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The Seminoles and Miccosukees

Educator’s Guide

Provided by

The Mary Alice Fortin Foundation, INC


This Educators’ Guide Seminoles and Miccosukees was produced by the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum with the support from the Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

©2017 Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Hwy| P.O. Box 4364 | West Palm Beach, FL 33402-4364| (561) 832-4164 | www.hspbc.org Writer & Graphic Design: Richard Marconi On Front Cover:

For more information about the variety of educational programming offered by the Johnson History Museum and the Historical Society of Palm Beach Count, please visit our website: www.hspbc.org/in-the-classroom

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Table of Content

Introduction to the Seminoles and Miccosukees ..........................................................3 Florida Sunshine State Standards ........................................................................................3 Vocabulary .........................................................................................................................4

The Seminoles of Florida .............................................................................................5 Seminole Government ........................................................................................................6

Black Seminoles ..........................................................................................................6 The Miccosukee Tribe of Florida ..................................................................................7 The Seminole Chickee ............................................................................................... 10 Hair Styles of the Seminoles ...................................................................................... 11 A Day in the Life of a Seminole .................................................................................. 14 Seminole men .................................................................................................................. 14 Seminole women .............................................................................................................. 14

Seminole Timeline .................................................................................................... 40 Appendix .................................................................................................................. 48

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Introduction to the Seminoles and Miccosukees This trunk contains various items that teachers can use when discussing the Seminole and Miccosukee tribes. It is mainly for fourth grade but teachers can easily adapt it for other grades. The information provided in the teacher’s guide aligns with Florida’s Sunshine State Standards. A lesson plan Seminole Indians during the Colonial Period, by the Florida Heritage Education Program, is provided. The Seminole Trunk is a great tool for use when teaching students about the Seminoles and Miccosukees. All items in the trunk can be handled by the students with adult supervision. Alligator heads have sharp teeth, so please be careful when handling. Information provided for the teacher about some of the artifacts found in the trunk, such as Seminole Patchwork and beads. There is additional information about chickees, clans, hairstyles, Green Corn Dance, legends, and language with English translations for teachers to review before class. A student handout is provided. It can be used in class and/or can be taken home. In the guide is a list of all items in the trunk. Please check the list to be sure you have everything. Before returning the trunk, please complete the Evaluation form. It will assist us in maintaining and improving it for future use.

Florida Sunshine State Standards Social Studies Benchmarks SS.4.A.3.2, SS.4.A.3.8, SS.4.A.3.10 Reading/Language Arts LAFS.4.RF.3.3, LAFS.4.RF.4.4, LAFS.4.L.1.1, LAFS.4.L.1.2, LAFS.4.L.2.3, LAFS.4.L.3.4, LAFS.4.SL.1.1, LAFS.4.SL.1.3, LAFS.4.RI.3.9, LAFS.4.W.2.4, LAFS.4.W.2.5, LAFS.4.W.3.8, LAFS.K12.W.3.8 Visual Art VA.4.S.3.1, VA.4.S.3.1

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Vocabulary Black Seminoles

Runaway slaves from the 18th and 19th centuries who joined and lived with the Seminoles. They adopted the Seminoles’ way of life. Most surrendered or were captured during the Seminole Wars of the first half of the 19th century.

Chickee

The Seminole house, an open sided hut made of with a wood frame and a palmetto thatch roof.

Billy Bowlegs III

Longtime leader of the Seminoles. He was born in the 19th century and died in the 1960s at the age of 103.

Everglades

A large marshy area covering parts of south Florida.

Green Corn Dance

A traditional annual event of special ceremonies.

Miccosukees

The smallest tribe of Native Americans living in Florida on two reservations.

Osceola

A Seminole war leader during the 2nd Seminole War.

Patchwork

The method of sewing together small pieces of fabric into a pattern to make clothing.

Seminoles

The largest of two Native American tribes living in Florida on six reservations.

Sofkee

A traditional Seminole food.

For more vocabulary words see page 10, Florida Heritage Education Program Lesson Plan: Seminole Indians during the Colonial Period

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The Seminoles of Florida Florida has been home to the Seminoles since the 1700s. When the original Florida Native American population decreased, the Seminoles moved into Spanish Florida. Groups of Lower and Upper Creeks came from Alabama and Georgia. They wanted to have their own land and Florida had plenty of land available. Eventually, there were two dominant tribes. They were the Miccosukees and the Seminoles. Their language separated them into two different groups. The Miccosukees’ language descended from the Lower Creeks. The Seminoles’ language came from the Upper Creeks. The Seminoles became a serious problem for settlers in Florida. Understanding the Seminoles helps us better understand Florida history. The name “Seminole” could have two meanings. From the Creek word “ishti semoli,” Seminole means wild men. From the Spanish word “cimarrones,” Seminole means runaways. Based on their history, which meaning do you think best describes them? The Seminoles fought three wars with the United States. The First Seminole War started in 1818. The war began because Seminoles in Spanish Florida started raiding the United States. The Americans were also upset because slaves from Georgia and Alabama escaped to Florida. The escaped slaves began living with the Seminoles. Andrew Jackson was the military general who led American forces into Florida. He captured several Spanish towns and killed two British citizens because he thought they were spies. He did not do much to stop the Seminoles. In 1819, Spain ceded Florida to the United States for five million dollars. In the 1820s, American settlers entered Florida. They often clashed with the Seminoles over land. As a result, the territorial government of Florida signed a treaty with the Seminoles. The Treaty of Moultrie Creek was signed in 1823. It required the Seminoles to give up their land and move south. They settled on four million acres of land south of present day Ocala. The Seminoles also agreed to stop allowing runaway slaves from the United States to settle with them. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was signed. The president who signed the law was Andrew Jackson. The same man who served as the American general sent to stop the Seminoles in 1818! The law required all Native Americans to move to Indian Territory (known today as Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River. In Florida, some Seminoles did not want to leave their homes. They agreed to send a group to view the place where the Seminoles were to relocate. While visiting the Indian Territory, the group of Seminoles was persuaded to move there. When they returned to Florida, many of the chiefs told their people they had been forced to sign the agreement. The Seminoles continued to refuse to leave Florida. Their actions led to the Second Seminole War. That war lasted from 1835 to 1842. Osceola, who was not a chief, emerged as a Seminole leader. He refused to agree to leave his home in Florida. In December 1835, he led a small group of warriors in an attack. They killed a government agent who had thrown Osceola in jail. On the same day, a large group of Seminoles attacked Major Francis L. Dade. Only three of Dade’s men survived. The rest were massacred. Osceola was eventually captured. He died in prison in South Carolina in 1838. The war raged until 1842, when General William Jenkins Worth declared the war over. Most of the Seminoles were either dead or had been captured. The captured Seminoles were sent west to the Indian Territory. A couple of hundred Seminoles survived without being captured. They retreated to the Everglades in south Florida. The Second Seminole War was the most costly of all Indian wars in terms of lives lost and money spent. Once there was peace in Florida, settlers felt confident enough to move there. They established farms and businesses without fear of Seminole attacks. The territory’s white population soon topped 60,000 people. That was the number of people needed for Florida to become a state. On March 3, 1845, Florida entered the union as the 27th state. Ten years later, the Third Seminole War began. It lasted from 1855 to 1858. This war was caused by a surveying team that destroyed Chief Billy Bowlegs’ banana trees! Chief Billy Bowlegs had a garden deep in the Big Cypress Swamp. A team of American surveyors destroyed 5 2017 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


his property. When Bowlegs confronted the men, they refused to pay for damages. They also refused to apologize. The following day, the Seminoles attacked and killed or wounded the entire surveying team. This led to three years of war. In 1858, Billy Bowlegs and his band of Seminoles were forced to surrender. They were moved to Indian Territory. The remainder of the Seminoles refused to surrender. They simply moved deeper into the southern Everglades. Some Seminoles and Miccosukees live in Florida today. They are descendants of those who refused to surrender or sign a treaty to move to the Indian Territory. After many years of hiding out in the swamps, the Seminoles were able to rebuild their lives in south Florida. They became part of Florida’s modern economy. Today, they make money by farming and operating hotels, casinos, and other tourist attractions.

Seminole Government The Seminole Tribe of Florida was formed in 1957. As established in the Seminole Tribe of Florida's constitution, the Tribal Council is the chief governing body, composed of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, and Council Representatives from each reservation. Today, the Council administers the Seminole Police Department, the Human Resources programs, the Tribal gaming enterprises, citrus groves, the Billie Swamp Safari, the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum, and the majority of the Tribe's cigarette-related enterprises. The Seminole Tribe's Legal Services Department administers a public defender's office, Water Resource Management, and the Utilities Department. The Tribe does not have a court system; legal and criminal matters not resolved on the community level are referred to the proper state or federal authorities.

Black Seminoles The British took control of Florida in 1763. Many blacks and runaway slaves that found freedom under Spanish rule went to Cuba. When the Spanish left, those blacks who remained in Florida began living with the Seminoles. Some blacks became slaves of the Seminoles and others were free. Those who lived with the Seminoles were referred to as Black Seminoles. Even though the Seminoles protected the Black Seminoles, slave owners from the north still came after them. Slave owners wanted to catch their slaves and return them to their plantations. Sometimes the Seminoles lied by saying they owned a free black man in order to protect him. The Black Seminoles accepted the culture of the Seminoles. They spoke the language and they dressed like Seminoles and were helpful to the tribe. They knew about farming and they spoke English. Black Seminoles could translate when Seminoles spoke to whites. Some Black Seminoles were even able to hold important positions in the tribe. One such Black Seminole was Abraham. He was a former slave in Florida. It is believed that the British gave him his freedom during the War of 1812. After receiving his freedom, he was known to live among the towns on the Suwannee River. Abraham became important to the Seminoles as an interpreter and counselor. He was part of the Seminole delegation, or group, which visited Washington D.C. in 1826 to see the president. In 1832, he was one of two interpreters at the Treaty of Payne’s Landing. The Seminole chiefs that signed the treaty agreed to move west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) as part of the Indian Removal Act. During the three Seminole Wars, Black Seminoles fought against the United States. They were fighting to keep their freedom. Many Black Seminoles were caught during the Second Seminole War. Some were sent back into slavery. Others were sent to the Indian Territory with the other captured Seminoles. Some fled to the Bahamas to keep from being captured altogether. In later years, Black Seminoles left for Mexico. They lived there until the end of the Civil War. Some of them stayed in Mexico, while others moved into Texas. In the 1870s and 1880s, the U.S. Army enlisted some Black Seminoles as scouts to fight other Native Americans. Four Black Seminoles were awarded the Medal of Honor. Today, the descendants of these famous Black Seminoles live in Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico.

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The Miccosukee Tribe of Florida The Miccosukee were originally part of the Creek Nation, who lived in the areas now known as Alabama and Georgia. This territory was separated into two sections: the Upper Creeks who lived in the mountains and spoke Creek; and the Lower Creeks, the ancestors of the Miccosukees, lived at the base of these mountains and spoke Miccosukee. While the two languages are closely related, they are not the same. This language barrier hindered full communication between the two groups and caused them to be constantly at war with each other. The Miccosukees lived in harmony sharing their legends and religious practices, trading, attending social gatherings, and participating in traditional Native American stickball games with other local tribes. They lived by hunting, fishing, and farming. Corn was the most important crop grown. The annual harvest was and is still celebrated each year at the sacred Green Corn Dance. Miccosukee legends give interesting explanations of their origins. One legend reports a people dropping from heaven into a lake in northern Florida, now called Lake Miccosukee and swimming ashore to build a town. There are no early written records to clarify the origins. Arrival of the Europeans in the sixteenth century placed the Native Americans at the center of a three-way struggle for colonial supremacy in the south. The English, working out of the Carolinas, penetrated to the heart of the Creek nation seeking trade, political support, and land cessions. The French moved eastward from the Mississippi Valley and sought alliances with the Creeks as buffers against the English and Spanish. To the south, the Spanish, who barely controlled Florida, sought friendly relations with the Creeks as a bulwark against the other European powers. Caught in the middle, the Creeks were able to plat the Europeans against each other. In the eighteenth century, the Spaniards enticed some lower Creeks to relocate into Florida and take up lands formerly occupied by Florida's aboriginal tribes. This created a barrier between the Spanish and English territories. The Miccosukees, who were already familiar with the Florida peninsula through hunting and fishing expeditions, and in an effort to escape both the encroaching whites and the Upper Creeks, were among the first to settle in Florida sometime after 1715. Complex Miccosukee town life soon evolved in the permanent settlements they established in the Apalachee Bay Region and along the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers. Families built and occupied solid dwellings, engaged in skilled handcrafts, and participated in a sophisticated social life. Following the American Revolution, white settlers started pushing west and south, creating conflict with the Muskogee speaking upper Creeks. These conflicts between the settlers and the Creeks led to the Creek War of 1813 and later, the First Seminole War of 1818 that took place in Florida. The Miccosukee managed to stay in the Florida panhandle resisting the attacks on their towns by greedy settlers, American soldiers, and crooked slave traders. The Miccosukee eventually left the area and settled around Alachua, south of Gainesville and the Tampa Bay area. In 1821, when Spain turned Florida over to the United States, the American government recognized the rights of Native Americans over much of the land in the peninsula. In 1823, Seminoles, Miccosukees, and the American government negotiated for the land in the "Treaty of Moultrie Creek." The tribal leaders who signed the treaty wanted peace, so they agreed to move their clans to a reservation in central Florida. The Native Americans were allowed to live in peace on the reservation for a period of twenty years. By 1830, agitation by the new American settlers led the United States to adopt the Indian Removal Act proposed by President Andrew Jackson. This act dictated that all Native American tribes in the southeastern United States had to relocate to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River.

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This forced the Miccosukee and Seminoles to join together in the war known as the Second Seminole War, which lasted from 1835 to 1842, and the Third Seminole War, which lasted from 1855 to 1858. They fought the United States to keep from being forced to move to Indian Territory. During these wars, small groups of Miccosukee and Seminoles escaped forced relocation by fighting and hiding out in the Everglades. Today’s Miccosukee are descendants of less than one hundred people who eluded capture by withdrawing deep into the Everglades. Life in the Everglades was hard but there was abundant game for the Miccosukee to hunt. They also relied on fishing, fruits, corn, cabbage palm, and coontie. For manufactured goods, the Miccosukee traded alligator skins, deer hides, and feathers for cloth, tools, guns, salt, and anything else they could not make on their own at trading posts located in towns. The Miccosukees were able to maintain their lifestyle when Floridians began cutting canals and draining the Everglades for farmland in the early twentieth century. The Land Boom of the 1920s and the construction of the Tamiami Trail that cut through the Everglades to the Florida west coast thrust the Miccosukee tribe into a new world. Then in the 1940s, the U.S. Department of the Interior declared that most of the land claimed by the Miccosukee was to be a part of the Everglades National Park. Though adapting to a new modern world, the Miccosukee have been able to retain their culture. This is reflected in the colors of the tribe’s flag, yellow, red, black, and white, which represent the circle of life - east, north, west, and south. The Miccosukee view the whole universe spinning slowly in a circle what was, will be, and will cease to be again. They have kept their language, medicine, clans, and some even prefer to live in chickees, the traditional Miccosukee dwelling, instead of the modern housing that is available. To renew their identity, the Miccosukee celebrate the sacred Green Corn Dance each spring. The Miccosukee tribe operates a village and provides airboat rides into the Everglades. They also have a museum, boardwalk, and alligator arena. People are able to visit and learn about the history of the Miccosukee. On January 11, 1962, the federal government officially recognized the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. The tribe has its own constitution and bylaws. A general council consisting of a Chairman, Assistant Chairman, Treasurer, Secretary and Lawmaker governs the tribe. Their responsibilities are handling tribal matters, government, law and order, education, welfare, recreation, and fiscal disbursement. The business council handles the development and management of the tribe’s business assets. Council members serve four-year terms.

Miccosukee text was adapted from The History of the Miccosukee found at http://www.miccosukee.com/history.html, web site of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.

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The Seminole Chickee Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

"Chickee" is the word Seminoles use for "house." The first Seminoles to live in North Florida are known to have constructed log cabin-type homes, some two stories tall, with sleeping quarters upstairs. The chickee style of architecture - palmetto thatch over a cypress log frame - was born during the early 1800s when Seminole Indians, pursued by U.S. troops, needed fast, disposable shelter while on the run. Though indigenous peoples in other parts of North and South America have developed similar dwellings, it is generally agreed that the Seminole Indian technique and product are far superior. So popular, efficient and functional is the chickee that such Seminole architecture can be seen all over South Florida. The chickee structure should last about ten years and needs to be re-thatched every five years. Several Seminole Tribal members make a living building custom chickees for both commercial and private interests. Chickees Provided Early Housing By Ernie Tiger In 1821 the lives and homelands of many southern indigenous people were changed forever when U.S. Troops, under the command of Andrew Jackson, were on their pursuit to conquer Florida for its vast riches. In 1830, shortly after this Indian fighter was elected President of the United States, the newly elected Jackson pushed through Congress the Indian Removal Act. The Act would move Indians out of the Southeast and relocate them west of the Mississippi River, thus opening up land for white settlements in the Southeast and pushing the Seminoles further into the Florida interior to seek refuge. After the Removal Act went into effect the Seminole people were hunted like animals by U.S. troops who were in no mood to give mercy to these innocent people who had lived in peace for many years. With a life of constant fleeing from U.S. troops, housing for the Seminoles had to be drastically changed. They could no longer rely on their more traditional houses which were more stationary and equipped with features such as walls and sleeping quarters. They needed a quicker, easier to put up, disposable shelter while frequently moving to different camps. A new era of engineered housing evolved for the Seminoles called the "chickee." The chickee was constructed with cypress logs and palm thatch leaves woven together by vines or thin ropes. It had no walls only a thatched roof that covered the area around the upward standing cypress logs submerged shallowly into the earth. After time the Seminoles perfected their housing by adding another level to their chickee making them two stories high with living quarters for those more fortunate. But after the Indian Wars ended in 1842 and time passed by, the Florida tourism boom started. The once relied on structures became impractical for modern day housing and stucco and brick was introduced for the Tribe's new housing. Chickees in today's time are now put together in a matter of hours instead of days because of the improvements in technology and equipment used to construct the unique structures. Nails, chainsaws and four wheelers are now used to haul the heavy logs replacing the old method when the Seminoles would either use manpower or wait until a thunderstorm would flood the area were logs had been cut down so they could be hauled out to the location of the new camp. Nobody really looks to chickees anymore for actual housing, but chickees haven't been forgotten or overlooked. Building chickees has become a big business in Florida in recent years. The entrepreneurs have looked to this unique structure as a way to make profit from Florida's heritage and preserve the past at the same time so that it's not forgotten.

For chickees see The Seminole, page 19; The Seminole Indians, pages 12-13; and photographs 9 and 10 for Seminole village with chickees.

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Hair Styles of the Seminoles Courtesy the Seminole Tribune. Reflections #136 By Patsy West A look at 18th century hairstyles of the Lower Creek Indians, many of whom would in time become known as Seminoles, shows little conclusive information about a uniform look. One fine illustration depicts the Yamacraw chief, Tomochichi, and his adopted son, Tooanahowie. Tomochichi was presented at the British court in 1734. He and his son wear their hair short in the front, falling to their necks in the back. However, a hairstyle worn by a Creek warrior sent by the Creek leader Brim to fight the Spanish in 1776 shows a partially shaved head with a small ornamental, broached forelock on the crown and long braided strands continuing from the crown. With the addition of "a fringe of hair along the forehead," this latter style is similar to the style which John R. Swanton considers typical of the Creeks, Chickasaw, Cherokee and Yuchi. And so, basically intact, this hairstyle had continued south with the Lower Creeks' arrival in north Florida in the 1750s, where they were called 'Seminoles,' and where, in the early 1800s a number of men wearing this styled haircut were painted and included in the McKenney - Hall History of the Indian Tribes of North America. Creek women from this period are seldom illustrated. However, styles are generally consistent with the `fringe of hair along the forehead, long bangs and a tight bun. This was the Seminole woman's `do' until around 1900. Hair was very important in daily life, a distinctive part of `Seminoleness' in a social and somewhat ritualistic sense. Until the 1950s, a Seminole woman's hair was only publicly let down in times of personal mourning, a custom practiced by a woman and her kinswomen. In traditional families today, male babies have their hair ceremonially shaved at four months of age, leaving only a forelock. Their hair and nail clippings are then carefully stored away. In the Seminole belief system, common in many Native American cultures, a person's hair had a strong use by supernaturals and in black magic, and in the old days it was carefully guarded. When photographs began to be made of the Florida Seminoles in the latter 1800s, it was often difficult to see the men's hairstyle because they wore turbans. They shaved the sides of their heads, left a fringe around the face, and left a scalp lock down the crown of their head, which terminated in two braided ques, seen illustrated in MacCauley's report on The Seminole Indians of Florida and shown by Coffee Gopher in a photograph taken about 100 years ago. After 1915, some Seminole men discontinued cutting their hair in the traditional style according to information given to anthropologist William C. Sturtevant by Josie Billie (Panther clan) in the 1950's. Josie Billie had related that: " . . he and a friend were the first in their group to cut their hair after the whiteman's style. They went to Fort Myers and watched a barber cutting hair, then bought razors and scissors, cut each other's hair, and went to the busk (Green Corn Dance) that way. Lots of people did not like it and laughed at them, but since then practically every man changed to this style." This was the `bowl' cut. The hair was trimmed on the sides and off the neck - cut as if a bowl was inverted on the head. Other men, especially those of the older generation or more traditional, kept to an abbreviated old-style cut, but they began to let it grow out. Most appeared to have trimmed the sides, rather than shaved them, so the traditional hairstyle was almost unrecognizable. By 1910, the tightly twisted hair bun had become a softer affair, secured on the top of their heads with a hairnet, and fastened in place with large celluloid (early plastic) hairpins. The buns became larger as a result. By the 1920s the evolution of the women's hairstyle was underway. They combed their hair towards their foreheads, placed a small roll of cloth behind their hair, then flipped their hair back over the roll, securing it with a hairnet or pinning it down.

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The hairpins also became more ornamental. For a short time in the latter 1920s, they went to the trouble of making elaborate, beaded hairnets. But, early in the 1930's the style changed. A fitted crown of cloth-covered cardboard or other flat material replaced the cloth roll, giving their hair a definitely pronounced shape. Then, in the 1940s, hair fashion reigned supreme with women appearing to `out do' one another with extravagant hair board shapes. By the 1940s and 1950s, with many Seminole children attending school, young women had begun letting their hair hang loose for the first time, a real break from tradition. Pony tails, short cuts and perms were the rule in the 1950s and 1960s, in contrast to the middle-aged women who continued to wear the large hair boards, which had been stylish in their own youth. The 1960s saw some women reverting back to a severe, tightly coiled knot, positioned not on top, but on their forehead. Over the years, some Seminole men have worn an aspect of the 19th century hairstyle. Elderly Seminole women have tended to keep to the older hairstyle of preference, but with their generations' passing, the traditional hairstyles - once such an important part of a woman's daily dress - will be a thing of the past. Fortunately though, they will not be forgotten and will play an active role in `dressing up' for traditional clothing contests and reenactments.

See photographs 3,5,6,7,8 for different hairstyles.

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Clans Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

Each Seminole Indian born of a Seminole mother is a member of her "Clan" - a traditional extended family unit. Husbands traditionally went to live in the wife's clan camp. Each clan is characterized by a non-human entity with which is shares many traits, such as strength, courage, or endurance. There are eight Seminole clans - Panther, Bear, Deer, Wind, Bigtown, Bird, Snake, and Otter. Clan members are not supposed to marry within their clan. Children inherit the clan of the mother. One must be at least 1/4 Seminole in order to qualify as a tribal member. When the last female in a clan passes on, the clan is considered extinct. Several historical clans, including Alligator, are now extinct. The Panther clan is the largest clan in today's Seminole Tribe of Florida.

See The Seminole, pages 17-18; Seminole Indians, pages 10-11; and Legends of the Seminoles.

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A Day in the Life of a Seminole Seminole Indians split the duties done in the tribe amongst men and women. Different tasks completed within the tribe included making baskets, hunting, and taking care of the children and even training them for the lives they would lead once they reached adulthood.

Seminole men Seminole men had certain responsibilities that the entire tribe depended on. Some of these responsibilities include building the chickees that the tribe and families would live in and then hunting for food in the local surroundings. Some of the things the Seminoles would hunt include raccoons, deer, rabbits, alligators, snakes, and turtles. Seminole men were also the “warriors� of the tribe and would be the ones who would go to war if the tribe were to be attacked for any reason. Seminole boys had similar and yet different responsibilities as well. When a Seminole boy became a man, he would take a new name and that would signify his privilege to be allowed to attend council fires with the other men and tribal elders within the tribe. A Seminole boy becomes an adult at the age of fifteen (15). Seminole boys were also responsible for learning to hunt with bows and arrows and they were taught to hunt and fish from their fathers and their uncles.

Seminole women Seminole women had certain responsibilities within the tribe as well. Primarily, the Seminole women were caretakers of their home, specifically taking care of their children and if they had daughters, they were responsible for educating their daughters on the tasks the mother did. Aside from child rearing, Seminole women worked to prepare each meal and tended to the farm, helping out the men around the farm. Another task the Seminole women undertook was making the clothing and materials that the family could use and sell, such as baskets and blankets. Seminole women also practice the art of patchwork, for which the Seminole have become quite famous. Seminole girls were responsible for learning from their mothers and their grandmothers how to take care of their own family and to be able to provide for their own family. Young girls also started wearing necklaces of large beads, and every year they would received a new necklace, until they reached adulthood. Commonalities: Both men and women participated in tribal dances—but each one performed a different dance. Men danced the Feather Dance and women danced the Ribbon dance. Both boys and girls are educated on their cultural history, learning the Seminole language, dances, and songs.

Info from The Seminole pages 22-26, Seminole Indians pages 9-11, 15, 23, 28

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Seminole Clothing: Colorful Patchwork Courtesy the Seminole Tribune. By David M. Blackard and Patsy West For many decades, visitors to South Florida have been struck by the novel and colorful dress of the Seminole Indians. Bands of intricate designs adorn most garments. Patchwork clothing, considered by many to be the Seminole's traditional dress, is really quite modern, flowering around 1920. The Seminoles are composed of various culturally related tribes which began to migrate into North Florida sometime before 1750. These migrations were the result of the European political situation in Colonial North America. Consequently, the tribes which were to become the Seminoles had already replaced most of their native clothing for clothing they made from European trade goods, often borrowing European patterns as well. From studying early paintings made of Seminoles and from examining the few items of dress which have survived this era, we find that Seminole clothing of the early 19th century was similar to that of other Southeastern tribes. It also appears that Seminole clothing patterns from this period continued to be in vogue until the early years of this century. A Woman's Garments The woman's garment consisted of a very full, floor-length skirt, gathered at the waist with an adorned area and ruffle at knee length. Her long sleeved blouse has an attached cape, trimmed also with a ruffle, which came only to the shoulders. The blouse was very short, barely covering the breasts and leaving a few inches of midriff exposed between the bottom of the blouse and the top of the skirt. Old photographs usually show Seminole women with their arms crossed in front of this gap, doubtless to conform to the photographer’s sense of decency. To complete the woman's outfit, she wore as many strings of glass necklace beads as she could afford. The amount of beads worn by the women was a constant source of amazement to non-Indian observers and gave rise to a popular fable which has been retold in poetry and stories. As the story goes, a Seminole baby gets the first strand of beads at birth and additional strands every year thereafter. At middle-age the sequence is reversed, until she finally goes to her grave with the first string of beads given to her at birth. The implication of this fable is that the wearing of beads is, in general, ritualistic. It was not. The general sequence is accurate, however. The Seminole female wears beads at a very early age and added to these from time to time until a large quantity had been amassed. As the women got older, they wore fewer beads - as vanity gave way to comfort and not to prescribed ritual. The vogue of necklace beads is still present among traditionally-minded women today, although the excess of earlier times has greatly diminished. The Well-Dressed Seminole Man The Seminole man of this period wore a simple full cut shirt. A decorative area usually adorned the front placket. On his head, he wore a turban made from plaid wool shawls. These two garments, with the common addition of a (leather, woven yarn, or beaded) belt, completed the essentials of male attire. During visits to town or in cold weather, additional items were worn. A colorful coat called a "long shirt" in the Seminole language, was embellished with ruffles. Vintage photographs attest to the popularity of this garment. It appears that every adult male would have owned one; yet, in past decades, the term "medicine man's coat" has been applied to these decorative shirts. Certainly no special rank or stature was originally applied to the wearer of these once common garments. All of the garments previously mentioned were made predominantly of cotton material obtained from trading posts. Calicos were most common, but stripes, solids and plaids were also used. AppliquÊ work was a decorative technique used on garments of this period. It was sewn on garments by hand and is structurally very different from the machine-sewn patchwork invented in the 20th century. Because of the time involved in its manufacture, appliquÊ work was used sparingly. A Sewing Machine In Every Chickee As early as 1880, the hand operated sewing machine made its appearance in Seminole camps. It would, in time, transform the appearance of Seminole clothing. By 1892, it was noted by an Everglades explorer that there were sewing machines in all the Seminole camps that he visited in Southeast Florida.

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The sewing machine had little initial impact on clothing styles. Around 1900, this began to change. The man's basic shirt began to incorporate a cloth waist band as a "built in" belt. This belted shirt began to be tucked into trousers, later becoming the popular "Seminole jacket." The short ruffle on the woman's cape gradually increased in length. By 1920, it completely covered the blouse and extended nearly to the wrists. Capes of this length have continued to be a part of traditional Seminole attire though they are made now of sheer, near-transparent fabrics. Clothing made just prior to 1920 has a further characteristic: Seminole seamstresses began to sew stripes of contrasting color into the garment. By 1920, both men's and women's clothing was patterned with horizontal stripes from top to bottom. Patchwork Shortly before 1920, a new decorative technique was developed by Seminole women - the now famous patchwork. Early designs were blocks or bars of alternating color or often a sawtooth design. These bands of designs were sewn directly into the body of the garment, forming an integral part of it. Patchwork was rapidly adopted as a way to further embellish the already colorful clothing. As time went on, the designs became more and more intricate as the seamstresses became more adroit at their new skill. Often, the designs used on women's skirts today are extremely complicated. When patchwork was examined, people often exclaim over the complexity and ask, "Do the Seminole women sew each little piece together?" There's no denying that a great deal of time is required to make a patchwork garment. However, the making of patchwork is a systematic process which allows the work to proceed much faster than might be assumed. The invention and utilization of patchwork took place at approximately the same time that many Seminoles began finding employment in tourist attractions. At these attractions, Seminole women enjoyed freedom from some of their daily tasks which were routine in their Everglades camps. They were also encouraged to be actively involved in making arts and crafts items for the tourists to see and purchase. This created a commercial market for patchwork items. Today, Seminole women have been making their unique patchwork for over sixty years. Several generations of mothers have passed this treasured technique to their daughters. During http://www.semtribe.com/Culture/SeminoleClothing.aspx this time, patchwork has been an important means of income, as well as a source of Tribal and creative pride. Patchwork is becoming less important as a means of income for the younger generation, but patchwork as a source of cultural pride and artistic achievement will continue for many years to come.

See The Seminole, pages 24-26; Seminole Indians, pages 14-15; Art of the Florida Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, pages 83-120, and photographs 4, 5, 6, 8, and 11.

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Beads Courtesy the Seminole Tribune. Reflections #145 By Patsy West

The amount of beads worn by Seminole women was a phenomenon to all who saw them. Imagine the amount of stamina it took to conduct daily tasks, which were a lot more vigorous than sitting in front of a TV, while wearing 12 pounds or so of beads! Following the Third Seminole War, as trade again resumed in the small trading posts on the rivers such as the Caloosahatchee, the Miami and New River, beads were one of the first things that the Seminole women purchased, after groceries. Recently, I discussed Aklophi (O-ce-lo-pee) and the prized string of beads that she recalled buying as a young girl when she visited Miami with her family just after the war in the 1860’s. She wore them the rest of her long life. The necklace beads were glass, and about the size of a pea. Light blue, dark blue, and red appear to have been the most favorite colors. The beads were made in Italy and the country once known as Czechoslovakia where they were shipped to bead distributors in the northeastern United States. New York City continues to have a “bead District” which some ladies from the Reservation visited last year! Beads were an important part of a Seminole woman’s daily routine. Upon waking, a woman would take the graduated bunches of beads from the basket to which she had stored them the night before. Meticulously, she would gather them around her neck, tying each bunch together with a string. Soon, they would be mounded from shoulders to neck. Picking guavas, chasing after her hogs, cooking over the fire, soon it was evening. At night the process was reversed. With scissors, she would clip the strings holding the bunches, beginning at the neck and lay them neatly in the basket. After a day in the southern Florida humidity, her neck would be puckery like hands left too long in water. Like Aklophi’s beads, a Seminole woman’s beads were bought any time (not one strand for every year of her life like some insipid poem written by a non-Indian woman years ago states!) that she had extra money, perhaps from the sale of her hogs or from her manufacture of sacks of coontie starch. Seminole Women had their own income and were independent in their wealth long before nonIndian women were allowed to manage their own affairs. But beads were also an important courting gift. When a man courted a woman, or brought her engagement presents, he might bring silver combs, a mirror, and almost always, necklace beads. Beads were also a hazard. One account in the 1930s discussed a tragedy that occurred on Barron’s River. A canoe with two women in it capsized and both were drowned. A newspaper article attributed the deaths to not being able to swim and the weight from the beads that they wore, which dragged them down. By the 1950s, some women who had worn such heavy weights of beads all of their lives were diagnosed with severe neck and shoulder problems. However, they did not want to give up their beads. Some put up with the pain, for the sake of fashion.

See Art of the Florida Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, pages 132-151 and photographs 5, 6, 8, and 12.

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Green Corn Dance Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

Few non-Indians have witnessed a Green Corn Dance, a special spiritual event held at undisclosed South Florida locations each spring. Most Native Americans have a similar event within their cultures, stemming from traditional expressions of gratitude to the Creator for providing food. At the Green Corn Dance, Seminoles participate in purification and manhood ceremonies. Tribal disputes are also settled during this time. Men and women separate into different "camps" according to their clans. In earlier times, the Green Corn Dance marked an important occasion when Seminoles from different camps and areas would get together. The gathering will include hours and hours of "stomp dancing," the methodical, weaving, single file style of dancing traditional to Seminole Indians. Following behind a chanting medicine man or "leader," a string of male dancers will "answer" each exhortation, while women dancers quietly shuffle with them, shakers tied to their legs. Several troupes of Seminole Stomp Dancers occasionally appear at public events, demonstrating the "fire ant," "crow," "catfish" and other Seminole social stomp dances.

See The Seminole, pages 27-29; Seminole Indians, pages 22-23; and Art of the Florida Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, pages 259-265.

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Legends Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

Late at night around the campfires, Seminole children safely tucked into mosquito nets, used to listen to the elders retelling the old stories. These priceless legends of mischievous Rabbit, the Corn Lady, the Deer Girl, and all the creatures of the Florida Everglades impart valuable lessons about living in harmony with nature and about why the world is the way it is. Many of these stories, which tell about the way of life and beliefs of the Seminoles of Florida, have been collected and told on a riveting CD called Seminole Fire by Chief Jim Billie. Legends of the Seminoles When the Creator, the Grandfather of all things, created the earth, there were many things he wanted to put there. Birds, animals, reptiles, insects, and many different living things. The Creator did have certain favorite animals. He liked the Panther, Coo-wah-chobee - crawls on four legs, close to the ground. The Panther would sit beside the Creator and He would pet the Panther, over and over, across its long, soft, furry back. The Creator made sure that certain animals and plants possessed unique healing powers. When the Creator touches certain things longer than normal, His powers automatically go into what He touches. He told Panther, "When it's complete, I would like for you to be the first to walk on the earth. You are majestic and beautiful. You have patience and strength. There is something special about you. You are the perfect one to walk the earth first." Creator went to work making all sorts of animals and birds. Animals on all fours, animals with hooves, animals with paws, birds with claws, insects, reptiles - why, there was nothing the Creator left out. When the earth was ready, Creator put all the animals in a large shell. He set it along the backbone of the earth the real high mountains. "When the timing is right," He told the animals, "the shell will open and you will all crawl out. Someone or something will crack the shell and you must all take your respective places on the face the earth." The Creator then sealed up the shell and left, hoping the Panther would be first to come out. Time went along, and nothing happened. Alongside the shell stood a great tree. As time passed, the tree grew so large that its roots started encircling the shell. Eventually a root cracked the shell. The Panther was patient, which the Creator liked. But, at this particular time, Panther was too patient. The Wind started circling around the crack in the shell, round and round the inside, so vigorously that the crack was made larger. The Wind, however, remembered that the Creator wished for the Panther to be on earth first. "We will fulfill the Creator's wishes," said the Wind, reaching down to help the Panther take its place on earth. The Wind was everywhere. The Wind was the air we breathe. After Wind helped the Panther out first, the Panther thanked Wind for the honor. Next to crawl out was the Bird. The Bird had picked and picked around the hole, and, when the time was right, stepped outside the shell. Bird took flight immediately. After that, other animals emerged in different sequences, Bear, Deer, Snake, Frog, and Otter. There were thousands of others; so many that no one besides the Creator could even begin to count them all. All went out to seek their proper places on earth. Meanwhile, as Bird was flying around looking for a place to live on earth, the Creator was watching. He watched each animal and did not intervene, but left the animals on their own. The Creator often allows things to happen along their own sequences. Sometimes a thing must happen on its own merits. When the Creator saw that all was done, He decided to name the animals and put them into Clans. For being such a good companion, the Creator rewarded the Panther with special qualities: "Your Clan 19 2006 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


will have the knowledge for making laws and for making the medicine which heals," Creator told Panther. "You, the Panther, will be in possession of all knowledge of different things. The Panther will have the power to heal different ailments and to enhance mental powers." Creator believed the actions of the Wind were very honorable and noble, so He told the Wind: "You will serve all living things so they may breathe. Without the wind - or air - all will die." The Bird, for being able to take flight, will be ruler of the earth, said the Creator: "The Bird will make sure that all things are put in their proper places on earth." So this is how the beginning was made. Some call it the Creation. Though there were many, many animals put on this earth by the Creator, all came to know their proper places on earth. Today, among the Seminoles and other Indian people, there are ceremonies on the occasion of the greening of the earth. At these ceremonies, you can see the Panther, with brother Wind, mixing the medicines for all people to use. If you enter the festival grounds and don't know your place, you seek out the head of the Bird Clan - usually a man ranked high within the Clan - and ask where to make your camp. He will ask you "What is your Clan?" If you say "Panther," he will give you a direction and instruct you to seek out the head of the Panther Clan and he will tell you exactly where to sleep. Stories such as the Creation and many other legends do have important meanings to us. Sometimes, however, interpreting them may confuse us. Seminole, Miccosukees, Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, and many other tribes tell tales of Creation. These stories may or from Clan to Clan. For good reason - they all live in different locations on the earth and that has much to do with the way the stories are told.

See Seminole Indians, pages 18-21 and Legends of the Seminoles for more information.

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Seminole and Miccosukee Language The Seminoles have two languages still in use today, neither of which is traditionally written. Creek and Miccosukee are related but not mutually intelligible. Both languages contain sentence structures and sounds that do not exist in English and are difficult to pronounce using the English language. With some words the two languages seem to mirror each other; and sometimes the two languages are incomparable. For example, the English word bread would be pronounced "tak-laeek-i" in the Seminole/Creek dialect and "pa-les-tee" in Miccosukee. "Dog" is "ef-fa" in Seminole/Creek, "ee-fe" in Miccosukee. "Cow" is "wa-ka" in Seminole/Creek "waa-ke" in Miccosukee. Many Seminoles are fluent in both languages; some only speak one or the other. The names of many Florida cities, counties, places, rivers and lakes are taken from Seminole and Miccosukee words. Apalachicola………………………………………….place of the ruling people Chattahoochee………………………………………marked stones Hialeah………………………………………………..prairie Immokalee……………………………………………may camp Miami………………………………………………….that place Ocala………………………………………………….spring Palatka………………………………………………..ferry crossing YeeHaw………………………………………………wolf Pahokee………………………………………………grassy water Apopka………………………………………………. potato eating place Okeechobee………………………………………….big water Homosassa…………………………………………..pepper place Thonotosassa………………………………………..flint place

Seminole and Miccosukee Words Miccosukee halpate eefe waake nak-ne tayke yaate ee-te yo-ga-hé hoshkotoone oke palashte

Seminole/Creek allapattah i-fa wa-ka hvn-vn-wa hok-ti i-sti tot-ka o-ki-ha o-i-wa tak-la-eek-I

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English alligator dog cow man woman people fire mosquito water bread


Miccosukee ee-cho ya-laahe o-pa hen-le sho-ke laa-le yok-che

English deer orange owl squirrel pig fish turtle

Miccosukee chen-te ke-hay-ke coo-wah-chobee wannke-cha-be ha-fot-fooche cha-cee kowechobe

English snake hawk big cat dragon fly duck pumpkin panther

Seminole Words Creek (Seminole) hok-ti-s is-tvd-shi i-ka hish-I os-ki i-chvk-wa hol-wat-a-di hi-do-di so-co-si o-ko-fa-da

English girl child head tobacco rain mouth (his) bad ice hog blouse

Creek (Seminole) a-pak-si a-chu-li mvn-i-ti Tallahassee Homosassa Yalaha Micco Che-hun-tamo Sho-naa-bish

English tomorrow old young Old Town Pepper Place Orange Chief How are you? Thank you

Creek (Seminole) Counting Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Hum-kin Ho-ko-lin Too-chin Ostin Chaw-kee-bin A-pa-kin Ko-la-pa-kin Chin-a-pa-kin Os-ta-pa-kin

10 11 12 13 14 20 40 50

Pa-lin Pa-lin-hum-kin Pa-lin-hum-kin-ho-ko-lin Pa-lin-hum-kin-too-chin Pa-lin-hum-kin-os-tin Pa-lin-ho-ko-lin Pa-lin-os-tin Pa-lin-chaw-kee-lin

Miccosukee Numbers 1 2 3 4 5

taamea toklan tocheenan sheetaaken chahkeepan

6 7 8 9 10

eepaaken kolapaaken toshnapaaken oshtapaaken pokoolen

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Patchwork Bookmark You can make a Seminole patchwork bookmark. Stuff to make your bookmark: 3 sheets of bright colored construction paper A piece of cardboard or manila folder cut about 2 inches by 8 inches (This will be the backing of the bookmark) Glue, Pencil, Ruler, Scissors Follow these instructions: 1. Cut the construction paper into strips of about 1 ½ inches wide and 11 to 12 inches long. Glue three strips of colored paper together. Overlap each piece about ½ inch.

2. Cut strips into 1-inch wide strips.

3. At an angle, glue all the small strips onto the cardboard until it is covered.

4. Trim off all colored edges so they are even with the cardboard.

5. Your patchwork bookmark is now done.

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Create-a-Chickee House A chickee is a kind of house used by the Seminoles of Florida. Native American tribes depended on river life, so their homes were often constructed on or very near to swampy land. As protection against rising water levels, the chickee was built on poles with the floor platform above ground level. The roof was often of palm fronds and the homes had no side walls. For this craft you will need: 1, 8-inch by 12-inch piece of brown tag board OR cardboard 1, 6-inch by 8-inch piece of brown tag board OR cardboard 48 pieces of 1-inch by 2-inch green construction paper 8 drinking straws glue tape scissors hole punch Directions: 1. Use the hole punch to punch holes in the corners of the 6-inch by 8-inch piece of tag board. Then punch holes mid-way between each corner. You should have a total of 8 holes. 2. Cut six straws to the length of 5 1/2 inches. Make a mark at 1 1/2 inches from one end of all six straws. 3. Insert cut straws through the side holes of tag board to the mark. Secure it in place underneath with tape. Insert the two remaining long straws in the two end holes opposite each other and secure with tape. These long straws help create a "peak" in the roof. Pinch the top of the long straws closed. 4. Fold remaining tag board rectangle in half lengthwise and glue to straws to form roof. 5. Make slashes in each of the construction paper rectangles to simulate palm fronds. Attach to roof like you would shingles. You should have eight each row with three overlapping rows per side of the roof. -Crafting information courtesy of the website http://www.easyfunschool.com/NASpecialHomes.html

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Easy adaptation for the Chickee Home If students wish to create their own chickee that they can take home and share with their own families, there is an easy way to modify the above craft in favor of a less expensive, smaller craft. For the adaptive craft you will need: 14 popsicle/craft sticks (per chickee) Brown construction paper Green construction paper Wood or Elmers glue Ruler Scissors Hot glue gun (optional; with supervision use only) Green markers (optional) Directions: 1. Have the students glue together 8 popsicle/craft sticks side by side, making it look like a raft or a fence. Then have the students trace the outline of the 8 popsicle sticks onto a piece of brown construction paper. Have the students cut out the paper outline and then have them glue it to the craft sticks. This will offer more support of the sticks to stay together. This will be the platform of the chickee. 2. This same idea will be use to create the roof as was used to create the platform. Have the students line up the popsicle sticks as they did with the roof, side by side, but do not let them glue them together. Very carefully, have the students trace the outline of the 8 popsicle/craft sticks and then have them cut out the outline and instead of using all 8 sticks for one side of the roof, use only TWO, so the roof won’t be as heavy (or heavier) than the platform. Have the students glue the two sticks on the outer edge of the construction paper. Have them repeat this step twice, so they have two roof pieces. 3. Next, attach the two roof pieces together with the glue with the roof sides slightly slanted, creating a tent. Set aside and let dry 4. After the platform and roofs pieces have dried, take four more popsicle/craft sticks and glue them, vertically, to each of the corners on the platform. Set aside and let the posts for the chickee dry. 5. An optional activity at this point is to have the students use a marker and draw on the roof and add leaf details, otherwise, once the posts have dried to the platform, have the students attach the roof to the posts on the platform. They will have to press and hold while the Elmer’s glue dries. (An option at this point is to use the hot glue gun and have an adult supervisor glue the roof to the platform for the students, wait a couple of minutes before having the student touch the chickee.) 6. For the posts that hold the chickee up off the ground, have the students take a popsicle stick and carefully cut it in half, using a ruler to make sure that each leg are equal in length. Then have the students carefully glue the legs to the platform in each of the four corners. 7. Once the legs for the chickee have dried, the craft is complete! Tell students to be carefully with chickee as the glue has not fully set. 25 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Glue here

Sticks


Seminole Warrior Crescent Gorget Make a Seminole Warrior Crescent Gorget. Instead of using silver coins like 19th century Seminole craftsmen did, you can make a gorget using construction paper, string or yarn, cardboard, and glue.

Materials Grey construction paper Glue

Piece of string or yarn 32 inches long Scissors Cardboard Hole punch

Instructions 1. On a sheet of grey construction paper, draw a crescent shape on the construction paper about 6 inches in length as shown.

2. Cut out the crescent shape. 3. Glue the crescent shape on the cardboard and trim off the edges. 4. Punch one hole in each tip of the crescent shape.

5. Tie the end of the string to each hole. The gorget is now ready to wear.

If you like, you can draw designs on the gorget. You can even add one or tow more to your gorget necklace like some Seminole warriors or chief did in the past.

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6 inches


Seminole Necklace Make a Seminole necklace out of macaroni noodles. Materials: macaroni noodles (large or small) food coloring strainer water cookie sheet bowls colored noodles yarn tape scissors

Instructions: First Step: Place noodles in strainer. Slightly dampen the noodles. Do not get noodles too wet, they will become soggy if they get too much water. Pour noodles into bowl. Drop food coloring into bowl and mix noodles. Add as many food coloring drops you'd like until the noodles are the desired color. Next, lay the noodles out on a cookie sheet. Let them dry. Second Step: To make necklaces, cut a piece of yarn long enough, so that after putting the noodles on you can still tie a big bow in the back. The necklaces should hang down to about mid-chest or a little lower. The yarn for the bracelets should be cut long enough to wrap around your wrist with a big bow at the end. After you have cut your yarn, place a piece of tape around one end of the yarn to make a type of needle point to go through the noodle holes. On the other end of the yarn, tie a bow and place tape around the center of it. This is so the noodles don't go on one end and off the other. Now that you have your yarn ready, just start threading noodles onto it. When you have finished, remove the tape and the bow. Be sure to hold onto both sides tightly. Tie a big double bow in the back, and you now have a Seminole necklace.

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Seminole Clan Activity 1. Break the class into groups of clans. 2. Have each clan elect a chief. 3. Have the clans select a symbol to represent their clans. Then on a piece of paper, draw their symbol. (Tell your students that they can not use the clan symbols to the Seminoles.) 4. Have each clan come up with a story or legend about how their clan was formed. 5. Once groups are done, have the chief of each clan explain the legend of their clan to the class and why they selected their symbol.

Other Activities Powwow Shakers Teachers can have students fill soda cans with dry beans, rice, pebbles, and decorate with cloth scraps, feathers, yarn, and others items left to the child’s imagination. Materials needed: empty soda cans; scissors; glue; dry beans; rice or pebbles; cloth scraps; yarn; feathers; and other materials to decorate the shaker. Seminole Patchwork Doll See Patchwork: Seminole and Miccosukee Art and Activities for more activities such as making a Seminole patchwork doll from construction paper and tissue.

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Recipes Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

Sofkee, a traditional Seminole dish Ingredients 2 quarts of water 1 teaspoon baking soda 2 cups of white rice 3 tablespoons cornstarch Instructions Bring 2 quarts of water to a boil; add 2 cups rice and 3 tablespoons cornstarch. Stirring occasionally to prevent rice from sticking to the bottom. Boil for approximately 12 minutes. Then lower heat and add 1 teaspoon of baking soda, stirring frequently until rice is tender. Set and cool until tolerable temperature.

Seminole Pumpkin bread Ingredients Light Oil Self Rising Flour 1 Can of Plain Pumpkin (not spicy) Sugar Instructions Heat a deep, large frying pan with light oil about 1/4" from the top. In a large bowl, pour in self-rising flour - half the bowl,1 can pumpkin plain (not spicy), mix with sugar according to how sweet you like your bread, then pour the pumpkin into the flour. Knead the pumpkin with the flour until workable with the hands without sticking. Then pull apart balls and pat flat patties the size of your palms. When the oil is very hot, drop a tiny piece of the batter and if it cooks instantly you are ready to put a patty or patties into the skillet. Fry until it turns golden brown and turn over. Put onto plate with several napkins to catch the excess oil; Use a tooth pick to check the doneness, if gooey, put back and fry a little more.

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✓ Reading Check Points Directions: These can be printed out and distributed to the students for completion either in groups or individually or even as a class discussion if reading the book aloud. Contents: 1. Reading Check Point for The Seminole 2. Reading Check Point for Native Americans: Seminole Indians 3. Reading Check Point for Legends of the Seminoles

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Reading Check Point for The Seminole

Directions: Either have students work in groups and turn in there answer/discussion worksheet, or read the book aloud with the class and then talk about the questions being asked. This is a great way to work on a student’s listening skills as well as working in teams to complete an assignment. 1. What was one of the states the Creeks migrated from? _____________________ 2. When did the First Seminole War begin? ______________________ 3. If you were a part of the Seminole Indian tribe in the 1830s, how would you have felt if you were told you had to move and would no longer be allowed to live in the home you had grown up in? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Not including the Seminoles, name one of the other four tribes that made up the “Five Civilized Tribes?” _______________________ 5. Osceola was known for being a great “orator”, meaning he was gifted speaker and could speak very well. Is there someone in your life you believe to be a great orator as well? Describe who they are and what makes them a great orator. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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Reading Check Point for The Seminole Answer Key

Directions: Either have students work in groups and turn in there answer/discussion worksheet, or read the book aloud with the class and then talk about the questions being asked. This is a great way to work on a student’s listening skills as well as working in teams to complete an assignment. 1. What was one of the states the Creeks migrated from? Georgia and Alabama 2. When did the First Seminole War begin? 1814 3. If you were a part of the Seminole Indian tribe in the 1830s, how would you have felt if you were told you had to move and would no longer be allowed to live in the home you had grown up in? ___________________Answers will vary____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Not including the Seminoles, name one of the other four tribes that made up the “Five Civilized Tribes?” Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and the Creek 5. Osceola was known for being a great “orator”, meaning he was gifted speaker and could speak very well. Is there someone in your life you believe to be a great orator as well? Describe who they are and what makes them a great orator. ____________________Answers will vary___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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✓ Reading Check Point for Native Americans: Seminole Indians Directions: Working either in groups or individually read the book Native Americans: Seminole Indians and then answer the questions below. 1. What was one reason the Seminoles migrated to Florida? ____________________ 2. The dietary habits of the Seminole included sofkee, coontie, (made from corn and arrow plant) and alligator. Why do you think the Seminoles did not eat what we eat today? Why did they have to hunt for their food? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Name two the eight clans that a Seminole could belong to. _____________________ and ____________________ 4. What is a chickee? What did the Seminole use their chickee(s) for? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. The game of stickball uses rackets with a small cup at the end. What modern day game does stickball look and act like? ______________________ 6. The Seminoles believed that the Master of Breath gave all animals powers. If you could have given any animal a power, what would the animal be, what “power” would you give them and why? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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✓ Reading Check Point for Native Americans: Seminole Indians Answer Key Directions: Working either in groups or individually read the book Native Americans: Seminole Indians and then answer the questions below. 1. What was one reason the Seminoles migrated to Florida? Freedom, good farmland, and animals to hunt 2. The dietary habits of the Seminole included sofkee, coontie, (made from corn and arrow plant) and alligator. Why do you think the Seminoles did not eat what we eat today? Why did they have to hunt for their food? Answers will be varied, but something along the lines of “Seminoles did not eat what we eat today because they did not have stores to shop at and because they could only eat what was available to them. The Seminoles had to hunt for their food because stores and shops did not exist; they only ate what they were able to catch or barter. 3. Name two the eight clans that a Seminole could belong to. Wind, Panther, Deer, Bird, Alligator, Beaver, Snake and Bear 4. What is a chickee? What did the Seminole use their chickee(s) for? A chickee is a house that Seminoles would live in. A chickee is raised above the mud and water to accommodate their swamp-like environment. The Seminoles used their chickees for sleeping in and for storing their belongings. 5. The game of stickball uses rackets with a small cup at the end. What modern day game does stickball look and act like? Lacrosse—but it does have characteristics of football and soccer_ 6. The Seminoles believed that the Master of Breath gave all animals powers. If you could have given any animal a power, what would the animal be, what “power” would you give them and why? Answers will vary—but the importance of this question is to examine how well the student makes an argument and justifies that argument—i.e. I would pick a dog and it would have the power of protection and strength because a guard dog keeps a family safe and some dogs are used in rescue missions. Let the student be creative, but be well justified with their creativity.

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✓ Reading Check Point for Legends of the Seminoles Directions: Read a few selections from the book Legends of the Seminoles and then working either in groups or by yourself, try to create your own “legend” by telling a story on why something is important to learn—such as not eating candy on the ground or talking to strangers. Reflect on some of the legends in the book. Start drafting your legend idea below and then on a separate sheet of paper, write out your creative legend and then share it with the class. Who is the speaker in your story? ______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What are you trying to say? What is the message you are trying to bring up? Is it how to be good? How not to be bad? How to apologize? Why we open doors for people? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ When will this story take place? Yesterday? Tomorrow? A hundred years ago? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Where will the story take place? The Everglades? In Florida? On a lake? In a forest? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ What or Who are some of the other characters in your story? Do they have speaking roles? Are they just background figures? What are they going to say? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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✓ Reading Check Point for Legends of the Seminoles Answer Key Directions: Read a few selections from the book Legends of the Seminoles and then working either in groups or by yourself, try to create your own “legend” by telling a story on why something is important to learn—such as not eating candy on the ground or talking to strangers. Reflect on some of the legends in the book. Start drafting your legend idea below and then on a separate sheet of paper, write out your creative legend and then share it with the class. Teachers, just make sure that the students have answered the big questions of who, what, where, when, etc before they move on to physically write their own legend. Remind them that a story needs a beginning, middle, and an end. Tell them to be creative but to take the assignment seriously—trying to explain why the cow jumps over the moon or why we have two nostrils in our nose instead of three would be too extreme. You might try to suggest some topics pertaining to classroom etiquette or lunchroom manners. Remember, a story has a message, and the students are striving to create a message and then share that message to the class in the form of a story.

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Seminole and Miccosukee Vocabulary Crossword Lesson Teachers: Below is a list a words and definitions pertaining to Seminole or Miccosukee vocabulary, that students will have or will come across as they read some of the books in the trunk. A great way to introduce the vocabulary is to have the students try to complete the crossword without having read any of the books or this activity is a great way to close the unit as a review to challenge them to remember what they have learned and read. Below is the crossword, the clues for the words, and a word bank.

Seminole and Miccosukee Vocabulary Black Seminoles: Runaway slave from the 18th and 19th centuries who joined and live with the Seminoles Chickee: The Seminole house, an open sided hut made with a wood frame and a palmetto thatch roof Everglades: A large marshy area covering parts of south Florida Green Corn Dance: A traditional annual event of special ceremonies celebrating the first sweet corn crop Miccosukees: The smallest tribe of Native Americans living in Florida on two reservations Osceola: A Seminole war leader during the Second (2nd) Seminole War Patchwork: The method of sewing together small pieces of fabric into a pattern to make clothing Seminoles: The largest of the two Native American tribes living in Florida on six reservations Reservation: An area of land set aside for occupation by Native Americans Legend: A traditional story popularly regarded as historical but which is not authenticated

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WORD BANK: Black Seminoles Miccosukees Seminoles Legend

Chickee Osceola Reservation

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Everglades Patchwork Green Corn Dance


Places to visit to learn about the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes of Florida:

Seminole Tribe of Florida Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum Big Cypress Seminole Reservation From Naples or Ft. Lauderdale take I-75 to EXIT 49, then 17 miles north on County Road 833 to West Boundary Road. Web site: http://www.seminoletribe.com/museum Phone: (863) 902-1113

Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida Miccosukee Indian Village/Information Center Mile Marker 70, U.S. 41 Tamiami Trail, Miami, FL 33144 Phone: 305-223-8380 Other places in south Florida to visit and learn about the Seminoles and Miccosukees:

Collier County Museum 3301 Tamiami Trail East Naples, FL 34112 Phone: 239-774-8476 The South Florida Museum 201 10th Street West Bradenton, Florida 34205 Phone: 941-746-4131 Historical Museum of Southern Florida 101 West Flagler Street Miami, Florida 33130 Phone: 305-375-1492

St. Lucie County Historical Museum 414 Seaway Drive Fort Pierce, FL 34950 Phone: 772-462-1795

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Seminole Timeline Courtesy the Seminole Tribune.

1510 - First recorded European contact with Seminole ancestors, Spanish slave ship reaches South Florida peninsula. 1513 - Spaniards claim Eastern U.S., call it La Florida. 1539-43 - Hernando DeSoto explores Southeast - first white contact for many Tribes. 1565 - Spaniards establish St. Augustine - first permanent European city in North America. 1670 - English settle Charles Towne, begin coastal skirmishes with Spanish. 1690s - French settle Louisiana. 1704-1708 - English destroy Spanish Florida missions, kill or enslave thousands of Natives. 1740 - Alachua, earliest recorded Seminole town, established in North Florida. 1763 - Spain cedes Florida to England. 1776 - Revolutionary War creates U.S.A. circa 1804 - Osceola (William Powell) born near Tuskeegee, Alabama. 1813-14 - Creek War in Alabama forces Native survivors to flee southward where they join Florida natives. General Andrew Jackson rises to power. 1816 - First Seminole War begins after Jackson crosses into northern Florida. 1823 - Treaty of Moultrie Creek. Seminoles give up 28 million acres, retain 4 million. 1832 - Treaty of Payne’s Landing ratified by Congress. Promised 5 million acres in southwest Florida to Seminoles. Dec. 28,1835 - Osceola slays U.S. Indian Agent. Major Francis Dade, 105 soldiers killed en route to Fort King (Ocala) by another group of Seminoles. Second Seminole War (1835-1842) begins. 1837 - Osceola captured under flag of truce, removed to South Carolina prison where he dies in January 1838. 1837 - Christmas Day. Battle of Okeechobee, 1,000 federal troops under General Zachary Taylor, against fewer than 500 Seminoles led by Alligator, Abiaka, Jumper and others. Twenty-six of thirty-seven dead are U.S. soldiers, most of them Missouri Volunteers. 1838 - Trail of Tears forces 16,000 Cherokees from their eastern homeland to Oklahoma. At least 2,000 die along the way. About 3,000 Seminoles, including Wild Cat (Coacoochee) and Alligator are shipped to Oklahoma. 40 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


1855 - Billy Bowlegs leads attack on U.S. Army surveyors. Third Seminole War begins 1858 - Third Seminole War officially ends with capture of Bowlegs. A few hundred Seminoles, including Abiaka, remain in Big Cypress and other isolated parts of Florida. U.S. government abandons efforts to remove all Seminoles. 1890s - Seminoles and whites begin to trade peacefully on the borders of the Everglades. 1926 - Hurricane devastates Everglades wilderness, many Seminoles homeless. 1928 - Tamiami Trail opens, fueling the boom in South Florida tourism. Seminoles begin to sell crafts and wrestle alligators. Killer hurricane strikes Lake Okeechobee region, whips up a tidal wave that drowns 3,000 in worst natural disaster before Hurricane Andrew. 1934 - Indian Reorganization Act, promotes Native self-determination. Five Civilized Tribes, a book written by Grant Foreman, arbitrarily designates Seminoles, along with Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee and Creek, civilized. 1936 - Herd of half-starved cattle arrive in Brighton from Apache. Seminole cattle industry begins. 1939 - First formal education at Brighton Indian Day School, opened by teachers William and Edith Boehmer. 1946 - Creation of United States Indian Claims Commission. 1947 - Seminole Indians file petition with Claims Commission for a settlement to cover lost lands. Florida State University students choose "Seminoles" as official school mascot. 1953 - U.S. House Resolution proposes termination of Seminole Tribe. 1957 - Seminole Constitution ratified by vote of 241-5. Tribe gains federal status as the Seminole Tribe of Florida. First Tribal Council is elected; Billy Osceola, first elected chairman; the first president of the Seminole Tribe, Frank Billie, resigns and is succeeded by Bill Osceola. First annual budget: $12,000. 1962 - Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida gain federal recognition. 1963 - First Seminole newspaper, Smoke Signals published. Renamed Alligator Times in 1973, Seminole Tribune in 1982. 1967 -- Betty Mae Jumper, first woman elected to chair any tribe in North America. 1968 - Oath of Unity signed by Choctaw, Cherokee, Seminole. and Miccosukee Tribes, leading to formation of United South and Eastern Tribes (USET). 1971 - Howard Tommie elected Chairman. Eight-year term sees advent of tax-free cigarette sales, which boost Tribal budget to $4.5 million annually by 1976. 41 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


1979 - James E. Billie elected Tribal Chairman. Bingo becomes biggest source of Tribal income. Immokalee and Tampa reservations established. 1981 - U.S. Supreme Court affirms Tribe’s right to high-stakes bingo at Hollywood in Seminole Tribe of Florida vs. Butterworth. Tampa bingo hall opens. 1988 - National Indian Gaming Regulatory Act passed, limits placed on Class III games, including electronic video machines. Limited casinos set up at Hollywood, Immokalee, and Tampa reservations. 1990 - The Seminole Tribune receives Robert F. Kennedy Journalism award from Ethel Kennedy. 1992 - Seminoles in Florida and Oklahoma collect land claims against the U.S. for unconscionable acts during the Seminole Wars. With interest, Seminole Tribe of Florida nets almost $10 million. Independent Seminoles refuse to settle; funds are held in trust. 1995 - Tribe moves headquarters to new four-story building in Hollywood. 1996 - Fort Pierce reservation established. 1996 - Cattleman Fred Smith, Tribal president longer than anyone, dies in Brighton. James Billie elected to record fifth term as Chairman, Tribal budget exceeds $100 million. 1997- Sovereignty of Tribe challenged by National Indian Gaming Commission, U.S. Attorney. Seminoles assume full management of gaming activities on Hollywood reservation. Ah-Tah-ThiKi Museum opens.

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Types of Items in the Seminole and Miccosukee Trunk

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Patchwork Skirt Patchwork Doll

Patchwork Shirt

Patchwork Sample

Sweetgrass Basket

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Bead Necklaces

Mini Wood Corn Grinder

Sofkee Spoon

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Florida Alligator Head

Florida Alligator foot

Carved Wood Alligator

Turtle Shell 46 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Books and Video

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Appendix

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Photographs

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Photograph 01. Two Seminoles near the Jupiter Lighthouse ca. 1880. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 02. A group of Seminoles traveling in a canoe, ca. late 19 th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 03. Seminole man, ca. late 19th – early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 04. Billy Bowlegs III. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County 69 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Photograph 05. Seminole woman cooking in a camp or village, ca. early 20 th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 06. A Seminole couple, ca. early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County 71 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Photograph 07. Two Seminole children. Note the girl’s hairstyle, ca. early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County. 72 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Photograph 08. A Seminole family, ca. early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 09. A Seminole village in the Everglades, ca. early 20 th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 10. A Seminole village in the Everglades, ca. early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 11. A Seminole woman cooking. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Photograph 12. A Seminole woman. Note all the bead necklaces she is wearing, ca. early 20th century. Courtesy Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Osceola. Drawing by Theodore Morris, Florida Lost Tribes. 78 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County


Seminole warrior. Drawing by Theodore Morris, Florida Lost Tribes. 79 2011 Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Profile for Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Seminoles and Miccosukees: Educator's Guide  

Seminoles and Miccosukees: Educator's Guide