Page 1

RETAIL IN DETAIL Shopping through the ages

FEASTS FIT FOR A KING The history of how we used to eat


Journeying along the Solway shore



The Magazine for Historic Scotland Members | Winter 2013 | ÂŁ3.95

The sky at night Where to go to see the stars this winter


How our castles have tempted tourists

the latest news and competitions















As 2013 draws to a close, this is the final issue of Historic Scotland for the year. However, you will find that we’re far from closed for the season. Winter always offers up some unique perspectives on our past and we hope you’ll venture out to discover a few. For starters, there’s a brighter side to the longer nights, as it becomes the perfect time for stargazing. Historic Scotland’s Bob Tevendale escapes the nocturnal glow of our towns and cities for a clearer view, while also casting an eye over some prehistoric places apparently connected to celestial bodies. If you’re looking back longingly at past holidays or thinking of getting away soon, in these pages you’ll see how properties such as Edinburgh Castle and Melrose Abbey have encouraged tourists to enjoy Scotland’s history for generations. From beautiful posters produced during the golden age of rail travel to simple postcards home, these evocative images fire the imaginations of backpacker and day-tripper alike. Elsewhere, travel writer Robin Gauldie’s own personal expedition took him around Scotland’s south west, hunting out the Ruthwell Cross near Dumfries and laying siege to Caerlaverock Castle. It’s a journey that takes in early Christian relics and a ballad inspired by the heat of battle. With Christmas on the horizon, many will be loosening their belts in anticipation of good food and feasting, and journalist Indira Mann discovers it was no different for our ancestors. A tour around the kitchens and banqueting halls of Doune, Dirleton and Stirling Castles brings to the table a vivid account of the flavours, affluence and etiquette of dining in days gone by. There’s plenty to whet your appetite for history, and with all the regular news and events as well, a wealth of reasons to wrap up warm and go exploring before 2013 draws to a close. Speaking of which, I’d like to take this opportunity to wish you all the best for the festive period and the year ahead.

Historic Scotland membership is the perfect present, see page 46


BOB TEVENDALE Bob works as Historic Scotland’s Natural Resources Adviser to Properties in Care.

INDIRA MANN A former archaeologist and interpretive planner, Indira is a journalist with a lifelong love of Scotland’s castles and wild places.

Barbara Cummins Director of Heritage Management

THE five 5 BIGBIG THINGS TO SEE DO THIS THE THINGS TOAND SEE AND DO ISSUE THIS ISSUE Join in our exploration of Robert Burns, see page 53


Dine like royalty at Stirling Castle’s Christmas festivities, see page 53



From Orkney to Lewis, visit our properties to enjoy the sky at night, see page 42


Discover the history of the high street and retail in Scotland, see page 22


Experience the two sides of Edinburgh in our World Heritage Site series, see page 34


ROBIN GAULDIE Robin studied history at Edinburgh University and is a freelance travel journalist and guidebook author.

historic scotland | winter 2013 | 1

Winter 2013

contents The quarterly magazine for Historic Scotland members Headquarters Historic Scotland Longmore House, Salisbury Place Edinburgh EH9 1SH Membership enquiries 0131 668 8999 Editorial enquiries Membership & CRM Manager Claire Bowie Assistant Membership Manager Pauline Brews Editor Jack Kibble-White Deputy Editor Andrew Cattanach Design Dom Scott Sub-editors Sian Campbell, Mark Jardine Sam Bartlett, Ellen Arnison Advertising Sales Daniel Haynes 0208 962 1257 Publisher John Innes Think Woodside House, 20-23 Woodside Place Glasgow G3 7QF 0141 582 1280 Photography

All images provided by Historic Scotland Images unless otherwise stated. For access to images of Scotland and our properties, call 0131 668 8647/8785, email, or visit Historic Scotland is an Agency within the Scottish Government and is directly responsible to Scottish Ministers for safeguarding the nation’s historic environment and promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Historic Scotland is published four times a year, and is printed on UPM Finesse, which is made from pulp sourced from sustainable materials. The views expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of Historic Scotland. All information is correct at the time of going to press. Š Historic Scotland. All rights reserved. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without prior agreement of the Membership and CRM Manager and Historic Scotland.

Cover Kilchurn Castle at night, Superstock

2 | historic scotland | winter 2013

50 34


Our world heritage in Edinburgh


caeRlaverock Castle

in this issue Maeshowe P42

Urquhart Castle P16 Doune Castle P36 Edinburgh Castle P34 Jedburgh Abbey P14 Caerlaverock Castle P28

Iona Abbey P16

r egul A r s 4 NEWS

A statue for Mary Queen of Scots, plus celebrating a great summer and competitions to enter





Vintage postcards and posters tell the story of tourism at Historic Scotland properties



Elizabeth McCrone guides us around some notable shopping locations in our towns and cities


Some 1,300 years of history beckon

to writer Robin Gauldie on his way around the Solway shore


Exploring the two distinctive faces of Scotland’s capital


Journalist Indira Mann discovers the grandeur and sophistication of castle banqueting



As the nights draw in, Bob Tevendale explores the best spots for us to seek out the stars

news i nc lu di ng


Conserving furniture in a Lewis white house Tapestry unveiled at Stirling Castle


Consultation on historic environment ends

Celebrating a great summer

The big numbers*


229,940 Edinburgh Castle

Historic Scotland properties enjoy record-breaking attendances from June to August

rom June to August 2013, some 1,692,611 people visited Historic Scotland attractions, which is an increase of almost 15 per cent on last year. ‘The summer performance has surpassed all expectations,’ says Stephen Duncan, Historic Scotland’s Director of Commercial and Tourism. ‘We’ve broken a number of records, including the highest

visitor numbers on record for July and August for Edinburgh Castle.’ ‘These figures illustrate the important role that heritage plays for modern-day Scotland,’ says Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs, Fiona Hyslop. ‘All of the income generated is invested back into our rich historic environment. Most recently this has

included a significant investment in Iona Abbey to continue to provide worldclass attractions for Scots and overseas visitors alike. ‘As the custodians of Scotland’s rich heritage, it is important that we continue to engage with both Scots and visitors from around the world as we look forward to Scotland welcoming the world in 2014.’

37,548 Linlithgow Palace

34,957 Iona Abbey *visitors between June and August

The Esplanade at Edinburgh Castle where the annual Military Tattoo is staged

i n t his y e a r 175 4


Philosopher David Hume publishes the first volume of his History of England Inventor of gas lighting William Murdoch is born in East Ayrshire

The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is established

4 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

Global conflict as the Seven Years’ War begins

Scottish scientist Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide

Memorial to Mary

A maquette of the proposed statue

Marie Stuart Society campaigners move nearer to the goal of erecting statue of ill-fated queen in Scotland


ne of the most prominent figures in Scottish history may be about to become the subject of a new monument. The Marie Stuart Society, which encourages the study of Mary Queen of Scots, has been offered in principle a site by Historic Scotland to erect a permanent tribute to the famous monarch. The proposed location would be at Linlithgow Palace, in sight of the room where Mary was born. Careful consideration was given to where a statue might be placed, as the erection of such a monument is unusual within a property in Historic Scotland’s care. A key factor in agreeing to the proposal was also the quality of the original artwork by sculptress Anne Davidson, DA, ARBS, provided by the society and that it would be traditionally manufactured and erected. The Marie Stuart Society is now raising the funds to bring the project to reality. If you are interested in the society, or would like to assist, you can contact the treasurer, Ian Lumsdaine at, or view the Society website at www.mariestuartsociety. . The Marie Stuart Society is a Registered Scottish Charity No. SC044300.

Ambitious architecture A unique collaboration between Historic Scotland and the University of Glasgow has resulted in a lavishly illustrated new book about the University’s architectural history. Building Knowledge unearths the extraordinary record of the University’s partnerships with the finest architects, engineers and craftsmen of the day. Much of the material has never been published before. This prestigious new book is a wonderful celebration of some of Glasgow’s most recognisable buildings. l Building Knowledge costs £22.50 in hardback, and £19.95 in paperback from Booksource with free postage and packaging. Phone 0845 370 0067 or email Members can receive 20 per cent discount by quoting the code ‘HISTORIC 20’

Are Scots pining for a national tree? To celebrate Scotland’s trees and forests, the Scottish Government is inviting people to submit their views on whether we should have a national tree and, if so, what it should be. l Join the discussion at scotlandsnationaltree or search for #ScotTree on Twitter historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 5


Relax surrounded by nature in stunning landscapes

Win a luxury forest holiday in Scotland Historic Scotland has teamed up with Forest Holidays to offer a superb back-to-nature holiday in a luxury cabin for up to four people!


his is your chance to escape to one of two idyllic locations in Scotland – close to the shore of Loch Long in Argyll or Strathyre (located a few miles from Callander) – with our great competition. The prize is a four-night self-catering midweek break in a luxury Silver Birch cabin complete with master bedroom and ensuite, twin

room and bathroom plus a private hot tub on your terrace to relax in. Forest Holidays are perfect getaways for families, couples and groups of friends. You can even bring the dog along with you to our pet-friendly cabins! l You can enter the competition online at historic-scotland.

Terms and conditions The closing date for the competition is 27 December 2013. The prize is for a four-night midweek break for a group of up to four people in a Silver Birch cabin at Argyll or Strathyre and no cash alternative is available. The holiday must be taken before 30 June 2014 (excluding school and bank holidays) and is subject to availability. The prize is non-transferable. The competition is not open to employees of Historic Scotland and Forest Holidays. Winners are responsible for their own transportation to their chosen location.

Special offer

Historic Scotland members can save 10 per cent on a luxury cabin by entering the code ‘HISTORIC’ when booking via the Forest Holidays website at Alternatively telephone Forest Holidays on 0845 130 8223. Bookings must be made by 31 March 2014 to qualify for this offer.


New Lanark special offer for Historic Scotland readers

One of Scotland’s UNESCO World Heritage Sites, New Lanark, which is run by the New Lanark Trust, is an international visitor destination with a Visitor Centre and 38-bedroom hotel, leisure suite and self-catering water-houses. As part of the visitor centre experience, high-quality British Aran, double knitting and chunky woollen yarns are produced using historic machinery. We are offering readers of Historic Scotland 20 per cent off the admission charge to the Visitor Centre and any knitting yarn purchased in the gift shop. You can buy high-quality hand knitting yarn at or take advantage of this special offer by cutting out the discount voucher and presenting it at the visitor centre and gift shop.

Discount Token Present this token to receive 20% off Visitor Centre admission tickets AND knitting yarn purchased in the New Lanark Gift Shop Offer valid until 31 March 2014. Discount only available on site. Discount not valid on Christmas Experience dates, please see for details.

historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 7


A big freeze for woodworm

Sub-zero temperatures help conserve furniture and textiles in historic Lewis white house


oodworm infestation is a common problem, and one that Historic Scotland has had to combat recently at one of the traditional white houses in Arnol on Lewis. The affected furniture and textiles from the white house were frozen to a temperature of -30ºC. The treatment lasted four days. Freezing infested furniture is an effective way of eradicating the beetles that create the damage in the first place, alongside their larvae and eggs. All homes built in Arnol up to 1900 were blackhouses. But new health regulations necessitated the construction of a new type of house, built with single-thickness walls cemented with lime mortar. It presented such a contrast to the traditional blackhouse that people coined the term taigh-geal, or ‘white house’. The style of a white house is quite familiar to us today. It has solid walls, windows that open, a pitched roof and chimney.

The Unicorn Leaps from the Stream is the largest tapestry in a series of seven

c om pe t i t ion

Mind your language

We have three copies of Wordsmiths & Warriors: The English-Language Tourist’s Guide to Britain by David and Hilary Crystal to give away. It’s a fascinating combination of linguistic heritage and travelogue, exploring the roots of English through the footsteps of poets, scholars and soldiers. PRIZE QUESTION: What were the names of the two Scottish brothers who first published The Chambers English Dictionary in 1872?


For your chance to win, post your answer and details to Wordsmiths & Warriors Competition, Think Scotland, 20-23 Woodside Place, Glasgow, G3 7QF, or email (with ‘Wordsmiths & Warriors Competition’ in the subject line). l The closing date for entries is 24 January 2014.

8 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

Tapestry arrives in Stirling The largest tapestry in a series of seven new interpretations of the Hunt of the Unicorn medieval tapestries has been unveiled at Stirling Castle. Titled The Unicorn Leaps from the Stream, the tapestry is one of a series produced by West Dean Studio for the refurbishment of the Royal Palace and took nearly four years to weave. The tapestries for Stirling Castle are the biggest weaving project to be undertaken in Britain for two centuries and are new interpretations of originals, which are on display in the Cloisters Museum at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

The King and his castles

Iona awarded five stars VisitScotland has recently graded Iona Abbey and Nunnery a five-star historic attraction. This grading means the property is considered by Scotland’s national tourism organisation to be an exceptional place to visit.

JAMES VI (1566-1625) James was crowned in 1567, but did not actually take control until some years later. In 1586, he became an ally of Elizabeth I under the Treaty of Berwick. In March 1603, Elizabeth died and James became King of England and Ireland. One of his great contributions to the ages was the Authorised King James Version of the Bible (1611), which was to become the standard text for more than 250 years. Edinburgh Castle James was born on 19 June 1566 in the Royal Palace at Edinburgh Castle (pictured above). However, he was christened at Stirling Castle. The occasion was marked with three days of celebration, pageantry and a massive fireworks display. historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 9

29 November 2013 to 4 January 2014


30 November 2013 to 19 January 2014



Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, Mail on Sunday, Sunday Express, Sunday Times, Times

The acclaimed NationalTheatre production

Based on the beloved novel by Michael Morpurgo u Adapted by Nick Stafford In association with the award-winning Handspring Puppet Company

8 to 11 January 2014


22 January to 15 February 2014



10 to 15 February 2014


18 to 22 February 2014



25 February to 15 March



0131 529 6000* GROUPS (8+) 0131 529 6005


*Booking fees. Registered charity SC018605.

18 to 22 March 2014


Have you registered for the members-only area of the Historic Scotland website? Registered members get: l A special email newsletter that includes upcoming event information l A chance to enter exclusive competitions l Member discounts l To buy Christmas gifts of membership at a discounted rate

Registration is easy:

1 2 3

Go to www.historic-scotland. Click on ‘Members Login’ Select ‘Members-Only Registration’


Drinking in history

The first in a new series of high-quality postcard books celebrating much-loved aspects of Scotland’s architectural and cultural history has been launched. Containing 20 detachable postcards in a hardback cover, Pubs of Edinburgh and Glasgow features some of those cities’ most historic and beautiful pubs. The pubs included have been chosen because of their fabulous and distinctive interiors. Marvel at the luxurious interior of the Café Royal in Edinburgh or take in the 1960s period style of the Laurieston Bar in Glasgow. l Pubs of Edinburgh and Glasgow costs £7.95 from Booksource with free postage and packaging. Phone 0845 370 0067 or email Members can receive 20 per cent discount by quoting the code ‘HISTORIC 20’

Urquhart Castle: one of the sites in the Historic Scotland Ticket Giveaway

shutterstock, canmore

November Great Ticket Giveaway

Over the course of the St Andrew’s Day weekend at the end of November (30 Nov - 1 Dec), thousands of free tickets will be offered up in the Historic Scotland Ticket Giveaway. This exciting initiative gives free admission to a huge range of outstanding historic locations throughout Scotland, including Edinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle and Urquhart Castle, to non-Historic Scotland members. So why not tell your friends? Perhaps their visit will inspire them to become members! Pre-registration is required to participate. Go to for further information.

12 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

Government legislation will protect our heritage, such as Edinburgh Castle

Consultation complete Government considers findings from consultation, while survey shows most members support new Historic Scotland vision


n the last issue of Historic Scotland we reported on the Scottish Government’s consultation ahead of the merger between Historic Scotland and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS). The Scottish Government received 90 responses to the consultation. These came from a range of sources, including individuals, local authorities, voluntary groups and other public bodies. The results of the consultation will be carefully considered and will feed in to the development of the legislation that will bring the new merged organisation into law. In addition to the consultation, Historic Scotland members were invited to take part in a survey seeking their views on the organisation’s strategy and the merger. Of the 1,795 members who took part,

99 per cent supported the vision for the historic environment. ‘We were delighted with the response we received to the public consultation and with the feedback we got from our members,’ said Stephen Duncan, Director of Commercial and Tourism. ‘That so many of them took part in the survey is testament to the fact that Historic Scotland’s members are hugely passionate about our historic environment, and their feedback is very important to us.’

news c om pe t i t ion

A Grand prize to be won


copies to give away

Spinning an epic yarn

Crown hands over King’s Park to Scotland Parkland to be created in Stirling as result of change in ownership


he ownership of the historic King’s Park in Stirling has been handed over by the Crown to the Scottish Government, paving the way for a new park to be developed on the land. The move was the culmination of complex discussions between The Crown Estate, Stirling Council, the Scotland Office, the Scottish Government and Historic Scotland. As part of the agreement, Stirling Golf Club will also have

a lease for King’s Park Golf Course from Stirling Council, providing the club with security of tenure for 150 years. ‘This historic deal is a step forward,’ says Fiona Hyslop, the Scottish Government’s Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs. ‘It transfers ownership of King’s Park to Scottish ministers to steward on behalf of the nation, while enabling local control and management of the land.’ The planned development aims to enhance the historic setting of Stirling Castle and reconnect it with its ancient royal parkland.

Doune’s temporary closure

Fiona Hyslop (second from right) at King’s Park

Doune Castle is closed to the public from 21 October to 22 November. We expect a further closure for a short period in February and March and would advise contacting the property before setting out for a visit. l Details of closures and nearby sites can be found at

Telling the story behind the longest tapestry in the world, we have two copies of The Great Tapestry of Scotland: The Making of a Masterpiece, by Susan Mansfield and Alistair Moffat, to give away. The project was the brainchild of writer Alexander McCall Smith, artist Andrew Crummy and historical writer Alistair Moffat, who brought together hundreds of volunteers to illustrate 420 million years of Scottish history. PRIZE QUESTION How long is The Great Tapestry of Scotland? l For your chance to win, post your answer and details to Great Tapestry Competition, Think Scotland, 20-23 Woodside Place, Glasgow, G3 7QF, or email (with ‘Great Tapestry Competition’ in the subject line). The closing date for entries is 24 January 2014.

LAST ISSUE’S COMPETITION ANSWERS AND WINNERS ARE AS FOLLOWS 500 YEARS SINCE FLODDEN Norham Castle was captured by James IV and made famous through the paintings of JMW Turner. A copy of George Goodwin’s book goes to Mrs L H Smith from Edinburgh

BRITAIN AGAINST NAPOLEON It was Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington who said the battle which defeated Napoleon was ‘the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life’, as correctly answered by Barbara Davidson

historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 13

Spotlight on

Towering over the town, Jedburgh Abbey was an imposing display of monarchical and religious power




his year marks the 100th anniversary of Jedburgh Abbey coming into the care of Historic Scotland. In comparison to other points in the medieval building’s almost 900-year history it has been peaceful and constructive. Founded by King David I around 1138, both as an act of piety and a demonstration of power over the Borders, the abbey is one of the most elegant examples of 12th-century architecture in Scotland. The Augustinian canons installed here lived a contemplative life. Spiritual tranquillity was nevertheless often jeopardised by a location on the fringe of the kingdom, making Jedburgh susceptible to attack as the English and Scots clashed in the later Middle Ages. On numerous occasions the abbey suffered damage from military action. In the 1540s, an English

14 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

A monastic beacon that has been the site of religious devotion and cross-border conflict

invasion force caused so much damage that the abbey never fully recovered. By the time of the Reformation in 1560, it is unlikely that more than eight canons remained in the shell of the abbey. Although weathered and war beaten, Jedburgh Abbey remains one of the country’s most spectacular ancient monuments. The Abbey lies on the St Cuthbert’s Way, one of Scotland’s pilgrim journeys which have been developed in the past two years by Scottish Enterprise, Historic Scotland and VisitScotland. For more details see

CLOISTER GARDEN The canons were self-sufficient in many ways – growing vegetables, fruit and herbs for the refectory table and for medicinal purposes.

REFECTORY Where the canons would take their meals, with one served in the wintertime and two during the summer.

NAVE The only part of the abbey that was open to laypeople. Construction began in the 1180s, and it was completed early in the following century.

EAST END Boasting Romanesque architecture of the highest quality, the spiritual heart of the abbey held several services before the high altar each day.

CHAPTER HOUSE The principal meeting place of the canons, where they would gather to hear news and readings, and to confess their sins.


1138 Jedburgh founded as a priory by David I

1296 Edward I invades Scotland and establishes a base at Jedburgh with a pro-English abbot

1523 Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, attacks the abbey, laying waste to much of the complex

1560 Abbey used as a reformed parish church as the Reformation Act outlaws Catholicism

1913 The abbey is placed into state care

historic scotland | AUTUMN 2012 | 15


Welcome to Scotland

With a blend of natural beauty, a dramatic past, and inspirational art and literature, it is no wonder Historic Scotland properties have graced tourism publicity campaigns and postcards in order to attract visitors to Scotland. Alec Mackenzie is your guide

Stirling Castle

Skara Brae

 Brooding stronghold

 Prehistoric postcards

Echoing the romantic style of classic railway poster art, this image of Stirling Castle at sunset from 1996 plays upon the fortress’ rich history as a theatre of war.

getty, superstock

 Guarded gateway

Fought in 1297, the Battle of Stirling Bridge was an early victory for the Scots over the English during the First War of Scottish Independence. Artist Maurice Greiffenhagen dramatically depicts the conf lict here on the present-day ‘Old Stirling Bridge’, which was not actually built until the 15th century. Its original wooden counterpart was located further upstream and destroyed after the battle. 16 | historic scotland | winter 2013

Ever since this ancient Neolithic village was uncovered by a storm in 1850, visitors have been drawn to Orkney for an insight into the dawn of civilisation. The best-preserved group of prehistoric houses in western Europe, its artefacts include stone beds, dressers and seats.

historic scotland | winter 2013 | 17


Urquhart Castle  Caught on camera

Loch Ness’s most famous resident is shown here guarding the imposing ruins of Urquhart Castle on an early 20th-century postcard. Other notable visitors to this rocky promontory may include St Columba around AD 580, as he was making a long journey from Iona to the court of Bridei, king of the Picts, at Inverness.

Edinburgh Castle  Literary connections

Many tourism campaigns have drawn upon a rich literary heritage to promote the capital and its castle. This 1930s poster produced by London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) depicts a scene from Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel St Ives. The artwork is by Austin Cooper, a Canadian artist who designed posters for the London Underground.

Fort George

superstock, getty

 Dog’s life

The defences of Fort George make an ideal playground for a pack of dogs in this ornately decorated postcard. Man’s best friend has long been made welcome in the vast military complex, it being home to one of only two dog cemeteries in Scotland, and the resting place of regimental mascots and officers’ dogs. 18 | historic scotland | winter 2013

Tantallon Castle ďƒŠ Train treks

Passengers on London & North Eastern Railways in 1932 may have seen this poster showing a view of Tantallon, the formidable castle atop cliffs on the Firth of Forth. Artist Sir Frank Brangwyn was prolific, producing 80 poster designs during the First World War, one of which offended the Kaiser so much that he supposedly put a price on his head.

Iona Abbey ďƒ¨ Cultural cruises

The abbey is an enduring symbol of Christianity in Scotland, bringing pilgrims here from the 7th century onwards

Promoting travel by rail and steamship, this poster from the 1930s by Tom Gilfillan captures the rural island idyll of Iona. The abbey is an enduring symbol of Christianity in Scotland, bringing pilgrims here from the 7th century onwards. historic scotland | winter 2013 | 19


Trip advisor

Dunfermline Abbey

Melrose Abbey

 Messages home

 it’s quicker by rail

A postcard printed in the 1910s shows the Frater Hall, or refectory, of Dunfermline Abbey. The abbey church is famous as the mausoleum of some of Scotland’s great kings and queens, including Queen Margaret (later canonised as St Margaret), David I and Robert I (the Bruce).

This poster produced for London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) and London, Midland & Scottish Railway (LMS) was designed to promote rail travel to Melrose Abbey. The artwork is by Fred Taylor who also worked for London Transport and several shipping companies.

The abbey church is famous as the mausoleum of some of Scotland’s great kings and queens

Widely credited with popularising travel literature in the 19th century, English publisher John Murray III produced the Rough Guide or Lonely Planet books of his day. His series of Handbooks for Travellers methodically documented a vast number of locales around the world and Scotland was, of course, no exception. From the ‘venerable and beautiful’ Glasgow Cathedral, to the ‘exquisite ruins’ of Jedburgh Abbey, Murray’s guide to Scotland published in 1875 details many of the country’s iconic landmarks. For a growing group of middle and upperclass people who travelled for leisure, these books were an invaluable source of information on what to see and do.

mary evans, superstock

Their style and format inspired the design of many imitators, and the influence of Murray’s handbooks can still be seen in modern guides.

20 | historic scotland | winter 2013

the high street

Olde curiosity shoppes

Get a measure of real retail therapy without worrying your credit card as Elizabeth McCrone takes us on an enlightening tour of some of Scotland’s finest historical shopping destinations


Illustration by Sarah Hanson

cotland has a rich and distinctive history of retail premises from the very grand – Jenners in Princes Street, Edinburgh – to the more modest, such as the oldest post office in the world, in Sanquhar, Dumfries and Galloway. It was only in the late 18th century that shops, as we know them today, began to appear. Until then, trading took place mainly through merchants, markets and fairs. Mercat crosses, which can still be found in many of our towns and cities, indicated where a market

22 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

was authorised to be held. Early trading locations developed into arcaded areas on the ground floor of buildings. A few examples survive today. Such places provided shelter from the elements for both the goods and the customer. Elgin has some excellent surviving examples, such as Braco’s Banking House in the High Street. Fixed premises with a formal shop front of a kind we would recognise today appeared in the late 18th century. Increasing wealth and improving transport links created a market for this type of establishment. They often had a single, bow-fronted window with

lots of small panes of crown glass. The bow-fronted design allowed in light and made the shop stand out from its neighbours. Once common in Edinburgh, very few of this type survive – 515 Lawnmarket on the High Street has a rare surviving example of a high, bow-fronted window. Similarly, Sanquar’s oldest continuously working post office (in operation since 1712) has a good example of a bow-fronted window.


By the mid-19th century large panes of glass – plate glass – became cheaper and

easier to produce and new materials were experimented with to create larger windows that let in more light to better display the goods for sale. Glasgow’s Ca d’Oro building was designed by the architect John Honeyman in 1872 and is a stunning example of what could be built using these new materials. The upper storeys’ cast ironwork is very delicate and slender, and is punctuated by huge panes of glass. It was constructed as a furniture warehouse for F and J Smith and was among the first largescale purpose-built retail buildings in the city. The descendant of the warehouse was the department store – simply a large retail building with a number of departments selling different types of goods. These were luxurious spaces with tearooms, restaurants and even regular fashion shows to encourage the shopper to linger. Their appearance was crucial to attracting customers and the design an important part of their marketing. Fixed prices were introduced so that customers did not

have to haggle and an abundance of staff ensured everyone who walked through the doors was treated royally. Top-lit galleries and mirrors helped to bring light into the middle of the stores and the shops employed innovative technology, such as mechanical lifts and pneumatic ‘cash railways’, which transferred money and receipts from around the store to a central office and even back to the individual department. This was in the age before tills. In the late 19th century a handful of high-quality department stores were built in a short space of time – Draffen’s (now Debenhams) in Dundee in 1887, McDonalds in Glasgow (now House of Fraser) in 1879, and Jenners in Edinburgh, which was built between 1893-95. Charles Jenner and

Charles Kennington opened the first Jenners shop on 1 May 1838. It burnt down on the night of 26 November 1892, with the loss of the buildings and goods valued at a quarter of a million pounds – an enormous sum of money now, let alone in those days. The current fireproofed replacement became one of the largest department stores in Britain when it opened on 8 March 1895. Its elaborate exterior includes carved stone caryatids (a female figure taking the place of a column), which Jenner included in order ‘to show symbolically that women are the support of the house’.


A number of our communities can boast fantastic examples of Victorian shops. These typically have a central

Fixed prices were introduced so that customers did not have to haggle and an abundance of staff ensured everyone who walked through the doors was treated royally historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 23

canmore, alamy


door f lanked by large windows and a decorative shop front framing the whole, typically in a classical style with decorative pilasters (rectangular supports) and consoles (ornamental brackets) – in cast iron, painted timber or carved stone. St Andrews in Fife has a very special collection of well-detailed cast-iron shop fronts concentrated in its central streets. Perth also has many varied and interesting shop fronts, including the fantastic former butcher’s at 33 John Street. Designed by local architect James Smart in 1898, it has a carved bull’s head above the entrance and a fully tiled interior by Maw and Co, at one time the largest manufacturer of ceramic tiles in the world. The marble slabs were designed in part to keep the window display cool and are still in place. Interior tiles were popular for shops such as butchers and dairies because they could easily be washed to keep the premises hygienic. Some of our most prestigious architects have contributed to our retail heritage. In the village of Comrie, 24 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

The way we shop has changed dramatically from the days of the department store where the goods could not be examined without asking for them first Top: Late 19th-century view of the interior of Jenners in Edinburgh Above: J&G Innes, a traditional bookshop and stationers in St Andrews

seven miles west of Crieff, Charles Rennie Mackintosh designed what is now known as the Mackintosh Building in the town centre. Built in 1904 for a draper’s business with the shop on the ground f loor and accommodation above, it retains its original shelving and counters. Innovative shop design did not stop after the Second World War. The way

we shop has changed dramatically from the days of the department store where the goods could not be examined without asking for them first. In the 1960s British Homes Stores chose Edinburgh’s Princes Street for its new f lagship premises in Scotland. Leading architects of the period Robert Matthew, Johnson-Marshall and Partners were given the contract. The main design concept was to provide an open sales space uninterrupted by columns. The stairs and escalators were unusually placed

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British Home Stores in Edinburgh had a radically designed interior


in the centre of the shop floor (previously they would have been located at the edges or back of the store). Although BHS did not favour this arrangement it was allowed at the architects’ insistence and not only provided a design statement, but allowed the customer a great view when moving up a level. From the mid-1970s, large retailers opted for shell buildings and the architecture itself became a less important part of their marketing. Today, though, we can still enjoy a heritage of retail emporia. These fascinating testimonies to innovation and product design still have the ability to catch the eye and draw us through the front doors in some awe. Find out more about this fascinating subject in Historic Scotland’s wonderfully illustrated book, Scotland’s Shops (£15). Written by expert Dr Lindsay Lennie, it charts the history of retail in Scotland and has some great advice on conservation. Call 0131 668 8638 to place your order – members will receive a 20 per cent discount. 26 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

Signs of the times

One of the best ways to entice a passerby through your doors is effective and attractive signage. In the early days of high-street shopping, such signage would take the form of substantial, painted wooden boards hung above the shop front, similar to modern public house signs. However, during the late 18th century this form of advertising was banned as a nuisance by burgh authorities. This led to the development of shops’ fasciae (vertical strips proclaiming the name of the shop). These were initially quite narrow, but during the 19th century developed into a more prominent feature of shop design, becoming deeper and angled, sometimes with a curved profile. Early lettering was painted, but gradually alternative methods were developed. V-cut and gilded lettering with a plate-glass covering suggested quality, although cut and applied timber letters were a stylish alternative. Lettering was strongly influenced by fashions and during the interwar period new fonts were adopted to reflect the ‘Hollywood Moderne’ style. These were sometimes even neon-lit for maximum effect. Other forms of advertising include three-dimensional hanging signs; engravings on door glass; and names incorporated into the foyer floor, typically in mosaic. Perhaps the most successful signs respect the original design of the shop front, whatever its period. Certainly it is often the subtle or more innovative signs which are the most effective.


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Sieges and songs of the south west Robin Gauldie heads along the Solway shore on a journey through 13 centuries of history 28 | historic scotland | AUTUMN 2013

out and about


was born and raised on the east coast, so Scotland’s south west has until recently been unexplored territory for me. I lived in London for many years, and when I drove back to visit friends and family, my instinct, after a stop at Gretna for fuel and coffee, was not to turn west along the Solway shore but to press on north. I suspect many others do the same, which is a shame, because by doing so they are missing out on aspects of a region that is rich in history, as I discovered on a two-day visit. Starting from Edinburgh, it turned out to be a drive that took in two nations as well. After rolling through Borders country, the road took a dip into England before delivering me, a few miles later, back on Scottish soil at Gretna. Not much further on, the brown and white sign I have been looking out for points me in the direction of a remarkable early Christian relic. But locating the Ruthwell Cross requires a little bit of detective work. Ruthwell Church is not in Ruthwell. It is set among fields, a couple of miles north of the village. And the historic cross does not stand proudly in the kirkyard, but within the trim, whiteharled church, which is surrounded by a forest of red sandstone tombstones that have weathered far better than they would have in the polluted city air of Glasgow or Edinburgh. Fortunately, having done my homework on Historic Scotland’s website, I’ve called ahead to arrange for the church to be unlocked. historic scotland | winter 2013 | 29

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out and about

Caerlaverock Castle is one of the most impressive strongholds in this part of Scotland. Its triangular layout immediately strikes me as unusual, and it still has a moat It is a tapering, five-metre-tall column of red sandstone, sculpted with somewhat eroded images of biblical figures. Mary Magdalene is depicted washing the feet of Christ, and Martha, Mary and the Evangelists are also represented. The pillar is topped by a headpiece created in the 1800s that bears reliefs of what can only be a whale (on the left) and a dragon (on the right). But it is the Anglo-Saxon runes that set it apart from similar monuments. Recorded as part of The Dream of the Rood, they may be the most ancient Old English text in existence – though some scholars say they may have been added at a later date than the creation of the pillar itself. It is remarkable that this early Christian relic survives at all. Its graven images aroused the wrath of the Presbyterian purists who, in around 1642, took the cross apart and buried the fragments beneath the earthen f loor of the church, where they lay until 1790. In 1823, the local minister, Henry Duncan, had the cross re-erected in the grounds of his manse, and in 1887 it was declared a monument and brought inside the church to protect it from vandals and the elements. A small marker next to the car park indicates where it stood from 1823 to 1887.

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My next stop has an even more turbulent history. Caerlaverock Castle is one of the most impressive strongholds in this part of Scotland. Its triangular layout immediately strikes me as unusual, and it still has a moat. ‘Laverock’ is the old Scots word for the skylark, and I was pleased that there was indeed a lark singing high overhead as I walked towards the narrow, arched gateway. Above it is carved a stag, the heraldic emblem of the Maxwells, whose seat this was. Sir John Maxwell, Warden of the Scottish West March, built a castle nearby around 1220, on an artificial island in an arm of the Solway Firth, but its clay foundations proved inadequate and the Maxwells, who were also in 30 | historic scotland | winter 2013

Caerlaverock’s name is derived from the Old Scots word for skylark

search of a grander residence, moved to the more solid ground where Caerlaverock now stands. The coastline has shifted since then, and Caerlaverock is situated well inland, on the edge of a centuries-old wood. Beyond lies a wide expanse of reed beds and marshland that attracts great f locks of migrant waterfowl in season. It is a formidable fortress. Its walls enabled a small Maxwell garrison of just 60 men to initially repel a much greater English army led by Edward I himself on his 1300 invasion of Scotland. The story of the siege is told in The Song of Caerlaverock, composed by Edward’s herald. It is one of the most complete documents of its time (the illuminated original is in the British Library) and so we not

Timeline: Caerlaverock Castle 1220 Sir John Maxwell builds first castle on an inlet of the Solway Firth

c. 1270 First castle abandoned and new castle built on present site by Herbert Maxwell

1300 Edward I besieges Caerlaverock. The garrison of only 60 men surrenders to the vastly superior English force after a short siege

only know the names of all 87 of the knights who accompanied the king but also their heraldic devices. You can read a translation of the manuscript in the small museum next to the Historic Scotland ticket office. To talk up Edward’s prowess, the ballad makes much of Caerlaverock’s impregnability. But the truth is more prosaic. In fact, the Scots garrison surrendered within two days, and Edward (who must have been in one of his better moods) contented himself with hanging a few from the castle walls and freeing the rest. The Maxwells rewarded him by switching to the English side, although like many other Scottish nobles they pragmatically switched back again when the tide of war began to change in Scotland’s favour.

1312 Sir Eustace Maxwell holds the castle for England but soon switches sides. He demolishes the castle

Clockwise, from main: Caerlaverock Castle, the present-day Sweetheart Abbey and an engraving of the building

1373-1410 Caerlaverock is rebuilt and substantially strengthened by Sir Robert Maxwell c. 1500 The West Range is added within the outer walls

They had mixed fortunes after that. The 4th Lord Maxwell was killed at Flodden and the 8th was executed for murder in 1613. His successor, Robert Maxwell, was made Earl of Nithsdale in 1620, and in 1634 he added the splendid and elaborate façade of the Nithsdale Lodging, overlooking the triangular inner courtyard. Whereas the outer walls were pierced only by slits for arrows and muskets, the Nithsdale Lodging’s large windows, surrounded by elaborate carved stone frames, seem to show that the lords of the castle felt they were living in more peaceful times and had less need for formidable defences. Today, it is a splendid ruin with a threedimensional labyrinth of stone stairs connecting mossy halls that hint at its original splendour but are now home only to nesting swallows and pigeons. Referring to my map, I followed my nose along the Solway coast and the shore of the Nith, through Dumfries, to another magnificent ruin.


With its soaring arches, Sweetheart Abbey evokes the power of the great Cistercian order for which it was established in 1273 by Devorgilla, wife of John Balliol (who died in 1268). She was buried in front

1634 The South and East Ranges, comprising the Nithsdale Lodging, are added by Robert, 1st Earl of Nithsdale

1640 The castle is besieged, taken and partially demolished by Protestant Covenanters and is permanently abandoned

historic scotland | winter 2013 | 31

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out and about

This water mill is a superbly well-preserved example of 18th and 19th-century mill architecture of the high altar in 1290 and her stone sarcophagus, bearing a headless and limbless effigy, sits in the sacristy. This was a vast building, and although it was partly demolished following the Reformation of 1560 it was rescued from total demolition in 1779 and placed in state care in 1928.


Some of the stones looted from the abbey no doubt went to build the tidy little village of New Abbey, which stands next to it, and may even have gone into the building of another Historic Scotland property in the village, New Abbey Corn Mill. Although the first mill on the site was owned by the abbey, it passed into other hands when the abbey’s lands and property were redistributed in 1559. As it now stands, though, this water mill is a superbly well-preserved example of 18th and 19th-century mill architecture and water power, with its massive wheel and complex array of wooden machinery driven by leather belts that channel power from the wheel to the grindstones. It was built in 1792 for the Stewarts, of nearby Shambellie House, and in its day it was a model of cutting-edge technology, taking advantage of advances in agriculture that meant the surrounding farms were producing more grain than the old mill could handle. It was designed, too, to meet soaring demand caused by the outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars, and for a while the lairds lined their pockets by taking a 13th share in all the grist that came through their mill. After 1799 a change in the law put an end to the practice, but the mill continued to prosper – it comes as a surprise to realise that this 18th-century technology was still going strong as late as 1947, when the last miller, John Clingan, retired.

New Abbey Corn Mill was built in the 18th century on the site of an older mill owned by the occupants of the nearby Sweetheart Abbey

e x plor e

43 21

Not long after, Charles Stewart, a descendant of the original owner, bought the building and began its restoration, handing it over to Historic Scotland in 1979. A visit to the mill begins with a short video that tells its story and shows how its machinery worked, and the building is still redolent of wood, grain and oatmeal. It is a living slice of Scotland’s relatively recent history that is just as important in its way as the grand castles and abbeys that cluster in this part of the world. In just two days, I have time travelled from the seventh century to the 20th. It is time to head for home. 1 Ruthwell Cross is within Ruthwell Church, 8.5 miles southeast of Dumfries off the B724 2 Caerlaverock Castle is off the B725, eight miles south-east of Dumfries 3 Sweetheart Abbey is just south of the centre of New Abbey village, eight miles south of Dumfries on the A710 4 New Abbey Corn Mill is in the centre of New Abbey village historic scotland | winter 2013 | 33



World heritage site

Marking the penultimate entry in our series on Scotland’s World Heritage Sites is the country’s esteemed capital, Edinburgh – a captivating city of medieval relics and Georgian grandeur



orne on the rugged geology of extinct volcanoes and rocky crags rising out of the Lothians, few cities can boast such a dramatic setting. The character of Edinburgh’s topography is the foundation for a townscape that has long been celebrated for its exceptional architecture and sense of history. Especially remarkable is the happy marriage of contrasts that unites a city of two halves. On one side is the Old Town’s tangled web of medieval streets and tightly packed closes, while on a glacial plain to the north lies the refined, expansive elegance of the Georgian New Town. These very distinct characters complement each other to create an unrivalled map in bricks and mortar of Edinburgh’s development as an ancient royal seat, political powerhouse and inf luential cultural hub. This journey has its roots in the Old Town, which grew up in the shadow of Castle Rock, stretching out from the fortress gates and down the length of the Royal Mile to Holyrood Palace. Its little-altered ‘fish bone’ pattern of

34 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

streets encompasses many 16th and 17th-century merchants’ and nobles’ houses, such as the restored early 17th-century mansion of Gladstone’s Land, and early public buildings including the Canongate Tolbooth and St Giles’ Cathedral (pictured). While a vibrant and intermixed society has always thrived here, in the mid-18th century conditions had nevertheless become overcrowded and unsanitary and Edinburgh’s council sponsored an architectural competition to design a ‘New Town’ to the north. A young architect named James Craig was declared the winner and, after some amendments, his plan for the aristocratic suburb followed a rectangular grid layout. Subsequent developments played upon the harmonious arrangement of neoclassical terraces, each different from but closely related to its predecessors. Constructed in phases between 1767 and 1890, the New Town was a hugely ambitious project that can be seen as encapsulating in stone the forwardthinking ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment. Notable buildings that emerged during this prosperous period include the Assembly Rooms in

Edinburgh Castle, perched on a volcanic plug, is but one element of the city’s extraordinary skyline

George Street and the Scottish National Gallery, located on The Mound, the artificial hill that connects the Old and New Towns. These distinct urban faces, from the organic jumble associated with ‘Auld Reekie’, to the sophisticated rationality of the ‘Athens of the North’, distinguish Edinburgh among world capitals and continue to fascinate. Robert Louis Stevenson, one of the city’s many eminent residents, articulates its enduring appeal particularly well. ‘This profusion of eccentricities, this dream in masonry and living rock is not a drop scene in a theatre, but a city in the world of reality.’

Capital conservation

Edinburgh’s Old and New Towns were formally inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1995, a status that will conserve their magnificent architecture for future generations to enjoy. With almost 4,500 listed buildings throughout the city, the protected urban area covers some four square miles and City of Edinburgh Council, Edinburgh World Heritage and Historic Scotland work closely on the management of the site. A challenge posed by Edinburgh in comparison to other World Heritage locations is to ensure that it continues to be a thriving, contemporary city, while also nurturing the site’s cultural and historical significance.

Edinburgh New Town. Above from left: the Georgian facades of the south end of Leith Street, townhouses in Charlotte Square and Northumberland Street.

Edinburgh Old Town. Above from left: looking down the Royal Mile, Victoria Street, and St Giles’ Cathedral, with its medieval heart. historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 35


How We Used To Eat With one of the most elaborate domestic dining days of the year soon to be upon us, Indira Mann steps out of the kitchen to explore the history and politics - of food preparation and consumption in the Renaissance


he ghost of Christmas yet to come is haunting me already. In a few weeks, chaos will reign in my cheerful yet compact kitchen. I blanch at the thought. If only I had more space, more pairs of hands and a budget the size of a king’s ransom. That’s when the idea hits me. Grabbing coat, keys, and a large wooden spoon, I head out to discover why – and how – our ancestors held their own elaborate feasts. On my quest, I will explore the castle kitchens and banqueting halls of Doune, Dirleton and Stirling. I have always been especially fascinated by these spaces, and I know why. We are united in a need for – and enjoyment of – food. It has provided livelihoods, shaped cultures, and been an integral part of celebratory or religious days. And in medieval times, lavish dining suggested a noble family of status and influence.

Food and folklore

By analysing historical records, we can see that food was central 36 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

to issues of church, family, social status and gender. There were laws over how much meat people could eat, and religion dictated that only fish could be eaten on certain days, such as during Lent. The frequency of famine between 1500 and 1750 may have also elevated the status of food. An abundance of it was a common theme in folklore and also, it would seem, in the daily lives of Scotland’s nobility. When it comes to picking through the bones of the history of food and feasting, some of the

Top: Stirling Castle kitchen. Above: The author at Dirleton Castle. Right: Feasting at Dirleton Castle

best evidence comes from the 1500s. Dr Nicki Scott, Cultural Resources Adviser at Historic Scotland, points me towards the household accounts of Mary of Guise – second wife of James V, and mother of Mary Queen of Scots. ‘Back then, diet and dining were governed by the rhythms of the religious calendar. But it was also affected by seasonality of produce and the availability of natural light to cook by,’ Nicki explains. ‘What was happening in Mary of Guise’s household was fairly similar to the homes of noble families across Scotland. ‘What we call dinner was generally eaten at around midday, and supper in the evening. However, we know from Mary’s household accounts that she was partial to late-night suppers. In 1549, Mary of Guise and her household sat down to their Christmas dinner at midnight. Of course, today we have electric lighting but they were cooking by a weak winter light or the glow from kitchen fires. For that reason, dinner tended to be served between 10am and noon.’

Sobering statistics underline the scale of this endeavour – 608 bream and pike, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 pheasant, 4,000 hot venison pasties and 3,000 cold custards. Not forgetting 504,000 pints of ale and 168,000 pints of wine a surfeit of victuals

Much of this fascinating record has been brought vividly to life in the Great Kitchens at Stirling Castle, where the veil dividing us from our medieval forebears is pulled back to reveal preparations in full swing for a royal banquet. Stirling’s kitchens and stores served the largest medieval banqueting hall ever built in Scotland – the Great Hall built by James V’s father. Uncannily realistic figures are frozen in the act of dicing, slicing, chopping, plucking, stirring and shouting. In the dim light, I see baskets and platters overflowing with produce – leeks and carrots from the castle gardens, piles of exotic oranges, lemons and figs brought from Asia, and blackberries from closer to home. Two men shoulder their way in carrying a felled roe deer.

At my feet is a bucket of eels. So why the expense, and effort? As Nicki has explained, food and how it was served ensured that people knew their place. When I sit down in the Great Hall at Doune Castle, erstwhile home to the Duke of Albany, I place myself in the role of low-ranking guest. As the duke dined in his private chambers (the Duke’s Hall) with honoured guests, I would have sat, stomach growling, while steaming dishes of delicacies were paraded past. I would be dining on less-refined fare. Such treatment of the ‘lower orders’ might seem a trifle harsh by modern standards, but such displays were necessary to convey wealth, status and power.

Strict etiquette

Doune’s Great Hall – 170 square metres, with an 11m high roof was the perfect venue for the duke, a man noted for his ‘large tabling and belly cheer’. But even his largesse paled in comparison to an event such as the Archbishop of York’s enthronement feast in 1466, in which four separate dinners were served to more than 2,000 guests. Each consisted of three courses. Second-rate meat was served to those dining in the Low Hall, while the top table enjoyed the finest foods, some ‘garnished in gold leaf for maximum effect’. Sobering statistics underline the scale of this endeavour – 608 bream and pike, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 pheasant, 4,000 hot venison pasties and 3,000 cold custards. Not forgetting 504,000 pints of ale and 168,000 pints of wine. Away from the excess of York, Dirleton Castle is an impressive stone edifice in East Lothian, home to a succession of noble families – all of whom enjoyed laying on a good spread. Dinnertimes at the castle

Left: The turnbrochie at Stirling Castle Above: A dovecot at Dirleton Castle - now and then 38 | historic scotland | Winter 2013


2 1


Dining destinations ① Doune Castle (please check for updated opening hours) ② Stirling Castle ③ Dirleton Castle

churned out 234 dozen loaves in one month alone – and vast cellars and storerooms, where supplies were kept under lock and key.

cogs in a machine

demanded very strict etiquette, with manners an important indicator of status and education. Manuscript illustrations, for example, show pilgrims dining with lords while using their hands and utensils correctly. Diners were expected to wash their hands before being seated, with their left hand kept well away from food, given its unsavoury role in the water closet. And slurping noisily from one’s cup was definitely frowned upon. Andrew Spratt, Dirleton’s custodian, shares another interesting morsel: ‘A guest who had outstayed their welcome

Doune Castle was the grand residence of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany (c.1340–1420), and well appointed for hosting magnificent banquets

might be served a cold cut of meat as a less than subtle hint,’ he says. I turn my attention to the castle spaces where food was prepared. Like well-oiled machinery, these cavernous, smoky and dimly lit rooms and their army of staff kept the wheels of medieval society turning. The layout of the kitchens and auxiliary areas was important, and there are elements common to the three castles I visit: colossal fireplaces to house bubbling cauldrons and the revolving meat spit, beehive ovens for the household’s daily bread – at Stirling Castle, in 1543, the baker

Historical records aside, these features have their own stories to tell, as I discover at Doune Castle from Monument Manager Catherine Mason, and ex-Python, Terry Jones, who narrates the castle’s wonderful audio tour. (Monty Python and the Holy Grail was filmed partly at Doune, and Jones’ enthusiasm for the castle is infectious.) If not for this amiable raconteur, I would have missed an evocative medieval fingerprint. At the kitchen window, long striations carved into the stonework show the marks of knives being sharpened many years ago. With a shiver, I turn to admire the two slop drains beside the massive fireplace, used for ejecting all manner of detritus at the end of the working day. At Doune, I begin to appreciate the machinery of food preparation and service. The kitchen block was, in effect, a tower house devoted to feeding a household. From the kitchens, two enormous historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 39

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The kitchen block was, in effect, a tower house devoted to feeding a household. From the kitchens, two enormous serving hatches allowed food to be passed to serving staff serving hatches allowed food to be passed to serving staff on its way to the Great Hall’s servery area. And in the buttery – derived from the French, bouteillerie, for bottle store – fine wines from the Continent and ale for the lower ranks was decanted into serving jugs. These legions of servants are generally unsung heroes of culinary history but, happily, at Stirling Castle this is not the case. Mary of Guise’s records name the chief players of circa 1542. Thomas Marshall ruled as master

Above: Doune Castle Above right: Preparing food at Dirleton Castle

cook, while the hapless kitchen groom was David Kirkcaldy. Master baker George Gibsone was churning out those loaves, and principal brewer Patrick Kincaird would have slaked many a thirst. The indispensable turnbrochie,

whose sole job was to turn the meat spit, was simply called ‘Good’, though perhaps more in recognition of his ability. There are no women but, earlier in the day, I was informed that kitchens were staffed mainly by men and boys, and that ‘the Great Kitchens were no place for women’. I couldn’t agree more as I end my exploration of medieval feasting and add ‘kitchen staff’ to my wishlist. I wonder how my guests would react if, this year, swan replaced turkey on the festive menu?

Each year Historic Scotland hosts wine-and-dine and Christmas lunch events at Edinburgh Castle and Stirling Castle. Featuring fantastic seasonal fare, the combination of wonderful surroundings and great food is bound to put you in the festive mood. For more information turn to page 53.

Feeding a Royal household Gathering supplies for the festive season is a daunting prospect, but spare a thought for Mary of Guise’s household in 1543, when the royal court moved to Stirling Castle. According to the household accounts, it took 19 carriage horses to carry the contents of the Great Larder, all the kitchen utensils, the wine cellar equipment and materials for the bakehouse. Once there, the kitchens would have sourced local produce – venison from the Royal Parks, pigeons from the dovecot and plenty of fresh fish from the castle’s fishponds when religion dictated meat-free days. But the cellars were also swelled by rents paid to the royal landlord in produce rather than hard cash. John Harrison’s analysis of the royal records show that, in 1541, the king received 17 tonnes of barley, four tonnes of oats, 17 tonnes of malt, 600 loads of coal, 90 capons and 30 salmon. There were also substantial quantities of gifts, ranging from swans and geese to whisky and wine – in other words, enough for the royal household to live regally for quite some time.

historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 41


History written in the stars While our relationship to the night sky has changed over the centuries, our fascination with celestial bodies has remained enduringly strong, says Bob Tevendale



he relationship between astronomy and historic places is complex. Prehistoric monuments in particular have long been associated with attempts by early people to interpret the significance of heavenly bodies, and to predict changes of season or weather conditions. This is, however, a heavily debated topic within the archaeological world. This debate was fuelled in the summer by discoveries made by Professor Vince Gaffney of the University of Birmingham and his team of diggers from the National Trust for Scotland at Warren Field, near Crathes in Aberdeenshire. The archaeologists believe they have discovered a Mesolithic (10,000-year-old) calendar capable of predicting the seasons. This line of 12 pits, they consider, supported posts which, when aligned with features in the landscape, could be used to predict the movements of the Sun and Moon. This would suggest that humans were predicting the seasons and landmark times well before the Neolithic period – that is, thousands of years earlier than previously thought. The identification of such calendars is far from easy. The astronomer and archaeologist Clive Ruggles, Emeritus Professor of Archaeoastronomy at the University of Leicester, famously remarked that: ‘One of the most endearing characteristics of archaeoastronomy is its capacity to set academics in different disciplines at loggerheads with each other.’ Prehistoric monuments have often been interpreted as sophisticated devices to predict seasons, weather or other events. Numerous studies have been carried out, drawing together archaeological information from the monuments with computer models to determine lunar and astrological alignments over the ages. There is plenty of evidence that these monuments had significance beyond the purely symbolic, but it is very hard to prove that they were used for

42 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

Where to pitch your telescope The Neolithic monuments of Orkney and the Western Isles make for excellent locations, because they do not suffer from light pollution, which is caused by light being thrown into the night sky, bouncing off dust particles and water droplets and reflecting back to Earth. This effectively masks the fainter stars. From a city centre we might see fewer than 100 stars with our naked eyes. Under a dark sky we can see more than 1,000 stars. We can even see our own galaxy, the Milky Way, stretching across the sky. The only

other galaxy you can see with the naked eye in Britain is Andromeda, which is directly overhead in the winter sky.

aeroplane contrails can also increase the cloud cover, so the best viewing areas are away from air-traffic routes.

The original observatory in Edinburgh was built on Calton Hill from 1776–93. It had to be relocated further up the hill in the 1830s, because of atmospheric pollution, caused by the smoke and soot of ‘Auld Reekie’. Light pollution became a problem, however, and increasingly observation has moved out of the city to observatories such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii.

Geographical factors are also important. Places in the open, not surrounded by hills, allow the widest view of the sky. Coastal locations are therefore good, especially as there is no light pollution at sea. Taking these factors together, the prime spots are likely to be the Northern and Western Isles, but top of the list is the south-west. St Ninian’s Cave or Chapel (near Whithorn) would seem to be ideal. However, for the all-round star-spotting experience, it is also hard to beat Calanais or the Ring of Brodgar.

It is not just light pollution that can affect the best places to look at stars. The weather is also a factor. Cloudless nights

Top: Ring of Brodgar Above: St Ninian’s Cave are obviously the best. The Highlands of Scotland are virtually free from light pollution, but a poor area for skywatching due to the incidence of cloudy nights. Jet

historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 43


anything beyond simple identification of the summer and winter solstice. For an arrangement of stones to be used in this way, it would require a fore sight, a back sight and a spot from which to observe alignments. Thousands of years later, these sights are open to question. On a purely physical level, stones can move, or indeed fall down. Stones may have been re-erected, or damaged by natural phenomena such as lightning strikes. Even at iconic monuments, the Ring of Brodgar on Orkney and Calanais on Lewis, we know that stones have been re-erected in the past. The intended viewing position can be critical, but this is often unclear, as are features of the landscape that may form part of an alignment. There have been cases where an alignment has been identified on a map or plan, but subsequently found to be obscured by landscape features when viewed from the ground.


For an arrangement of stones to be used in this way, it would require a fore sight, a back sight and a spot from which to observe alignments. Thousands of years later, these sights are open to question And, of course, the nature of the landscape will probably have changed considerably since the monument was built – especially in relation to tree cover, which can restrict views, most notably at the horizon. At certain locations, however, the alignment of a monument to a heavenly body is not in question. At the outstanding Neolithic chambered tomb of Maeshowe on Orkney – probably dating to the early 3rd millennium BC – the setting midwinter sun shines right down the long entrance passage to light up the central chamber. And as if this was not sufficient testimony to Stone Age ingenuity, Maeshowe exhibits another five possible alignments. For example, the passage points directly at the Barnhouse standing stone, about 400 metres away, and the summit of Ward Hill. Similarly aligned to the midwinter sun are the Clava Cairns, a pair of burial mounds at Balnuaran of Clava, to the east of Inverness. These Bronze Age cairns are so distinctive that their name is applied to other structures of the same type. A Clava cairn is a generic type of circular chamber tomb with a covered passage oriented south west – towards the midwinter sunset. There are about 50 cairns of this type in the region. At Clava, enigmatically, these formerly roofed cairns are accompanied by a ring cairn, unroofed, but surrounded by radiating strips of rubble, each with a small standing stone at its tip, arranged to resemble the rays of a sun. There is some 44 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

The Calanais standing stones on Lewis – ‘hard to beat for the star-spotting experience’

Five stargazing tips


Learn the sky – Even if you live in a densely populated, light-polluted area, it is still possible to familiarise yourself with where the constellations are in relation to one another.


Take your time – Your eyes need anywhere from five to 30 minutes to adjust to the lack of light. So when you first arrive at your chosen observation spot, give yourself time to properly acclimatise.


Begin with binoculars – Although the classic image of the amateur astronomer is with eye fixed to a telescope, when you are first starting out, binoculars, with their wider field of vision, make it a lot easier for you to find your way around the night sky.


Watch the weather – Keep up to date with the forecast. In particular, you are looking to go out on a night with clear skies. Also, be mindful of the temperature and be prepared to wrap up warmly.


Look after yourself – As well us taking warm clothes, make sure you carry a torch (if possible one that has a red light). Make sure you know the area you are visiting, and let someone else know that you are heading off for a night with the stars.

Kilchurn Castle at the head of Loch Awe is a beautiful place to stargaze which benefits from a lack of light pollution Below: Midwinter sunlight illuminates the tomb at Maeshowe

evidence that fires may have been lit at the centre of this kind of cairn. Also in Historic Scotland’s care is a handful of recumbent stone circles, among them Tomnaverie, Loanhead and Easter Aquhorthies Stone Circles. Like other stone circles, these consist of a ring of standing stones; however, there is always one large stone laid recumbent (on its side), usually flanked by the largest two standing stones. The stones are commonly graded in height, with the lowest stones placed opposite the tall flankers. The recumbent stone typically lies between the southsouth-east and south-west points of the circle. It is thought that this configuration could have been used for lunar observations; however, such an alignment also coincides with the winter solstice sunset. The standing stones at Calanais have been said to be aligned with natural and astral features – among them the Clisham mountain on neighbouring Harris. However, many experts are dubious about these theories. But as we have seen, evidence from elsewhere shows that early people were aware of the predictable movement of heavenly bodies through the night sky, and were capable of responding to it on a monumental scale.

By the relatively recent time of the Viking raids (around AD 800) astral navigation was clearly in use; allowing the Norse to navigate over large distances, beyond the sight of land. To this day, Polynesian navigation relies on steering towards the point where certain stars rise in the night sky, an astral guidance system. Some Historic Scotland locations have more recent associations with the stars. The garden at Edzell Castle was laid out in the early 1600s. Its most arresting feature is the series of stone panels on the east, south and west walls. They include representations of the seven planetary deities, depicted as Greek or Roman gods and goddesses, namely: Luna (the Moon), Mercury, Venus, Sol (the Sun), Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Other Historic Scotland monuments include sundials, which can be accurate predictors of the time. An interesting example was identified among rock fragments on Inchcolm Island. This kind, called a mass dial, would have been used to indicate when the bell should be tolled, calling the canons to worship. It is one of few surviving in Scotland and, like all of the locations we have covered in this article, well worth a visit the next time your thoughts turn to the skies above. historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 45

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46 | historic scotland | Winter 2013

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get in TOUCH Write to The Editor, Historic Scotland, Room 3.1, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH email tweet @hs_members and @welovehistory We are sorry that, due to the volume of mail we receive, the editor cannot reply to every letter personally

The museum at Iona Abbey

Two views of Iona’s new museum

ANSWER: Caerlaverock Castle

I’m writing as a member of the Iona Community, and a former warden of the abbey and leader of the community, to express my gratitude to Historic Scotland for the excellent work you have done recently around the abbey, with the new signage, and especially with the renewed museum. My wife and I are just back from a week in the village on Iona, and were immensely impressed with everything we saw around the abbey and in the museum. I remember the museum when I was there as warden in the early 1970s and the transformation is quite wonderful. Rev Dr John Harvey In June I visited the new museum display at Iona Abbey. I had been looking forward to seeing the newly rebuilt St Oran’s Cross. The new display is, sadly, a massive disappointment. Whereas the museum used to be f looded with natural light, appropriate for a

display of outdoor monuments, now all windows and skylights have been blocked. The artificial lighting winks on and off in a darkened space, making it impossible to study the monuments, many of which are in shadow and crowded into inaccessible corners. St Oran’s Cross is partly hidden behind the ugly rebuild of St John’s Cross, and the crosses are crowded together, giving no impact. Extraneous and irrelevant noise assaults the visitors’ ears, making it impossible to concentrate on the artefacts. There is one good feature of the new arrangement: the

My v ie w finder We received this great photograph from Isobel McIlwraith who, inspired by our Viewfinder page, challenges you to guess the location (answer at the side of the page).

display of West Highland grave-slabs in the cloister gives them space, dignity and natural light. If the same principles were applied to the museum, these monuments could speak for themselves, and not be part of a tawdry sound and light show. Alan Macquarrie Principal Researcher Peter Yeoman replies: We are sorry the new displays are not to your taste. The Historic Scotland project team tried to create displays that do justice to the international cultural significance of this extraordinary collection of carved stone cross slabs and high crosses,

which represent our principal surviving evidence of the early Christian Columban monastery. Considerable thought was put into the location and presentation of each element, especially due to the constraints of time, budget and space within which we were working. You make the important point about ensuring that visitors are aware the crosses stood out in the open, proclaiming the great importance and sanctity of the place. Three high crosses now stand, enlivened by a brief sound and light display intended to reveal the imagery on the crosses as they were meant to be seen, that is, in the 24-hour sun and moon cycle of a monastic day. This is punctuated by sounds related to their constant round of worship, including chants, believed to have been written by Columba and his biographer Abbot Adomnan. The issue with the 24-hour lighting cycle will soon be resolved, part of the fine-tuning required in any new exhibition. We hope you will visit again, with these points in mind, and have a more enjoyable experience of Scotland’s most sacred place.

historic scotland | Winter 2013 | 49

december-M arch


lots of exciting things to do right across scotland

Pick up your events guide at any of our properties or visit for full details. Daytime events are free to members, unless otherwise stated.

Christmas comes to Stirling Christmas Shopping Fayre

Stirling Castle Tue 3 December 6pm-9pm £5 with free on-site parking. Children under 16 go free but must be accompanied by an adult 01786 469 491 Avoid the high-street hustle and bustle and join us for a much more

relaxed approach to Christmas shopping. Set in the stunning Great Hall with its roaring log fire and festive music, the annual shopping fayre offers visitors a unique mix of suppliers and inspiring gift ideas. Treat yourself to some festive food in our Christmas Café, including our spiced mulled wine and delicious mince pies. Christmas shopping has never been more appealing!

Stirling Castle’s Great Hall hosts a Christmas Fayre jam-packed with gift ideas and festive cheer

Key to icons



50 | historic scotland | winter 2013

Gift shop

Reasonable wheelchair access

Dogs not permitted



Restaurant / café

Gift shop

Reasonable wheelchair access

Dogs not permitted


Christmas at Edinburgh Christmas Carols Edinburgh Castle Wed 18 December 11.15am to 1.15pm 0131 225 9846 www. edinburghcastle.

Join us as pupils from George Heriot’s School perform traditional Christmas carols in Edinburgh Castle’s Great Hall.

Christmas at the Castle

Stirling Castle Sun 15 December 12.30pm-3.30pm 0131 668 8885 festive Join us in the spectacular setting of Stirling Castle for an afternoon of festive fun. Sing along with music from the Swinging Santas, join in with the Baron’s comedy capers and laugh along at the Christmas puppet show. You can also learn about the traditions of Christmas and get the chance to see the traditional festive foods served at court. Join in the Christmas celebrations at Stirling and Edinburgh

Carols at the Castle

Stirling Castle Sun 15 December, 7pm Adults £15, concession/ children/Historic Scotland members £10 01786 469 493 festive Follow in the steps of the Stewart kings and queens and join us for a special evening of Christmas carols and song. The National Youth Choir of Scotland will be returning for a one-off festive concert in the castle’s Great Hall. Suitable for all ages, the choir will perform classic carols by candlelight and will invite the audience to join them in a sing-along of some popular Christmas songs.

The Daft Days

Edinburgh Castle Sat 28-Tue 31 December 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 225 9846 www.edinburghcastle. Meet two ladies of Mary Queen of Scots’ court as they get ready for the fun times ahead in the castle. Learn all about what the well-dressed lady will be wearing in 1563 and what sort of revelry will be going on. Visit the queen’s cook in the Laigh Hall and see what tasty treats are being prepared for the royal feast. Meet the queen’s guard, who will show off his array of weaponry and even fire his musket.

A Dickens Christmas

No Christmas Here

Charles Dickens feels Christmas is undervalued and sets out to restore the magic. To do this he revamps ancient traditions for the modern age as he gathers material for his latest novel, A Christmas Carol

Meet the Cromwellian soldiers who have just recently gained entry to Edinburgh Castle after a long siege. Learn of how Christmas was not to be celebrated, what Cromwell did to the Great Hall and hear the roar of the muskets.

Edinburgh Castle Sat 21-Tue 24 December 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 225 9846 festive

Edinburgh Castle Wed 1-Thu 2 January 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 225 9846 festive

historic scotland | winter 2013 | 51

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Restaurant / café

Gift shop

Reasonable wheelchair access

Dogs not permitted


Stirling Castle Christmas Lunch

Unicorn Café Thu 5-Sat 7, Thu 12-Sat 14, Thu 19-Tue 24 December £26 Members £31.95 Non-members £17.25 Child members £19.80 Child non-members Feast like royalty with our three-course Christmas lunch. Lunch includes admission to the castle and Argyll’s Lodging so you can hear all about Christmas past and the preparations at the Royal Stewart Court for Yuletide. You can also take advantage of our shops which stock a wide range of gifts. uk/member and click on Festive Dining

Edinburgh Castle Christmas Lunch

Jacobite Room Thu 5-Sun 8, Wed 11-Tue 24 December £29 Members £35 Non-members £17 Child members £21 Child non-members Set in the merry surroundings of the Jacobite Room and boasting wonderful panoramic views of Princes Street and beyond, indulge in a truly memorable Christmas lunch experience. After you’ve eaten, continue your festive experience by exploring the castle on a free guided tour. uk/member and click on Festive Dining

Edinburgh Castle Wine & Dine

Queen Anne Room Sun 8, Sun 15 December, 1pm £45 Members £52 Non-members Sample the best Scottish cuisine at our exclusive Christmas Wine and Dine lunches. Our chef will introduce each of the four courses, while our expert sommelier will describe the wines selected to accompany each delicious course. uk/member and click on Festive Dining


Welcome the world

Homecoming Scotland 2014 is delivered by VisitScotland and EventScotland. 2014 sees a year in which Scotland will welcome the world. At the heart of the celebrations will be an extensive events programme, celebrating the best of Scottish produce, natural resources, creativity, culture and ancestral heritage. Historic Scotland will play an active part in this initiative with our events programme throughout the year. As usual we will keep you updated with details via the magazine, our website and the members’ enewsletter. For more on the wider Homecoming programme

Burns for Beginners

Edinburgh Castle Fri 24-Sun 26 January, 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 225 9846 Robert Burns is one of Scotland’s literary greats – but what exactly was he talking about? Come along for a light-hearted introduction to his works. Crowd participation is encouraged.

Burns Weekend

Stirling Castle Sat 25-Sun 26 January, 11am-3pm 01786 469 493 Join our special Burns tours at Stirling Castle with adult and children tours available. Find out more about Rabbie’s visit to the castle and how it impacted on his work.


Ranger events

For details of ranger events on Orkney, call 01856 841 732. For Holyrood Park, 0131 652 8150, and Linlithgow Peel, 01506 842 065

Within These Walls

Holyrood Park Sat 7 December, Sun 2 March Noon-3pm Must book in advance hs. Join us on this three-hour guided boundary wall walk exploring the historical background and ownership of the park. We’ll take a look at how the natural resources of the park were utilised by the working class.

Glaciation: How Ice Shaped Our Landscape

Holyrood Park Sat 14 December 1pm-2.30pm £5, £4, £3 (adult, conc, child) HS members free Must book in advance hs. Find out how ice has shaped our landscape over the past few millennia. What formations in Holyrood Park and the surrounding area were left by glaciers? Dr Angus Miller will bring the story of Holyrood Park up to date. Suitable for ages 8+.

Midwinter Walk


Ring of Brodgar Sat 21 December 2pm

On the darkest day of the year the Rangers lead a walk around the Brodgar area and talk about the significance of light. Walk ends at sunset.

54 | historic scotland |winter 2013

Standing Stones of Stenness Walk

Standing Stones of Stenness Every Wed (excluding 25 Dec and 1 Jan) to March 2014 10am Join us for this easy walk led by the Historic Scotland Rangers to Barnhouse Village and back to the Standing Stones of Stenness. Discover the valuable wildlife and the area’s significant role in Orkney’s World Heritage Site.

Ring of Brodgar Walk Ring of Brodgar Every Thu (excluding 26 Dec

and 2 Jan) to March 2014 1pm This easy walk, led by the Historic Scotland Rangers, around the Ring of Brodgar

explores the archaeology, wildlife and natural environment of the area. Take a look at our oldest stone circle and the links with the nearby Neolithic village of Barnhouse.


Restaurant / café

Gift shop

Reasonable wheelchair access

Dogs not permitted


Salisbury Crags seen from the Radical Road, and how Holyrood Park may have looked in the Mesolithic period

Guided walk focusing on the geology and formation of the magnificent Arthur’s Seat and Salisbury Crags. Suitable for ages 16+.

Holyrood Park and Environs: A Prehistory Salisbury Crags, with Arthur’s Seat beyond, are part of Holyrood Park’s fascinating geology, and home to a range of wildlife

Bawsinch and Duddingston Loch: A Wild Tale

Holyrood Park Sat 18 January 1pm-2.30pm £5, £4, £3 (adult, conc, child) HS members free Must book in advance hs. Join the Rangers and Ken Knowles for an illuminating talk about the diversity of wildlife inhabiting Bawsinch Wildlife

Reserve and Duddingston Loch. Find out what slithers, swims, hops, crawls, jumps, walks, flies, flutters and buzzes in the heart of the Scotland’s capital. See why Bawsinch is a wildlife haven. Suitable for ages 8+.

Hot Rocks

Holyrood Park Sun 26 January 9am-noon Must book in advance hs.

Holyrood Park Sun 2 February 1pm-2.30pm £5, £4, £3 (adult, conc, child), HS members 10% discount Must book in advance hs. Find out about the fascinating human prehistoric story of Arthur’s Seat and the surrounding area. Discover more about Edinburgh’s earliest settlers: how they lived, worked and what tools they used. Presented by Dr Alison Sheridan, president of the Prehistoric Society and head of early prehistory at the National Museum of Scotland. Suitable for ages 8+.

Coolest Walk on Earth

Holyrood Park Sun 9 February 9am-noon Must book in advance hs. Join Dr Angus Miller and the Rangers for a two-hour guided walk exploring evidence of glaciation left by the last major Ice Age. Suitable for ages 8+.

Young Rangers

Linlithgow Peel Tue 18 Feb 10am-noon Must book in advance hs. Join the Historic Scotland Rangers as they welcome the Young Rangers, children from five to 15 years of age, accompanied by an adult. Activities from jellyfish surveying to bird box building and tree planting.

historic scotland | winter 2013 | 55



This glum-looking man can be found keeping watch from the first monastery of the Cistercian order established in Scotland. The monks were drawn to this fertile riverside spot because of its intimate associations with the holy men St Aidan and St Cuthbert. Powerful people also richly endowed this religious centre, and a king’s heart is supposedly buried within the grounds. 56 | historic scotland | WINTER 2013

How to enter If you can identify the location from the clues below, visit www.historic-scotland. or post your answer, with your name, membership number and address, to Viewfinder, Historic Scotland magazine, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH by 24 January. See member for terms and conditions. The winning entry will receive a cheese

Last issue Last issue’s location was Aberdour Castle. It was correctly identified by Iain Black from Saline, near Dunfermline.

and wine hamper from Scottish Hampers ( containing a bottle of Bordeaux, Scottish cheese, crackers and flame roasted coffee, among other treats. Please note this competition is only open to members who are aged over 18

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At Nikwax we do all we can to minimise our impact on the environment and people’s health. We are the only established outdoor aftercare company to have a WaterBased, non-flammable and fluorocarbon (PFC) free range. We have always avoided using PFCs as we believe they are a risk to consumer health and the environment. To learn more visit

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Nikwax TX. Direct




A clean, waterproofed jacket can breathe , so you don’t get damp!

Nikwax Tech Wash


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Profile for Historic Scotland Members

Historic Scotland, Winter 2013  

The magazine for Historic Scotland members

Historic Scotland, Winter 2013  

The magazine for Historic Scotland members