Teacher guide This program is sponsored by The Mary Alice Fortin Foundation, INC.
R I C H A R D A N D PAT
JOHNSON PA L M B E A C H C O U N T Y
HISTORY MUS EUM
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 2 Background Information ........................................................................................................................ 3 Lesson Plans ................................................................................................................................................. 6 Lesson One: Florida Secedes ............................................................................................................ 6 Lesson Two: Secession Over Slavery ............................................................................................ 9 Lesson Three: Civil War Battles in Florida ............................................................................. 12 Lesson Four: Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Role as a Supplier to the Confederacy ....................................... 15 Lesson Five: Life of the Civil War Soldier ................................................................................ 17 Lesson Six: Family Life During the Civil War: Women and Children ........................... 22 Lesson Seven: The Defeat and Reconstruction of Florida ................................................ 24 Activities ..................................................................................................................................................... 26 Make Hardtack .................................................................................................................................... 26 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 Lesson 1: Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 28 Lesson 2 Handouts ............................................................................................................................ 34 Lesson 3: Handout ............................................................................................................................. 35 Lesson 4: Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 39 Lesson 5: Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 50 Lesson 6: Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 56 Lesson 7: Handouts ........................................................................................................................... 73
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Introduction This trunk contains various items that teachers can use when discussing the American Civil War. The trunk is designed mainly for fourth grade but teachers can easily adapt it for other grades. The information provided in the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s guide aligns with Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sunshine and State Standards. The Florida in the Civil War Trunk is a great tool for use when teaching students about the function of Florida and south Florida during the Civil War. All items in the trunk can be handled by the students with adult supervision. Though artifacts are reproductions, they must be handled with care. Information about each reproduction artifact is provided with a picture for the teacher. This history trunk has three major objectives: To demonstrate the role
To integrate local, state,
To help teachers use
of Florida in the Civil
and national history by
local primary source
War and to show the
emphasizing how they
materials in the
impact of that war on the
were (and are)
State of Florida and its
In the guide is a list of all items in the trunk. Please check the list to be sure you have everything. Before returning the trunk, please complete the Evaluation form. It will assist us in maintaining and improving the trunk for future use.
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Background Information Statehood One of the many reasons it took Florida 23 years to become a state was because Florida always had been a slaveholding colony and territory. The Spanish first used Native Americans as slaves. Later, Africans were brought to Florida as slaves. This slowed Florida in becoming the 27th state. The Second Seminole War ended in 1842. The end of that war brought more settlers to Florida. The territory’s population had grown to more than 57,000 people, which was still not high enough to become a state. So Florida still had to remain a territory a while longer. Florida was a slave-holding territory, and the U.S. Congress would not allow Florida to become a state until a nonslave state was ready to enter the Union, too. At that time, Congress would admit states only in twos: one slave state and one non-slave state. This kept a balance in Congress between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups. On March 3, 1845, Florida was finally admitted to the Union as a slave state. Iowa was given its statehood as a non-slave state.
The Civil War and Reconstruction By 1850 the population of Florida had grown to 87,445 people. This included 39,000 slaves and 1,000 free blacks. Slavery was an issue that dominated many people’s lives. In 1860 there was a debate between the Southern states and the Northern states over states’ rights and slavery. The Southern states made their money from cash crops. They depended on slaves to work their fields and to support their economy. The North earned its money from factories that made goods. Northerners did not depend on slaves for their economy. The presidential election of 1860 resulted in Abraham Lincoln becoming president. The Southern states became worried because they thought the new government would end slavery. Differences between the North and South had been taking place for decades. Governmental compromises kept the nation united, but the 1860 election caused problems. The Southern slave state of South Carolina was angered by the outcome of the election. As a result, it seceded from the Union in December 1860. When a state secedes, it separates from the other states under the same government. The Southern states that seceded from the United States formed their own nation, which they called the Confederate States of America. Less than a month after South Carolina left the Union, Florida became the third state to secede. Florida joined the Confederate States of America on January 10, 1861. Other Southern states continued to secede. Eventually, the anger between the two groups led to war. The American Civil War began in April 1861. South Carolina troops fired on Federal forces at Fort Sumter, which was in the harbor at Charleston. The two sides in the war went by several names. The North was called the Union or the Yankees. The South was called the Confederacy or the Rebels. An estimated 16,000 Floridians fought in the war. Most were in the Confederacy, but about 2,000 joined the Union army. Some Floridians did not want to fight for either side, so they remained neutral. Those Floridians hid out in the woods and swamps to avoid being drafted. When a person is drafted, he is sent to fight in the war whether he wants to or not. Almost 5,000 Florida soldiers were killed during the war. Most of the men in Florida were off fighting in the war. The women, children, and slaves kept the farms and plantations working. They raised crops and cattle to send to the Confederate troops. They also sent pork, fish, fruit, and salt. Salt was very important because it was used to keep meat from poiling. Florida was the largest producer of salt. Salt factories separated salt from seawater. Cattle also became an important product in Florida. Confederate agents ordered thousands of cattle for Southern troops. For part of the year, it was possible to drive cattle north into Georgia and the Carolinas. However, during the fall and winter seasons, there was no grass for the cattle to eat in those states. Therefore, cattle were taken to Florida, where the climate was mild and grass grew all year long. As a result, thousands of cattle were raised and then slaughtered in 3 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Florida. The meat was then salted so it would not spoil. Florida was very important for the food supply of the Confederate Army. Most of the war was fought in states north of Florida. However, a few battles occurred in the state. Those battles included Santa Rosa Island, 1861; Olustee, 1864; Marianna, 1864; Gainesville, 1864; and Natural Bridge, 1865. Tallahassee was the only Confederate capital east of the Mississippi River that was not captured by Union forces. In 1863 Abraham Lincoln gave a speech in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This speech is known as the Gettysburg Address. Lincoln stressed that all men are created equal. His words encouraged the North to fight harder to save the Union. On April 9, 1865, the Civil War ended in Virginia. Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. The end of the Civil War was a victory for all those who opposed slavery. The slaves were set free. At the end of the Civil War, the former Confederate States had to rebuild. That period is called Reconstruction. It was a time of uncertainty for everyone. The Southern states had to make money without the free labor of slaves. The newly freed slaves found themselves without places to live or work. Many of them returned to the southern plantations to work for pay. However, many plantation owners did not have the money to pay the former slaves. The solution was sharecropping, which allowed former slaves to pay the plantation owner rent. Rent was paid by a share, or part of the crops grown on that land, instead of with money. This system helped both the plantation owners and the freed slaves, but sharecroppers barely made enough to live on. Southern states were required to rewrite their state constitutions. Their new plans for government could not include slavery. The Southern states also had to pass the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This amendment granted citizenship to all people born in the United States. The Southern states had to follow these rules in order to be readmitted to the United States. Florida met these requirements in 1868.
The Jupiter Lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower with a bright light at the top, at either a prominent land feature or a dangerous place for navigation. It can warn ships of dangerous reefs or perilous coasts and guide ships into a safe harbor or back out to sea. Many lighthouses were built along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida. The oldest structure in Palm Beach County is Jupiter Lighthouse. It stands at the entrance to Jupiter Inlet, where the Loxahatchee River, Indian River and Atlantic Ocean meet. Loxahatchee is a Seminole word meaning “turtle river.” In 1853 the U.S. Congress approved funds to build a lighthouse at Jupiter to act as a navigational aid to help prevent shipwrecks. The lighthouse is 156 feet high; the tower is 108 feet high on a 48-foot-ancient high dune, and has 105 steps. The tower is eight bricks thick, or 31.5 inches, at the base; and tapers to three bricks thick, or 18 inches, at the top. The beam of light is 146 feet (focal beam) and can be seen for 18 to 24 miles. Today, the lighthouse remains a navigational aid to mariners and is open to the public for tours.
Confederate Blockade Runners After the beginning of the Civil War, General Winfield Scott recommended to President Abraham Lincoln that Union naval vessels blockade southern ports so that that the Confederacy could not ship out nor receive any goods that would support their war efforts. The plan also called for the Union to take control of the Mississippi River. When the operation, called the Anaconda Plan, was launched, Union naval vessels patrolled along Florida’s Atlantic and Gulf coasts. These ships also kept an eye on Jupiter Inlet and lighthouse searching for Confederate blockade runners entering or leaving through the inlet. Confederate ships would sail to Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Cuba carrying products such as cotton, molasses, whiskey, and other goods in exchange for war materials and and soap, coffee, dry goods, salt, flour, and alcohol. When ships returned they would sail through the Jupiter inlet and up the Indian River to various locations. 4 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
The Union Naval Squadron responsible for patrolling Florida waters was the East Gulf Blockading Squadron headquartered at Key West. Union gunboats would pursue the Confederate ships and try to capture or destroy them. Some of the gunboats that operated off the inlet were USS Sagamore, Roebuck, Honeysuckle, and Beauregard. Sometimes the Union won and sometimes the blockade runners got though to their destination. Union naval forces also carried out raids against Confederate salt works along Floridaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coastline. Escaped slaves familiar with the area would sometimes assist Union forces; some of the African Americans joined the Union Navy, serving on blockading ships.
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Lesson Plans Lesson One: Florida Secedes 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels
Standards SS.4.A.1.2 Synthesize information related to Florida history through print and electronic media. SS.4.A.5.1 Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War. LAFS.4.SL.1.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-onone, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. LAFS.4.W.1.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
Objectives Students will learn about Florida’s secession from the Union, reasons for doing so, and what they did to establish themselves as independent of the Unions and part of the Confederacy.
Materials needed Teacher: Pre-Test, Lesson power-point (images located in appendix), Image #1 Students: Pencil/pen, extra paper
Pretest: Before beginning the warm-up and lesson, have students take the pre-test. After grading, start the warm up. Warm Up Teacher prompt: Ask, “What might some of the reasons be that Florida wanted to leave the Union?” “What could have some of the problems been in leaving the Union?” “What would you do if your state was separating itself from the country?” Review vocabulary words with students before going over the main lesson
Vocabulary Secession: The act of withdrawing from an alliance, federation, or association, as from a political union, or religious organization, etc. Governor-Elect: The person elected as governor but not yet inaugurated.
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Main Lesson On November 6, 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president. This angered many southern states, including Florida where he was not even on the ballot. On November 26, Governor Madison Starke-Perry (see slide #1 on PowerPoint) asked the Florida state congress to choose delegates to form a special committee to consider secession. He also requested that $100,000 be used to organize a state militia. On January 3, 1861, the special committee responsible for voting on secession met. The big question was to secede immediately or to wait for other states to secede first and to join them. Both Governor Madison Starke-Perry and Governor Elect John Milton wanted immediate secession. Teacher prompt: If you were on the committee which solution would you choose and why? The committee decided for immediate secession and presented the proposal to the Florida State Congress on January 9. The official vote was 62-7 in favor, making Florida the 3rd state to secede from the Union. On January 10, Florida issued the Ordnance of secession, which is similar to our Declaration of Independence, which officially separated Florida from the United States of America. Following the secession, all American flags were taken down and replaced with the new Florida flag (see slide #2 on PowerPoint). Florida did not join the Confederate States of America until its formation in February 4, 1861, where it was a founding member. Teacher prompt: Would you have become your own country or joined the Confederacy? Florida began the process of asserting its independence by recalling its Senators from the United States Senate. On January 21. Senators Stephen Mallory and David Yulee resigned their seats in the United States Senate (see slides #3 and #4 on PowerPoint). Senator Mallory eventually became the Secretary of the Navy for the Confederacy. Following their secession, Florida began seizing Union forts throughout the state. Many forts had so few soldiers that they had no choice but to surrender. Places such as Fort Marion in St. Augustine had only one Union soldier present when Florida’s militia arrived. Forts like this gave the state military valuable artillery and small arms that they would not have had access to otherwise. A few forts did fight and remained under the control of the Union for the duration of the war making eventual blockade of Florida possible. Fort Taylor and Fort Jefferson (see slide #5 and #6 on PowerPoint) in the Florida Keys called for reinforcements shortly after the secession. These forts gave the Union control of the Seas in the South. Fort Pickens, located off of Pensacola, remained under Union control and was fought over for the duration of the Civil War. Reflection and Assessment Review how Florida decided to secede from the Union. Show image #1 from the trunk. At this point have students split up into small groups, or “committees.” Have them discuss in their groups whether or not they would like to break apart from the class and form a new one. Have each group then write their own, “Ordinance of Secession” containing the reasons they would want 7 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
to leave and the ways they would change those by forming a new class. After each group is finished have them propose their ordinance of secession to the class, or the â&#x20AC;&#x153;congress,â&#x20AC;? and have the class vote on whose is best.
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Lesson Two: Secession Over Slavery 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels Standards
SS.4.A.1.1 Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. SS.4.A.5.1 Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War. LAFS.4.W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. LAFS.4.W.2.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Objectives Students will be able to explain the life of slavery in the Southern states, especially in Florida, and what the life of a slave consisted of from day to day.
Materials Needed Teacher: Artifacts from trunk, poster, Books Students: Paper; pen/pencil, Journal handout
Warm Up As a warm up, have students list ideas that they have about slavery prior to the lesson. Teacher prompt: Ask, “Do any of you have gardens at home? Have you ever worked in it or outside before?” Say, “Now imagine that you have to do that all day, everyday, from the time you were small until you were to old to walk. On top of it, you didn’t get paid, you weren’t allowed to take a vacation, or have the same rights as other people. This was life for slaves in the South before the Civil War.” Vocabulary Plantation: a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical area, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, or sugarcane is grown. Abolition: the act of ending, or doing away with. Main lesson Slavery was the greatest issue behind the secession of southern states and the subsequent Civil War. Tensions surrounding the issue of slavery heightened in 1850 with the establishment of the Compromise of 1850. The Compromise of 1850 admitted California as a free state and allowed new territories to decide for themselves whether they would be free or slave states. Both the North and South thought that their stance on slavery was the correct one. They both had religious, legal, and social reasons. In the North the anti-slavery activists were known as abolitionists. Abolitionists disliked slavery because they believed that all men were created equal before God, a belief also found in the Declaration of Independence. The other reasons had to do 9 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
with the fact that the institution of slavery centered on absolute control of the slaves by their masters. The only incentive for the slaved to work was fear that they would be beat or torn apart from their families. Slave owners in the South believed that slavery should be kept because they thought that African Americans were biologically inferior to Europeans, this also meant that the masters could better care for the slaves than the slaves could for themselves. Historically, they said, slavery had been practiced through all of history, including in the Bible, where Abraham owned slaves. They also thought that the abolition of slavery would lead to the economic collapse of the South. Teacher prompt: Ask, “Have you ever thought that you were correct about something and argued with someone? Both sides were unwilling to make any sort of real lasting compromise so the Southern states chose to separate from the Union rather than give up slavery. Of the nearly 4 million slaves in the South, only roughly 62,000 lived in Florida, that’s roughly 1.5% of the slaves. This may seem like a small issue to separate over, but the number of people living in Florida totaled 140,422; meaning that 44% of the population was made up of slaves. A bulk of the economy was based upon the plantations in central Florida. Plantations in the South were built upon the use of large numbers of slaves to work growing cash crops, such as tobacco and cotton. Most slaves worked on large plantations, though some were employed on small farms or in more urban settings. Slave life varied greatly from place to place, but for the most part revolved around work. On plantations, cotton and tobacco being the two largest, slaves worked to plant, grow, harvest the crops, and then prepare them for sale. By the time that the South seceded, the importation of slaves and the trade of slaves had been made illegal. Without being able to buy more slaves, masters typically treated the slaves they had a little better. Teacher prompt: Ask, “Did treating slaves a little better make it, “okay” to own slaves? Punishment during the time was given for offences like attempting to escape or disobedience. There was a variety of ways that slaves were punished, ranging from imprisonment to whippings and beatings, in some cases so severe that the slave would be killed. Many states had laws prohibiting the killing of slaves, unless the slave was disobedient or threatening. Beatings and abuse often took place on large plantations where power as in the hands of overseers; in cases with small slave-owning families, such atrocities were far less common since the slaves often had a closer relationship with their owners. Slaves were prohibited from receiving education, though quite a few learned from their owners’ children or from free laborers that worked beside them. They were also not allowed to congregate, unless for church functions. This lead to the church becoming a central part of the African American community to this day. Reflection and Assessment After the lesson, have students return to the list made at the beginning and examine it to find any differences in what they thought prior to learning about what happened in slave life. They should discuss with the teacher and other students what things they were correct about and things that they learned or were misinformed about before. Next, have students complete the enclosed Journal handout. The students are to make a journal entry recalling their day in the life of an abolitionist, slave, or slave owner. Students should clearly 10 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
and coherently present the ideas they have of what a person during the time period would have. The journal entry should be organized and clearly convey the student’s idea. Lesson Extension Using the material in the trunk, have students review life as a slave in a confederate state. Review images and ask the questions provided. Listen to the cd, “Songs of Slavery and Freedom”. Discuss the lyrics of the songs and what emotions and thoughts these songs provoke. Read through the Dred Scott Decision, 1857 – Review the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the U.S. Constitution (page 23) and identify the states that are labeled union states/Confederate states.
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Lesson Three: Civil War Battles in Florida 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels
Standards SS.4.A.5.1 Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War.
Objectives Students will be able to describe the battles fought in Florida and how Floridians involved themselves with the Confederate states.
Materials Needed Teacher: Battles in Florida Map, Computer, projector for video, Post test answer key Students: “The War in Florida” Handout, paper, pencil, Post test
Warm Up As a warm up, have students list out reasons for going to war. Teacher prompt: Ask, “What do you know about the Civil War? Why do you think Florida fought against the Union?” Review vocabulary and go over the southern states that seceded from the United States of America. Vocabulary Call to Arms: a command to report for active military duty. Federal: Loyal to the government of the United States. Also known as Union, Yankee, or Northern. Campaign: A series of military operations that form a distinct phase of the War (such as the Shenandoah Valley Campaign). Militia: Troops, like the National Guard, who are only called out to defend the land in an emergency. Conscript: A draftee. The military draft became a necessity on both sides of the conflict. While many conscripts were excellent soldiers, veterans often considered draftees to be inferior, unreliable soldiers. Towns often posted pleas for volunteers in order to "avoid the draft". South: Also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States of America, or (by Northerners) the Rebel states, the South incorporated the states that seceded from the United States of America to form their own nation. Southern states were: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Main Lesson Pass out student handout “The War in Florida” read through the cause of the battles and the war in Florida. Discuss with students the battles that occurred in Florida and using the Battles in Florida Map, show where battles occurred. 12 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Teacher prompt: Show video on the Battle of Olustee, found at the following link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YP0jD-nk2EQ Reading prompt (taken from the Florida Social Studies Teacher Edition pg.205) Florida was the site of several Civil War Battles. Most of Florida’s early battles were fought on the Gulf Coast. With so many Floridians fighting in other states, most of Florida’s ports quickly feel to the Union. Teacher prompt: Using a map of Florida, have students find the Gulf Coast of Florida In February 1864, the United States sent troops into Florida to establish a pro-Union government. After landing at Jacksonville, some Union troops marched westward into the state to cut off Confederate supply lines and to recruit African American soldiers. This set the stage for Florida’s largest Civil War Battle. On February 20, 1864, Confederate and Union forces met at Olustee Station. There were many deaths and injuries on both sides, but the Confederates won the Battle of Olustee. The central part of Florida remained in Confederate control. Then in March 1865, nearly a thousand Union soldiers landed near the St. Marks lighthouse. Fearing that Tallahassee was in danger, Confederate troops quickly moved into the area. On the morning of March 6, 1865, sots rang out as the Union troops reached the Natural Bridge Crossing at the St. Marks River. For several hours, a small band of Confederate troops, helped by young boys and old men, fought the Battle of Natural Bridge. Soon, the Union troops retreated to the coast. This Confederate victory kept Union forces away from Tallahassee. By the war’s end, Tallahassee and Austin, Texas, were the only Confederate state capitols that had not fallen to Union forces. Reflection and Assessment Review the battles fought in Florida by the Union and Confederate troops. Teacher prompt: Ask, “What was the effect of the Battle of Olustee?” Have students, list in order of events of the Battle of Natural Bridge. Teacher prompt: Ask, “Why do you think both young boys and old men helped fight at the Battle of Natural Bridge?” To conclude the lesson, give students a post-test on what they learned in the lesson. Lesson Extension (LA.A.2.2.5, LA.A.2.2.8) Musical Learning: Have students find several songs that were popular among Union and/or Confederate soldiers and present them to the class. 13 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Civil War music can be found at, www.civilwar.org/education/history/on-thehomefront/culture/music/music
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Lesson Four: Florida’s Role as a Supplier to the Confederacy 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels Standards
Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War. SS.4.A.1.1 Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history.
Objectives Students will learn how Florida contributed to the Confederacy cause with various supplies for the troops.
Materials needed Teacher: Food and cooking/eating artifacts from trunk, a computer, and projector, Image #__ , and PowerPoint (images in appendix) Students: paper, pencil, “Florida’s Role in the Civil War: Supplier of the Confederacy” handout, “Florida Provides Salt” handout, and “What Did Civil War Soldiers Eat?” handout and Florida Map
Warm Up Teacher prompt: Say, “Today we are going to talk about the supplies soldiers used and received from their allies during the Civil War.” Have students partner up and write a list of supplies soldiers would need during war. Have the class compare their lists before the lesson. Main Lesson Read through each handout and go over materials in the trunk of the supplies soldiers would need to survive during war. Teacher prompt: Show image of Anaconda plan and ask, “Why do you think Union forces wanted to cut off Confederate supplies?” Go over the history of the Anaconda Plan and discuss how this would affect soldiers in the confederate army. Background on Anaconda Plan At the beginning of the Civil War, General Winfield Scott recommended to President Abraham Lincoln that Union naval vessels blockade southern ports along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts in 15 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
order to cut off all trade to and from the rebellious states. This plan, known as the Anaconda Plan, also called for the Union to take control of the Mississippi River splitting the Confederacy in two. It was an ambitious plan because the Union navy would have to patrol 3,500 miles of Rebel coastline, including the 1,400 miles of Florida’s coast. Confederate ships sailed to Europe, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Cuba carrying products such as cotton, molasses, whiskey, and other goods in exchange for war materials and soap, coffee, dry goods, flour, alcohol, and other luxury goods. When ships returned they sailed through any number of inlets to arrive at their final destinations including the Jupiter and Indian River Inlets. (Show PowerPoint Image #2) The Union Naval Squadron responsible for patrolling Florida waters was the East Gulf Blockading Squadron headquartered at Key West. Union gunboats pursued the Confederate ships to capture or destroy them to hinder the trade. Some of the gunboats that operated off the Jupiter and Indian River Inlets were the U.S.S. Sagamore, Roebuck, Honeysuckle, and Beauregard. Besides hunting for blockade-runners, Union naval forces also carried out raids against Confederate salt works along Florida’s coastline. Escaped slaves familiar with the area would sometimes assist Union forces; some of the African Americans joined the Union navy, serving on blockading ships. Six different US ships operated off of Jupiter during the war. The one that saw the most action was the U.S.S. Sagamore: she was 158 feet long and 28 feet wide, drew 12 feet of water, carried 4 cannons, and had a crew of 85. At 691 tons, the Sagamore was one of the largest blockading ships in Florida waters. (Show PowerPoint Image #3) The Sagamore was a Unadilla class gunboat. This class of vessels was built specifically for blockade duty. Constructed in only 90 days, the shallow-draft, oceangoing vessels were able to operate close to shore. They could not enter most of Florida’s shallow inlets, so they used thirty-foot cutters to patrol inland waters. (Show PowerPoint Image #4) As a patrol vessel, the Sagamore captured Confederate blockade-runners, several between the Indian River Inlet and the Jupiter Inlet. The ship was decommissioned in 1864 and sold the following year. She subsequently became the Japanese merchant ship Kaga no Kami. In 1868-1871, she was a Japanese warship, under the name Yoshun. Reflection and Assessment Review the supplies both Union and Confederate soldiers would need to survive, and how the anaconda plan affected the Confederates. Give students a post-test on what they learned in the lesson.
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Lesson Five: Life of the Civil War Soldier 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels
Standards SS.4.A.4.2 Describe
life in Florida.
Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War.
Objectives Students will develop an understanding of the daily struggles and typical day of the Confederate soldier’s life. Including medical conditions, foods they ate, and survival skills they used. Students will be able to describe life in an army camp during the Civil War.
Materials needed Teacher: book Eyewitness: Civil War, soldier uniforms and items from trunk Students: “American Civil War, Life as a Soldier during the Civil War” hand out, “Confusion on the Battlefront” handout
Warm Up Teacher prompt: Tell students, “Civil War soldiers often lived in harsh conditions.” Ask, “What do you think soldiers did during the day?” Have students partner up. “Discuss with a partner how you would survive if you were left in the woods and were trying to hide from the enemy. List at least 3 things you would do.” Prior to giving students the handouts, review the background information and Dorling Kindersley Eyewitness book about soldiers in the army. Background information Life of the Civil War Soldier in the Army DRILL DRILL DRILL BY SHARON DENMARK, HALLOWED GROUND MAGAZINE, WINTER 2013 ISSUE The three million soldiers who served in the Civil War each represent a unique story waiting to be told. Although no two men had the exact same journey into the army, experience in battle or emotional response to their involvement, similar threads weave their way through a significant number of these narratives. In studying the Civil War’s common soldier — who he was and how the conflict transformed his life — we try to better understand the millions of men who risked their lives in virtual anonymity. What motivated the former innkeeper ordered to charge across open ground in the face of relentless gunfire? How did 17 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
the factory worker who defended his trench line until the bitter end fare when he returned home with no more record of service than his name scrawled in a ledger? When we study the lives of men like these we gain insights into the courage and sacrifice demonstrated by each and every Civil War soldier. Time and again, they were asked to perform tasks that would have been unthinkable in their past lives as farmers, teachers, lawyers, shop owners, carpenters or ironworkers. Although enlistment, medical and other official records can sometimes be spotty, they nonetheless allow us to analyze an astounding array of facts and figures to better comprehend an overwhelmingly destructive war. These dry documents, however, are augmented by a huge amount of correspondence, diaries and memoirs. Statistics can tell us something about the men in the ranks, but, thanks to a relatively literate society and the Victorian penchant for personal writing, we are lucky to have these first-person narratives as a pathway into the lives of individual soldiers. The three million soldiers who served in the Civil War each represent a unique story waiting to be told. Although no two men had the exact same journey into the army, experience in battle or emotional response to their involvement, similar threads weave their way through a significant number of these narratives. Thus, as we examine the life of the common soldier, we do so through lenses of both commonality and individualism. A soldier in the Union army was most likely a slim young man a little over 5’8” tall with brown hair and blue eyes. He was probably a farmer and a Christian. Precise statistical figures are more difficult for Southern enlistees, but most Confederate soldiers looked a great deal like their Federal counterparts — although they were even more likely to be farmers by trade. The war was largely a young man’s fight — Union enlistment records indicate that more than 2 million soldiers were age 21 or under when they joined the cause — and some estimates place only 10 percent of the Federal force over age 30. There were, of course, cases on either extreme. Older soldiers typically filled more specialized roles or were officers; some teenagers lied about their age and saw front line combat, but many others served in other capacities, notably as musicians. Recruitment tactics of the era typically raised companies from a single geographic area, meaning these units (and regiments they were combined into) reflected the demographics of those communities, often with a particular ethnicity or occupation predominating the ranks. Other units, especially those raised in urban areas, were remarkably diverse. Robert Watson, a Floridian originally hailing from the Bahamas who served with the Confederate army and, later, the Confederate navy, made this observation about the men with whom he served: “Truly this is a cosmopolitan company, it is composed of Yankees, Crackers, Conchs, Englishmen, Spaniards, Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Poles, Irishmen, Swedes, Chinese, Portuguese, Brazilians, 1 Rock Scorpion Crusoe; but all are good southern men.” It is the final pronouncement that undoubtedly 18 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
mattered the most to Watson. "All of this practice and repetition helped soldiers to survive on the battlefields." (Library of Congress) Each of these men, no matter his background, had to make a life-altering decision when the country fractured along fault lines that had long been present. In 1860, the United States was still a relatively young country — an evolving experiment in democracy in which both Northern and Southern states sought to protect their own interests. When discussing the motivations of soldiers we must distinguish soldier attitudes from the ideas their leaders espoused. A soldier’s thoughts were his own and did not necessarily belong to Abraham Lincoln or Jefferson Davis: not every Northerner was an abolitionist, nor every Southerner a slave owner. The reasons an individual might enlist were complicated and shifting, ranging from the purely practical to the highly sentimental. Soldiers identified most strongly with their comrades, their states and their communities — with, perhaps, a few country-sized ideals thrown into the mix. Then, of course, there was the draw of war itself as a path to manhood and glory. For others, the promise of a (somewhat) steady paycheck was reason enough to don a uniform. A soldier with the 36th Wisconsin, Guy C. Taylor, upon hearing from his wife that people at home were questioning his motives for enlistment, told her succinctly: “You can gust tell the folks that if they want to know what made me inlist they can find out by writeing to me.” The daily struggles and the mundane details of soldier life allow us to relate to these men across a distance of 150 years. The risk of falling ill was highest for new recruits, with each passing year in service affording growing immunity. In his book, Army Life: A Private’s Reminiscences of the Civil War, Theodore Gerrish recalls a time spent too long in camp and writes, “One of the most disastrous features of the gloomy situation was the terrible sickness of the soldiers…men were unused to the climate, the exposure, and the food, so that the whole experience was in direct contrast to their life at home.” Common viruses and infections included typhoid fever, malaria, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pox (both small and chicken), scarlet fever, measles, mumps and whooping cough. Camp provided a soldier’s first test of survival, especially for men from rural precincts. A Civil War-era encampment was not known for its wide open spaces and fresh air. It took little time for an army to alter a landscape by the sheer mass of its presence. Verdant pastures became a muddy mess in no time under 19 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
the feet of thousands of soldiers and horses. With little understanding of sanitation, camps were notoriously nasty abodes; lice were rampant, and dysentery, often caused by impure drinking water, killed more men than enemy bullets. Once enlisted and encamped, a recruit soon learned that his time was no longer his own. Day and night, he was under orders, a shift that required constant practice and discipline. In the course of this process, men learned the particular brand of patience known to soldiers today as “hurry up and wait.” A Civil War soldier would find that modern axiom very familiar. In his work The 1865 Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers, August V. Kautz writes that a soldier “should learn to wait: a soldier’s life is made up in waiting for the critical moments.” The soldier spent a majority of his time in camp drilling, with the occasional stint at guard duty or a long march. The diaries of Robert Watson document such an existence repeated tens of thousands of times in both North and South: “Drilled in the afternoon….Inspection of arms.…Commenced drilling.…Drill as usual morning and afternoon…. Drilled and…inspected our arms, quarters, &etc….” Theodore Gerrish writes of his first experiences as a soldier: “It was a most ludicrous march. We had never been drilled….An untrained drum corps furnished us with music; each musician kept different time, and each man in the regiment took a different step….We marched, ran, walked, galloped, and stood still, in our vain endeavors to keep step.” All of this practice and repetition helped soldiers to survive on the battlefield when those “critical moments” arrive. And those moments arrived year after year, longer than anyone in 1861 could imagine. Noble ideas and grand visions suffer greatly under the weight of bloody warfare, and yet the fighting men on both sides endured as best they could. The common soldiers of the Civil War shared typical weaknesses of the human condition. They were not without fear, panic and indecision. Still, we cannot help but look at their service with admiration and draw lessons and inspiration from their endurance, sacrifice and ideals. Main lesson Provide students with handouts from appendix. Discuss items soldiers would need to survive at war. Using items in the trunk review the daily life of a confederate soldier. Have small groups or partners draw or make lists of what they would like to do as a job if they were Confederate soldiers, i.e. Doctors, cooks, cleaning weapons, being lookout, hunter for food, etc. Have each group share their answers with the class. Extension Teacher prompt: Say, “A familiar sight in most army camps was the traveling portrait gallery. These “artists” often followed the army, taking thousands of portraits of soldiers. The most 20 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
common type of photography by the end of the Civil War was the ferrotype. Many of the Civil War pictures that have survived are of this type. By the end of the nineteenth century, ferrotype became the favorite process for producing a quick picture.â&#x20AC;? Show students image #3 and do research to learn how ferrotype pictures were made. Assessment: Have students prepare a class presentation about the process. Encourage students to provide illustrations for their presentations. Reflection and Assessment Review the handouts that describe what life is like for Confederate soldiers at war. Give students a post-test on what they learned in the lesson and review the answers
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Lesson Six: Family Life During the Civil War: Women and Children 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels
Standards SS.4.A.4.2 Describe
life in Florida.
Describe Florida's involvement (secession, blockades of ports, the battles of Ft. Pickens, Olustee, Ft. Brooke, Natural Bridge, food supply) in the Civil War. LAFS.4.W.2.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
Objectives Students will be able to discuss the role of women, children and slaves on the farm at home during the Civil War.
Material needed Teacher: Computer, projector, items in the trunk, Images #, Daring Women of the Civil War, Dorling Kindersley’s Civil War
Students will be able to explain Students: “Children’s voices how the home supported the from the Civil War “handout, war effort. “American Civil War: Women” handout, “American Civil War: Children” handout, Primary source letters
Warm Up Pass out the Children’s Voices from the Civil War handout and read one or two excerpts. Teacher prompt: Ask, “Why did those children have those type of experiences?” Main Lesson Using the handouts, American Civil War: Women/ Children, read through the experiences of life on the home front and discuss how life continued and functioned. Watch the video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6Re6ikyjP4 Discuss how women supported the war effort and how this support affected soldiers. Divide the class into small groups and give them each a primary source letter from home. Give each group the page on “Analyzing a Primary Source of the Letter”, go over how historians analyze primary sources and the instructions of the handout. Writing assignment: With a pencil and paper, image you are living during the Civil War. Write a paragraph about what your life is like be sure to include the following information: Age, where you live, what you do for work/fun, and how you feel about the war. Reflection and Assessment Have students read their writing assignment to the class. Review what life would be like for those on the home front and how these experiences affected those at war. 22 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
To conclude, give students a post-test on what they learned in the lesson and review the answers. Lesson Extension Read from Daring Women of the Civil War, have students write a review of the story. Read from Dorling Kindersley’s Civil War (page 21), discuss the role women played at war. In their own words, write a diary entry as a woman working on the frontlines. Research Confederate angels, army volunteers and the several ways women helped support troops at war. Teacher Prompt: Ask, “How did this story make you feel?” “Why did those women have these types of experiences?” “What kind of role did they have in the Civil War?”
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Lesson Seven: The Defeat and Reconstruction of Florida 4th
Grade Level grade, adjustments can be made to make use for multiple grade levels
Standards SS.4.A.5.2 Summarize challenges Floridians faced during Reconstruction. SS.4.A.6.1 Describe the economic development of Florida's major industries.
Objectives Material needed Students will learn how Teacher: computer, projector, Florida slowly began to rebuild Trunk items, Images and join the Union once the war ended. Students: “American Civil War, Civil War Students will learn how Reconstruction”, “FL History Florida reconstructed cities, Reconstruction 1865-1877”, farms, and ports. and “Growth of Florida’s Railroads” handouts Students will learn that while slavery had ended, segregation and new laws created
Vocabulary Reconstruction: A term used to describe the time in American history directly after the Civil War during which the South was “reconstructed” by the North after its loss in the war. Sharecropper: a tenant farmer who gives a part of each crop as rent. Segregation: the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart. Amendment: a change or addition to a legal or statutory document. Carpetbaggers: (in the US) a person from the northern states who went to the South after the Civil War to profit from the Reconstruction. Warm Up Review the vocabulary words with the class. Discuss what the definitions mean to them and if they have ever heard the terms used before in conversations or while reading. Have students look up vocabulary words in the dictionary and write their own definitions. As an extension, have students highlight (underline) vocabulary terms while reading through the lesson. Main Lesson Give students the handouts, read several sections and discuss/question answer period about what it means to reconstruct a whole state/country. Project the Florida map with railroad. Provide students with blank copies of the Florida map. Using the projected map, show the railroads and have students trace the areas on their blank maps where the railroads went. 24 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Project the timeline and review important dates that occurred in Florida during reconstruction periods. Reflection and Assessment Divide the classroom in small groups; provide each group with the post-handout assessment questions. Have students work on assessments and answer the writing prompts. Their answers can be discussed in small groups or with the whole class.
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Activities Make Hardtack
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Lesson 1: Handouts
Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________ 1. The president of the United States during the Civil War A. Jefferson Davis B. Abraham Lincoln C. Robert E. Lee D. John Wilkes Booth 2. The Civil War, or the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Battle Between the Statesâ&#x20AC;? started in ________. A. 1761 B. 1961 C. 1861 D. 2001 3. What did it mean to secede? A. To withdraw; pull away from B. To draw closer to C. To reconstruct D. To rebuild 4. The Northerners mostly opposed slavery. A. True B. False 5. The Southerners mostly opposed slavery. A. True B. False
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Answer Key 1. The president of the United States during the Civil War E. Jefferson Davis F. Abraham Lincoln G. Robert E. Lee H. John Wilkes Booth 2. The Civil War, or the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Battle Between the Statesâ&#x20AC;? started in ________. E. 1761 F. 1961 G. 1861 H. 2001 3. What did it mean to secede? E. To withdraw; pull away from F. To draw closer to G. To reconstruct H. To rebuild 4. The Northerners mostly opposed slavery. C. True D. False
5. The Southerners mostly opposed slavery. C. True D. False
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Lesson 1: PowerPoint Images
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Florida flag, 1861
Senator Stephen Mallory 31 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Senator David Yulee
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Lesson 2 Handouts
Journal Entry Worksheet Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________
Write a journal entry recalling a day in the life of an abolitionist, slave, or slave owner. Use words from the vocabulary to express what your life was like during the Civil War.
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Lesson 3: Handout
The War in Florida INTRODUCTION
In the mid 1800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the Northern and Southern states were developing a very
different way of life and they often disagreed about slavery. Many people in the North believed that slavery should be ended, while many of the Southern states didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want the national government to tell them what to do. They believed that the states had a right to decide for themselves about slavery and taxes.
There were people called abolitionists who worked to get the government to
end slavery. They also worked with the Underground Railroad. It was a system of secret routes to help slaves get to freedom and travel North.
In 1860 when Lincoln became President not everyone was happy. Lincoln
wanted to end slavery. The Southern States were angry. Soon South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. It decided to make its own government and laws. In January of 1861 Florida decided to secede too, and soon more states did the same. The seven states named themselves The Confederate States of America. Those states were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. Later more states joined in.
Finally, the Southern states elected Jefferson Davis as President and made
Montgomery, Alabama the Capital. BATTLES BEGIN
Lincoln was not happy that Davis was elected because he wanted to keep the
Union together. Davis wanted the states to have the freedom to choose their laws. There were many disagreements and soon both sides began to prepare for war.
The first battle took place in Fort Sumter in South Carolina. The Union
soldiers would not leave, so the confederate soldiers attacked the fort. When
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Florida heard of the attack, thousands of men rushed to join the Confederate army. Thousands of men lost their lives in the war that lasted more than four years.
The war moved down to Florida when the Union soldiers tried to stop the
food supply to the soldiers. The first battle was fought in Olustee near Lake City in North Florida. The Confederates won that battle. A year later another large battle was fought, this time near Tallahassee. Fourteen Union war ships came in, and the soldiers began to march inland. The few Confederate soldiers left in north Florida burned the railroad bridge so the Union soldiers couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cross the river. The Union soldiers were defeated in the battle at Natural Bridge.
Tallahassee was the only capital east of the Mississippi that was not captured
during the war. There were other battles fought in the Northern part of Florida. They were in Santa Rosa Island near Pensacola, Mariana, near Alabamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s border, and Gainesville. Though Floridians were happy that they won two big battles they soon realized that that they would not be able to win the war.
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Lesson 3: Post-Test Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________
Answer True or False: _____1. In 1861 only seven states seceded from the union. _____2. The seven states named themselves The Confederate Army. _____3. Montgomery, Alabama became the capital of the confederate states. _____4. The first battle of the Civil War took place in Tallahassee. _____5. Most of the fighting during the Civil War took place in South Florida. _____6. The Southern States elected a President name Jefferson Davis _____7. Lincoln and Davis were friends and tried to keep the Union together. _____8. The first battle took place in Mongomery, Alabama. _____9. Florida won two major battles, one in Olustee and Natural Bridge. _____10. Florida was a state that could easily be attacked by sea. Extra Credit: Can you name the Confederate states?
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Lesson 3: Post-Test Answer Key
__T__1. In 1861 only seven states seceded from the union. ___F__2. The seven states named themselves The Confederate Army. ___T__3. Montgomery, Alabama became the capital of the confederate states. ___F__4. The first battle of the Civil War took place in Tallahassee. __F___5. Most of the fighting during the Civil War took place in South Florida. __T___6. The Southern States elected a President name Jefferson Davis __F___7. Lincoln and Davis were friends and tried to keep the Union together. ___F__8. The first battle took place in Mongomery, Alabama. ___T__9. Florida won two major battles, one in Olustee and Natural Bridge. ___T__10. Florida was a state that could easily be attacked by sea. Extra Credit: Can you name the Confederate states?
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Lesson 4: Handouts
Florida's Role in the Civil War: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Supplier of the Confederacy" Student Handout Background Information Settlers began to move to Florida once it became a United States territory. By the mid 1800s, it was a rural territory with large farms and plantations. In 1845 when Florida became a state, the population was approximately 140,000. Of these, 63,000 were African Americans, most of whom were slaves. The state's economy was based on cattle and crops. Slavery was practiced in Florida but not all African Americans were slaves. Many bought their freedom or were freed by their owners. Some were Creoles, free descendants of Spanish citizens of African ancestry. When Florida became a state, it was considered a slave state. This was an important factor in Florida's part in the Civil War. Many states in the north did not believe in the practice of owning slaves and began to abolish slavery. By 1860, slavery was only found in the southern states and territories. The Presidential election that year was based on two candidates who debated about slavery. Many southern states were upset because Abraham Lincoln discussed stopping the spread of slavery. He did not want slavery in the west and hoped that it would eventually die out in the south. He was elected President on November 6, 1860. South Carolina decided to secede from the Union on December 20th. That meant that it would not recognize the United States as its government and instead would make its own state laws. On January 10, 1861, Florida seceded as well. It became a separate state from the Union. By February, Florida and six other southern states had formed a new government, the Confederate States of America. Four other states joined a month later. The Confederate states were South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, and Arkansas. Jefferson Davis, from Mississippi, was elected President and 39 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Montgomery, Alabama was selected as the capital, though it was soon moved to Richmond, Virginia. Union troops refused to leave Fort Pickens when Florida seceded from the Union. The Civil War Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The two major issues of the Civil War were slavery and state's rights. Many families lost all or most of the men of the family. Sometimes brother fought against brother or cousin against cousin as families differed in their view on slavery and loyalty to the United States. Not all southerners supported slavery, so they fought for the North, and not all northerners supported the war against the South. The Border States between the North and the South had the most difficulties during the war. The majority of the battles were fought in other states, but two major battles and several smaller skirmishes took place in Florida. The Union sent ships to blockade or occupy Florida ports: St. Augustine, Jacksonville, Key West and Pensacola. This blockade left Floridians unable to participate in their normal sea trade. However, the Union navy was unable to guard Florida's entire long coastline. Smaller ships would slip through the blockade at night and continue to supply goods to the Confederate troops. People in Florida who worked on farms and plantations raised crops and cattle to send to the troops. They sent beef, pork, fish, fruit and salt. Florida was a large producer of salt. Salt work plants would separate salt from the seawater. Two of the biggest salt works (factories) were at Apalachee Bay and St. Andrews. Salt was an important resource to the army. Because refrigeration had not been introduced yet, it was used to keep the meat from spoiling. An estimated 16,000 Floridians fought in the war. Most were in the Confederacy, but approximately 2,000 joined the Union army. Some Floridians didn't want to fight for either side, so they hid out in the woods and swamps to avoid being drafted. The Floridian soldiers were organized into eleven regiments of infantry, two cavalry, and numerous small units. Almost 5,000 Floridian soldiers were killed during the war. With most of the Floridian men fighting, it was up to the women, children, and slaves to keep the farms working. Money was very tight and most families, even in the cities, had to grow their own food and make their own clothes. Clothing was collected to send to the troops and iron was collected to make swords, guns, and other arms. By 1863, the Confederate Army was in trouble. The bigger Union Army was decreasing the Confederate's numbers. President Lincoln signed 40 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves in the southern states. This angered the Confederacy and the war continued. Many freed slaves joined the Union Army and fought to defeat the south and free their brothers and sisters who were still in bondage. Battles were fought in the North and the South, but most took place in the South. There were two large battles that that took place in Florida and both were won by Confederate troops. On February 20, 1864, the largest Civil War battle in Florida occurred near Lake City. It was called the Battle of Olustee. It was a victory for the Confederacy, but did not help win the war. The war continued, but with the Confederacy becoming weaker and weaker and most of the southern capitals captured, supply lines to the confederate troops were cut off. On April 4, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. The war was officially over. Some battles continued for a short period of time, but, once word reached troops who were still fighting, the southern generals surrendered. Florida officially surrendered April 26, 1865. Union troops took over Tallahassee and immediately raised the United States flag. Once again, the states were united. Civil War Battles and Troops in Florida Fort Pickens Early 1861: Some speculate that the Civil War could have begun in Florida instead of Fort Sumter, South Carolina. In early January of 1861 when Florida joined the other Confederate states and seceded from the Union, there were Union (U.S. Army) soldiers stationed at Fort Pickens on Santa Rosa Island, right off Pensacola. Confederate soldiers demanded that the Union soldiers surrender now that Florida was a Confederate state. The Union soldiers refused to leave the fort. The Union quickly moved in more troops to reinforce the number of soldiers in the fort of Pensacola. A battle began and a standoff lasted over several months. The Confederate army landed 1,000 soldiers on the island on October 9th to raid a small Union army camp outside of the fort. More Union soldiers were sent from the fort to reinforce their camp and they were able to drive the Confederates off the island. Battles continued throughout the early part of 1862. Finally, by May, the Confederate troops withdrew from the area and the yearlong standoff was over. The Union occupied Pensacola for the rest of the war. The Tampa Incident June 30, 1862: A small battle took place in the Tampa Bay area over a two-day period early in the Civil War. A Union general sailed into Tampa Bay. Soldiers disembarked, went into town, and demanded Tampa's surrender to the Union. A small Confederate militia group 41 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
stationed in Tampa called the Osceola Rangers refused to surrender. The Union gunboat then began to open fire. The Union General warned the soldiers that they would fire again beginning at 6 pm in order to get civilians out of the way. The Osceola Rangers remained steadfast in their refusal to surrender. Gunfire began again and shots rang out most of the next day into Tampa. Eventually, in the late afternoon of July 1st, the Union soldiers stopped firing and the gunboat withdrew. Luckily, there were no casualties in this battle. The Battle of Olustee February 20, 1864: One year after the Emancipation Proclamation was signed, the largest Civil War battle in Florida occurred near Lake City. The Battle of Olustee lasted for six hours in the woods close to Olustee station. The Union army launched an expedition inward from the coastline in order to cut off supply lines to the Confederates. They also were searching for African Americans to join their side. Brigadier General Truman Seymour marched 5,000 men toward Lake City. Confederate General Joseph Finegan set up 5,200 men at Olustee to block their advance. Three regiments of African American troops fought in this battle on the Union's side and many of these men were lost. The Confederate troops defeated the Union Army and sent them back toward Jacksonville. The Battle of Olustee has been described as one of the bloodiest battles in the Civil War. Almost 3,000 men out of the 11,000 who fought were killed. The Battle of Natural Bridge March 4, 1865: Another large battle in Florida took place near Tallahassee. Major General John Newton landed U.S. Navy ships at the mouth of St. Marks River. They had trouble getting up the river, so the soldiers marched northeast to Tallahassee. A small Confederate militia group burned a bridge in their path so that the Union soldiers could not cross the river. The Union soldiers pressed on and the two groups 42 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
met at the Natural Bridge, a place where the river goes underground for a short distance. The Confederates were able to protect the natural crossing and push the Union soldiers back. The Union soldiers quickly retreated to their ships. Once again, the Confederates were victorious in Florida. Because of this victory, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi River that was not seized during the war. The "Cow Cavalry" Small militia groups were formed to protect the inner part of Florida. These units were mostly made up of ranchers and cowhands. They were called the "Cow Cavalry." Small numbers of Union soldiers would hold cavalry raids in south Florida to capture cattle. The Union Navy would also conduct raids along the coast trying to destroy the salt work plants. It was the mission of the cow cavalry to protect the cattle ranches, salt works, and small towns of south Florida. Numerous small battles occurred as the groups met, but most battles were never documented. Florida's greatest contribution to the war, besides the 5,000 Floridian men who fought, was food supplies. Florida sent beef, pork, fish, and fruit to the Confederate troops. A vital part of the Confederate strategy was to keep Florida's inland roads and rivers protected so that the supplies could get safely northward. The soldiers of the "Cow Calvary" helped keep the Confederate army supplied with food from Florida.
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FLORIDA PROVIDES SALT One of the valuable products Florida produced was salt for the Soldiers. Large salt making operations popped up around Florida’s coast. Workers would boil seawater in large metal vessels. Once the liquid evaporated away the salt would be left behind. Workers would package it and haul it away. What do you think they did with this salt? Florida had a big supply of beef from the ranchers. They would use the salt to preserve meat and fish. They also cured leather with it. Salt was vital to the war effort and the soldiers for survival. The “Cow Cavalry” were groups of militia formed to protect the inner part of Florida. They protected the ranchers and salt operations because the Union would conduct raids to try to destroy the factories and raid cattle ranches to steal cattle. Florida’s greatest contribution was sending 5,000 Floridian men to fight, but Florida also provided fish, pork, fruit, beef and other supplies to the Confederate army. Answer the following questions: 1. If you were a rancher, how would you protect your cattle? 2. Why do you think salt was used so much? 3. What job would you have wanted to do, make salt, be a rancher, or be part of the “Cow Cavalry”? 4. What did the soldiers use to cook their meals?
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Lesson 4: PowerPoint Images
View of Ship Island 46 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Destruction of two rebel schooners
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Lesson 4: Post-Test Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________
Florida’s Role as Supplier Answer the following questions either True or False. 1. Florida supplied a lot of horses to the Union soldiers. _________ 2. Florida was called the “breadbasket of the Confederacy” because it supplied lots of food. _________ 3. Florida fought in the war because they wanted to abolish slavery. _________ 4. St. Augustine was one of the ports used to ship food North. _________ 5. Florida was a large producer of salt. _________ 6. Salt was used mainly to spice up the food. _________ 7. Some Floridians that didn’t want to fight in the war hid out in the woods and swamps. _________ 8. The women were drafted to the war because more people were needed. _________ 9. Most families had to grow their own food. _________ 10. The Cow Cavalry were groups of men that protected the inner part of Florida. _________ Answer in your own words from what you read about Florida being a provider. Why was the salt production so important in Florida, and what was it used for?
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Lesson 4: Post-Test Answer Key
Florida’s Role as Supplier Answer the following questions either True or False. 1. Florida supplied a lot of horses to the Union soldiers. ____F_____ 2. Florida was called the “breadbasket of the Confederacy” because it supplied lots of food. ___F_____ 3. Florida fought in the war because they wanted to abolish slavery. ____F_____ 4. St. Augustine was one of the ports used to ship food North. ____F_____ 5. Florida was a large producer of salt. ____T_____ 6. Salt was used mainly to spice up the food. ____F_____ 7. Some Floridians that didn’t want to fight in the war hid out in the woods and swamps. ____T_____ 8. The women were drafted to the war because more people were needed. _____F____ 9. Most families had to grow their own food. ____T_____ 10. The Cow Cavalry were groups of men that protected the inner part of Florida. ____T_____
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Lesson 5: Handouts
â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Civil War, Life as a Soldier during the Civil Warâ&#x20AC;? The life of a soldier during the civil war wasn't easy. Not only did soldiers face the possibility of getting killed in battle, their daily lives were full of hardships. They had to deal with hunger, bad weather, poor clothing, and even boredom between battles. Engineers of the 8th New York State Militia in front of a tent from the National Archives A Typical Day Soldiers were woken at dawn to begin their day. They had drills in the morning and afternoon where they practiced for battle. Each soldier had to know his place in the unit so the army would fight as a group. Fighting together and quickly obeying the commands of the officers was a key to victory. Between the drills, soldiers would do chores such as cooking their meals, fixing their uniforms, or cleaning equipment. If they had some free time they might play games such as poker or dominoes. They also enjoyed singing songs and writing letters to home. At night some soldiers would have guard duty. This could make for a long and tiring day. Medical Conditions The soldiers of the civil war had to deal with terrible medical conditions. Doctors didn't know about infections. They didn't even bother to wash their hands! Many soldiers died from infections and disease. Even a small wound could end up infected and cause a soldier to die. The idea of medicine during this time was very primitive. They had little knowledge of painkillers or anesthetics. During major battles there were far more wounded soldiers than doctors. There was little doctors could do for wounds to the torso, but for wounds to the arms and legs, they would often amputate.
A Regimental Fife-and-drum Corps from the National Archives
How old were they? There were soldiers of all ages that fought during the war. The average age for the Union Army was around 25 years old. The minimum age to join the 50 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
army was 18 years old, however, it's thought that many young boys lied about their age and, by the end of the war, there were thousands of soldiers as young as 15 years old. What did they eat? The soldiers of the Civil War were often hungry. They mostly ate hard crackers made from flour, water, and salt called hardtack. Sometimes they would get salt pork or corn meal to eat. To supplement their meals, soldiers would forage from the land around them. They would hunt game and collect fruits, berries, and nuts whenever they could. By the end of the war, many soldiers in the Confederate army were on the verge of starvation.
Winter quarters; soldiers in front of their wooden hut, "Pine Cottage" from the National Archives
Were they paid? A private in the Union army made $13 a month, while a three star general made over $700 a month. Soldiers in the Confederate army made less with privates earning $11 a month. Payments were slow and irregular, however, with soldiers sometimes waiting over 6 months to get paid. Facts about Life as a Soldier During the Civil War • During the fall, they would work on their winter camp where they would stay at one place for the long winter months. • Soldiers were drafted, but the rich could make a payment if they wanted to avoid fighting. • If life as a soldier was bad, life as a prisoner was worse. Conditions were so bad that thousands of soldiers died while being held as prisoner. • By the end of the war around 10% of the Union army consisted of African American soldiers. Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/life_as_a_soldier_during_the_civil_war.php This text is Copyright © Ducksters. 51 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Confusion on the Battlefieldâ&#x20AC;? As you can imagine in a battle between tens of thousands of men, things can get confusing. It even becomes difficult to know which soldier is on which side. The main way to tell the difference is by the uniforms. You've probably heard of the blue and the grey when people refer to the civil war sides. The Northern Union armies wore navy blue and the Southern Confederate armies wore grey. However, the uniforms weren't exactly "uniform" at the start of the war. At the Start of the War When the Civil War first began, neither side thought it would turn into a major conflict. They weren't ready for a major war against each other. One of the things they weren't ready for was having uniforms for the armies. At first, uniforms were provided to the soldiers by the states and local cities. The materials, colors, and styles were all different. The north tried to get their soldiers to all wear navy blue uniforms, but they often ran out of blue cloth and had to use grey. The materials and styles were different too, depending on where a soldier came from. Confusion on the Battlefield The lack of consistent uniforms led to confusion on the battlefield. In some early battles soldiers often shot people from their own side. Eventually, the uniforms became more standard with the Union army wearing navy colored uniforms and the Confederates wearing grey. Union Uniforms The Union uniform consisted of a dark blue wool coat with light blue trousers and a dark cap called a forage cap. They typically wore shoes that went up to their ankles called "brogans". The coat often had bright buttons that sometimes indicated the rank of the soldier or what state they represented. Other markings on the coat like piping or badges usually indicated the rank of the soldier. Confederate Uniforms
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The Confederate Uniforms were less standard than the Union's. At the start of the war, many Confederate soldiers just wore their own clothes into battle. Eventually they settled on a uniform that had a waist length grey coat and light blue trousers. Due to costs and a lack of materials during the war, many Confederate soldiers did not have adequate uniforms. They often wore combinations of what they could find and steal as well as their own clothes. They also didn't have very good shoes and sometimes had to go without any shoes at all. Weapons The typical soldier had a musket or rifle and possibly a knife or a sword for close combat. Some rifles had bayonets at the end that they would use for close combat. Officers often had pistols and a sword to fight with. Other Gear Soldiers carried their other gear in a backpack called a knapsack. They carried a blanket, a fry pan for cooking, and a canteen for water. Other items often included a comb, a sewing kit to repair their uniforms, silverware, a Bible, and a pocketknife.
Interesting Facts about Civil War Uniforms The uniforms were mostly made from wool, which was very hot during the summers. Many soldiers suffered from heat exhaustion on long marches as a result. The Union Army settled on rules for an official uniform in 1862. It wasn't until 1863 that the Confederate Army began to use a standard uniform design. The Confederates chose gray dye for their uniforms because it was inexpensive to make. Sometimes the grey coats of the Confederates were trimmed with green or yellow.
Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/military_uniforms.php This text is Copyright © Ducksters
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Lesson 5: Post-Test Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________ 1. About how much money per month did a private in the Confederate army make? A. $11 B. $25 C. $300 D. 100 2. What did the soldiers do during their free time? A. Sing Songs B. Write letters home C. Play cards and dominoes D. All of the above 3. What did the Civil War soldiers eat most of the time? A. Steak and potatoes B. Spaghetti C. Chicken and vegetables D. Hardtack 4. True or False: Medicine during the Civil War was high tech and most wounded soldiers recovered just fine A. True B. False 5. How old was the average Union soldier? A. 18 years old B. 21 years old C. 40 years old D. 25 years old Answer in your own words from what you read about life as a soldier during the Civil War. Besides fighting, what kinds of hardships did soldiers have to deal with?
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Lesson 5: Post-Test Answer Key 1. About how much money per month did a private in the Confederate army make? A. $11 B. $25 C. $300 D. 100 2. What did the soldiers do during their free time? A. Sing Songs B. Write letters home C. Play cards and dominoes D. All of the above 3. What did the Civil War soldiers eat most of the time? A. Steak and potatoes B. Spaghetti C. Chicken and vegetables D. Hardtack 4. True or False: Medicine during the Civil War was high tech and most wounded soldiers recovered just fine A. True B. False 5. How old was the average Union soldier? A. 18 years old B. 21 years old C. 25 years old D. 40 years old
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Lesson 6: Handouts
“American Civil War: Women”
The lives of women changed dramatically during the American Civil War. They played important roles both at home and on the battlefield. On the home front, women for both sides had to manage the household while their husbands and sons were off fighting battles. On the battlefield, women helped to supply the soldiers, provide medical care, and worked as spies. Some women even fought as soldiers. Life at Home • Managing the Home - With many of the adult men off to war, it was up to women to manage the home by themselves. In many cases this included running the farms or businesses that their husbands left behind. • Raising Money - Women also raised money for the war effort. They organized raffles and fairs and used the money to help pay for war supplies. • Taking on Men's Jobs - Many women took on jobs that had been traditionally men's jobs before the war. They worked in factories and in government positions that were vacated when men left to fight. This changed the perception of women's roles in daily life and helped to move forward the women's rights movement in the United States. Caring for Soldiers in Camp Women also helped to care for the soldiers while they were camped and preparing for battle. They sewed uniforms, provided blankets, mended shoes, washed clothes, and cooked for the soldiers.
Nurse Anna Bell by Unknown Nurses 56 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Perhaps the most important role women played during the war was providing medical care for sick and wounded soldiers. Thousands of women worked as nurses throughout the war. The Union had the most organized nursing and relief efforts organized by women such as Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton. These women fed the sick, kept their bandages clean, and assisted doctors when needed. Spies Some of the top spies for both sides during the Civil War were women. They were typically women who lived or worked on one side, but secretly supported the other side. They included slave women in the South who passed on troop movements and information to the North. They also included women in the North who supported the South and were able to persuade officers to tell them important information that would help the South. Some women even ran spy rings from their homes where they would pass on information given to them from local spies. Women as Soldiers Although women were not allowed to fight as soldiers, many women still managed to join the army and fight. They did this by disguising themselves as men. They would cut their hair short and wear bulky clothes. Since the soldiers slept in their clothes and rarely changed clothes or bathed, many women were able to remain undetected and fight alongside the men for quite a while. If a woman was discovered, she was usually just sent home without being punished. Influential Women There were many influential women during the Civil War. You can read more about some of them in the following biographies: • Clara Barton - Civil War nurse who established the American Red Cross. • Dorothea Dix - Superintendant of Army Nurses for the Union. She also was an activist for the mentally ill. • Elizabeth Cady Stanton - She fought for the end to slavery and for women's rights. • Harriet Beecher Stowe - Author who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which exposed the harshness of slavery to people in the North. • Harriet Tubman - Escaped slave who worked in the Underground Railroad and later as a Union spy during the war. Interesting Facts about Women in the Civil War • Mary Walker was the only woman who officially worked as a Union doctor during the Civil War. She was once captured by the South, but was later freed and earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. • Initially, Dorothea Dix required that all the female nurses be over the age of 30. The famous writer Louisa May Alcott who wrote Little Women 57 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
worked as a nurse for the Union. It is estimated that over 400 women fought in the war as soldiers disguised as men. Clara Barton once said that the Civil War advanced the position of women by 50 years.
Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/women_in_the_civil_war.php This text is Copyright © Ducksters. Do not use without permission.
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â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Civil War: Children During the Civil Warâ&#x20AC;?
The Civil War impacted the lives of everyone in the United States and this was no different for the children at the time. Some children actually served in the army as soldiers, while others witnessed the horror of war from afar. Many children had to grow up quickly, taking on new responsibilities at home or on the warfront. Boys in the Army Although soldiers were officially supposed to be at least 18 years old, both sides needed soldiers and were willing to look the other way when it came to age. As a result thousands of young boys between the ages of 13 and 17 fought in the Civil War. Many of these boys were killed or wounded in battle. Drummer Boys and Messengers The youngest of the boy soldiers usually ended up being drummers or messengers. Boys as young as 10 years old are on record as serving as drummers during the Civil War. Drummers were used for communication on the battlefield. Different drum rolls signaled different commands like "retreat" or "attack." Other boys were used as messengers. They were usually fast runners who would bravely run important battle messages from one commander to another. Child soldier in the US Civil War by Unknown Johnny Clem The most famous of the boy soldiers during the Civil War was Johnny Clem. Johnny first tried to join the Union Army at the age of 9, but was rejected because of his age and size. However, he didn't give up. He followed along with the 22nd Michigan regiment until they adopted him as their drummer. He officially joined the Union Army two years later at the age of 13. He became famous when he shot a Confederate officer and escaped during a battle at Chickamauga, GA. Throughout the war Johnny's adventures and exploits became legendary. He continued on as a soldier after the war rising to the rank of Brigadier General. Children in the Army Camps Some children served in the army camps. They would help wash dishes, fix meals, and set up the camp when it moved. These children were in less danger than the soldiers doing the fighting, but were often near the front lines. Children at Home War wasn't easy for the children at home, either. Most children had a relative who was off fighting the war such as a father, brother, or uncle. They had to work extra hard and sometimes take on the jobs of adults to help make ends 59 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
meet. They also lived in fear that their father or brother may never return. Children in the South Children living in the South had an added fear because much of the fighting took place in the South. If their home was near a battle, they would hear gunfire and cannon through the night. They may also see soldiers marching by on their way to fight or returning from a battle. They hoped the enemy soldiers wouldn't destroy their crops or their home. Interesting Facts about Children in the Civil War • Some boys would put a note with the number 18 in their shoes when applying for the army. This way they could say "I'm over 18" without really lying. • Johnny Clem was the last veteran of the Civil War to retire from the U.S. Armed Forces in 1915. • The Civil War is sometimes called "The Boys' War" because so many young men fought as soldiers. • Some historians estimate that as many as 20% of the soldiers who fought in the Civil War were under the age of 18.
Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/children_during_the_civil_war.php This text is Copyright © Ducksters. Do not use without permission. 60 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Children’s Voices from the Civil War
“I have seen little of the light heartedness and exuberant joy that people talk about as the natural heritage of youth. It is a hard school to be bred up in and I often wonder if I will ever have my share of fun and happiness.” Emma Le Conte, age 17
“The church yard was strewn with arms and legs that had been amputated and thrown out the windows and all around were wounded men for whom no place had yet been found.” Charles McCurdy, age 10
“It wasn’t nothing to find a dead man in the woods.” James Goings, formerly enslaved, age 6
Cornelia Peake McDonald remembered her three-year-old daughter clinging to her doll, Fanny, and crying that “the Yankees are coming to our house and they will capture me and Fanny.” A Southern girl
“My daddy go away to the war bout this time and my mammy and me stay in our cabin alone. She cry and wonder where he be if he is well or he be killed and one day we hear he is dead. My mammy too pass in a short time.” Amie Lumpkin former slave, South Carolina
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“I went to the armory of the Hiberian Guards. They seemed to like me and I liked them. So together with Jim Butler and Jim O’Reilly I enlisted with them. My name was first on the company’s roll to enlist. I didn’t tell them that I was only fifteen. So I became a soldier.” Thomas Galway, Ohio, Union Army
“We are starving. As soon as enough of us get together we are going to take the bakeries and each of us will take a loaf of bread. This is little enough for the government to give us after it has taken all our men.” A young Southern girl, Richmond, Virginia
“The house was full of the wounded. They had taken our sitting room as an operating room and our piano served as an amputating table.... The surgeons brought my mother a bottle of whiskey and told her that she must take some and so must we all. We did...Upstairs they were bringing in the wounded and we could hear their screams of pain.” Sue Chancellor, a Southern girl whose house provided the name for the battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia. Early the next morning, the 16 women and children who were hiding in the basement during the battle were brought upstairs. Sue saw the chairs riddled with bullets, the piles of amputated arms and legs, and the rows of dead bodies covered with canvas. The house suddenly caught fire—probably from a shell burst—and the terrified women and children stumbled out of the building as the pillars collapsed. Her home was completely engulfed in flames, and Sue, her mother, and her five young sisters became homeless refugees.
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“I passed...the corpse of a beautiful boy in gray who lay with his blond curls scattered about his face and his hand folded peacefully across his breast. He was clad in a bright and neat uniform, well garnished with gold, which seemed to tell the story of a loving mother and sisters who had sent their household pet to the field of war. His neat little hat lying beside him bore the number of a Georgia regiment...He was about my age...At the sight of the poor boy’s corpse, I burst into a regular boo hoo and started on.” John A Cockerill, Sixteen-year-old regimental musician, Union Army
“Day after day and night after night did we tramp along the rough and dusty roads ‘neath the most broiling sun with which the month of August ever afflicted a soldier;’ thro’ rivers and their rocky valleys over mountains...scarcely stopping to gather the green corn from the fields to serve as rations...During these marches the men are sometimes unrecognizable on account of the thick coverings of dust which settle upon the hair eye-brows and beard filling likewise the mouth nose eyes and ears.” John Dehaney, Sixteen years old
“I wanted to fight the Rebs. But I was very small and they would not give me a musket. The next day I went back and the man behind the desk said I looked as if I could hold a drum and if I wanted I could join that way. I did but I was not happy to change a musket for a stick.” Twelve-year-old drummer boy, Union Army
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Fifteen-year-old Tillie Pierce lived in Gettysburg Pennsylvania and was caught up in the three-day battle that raged around the town and nearby farms. Her parents sent her to a farm three miles south of town thinking Tillie would be safer there. On the way Tillie and her companions passed soldiers preparing for battle and came under artillery fire. “Suddenly we behold an explosion; it is that of a caisson [a carriage carrying ammunition]. We see a man thrown high in the air and come down in a wheat field close by. He is picked up and carried into the house. As they pass by I see his eyes are blown out and his whole person seems to be one black mass... Now the wounded began to come in greater numbers. Some limping some with their heads and arms in bandages some crawling others carried on stretchers or brought in ambulances...it was a truly pitiable gathering. Before night the barn was filled with the shattered and dying heroes of this day’s struggles....” Tillie takes bread and water to the wounded soldiers. After the last day of battle Tillie walks back to town to rejoin her family. She described what she saw. “Horses swollen to almost twice their natural size lay in all directions.... Fences had disappeared some buildings were gone others ruined. The whole landscape had been changed and I felt as though we were in a strange and blighted land.... We reached our homes. Everything seemed to be in confusion and my home did not look exactly as it did when I left... At first glance even my mother did not recognize me so dilapidated was my general appearance. The only clothes I had along had by this time become covered with mud...As soon as I spoke my mother ran to me and clasping me in her arms said: ‘Why my dear child is that you? How glad I am to have you home again without any harm having befallen you!’” For months afterward Tillie and her family nursed soldiers in their home and in the field hospitals that sprang up around the town.
The Civil War Curriculum | Elementary Civilwar.org/curriculum 64 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Primary Source Letters Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Absolom A. Harrisonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Civil War Letter I Camp Morton Near Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky Jan. 19, 1862 Dear Wife, I take my pen in hand to write you a few lines. I am tolerable well at present and I hope these few lines may find you and the children and all the rest of the folks well. I started to write to you the other day but I had only time to write a few lines. I had to expedition and I had been out two days so I concluded to write again. There is a good many of our men sick and there will be a good sick yet for we have been laying on the wet ground ever since we have been here without any straw under us. And the water runs under us every time it rains. There is only about two thirds of the men fit for duty at this time. The boys from Hardin are all well but David ________. He is at the hospital sick with measles. There is some talk of being disbanded but I don't know whether there is any such good luck for us or not. If we are not disbanded I reckon I will stay here until March. Our camp is four miles from Bardstown on the turnpike leading to New Haven. It was very nice in a woods pasture place when we first came here. But it is knee deep in mud now. You must write as soon as you get this if you have not already wrote. I would like to know how mother is and how you and the children are and if folks are getting along. I would like to be at home but I have got myself in this scrape and I will have to stand it. But if I live to get out of this I will never be caught soldiering again that is certain. We did not know what hard times was until we come to this place. We don't get more than half enough to eat and our horses are not half fed and everything goes wrong. I will tell you what we have to do so you will know how much idle time we have. We get up at 6 o'clock and answer roll call. Then we feed and curry our horses and wash which takes up the time till 7 when we eat our breakfast. Then we water our horses. Then drill on foot until dinner. Then at 1- 1/2 o'clock we go out and drill on horseback until four. Then water, feed and curry our horses. Then get wood for the night. By this time it is after dark. So you see they keep us pretty busy. When you write direct your letter to Camp Morton near Bardstown, Nelson Cty., Ky Cal, Boyles Reg., Company D. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate husband until death. A. A. Harrison P.S. Tell Martha, Jo is well.
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Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Absolom A. Harrison's Civil War Letter II Nashville Tenn. April 9th, 1862 Dear Wife, I take my pen in hand to inform you that I am tolerable well at present and hope these few lines may find you are enjoying the same blessing. We have got to this place after a long and tedious march. We got here last Sunday. The country through which we have passed is the worst torn up country I ever saw. The fences are nearly all burnt along the road and lots of the houses deserted and some of these torn all to pieces. We find some Union men down here but they are very scarce in this part of the world. This is a fine country about Nashville. There is some of the finest houses here that I ever saw and plenty of Negroes. We have had two or three insurrections in the regiment. When we fixed to start from Bardstown all the regiment except our company refused to go until they were paid off. But our company took the lead and the rest followed after. Then when we got to Munfordville and got our money they refused to go any further until we got arms and the Colonel went and got some guns that had been refused by several other regiments and told us when we got to Gallatin we should have better arms but we come to this place and this morning the Colonel ordered us to march on to Columbus 45 miles from here and selected our company to take the lead. But they told him plainly they would not go any further without better arms and I have heard that there is no more arms to give out to cavalry. I do not know what will be the result. I have not heard from you since I sent you that money but I hope you have got it. I would like to be at home with you all but I don't know when I can come. There is no chance to get a furlough now. You must write as often as you can and direct your letters to Nashville, Tenn. until I write again. You must be contented as you can and stay where you are until I can get back again and trust to Providence. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate husband until death. A. A. Harrison
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Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Letty Barnes Letter Letter from Letty Barnes to her husband, Joshua, of the Thirty-eighth United States Colored Infantry My dear husband I have just this evening received your letter sent me by Fredrick Finich you can imagine how anxious and worry I had become about you. And so it seems that all can get home once in awhile to see and attend to their family but you I do really think it looks hard your poor old Mother is hear delving and working like a dog to try to keep soul and body together and here am I with two little children and myself to support and not one soul or one dollar to help us I do think if your officers could see us they would certainly let you come home and bring us a little money. She continues in this vein enumerating the various hardships the family is enduring. At the end of her letter she writes lovingly: I have sent you a little keepsake in this letter which you must prize for my sake it is a set of Shirt Bossom Buttons whenever you look at them think of me and know that I am always looking and wishing for you write to me as soon as you receive this let me know how you like them and when you are coming home and beleave me as ever Your devoted wife Letty Barnes
Joshua Barnes received his buttons and was granted leave to visit his family.
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Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Rebecca Barrett Letter Letter written by Rebecca Barrett to her son, William, of the Seventyfourth United States Colored Infantry My Dear Son It is with pleasure I now embrace the opportunity of penning you a few lines to inform you that I am received your most welcomed letter for I had despaired of your writing. We are both sick pap is prostrated on his bed and has been so for three months and three weeks he got a little better but it did not last long I am very sorry that you have enlisted again for I wanted to see you once more You say you will send me some money do my son for God sake for I am needy at this time the Doctors are so dear that it takes all you can make to pay thier bill I work when I am able but that is so seldom God only knows what I will [do] this winter for I dont. Everything is two prices and one meal cost as much a[s] three used to cost when the rich grumble God help the poor for it is a true saying that (poverty is no disgrace but very unhandy) and I find it very unhandy for if ever a poor soul was poverty stricken I am one and My son if you ever thought of your poor old mother God Grant you may think of her now for this is a needy time. No more but remain Your mother Rebecca Barrat
William Barrett did send his mother some money.
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Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Sarah S. Sampson Letter Nurse, 3rd Maine Volunteer Infantry Agent, Maine State Soldier's Relief Agency Maine Soldiers Relief Association. 973 F Street, Washington, D.C. September 15th, 1863 Gov. Coburn Dear Sir: I am rather late in sending you this list of "soldiers in our hospitals the first of the month" but have done so with as little delay as possible, as it seemed necessary for me to attend to other duties while obtaining the Report. My daily mail has been so heavy since the Battle at Gettysburg that I have not been able to make the copies myself. I spent four weeks with our wounded at Gettysburg and returned to Washington only reluctantly though there were others here who had a claim on my attention. From frequent letters in reference to some of our soldiers who are still unable to be moved from Gettysburg, I am thinking to go on again for a short time, in a few days. The agent from New Hampshire has returned and reports that the boards that mark the graves of our soldiers, are many of them displaced by the heavy rains, etc. and need attention. He had carefully replaced all those from his State. I shall be glad when all the members of our association return so that a meeting may be called to make these & other arrangements. I shall visit all the burial grounds & report while I am there. There is a vacancy at Fairfax Seminary Hospital for Miss Owen of whom you wrote if she desires it. Very Respectfully &c. Mrs. Charles A.L. Sampson
The Civil War Curriculum | Elementary Civilwar.org/curriculum 69 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Analyzing a Primary Source Letter Name: _________________ Date: _________________
Group Member Names: ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Directions: 1. Read your groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s letter independently and silently. 2. Draw a line down the center of your chart paper to create two columns. 3. In the left column, write the following questions. In the right column, write your answers to these questions. 4. Choose one person to be the main speaker for your group. When we are done your group will present your chart to the class. Questions: What is the name of the person who wrote the letter?
Was the author a Union soldier, Confederate soldier, or civilian? (If you cannot tell, explain why you cannot.)
How does the person writing the letter know the person the letter was sent to?
What events, battles, or other details were discussed in the letter? How does the letter make you feel, and why? The Civil War Curriculum | Elementary Civilwar.org/curriculum
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Lesson 6: Post-Test
FAMILY LIFE DURING THE CIVIL WAR
Student Name: _____________________________ Class: ___________________ Date:____________________
Answer the following questions True or False: ____1. Women had to do hard manual labor like working in factory jobs, and on the farm because the men were fighting. ____2. The only people affected economically by the war were the politicians. ____3. The slaves who left their families to go off to war were taking a great risk of being caught and killed by the Union soldiers. ____4. There were young boys as young as 10 years old documented to have fought in the Civil War. ____5. People got news at home from their loved ones at war through the radio. Multiple Choice: 6. Why did the people in the South suffer more than those in the North? a. Because General Sherman destroyed most of Georgia b. Because most of the fighting took place in Southern regions of Florida c. Because the Union blockade destroyed the Southern Economy. d. None of the above. 7. What did some of the children do to help in the war effort? a. Played the bugle or drums. b. Did chores around the army campsites. c. Held fairs to raise money for the army. d Sent care packages to the soldiers. e. All of the above 8. Thousands of women worked in a very important role during the war. They became: a. Teachers for training young soldiers. b. Nurses to care for the sick and wounded. c. Soldiers to help the men. d. Farmers to help feed many families. e. None of the above. 71 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
Lesson 6: Post-Test Answer Key
FAMILY LIFE DURING THE CIVIL WAR Answer the following questions True or False: __T__1. Women had to do hard manual labor like working in factory jobs, and on the farm because the men were fighting. __F__2. The only people affected economically by the war were the politicians. __F__3. The slaves who left their families to go off to war were taking a great risk of being caught and killed by the Union soldiers. __T__4. There were young boys as young as 10 years old documented to have fought in the Civil War. __F__5. People got news at home from their loved ones at war through the radio. Multiple Choice: 6. Why did the people in the South suffer more than those in the North? a. Because General Sherman destroyed most of Georgia b. Because most of the fighting took place in Southern regions of Florida c. Because the Union blockade destroyed the Southern Economy. d. None of the above. 7. What did some of the children do to help in the war effort? a. Played the bugle or drums. b. Did chores around the army campsites. c. Held fairs to raise money for the army. d Sent care packages to the soldiers. e. All of the above 8. Thousands of women worked in a very important role during the war. They became: a. Teachers for training young soldiers. b. Nurses to care for the sick and wounded. c. Soldiers to help the men. d. Farmers to help feed many families. e. None of the above.
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Lesson 7: Handouts
â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Civil War: Civil War Reconstructionâ&#x20AC;? Much of the Southern United States was destroyed during the Civil war. Farms and plantations were burned down and their crops destroyed. Also, many people had Confederate money, which was now worthless, and the local governments were in disarray. The South needed to be rebuilt. The rebuilding of the South after the Civil War is called the Reconstruction. The Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877. The purpose of the Reconstruction was to help the South become a part of the Union again. Federal troops occupied much of the South during the Reconstruction to insure that laws were followed and that another uprising did not occur. Broad Street Charleston, South Carolina by Unknown To Punish the South or Not Many people wanted the South to be punished for trying to leave the Union. Other people, however, wanted to forgive the South and let the healing of the nation begin. Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln wanted to be lenient to the South and make it easy for southern states to rejoin the Union. He said that any southerner who took an oath to the Union would be given a pardon. He also said that if 10% of the voters in a state supported the Union, then a state could be readmitted. Under Lincoln's plan, any state that was readmitted must make slavery illegal as part of their constitution. President Johnson President Lincoln was assassinated at the end of the Civil War, however, 73 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
and never had the chance to implement his Reconstruction plan. When Andrew Johnson became president, he was from the South and wanted to be even more lenient to the Confederate States than Lincoln. Congress, however, disagreed and began to pass harsher laws for the Southern states. Black Codes In an effort to get around laws passed by Congress, many southern states began to pass Black Codes. These were laws that prevented black people from voting, going to school, owning land, and even getting jobs. These laws caused a lot of conflict between the North and the South as they tried to reunite after the Civil War. New Amendments to the Constitution To help with the Reconstruction and to protect the rights of all people, three amendments were added to the US Constitution: • 13th Amendment - Outlawed slavery • 14th Amendment - Said that black people were citizens of the United States and that all people were protected equally by the law. • 15th Amendment - Gave all people the right to vote regardless of race. Rejoining the Union New governments were formed in the South starting in 1865. The first state to be readmitted to the Union was Tennessee in 1866. The last state was Georgia in 1870. As part of being readmitted to the Union, states had to ratify the new amendments to the Constitution. Help from the Union The Union did a lot to help the South during the Reconstruction. They rebuilt roads, got farms running again, and built schools for poor and black children. Eventually the economy in the South began to recover. Carpetbaggers Some northerners moved to the South during the Reconstruction to try and make money off of the rebuilding. They were often called carpetbaggers because they sometimes carried their belongings in luggage called carpetbags. The Southerners didn't like that the Northerners were moving in and trying to get rich off of their troubles. The End of the Reconstruction The Reconstruction officially ended under the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877. He removed the federal troops from the South and the state governments took over. Unfortunately, many of the changes to equal rights were immediately reversed. Interesting Facts about the Reconstruction 74 2016 Historical Society of Palm Beach County
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White Southerners who joined the Republican Party and helped with the Reconstruction were called scalawags. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the South into five military districts ran by the army. President Andrew Johnson granted pardons to many Confederate leaders. He also vetoed a number of Reconstruction laws passed by Congress. He vetoed so many laws his nickname became the "Veto President". In order to fight against the Black Codes, the federal government set up Freedman's Bureaus to help black people and to set up schools that black children could attend.
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