. Reflection: Have the students look back at the piece of paper they took out earlier. Underneath their previous answers, have them list 3-5 techniques they learn from the lesson that can be used to tell time. Then compare both answers and have them submit for class participation. Assessment: Completion of worksheets, class participation, adequate understanding of knowledge learned, and completion of activity. Enrichment: To learn more about how to use a compass and find cardinal direction, visit www.pbchistoryonline.org or http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/compass/?ar_a=1. Enrichment Activity: Build an Hourglass or Sandglass/Clock Your students can make their own hourglass. Follow the below instructions. Materials: Each student or each team will need two plastic bottles, a small amount of sand (no more than ½ cup), a piece of foil, tape (not scotch tape), and scissors. Instructions: Take two plastic bottles and put a small amount of sand in one of the bottles. Place a piece of foil over the neck of the bottle with the sand and punch a small hole in the foil. Take the other bottle and tape the opening together. Turn the bottles upside down so that the bottle with the sand is on top. Watch the sand fall into the bottom bottle. Use a watch or clock to time how long it takes the sand to pour into the empty bottle. Resources: http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/index.php?page=tools http://andersoninstitute.com/history-of-time-measurement-devices.html http://www.boatsafe.com/kids/navigation.htm http://www.britishmuseum.org/channel/kids/young_explorers_videos/video_history_of_time_tellin g.aspx http://dictionary.reference.com/ 85 | H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f P a l m B e a c h C o u n t y


https://www.havefunteaching.com/worksheets/create-your-own-worksheets http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/skytellers/polaris/about.shtml http://maya.nmai.si.edu/calendar/calendar-system http://www.nawcc.org/index.php/for-teachers/teaching-resources http://www.nist.gov/pml/general/time/index.cfm http://nrich.maths.org/6070 http://printables.familyeducation.com/sun/printable/59781.html http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/time.html http://www.sundials.co.uk/newdials.htm www.thefreedictionary.com http://www.timekeepingsite.org/clock.htm#THREE http://worksheets.theteacherscorner.net/make-your-own/match-up/

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Lesson Seven: Map It Out Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.3.1: Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. SS.4.G.1.1: Identify physical features of Florida. LAFS.4.L.2.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. Choose punctuation for effect. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g ., small-group discussion). LAFS.4.L.3.6: Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases as found in grade level appropriate texts, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). LAFS.4.W.2.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Materials: Teacher: Map of Hernando de Soto, a handout copy of the map of Hernando de Soto (on USB), a copy of an old 16th Century Map, Vocabulary Sheet, Early Mapmaking reading sheet, Location is the Key (on USB) On Your Own Worksheet(on USB), Cartographer Monster Map with Questionnaire (on USB), color pencils, pen and pencil Student: A handout copy of the map of Hernando de Soto, a copy of an old 16 th Century Map, Vocabulary Sheet, Location is the Key Activity, On Your Own Worksheet, Cartographer monster map with Questionnaire, color pencils, pen and pencil Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn about the history of mapmaking and cartography. They will be making a map of their own and they will learn about the route that Hernando De Soto took on his journey to the New World. The objective will be for the students to have an understanding of how maps played a huge role in the exploration of La Florida during the 16th century. Distribute student reading sheet, Early Mapmaking (for teachers, see below). Have students read then review in class. The Early History of Mapmaking The art of mapmaking began nearly 5,000 years ago. One of the earliest maps can be traced back to 2300 BC in Babylon. These maps were created out of clay tablets that featured agricultural areas, various resources, and established colonies. A Mesopotamian map that dates to 1600 BC features similar depictions of settlement and agricultural areas. Many early maps were very basic and exclusive to its location. Different cultures would use different materials for their maps. Some cultures like North American Indian tribes would use animal skins and bones to navigate their way by foot or by canoe. One of the most unique maps was made by the Polynesians to chart the winds and the water currents for navigation. They would create a palm leaf mat that was woven with twigs and shells to show the different paths they would take from the coast to local islands nearby (the shells represented the islands). China would whittle maps onto plates and fashion complexly designed maps onto silk. The Egyptians would inscribe each property borderline for record keeping. Each

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generation, mapmaking became more detailed and highly valued for technical skill. Maps became one of the most highly treasured items in history because of exploration, art, and science. Maps and charts were highly valued because they were tools of advancement in exploration. The New World was one example of why a map was highly valuable. When a navigator had a map, it was seen as a visual document that held the key to finding a location and claiming that land for the patron country the expedition represented. If the map had been lost at sea or theft, they may never have another chance to find their destination. Maps were seen as a display of ownership. Those who owned maps were usually the wealthy because they could afford to support an expedition and it was seen as property of status. Maps were also seen as a piece of art; another reason why only the wealthy had access to it. For the longest time, only the wealthy could afford to collect pieces of art and pay for its commission. These maps were never very accurate but they were truly beautiful. They usually depicted whatever the patron had specifically warranted. The Catholic Church was in control of education and the monks were usually given the task of writing or drawing these materials. Monasteries were given the full authority during the middle ages of designing religiously themed maps that depicted past and future events. At one time, maps would feature images of angels and monsters; it had supernatural and mythological elements added to it. Teacher Prompt: Do you think these monsters actually existed? Why? When early mapmakers handcrafted maps, they would often paint mythological monsters in the location they were supposedly seen. Some of these monsters were thought to be a threat to ships and sailors passing through. They would destroy ships and eat people. One monster was considered to be as enormous as an island! Teacher Prompt: What fish or animal could be as large as a small island? Answer: a whale Show them a few pictures of the monsters the sailors were talking about. Teacher Prompt: What animals do they remind you of today? All these stories about monsters were grossly exaggerated. In fact, these creatures were actually just animals that we normally see today but at the time, the men might have been afraid because they had never seen them before. Warm Up Activity Follow the instructions for the warm up activity. We are going to be learning how to chart our coordinates on a map using latitude. Vocabulary: Cartography - the skill of mapmaking. Clay Tablets – material used to keep a written record. Equator – an invisible line that divides the Northern hemisphere and the Southern hemisphere. Latitude – an invisible line that runs parallel to the equator and is measured from North to South passing through East and West. Legend – the key on a map that explains the symbols given. Longitude – an invisible line that runs perpendicular to the equator and is measured from East to West passing through North and South. Lesson:

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Teacher Prompt: How did you enjoy the warm-up activity? Did you notice that we only used latitude for this activity? Only latitude was necessary to find the location during the 16th century because there were no effective ways to find longitude. They didn’t have the right tools at this time to accurately measure longitude. About 1500 AD, Hernando de Soto was born into a poor family of the nobility. He was given a great education and when he graduated, he was asked join an expedition to the Indies. After going on his first trip, he was requested to join the conquest of Francisco Pizarro as second in command. This expedition traveled to both Peru and the Incan capitol of Cuzco to conquer and to collect the riches from the Incan nation. It was from this time forward that Hernando de Soto became a conquistador for Spain. After he had amassed great wealth from Peru, he returned to Spain and there he was given the role as Governor of Cuba and Florida. He stayed there for a few years before he departed for Cuba in 1538 with his 9 fleets of ships and about 700 soldiers, sailors, and colonists onboard. Once they arrived in Cuba, they fought off the French, who had just previously attacked the city of Havana. De Soto stayed there until 1539. Later, he departed for Florida and arrived in Tampa Bay in 10 days. Hernando de Soto’s visit to Florida was an ill-fated expedition. He had set out on an expedition to conquer new territory for the King of Spain and to claim wealth from the abundant riches of land. His original reason for coming to La Florida was to explore the area and establish a port colony. The port was to supply Spanish ships sailing in the Gulf of Mexico. Instead, de Soto decided to explore and conquer search for riches. When he had arrived, he encountered a local tribe and found a Spaniard to be among them. The Spaniard told the explorer about stories of treasure further north. These were the stories of a great treasure hidden further inland that some Spaniards had obtained great wealth from and others died in their pursuit of abundant wealth. Unfortunately, de Soto never found his treasure but he did explore many parts of north Florida, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Hernando fell ill shortly after crossing the mouth of the Mississippi and was buried in the Mississippi by his men. Main Activity: Let’s get ready to create a map! We will be following the journey that Hernando de Soto took when he explored La Florida. Distribute the student map of Hernando de Soto’s journey. Using a computer, visit Florida’s De Soto Trail, http://floridadesototrail.com/index.html. Look at the top and click on the tab Trail Map, then at the right click on Trail Map. Explore the map. Now have students make their own map of de Soto’s journey through La Florida. After completing the map, click on the tab marked FAQ (frequently asked questions). Using the information provided on this web page, have students answer the following two questions in their own words: Where were the Seminoles in 1539? Were the Indians de Soto’s expedition encountered hostile or peaceful? Next, have students write a page about being a mapmaker for the expedition or a solider or a Florida Indian who meets the Spaniards. Challenge: Create a map of your favorite place! It can be your school, your home, or even the park. Include a legend key and a compass rose. Color your map and be sure to submit it to the Historical Society. We would love to hear from you! Reflection: Questionnaire Sheet

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Assessment: Complete worksheets Enrichment: To learn more about cartography visit these web sites: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/ptop/plain/A3021634 http://www.economist.com/node/21561116 http://www.icsm.gov.au/mapping/history.html http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~cherlin/History/Papers2000/sullivan.html http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/lewis_clark_il/htmls/resources/mapping/native_american_mapping.html http://www.oshermaps.org/education/lesson-plans-35 http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/maps.html http://floridadesototrail.com/index.html

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Vocabulary List Cartography – The skill of mapmaking Clay Tablets – Material used to keep a written record Equator – An invisible line that divides the Northern hemisphere and the South passing through East and West Legend – The key on a map that explains the symbols given Longitude – An invisible line that runs perpendicular to the equator and is measured from East to West passing through North and South

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Early Mapmaking Worksheet The art of mapmaking began nearly 5,000 years ago. One of the earliest maps can be traced back to 2300 BC in Babylon. These maps were created out of clay tablets that featured agricultural areas, various resources, and established colonies. A Mesopotamian map that dates to 1600 BC features similar depictions of settlement and agricultural areas. Many early maps were very basic and exclusive to its location. Different cultures would use different materials for their maps. Some cultures like North American Indian tribes would use animal skins and bones to navigate their way by foot or by canoe. One of the most unique maps was made by the Polynesians to chart the winds and the water currents for navigation. They would create a palm leaf mat that was woven with twigs and shells to show the different paths they would take from the coast to local islands nearby (the shells represented the islands). China would whittle maps onto plates and fashion complexly designed maps onto silk. The Egyptians would inscribe each property borderline for record keeping. Each generation, mapmaking became more detailed and highly valued for technical skill. Maps became one of the most highly treasured items in history because of exploration, art, and science. Maps and charts were highly valued because they were tools of advancement in exploration. The New World was one example of why a map was highly valuable. When a navigator had a map, it was seen as a visual document that held the key to finding a location and claiming that land for the patron country the expedition represented. If the map had been lost at sea or theft, they may never have another chance to find their destination. Maps were seen as a display of ownership. Those who owned maps were usually the wealthy because they could afford to support an expedition and it was seen as property of status. Maps were also seen as a piece of art; another reason why only the wealthy had access to it. For the longest time, only the wealthy could afford to collect pieces of art and pay for its commission. These maps were never very accurate but they were truly beautiful. They usually depicted whatever the patron had specifically warranted. The Catholic Church was in control of education and the monks were usually given the task of writing or drawing these materials. Monasteries were given the full authority during the middle ages of designing religiously themed maps that depicted past and future events. At one time, maps would feature images of angels and monsters; it had supernatural and mythological elements added to it.

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Lesson Eight: To Conquer and To Colonize: Founding St. Augustine Grade 4 Student Target: SS.4.A.1.1 Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.A.3.1 Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. SS.4.A.3.3 Identify the significance of St. Augustine as the oldest permanent European settlement in the United States. SS.4.A.3.7 Identify nations (Spain, France, England) that controlled Florida before it became a United States territory. LAFS.4.W.2.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Materials: Teacher: Vocabulary Sheet, Activity Sheet, Warm-up Activity Sheet,Powerpoint (on USB), Additional activities and resources (on USB) Student: Vocabulary Sheet, Activity Sheet, Warm-up Activity Sheet, Additional activities and resources

Warm-Up: In this lesson, the students will learn about the history of the founding of St. Augustine. They will follow the journey of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and learn how he conquered the French at Ft. Caroline. The objective will be for the students to have knowledge of the first permanent Spanish settlement in the exploration of La Florida during the 16th century. The Early History of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was born in 1519 to a Spanish hidalgo family. There are several accounts on Menéndez’ life as a young boy but one thing we do know is that he ran away at 14 years of age to become a sailor. He began working in the privateering trade and was so successful at it that he eventually was promoted as captain general for the Spanish navy. From about the 1560s on, he was given charge of the treasure fleets that transported gold and other precious materials from Peru and Mexico to Spain. Nearly three years after wreaking havoc upon Central America, he was held in custody for disobeying orders at sea. When he was released, he was reinstated back into his previous position and requested that the King allow him to search for his son Juan who was lost at sea and last seen off the coast of Florida. King Philip II granted him his request on the condition that Menéndez would sign a charter to work on commission for the king to start a colony and to map out the Florida shoreline. Philip had desired to reclaim and colonize Florida 50 years after Ponce de León first claimed it. The French King Charles had just set up a Huguenot colony on the Northeast coast and this angered the Spanish Catholic king. Immediately, Menéndez was given over 2,000 people (including soldiers) along with resources, livestock, and ships to set sail for Florida. It was then that Philip bestowed upon Menéndez the title of “Adelantado.” As the king’s own representative, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was bound under the contract of the King to conquer and to colonize Florida. The Founding of St. Augustine

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This new expedition set sail in 1565 towards the Florida coast. They encountered many setbacks due to severe weather storms and by September 9 only Menéndez and his ships of 800 people reached the Florida coastline. The day he first spotted Florida was on August 28th, which was on St. Augustine’s Feast Day. When they landed ashore, he befriended the local tribe and the chief gave him his village to begin building a fort. Immediately, Menéndez ordered the men to begin building the fortress out of earth and he named it St. Augustine in reverence to the memorable feast day. During this time, the French colony’s leader Jean Ribault and his men had a brief confrontation with the Spaniards; they were commanded by Menéndez to surrender. The French had no way to defend themselves and were significantly outnumbered in size so they quickly made their escape out to sea. Menéndez attempted to go after them but was unsuccessful. He made the quick decision to turn around and to go ashore to continue building their defenses against the French; this became the founding of St. Augustine. When the French learned that the Spanish had arrived and had begun take possession of the location nearby, Ribault quickly gathered more resources from the French colony at Ft. Caroline and set sail to attack the Spanish at St. Augustine. The Spaniards promptly responded to the threat and began to make their way by foot towards Ft. Caroline to vanquish the colony. A storm began to brew and lasted for several days; both groups experienced the severe weather and the unthinkable happened! Teacher: What do you think happened to the French and the Spanish? Warm Up Activity Answer the following questions on Student Handout 1. Predict what you think will happen next! The rest is history…

Vocabulary: Adelantado – a representative of the Spanish crown Catholic – a follower of the Roman Catholic Church Charter – a legally binding, written agreement Hidalgo – a lower class of the nobility in Spain Huguenots – a Calvinist or French Protestant; they were often persecuted by the Catholics Matanzas – means the place of Slaughter Mission – a church that has been established by a foreign religious group to share the gospel of Christianity to the locals living in that area. Priests – religious leaders Privateering – a licensed, privately owned ship commissioned to attack enemy ships Watchtowers – towers they were built along the coast so soldiers could watch for enemy invasion

Lesson: Teacher: Were you able to guess as to what happened next? Sometimes history is very predictable. There is a saying that ‘history often repeats itself.’ The Destruction of Ft. Caroline Interestingly, there is a twist in this story. A storm destroyed the French ships and the survivors were forced to go ashore. Meanwhile, the Spaniards endure the storm and Menéndez pushes his small army onward despite the turmoil surrounding them. Upon arriving at Ft. Caroline, he soon realizes that their defenses were weak because Ribault took almost all the soldiers. Menéndez attached Fort Caroline and destroyed it killing most of those left behind by Ribault.

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After the attack on Fort Caroline, Menéndez began to hunt down the shipwrecked Frenchmen whom he heard about from the Indians to be near the inlet south of Fort Caroline. About 200 men were found attempting to cross the inlet to escape the Spaniards. Once Menéndez told them about the destruction of Ft. Caroline, the French soldiers pleaded that their lives be spared if they surrendered. Menéndez could keep no such promises and that evening all but a few were executed including Ribault; the few that survived claimed to be Catholic not Protestant. The Spaniards named this location Matanzas which means “the place of slaughter.” On October 12, days after the massacre at Matanzas, Ribault also attempted to cross the inlet with the rest of his soldiers. Those who didn’t manage to escape quickly were bound, and executed that very day at the mercy of their Catholic adversary. Again only a few were spared because they claimed Catholic faith. Unfortunately, Ribault was among those who died that day. Menéndez’ actions seemed cruel. Some historians and authors think that he knew there wasn’t enough food for everyone to survive on so rather than keep prisoners and everyone suffer, he spared only a few. Teacher: Do you think this was fair or not fair? Why? Menéndez continues to fortify St. Augustine After he fulfilled the wishes of King Philip in driving the French out of Florida, he continued to build up the colony at St. Augustine. It is the first permanent settlement in Florida and it remained unconquered for nearly 200 hundred years. Menéndez fortified the area to protect against attacks. He was the first to request for priests to come over to Florida and begin building missions to share the Christian faith to the local Indian tribes. He sailed back to Spain bringing honor to his name and the Spanish crown. Menéndez was not able to see the completion of the missions at St. Augustine, however, because he died before he could make the trip back to Florida. He never found his son Juan but he was the first Spaniard to successfully establish a colony in La Florida. Note: St. Augustine was founded in 1565 by the Spanish and Jamestown in 1607 by the English. Teacher: Do you think Menéndez was successful in establishing the first Spanish colony? Use USB and computer to project images of St. Augustine on the screen or use your images of St. Augustine. Distribute the activity sheets and worksheets. Main Activity: In this activity, you are going to write a journal entry. You can either write from the perspective of Menéndez or Ribault. The entry should be on a specific event like the first meeting between the French and the Spanish or the Battle at Ft. Caroline. Follow the instructions given. Challenge: Build your own fortress! Draw what you want your fort to look like and name it after something significant to you. Share your thoughts and ideas with us. Be sure to contact the Historical Society and maybe we might publish your drawing! Explore the forts of St. Augustine. See USB for PowerPoint Castillo de San Marcos. Towards the end of the PowerPoint is a math exercise about building the stone fort. Review before showing class.

Reflection: Questionnaire Sheet

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Assessment: Complete worksheets

Enrichment: To learn more about Pedro MenĂŠndez de AvilĂŠs, visit www.pbchistoryonline.org and http://teachingflorida.org/article/pedro-menendez-de-aviles

Online Resources: http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=418 http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/lessons/menendz/menendz1.htm http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/docs/f/frenchcol2.htm http://staugustine.com/history/pedro-menendez http://www.staugustinegovernment.com/visitors/history_fullprint.html http://teachingflorida.org/article/st-augustine-1565-1763 http://teachingflorida.org/activityfort-caroline-and-rene-laudonniere http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary http://www.nps.gov/foma/historyculture/the_massacre.htm http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067343/00001 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025242/00001

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Warm up Activity:

Prediction Questions and Answers Answer the following questions with the best of your knowledge. In this activity, we will be using our knowledge about the information we know about so far to predict what happened next in history. When Ribault and his men sailed out to sea to attack St. Augustine, a massive storm began to brew and it lasted for several days. Menéndez also experienced the severe storm while traveling along the coast to attack Ft. Caroline. 1. What do you think happened to Ribault and his Frenchmen? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you think happened to Menéndez and his Spanish expedition? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did Ribault want to attack St. Augustine? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why did Menéndez want to attack Ft. Caroline? Remember, he initiated the attack first. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Reflection Questionnaire Answer the following questions and reflect back on the lesson.

1. Why did Pedro Menéndez de Avilés originally want to go to Florida? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What did King Philip II commission Menéndez to do? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

3. What happened to Jean Ribault’s ships when they sailed out to sea towards St. Augustine? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Why did Menéndez want to conquer Ft. Caroline and destroy its defenses? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Do you think Menéndez was successful on his expedition? Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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APPENDIX

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Profile for Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Spanish Explorers of La Florida: Educator's Guide  

Spanish Explorers of La Florida: Educator's Guide