Page 1

Your winning photographs revealed

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AMAZING EVENTS

INSIDE

THE MAGAZINE FOR HISTORIC SCOTLAND MEMBERS SPRING 2014

SAVING OUR TREASURES

With steam power and lasers

5 BRIDGES FOR YOU TO CROSS THE LATEST COMPETITIONS AND NEWS

THE BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN

ATTACK THE CASTLE How Scotland’s strongholds were dragged into war


ESCUE

SCOTT

MO

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H IS

MO TA IN UN

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H IS

TA IN UN

SCOTT

ESCUE

15p from every bottle sold of Isle of Skye whisky goes to help Scottish Mountain Rescue. So try the true mountain spirit, an 8 year old blend of the finest malt and grain whiskies. Visit isleofskyewhisky.com

Image: Colin Henderson/Scottish Mountain Rescue.

GIVE THEM A SMALLER MOUNTAIN TO CLIMB.


Welcome to

Hello and a very warm welcome to what is shaping up to be a big year for Scotland. And with that in mind, we’ve decided to shape up a bit ourselves! As you may have noticed, we’ve given the magazine a new look for 2014. I hope you like what we’ve done with the old place, and would welcome your comments on what you like and even what you don’t. Once you’ve read through our new opening section, The Script, our article on the anniversary of Bannockburn awaits you. This is likely to be one of the more significant events of this Year of Homecoming and historian Chris Tabraham has taken a look at the many links between that famous battle and properties within our care. Elsewhere in this issue, we preview our big Road to Bannockburn event, which takes place at Stirling Castle in May. We’ve also sent writer Paul Cockburn off to take in some of the sights of historic Fife, while our editor, Jack Kibble-White, tries his hand at being a conservator for a day. And then there are the winners of our most recent photography competition. It’s always a bit of a cliché to say the judges were impressed by the quality of the entries, so I will leave that unsaid, as our readers’ brilliance behind a camera speaks for itself – as you will see on page 30. There’s lots in this issue, and I hope you enjoy it all. Have a wonderful spring, and see you back here for the summer.

CLAIRE BOWIE Membership & CRM Manager

INTRODUCE A FRIEND

HISTORIC SCOTLAND

SEE PAGE 49

5 big things to see and do this issue 1

2

MALCOLM COCHRANE

3

Switch off your lights as part of WWF’s Earth Hour P.7 Follow the John Muir Way and take a trip into history P.9 Visit Cambuskenneth Abbey and learn about its role in the Battle of Bannockburn P.20

4

Have a magical Easter at Stirling Castle P.53

5

Try out our new competition P.56

Cambuskenneth: supply depot and parliament

Contributors CHRIS TABRAHAM Battling beyond Bannockburn (P.16) Formerly Historic Scotland’s Principal Historian, Chris has written numerous books, including Bannockburn 1314: Battle for a Nation.

BOB TEVENDALE View from outdoors (P.11) Bob works as Historic Scotland’s Natural Heritage Advisor and writes about Bannockburn in this issue

PAUL COCKBURN Journey to the kingdom (P.34) A freelance journalist, Paul has written for a wide range of magazines, including BBC Sky at Night and SFX.

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 1


HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Your winning photographs revealed

27

AMAZING EVENTS

INSIDE

SPRING 2013

LOOK INSIDE HISTORIC SCOTLAND SPRING 2014

THE MAGAZINE FOR HISTORIC SCOTLAND MEMBERS SPRING 2014

SAVING OUR TREASURES

With steam power and lasers

5 BRIDGES FOR YOU TO CROSS THE LATEST COMPETITIONS AND NEWS

THE BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK/MEMBER

ATTACK THE CASTLE How Scotland’s strongholds were dragged into war

00_HS_SPR14_COVERspine.indd 1

20/02/2014 17:24

Headquarters Historic Scotland Longmore House, Salisbury Place Edinburgh EH9 1SH www.historic-scotland.gov.uk Membership enquiries 0131 668 8999 hs.members@scotland.gsi.gov.uk Editorial enquiries hs.magazine@scotland.gsi.gov.uk Membership & CRM Manager Claire Bowie Assistant Membership Manager Pauline Brews Editor Jack Kibble-White jack@thinkpublishing.co.uk Deputy Editor Andrew Cattanach andrew.cattanach@ thinkpublishing.co.uk Design Matthew Ball Sub-editor Sian Campbell Advertising Sales Daniel Haynes daniel.haynes@thinkpublishing. co.uk 0208 962 1257 Publisher John Innes john.innes@thinkpublishing.co.uk Think Woodside House, 20-23 Woodside Place Glasgow G3 7QF 0141 582 1280 Photography

All images provided by Historic Scotland unless otherwise stated. For access to images of Scotland and our properties, call 0131 668 8647/8785, email hs.images@ scotland.gsi.gov.uk, or visit www. historicscotlandimages.gov.uk Historic Scotland is an Agency within the Scottish Government and is directly responsible to Scottish Ministers for safeguarding the nation’s historic environment and promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Historic Scotland is published four times a year, and is printed on UPM Finesse, which is made from pulp sourced from sustainable materials. The views expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of Historic Scotland. All information is correct at the time of going to press. © Historic Scotland. All rights reserved. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without prior agreement of the Membership and CRM Manager and Historic Scotland. Cover: Stirling Castle, Graham Harris Graham

34 | Paul Cockburn visits St Andrews Castle on his foray round Fife 2 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

42 | Jack Kibble-White steam cleans a Kirkmadrine stone


50

16 | Bothwell Castle: bolt-hole of the beaten after Bannockburn

EVENTS

In the Year of Homecoming Scotland, we chart the big events that are set to take place in 2014

24 | Aberfeldy’s iconic Tay Bridge

30 | Stirling Castle in photo finish REGULARS

PLACES TO VISIT

4 THE SCRIPT News and updates from around the country 49 MEMBERSHIP 50 EVENTS 56 GUESS THE YEAR

THIS SPRING

FEATURES

Urquhart Castle P30 Tay Bridge P24 Iona Abbey P4 4 | Robert the Bruce letters exhibition

St Andrews Castle P34 Dirleton Castle P4 Bothwell Castle P16

16 BATTLING BEYOND BANNOCKBURN Seven hundred years after the decisive clash, Chris Tabraham takes us round the Historic Scotland properties inextricably linked by Bruce’s battlefield victory 24 BRIDGES OVER SCOTTISH WATERS Spanning the centuries, we take a look at five iconic structures

30 HISTORY ON CAMERA The winners of this year’s Historic Scotland photography competition 34 JOURNEY TO THE KINGDOM Paul Cockburn finds treasures at Aberdour and Dunfermline 42 MY DAY AS A CONSERVATOR Jack Kibble-White turns his hand to artefact conservation WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 3


SCRIPT THE

PEOPLE, PLACES, RESEARCH, COMPETITIONS, AND MORE…

INCLUDING

Bruce and Wallace exhibition at Stirling Castle What RCAHMS will bring to Historic Scotland Our World Heritage: the Antonine Wall The pipes are calling at Arbroath From battle re-enactments to picnics, there is plenty to celebrate in this Homecoming year

WELCOMING THE WORLD

EVENTS Homecoming Scotland 2014 is here and it’s going to be a fantastic year ALONGSIDE the Ryder Cup and the Commonwealth Games, the Year of Homecoming Scotland is a programme of events that will run until 31 December 2014 right across the country. 4 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Visitors from around the world are invited to join in a celebration of the nation’s fantastic food and drink, get involved in active pursuits and make the most of Scotland’s cultural, natural and ancestral heritage.

Historic Scotland is doing its bit to celebrate 2014 with hundreds of events – from jousting to drama, living history to fabulous feasts. There will be something for everyone in what is going to be a truly

spectacular year of entertainment and events throughout Scotland. TO FIND OUT MORE about Homecoming Scotland 2014 visit www.homecomingscotland.com For a taster of Historic Scotland’s events in 2014 see page 50.


FIVE HOMECOMING HIGHLIGHTS

THE JOHN MUIR FESTIVAL 17#26 APRIL Celebrate the life and legacy of John Muir, a Scotland born naturalist

Spectacular technology awaits you inside the new heritage centre

JOIN IN THE BATTLE ACTION

ATTRACTION Cutting-edge technology brings Bannockburn to life in new centre

WHISKY MONTH 1#31 MAY Pay tribute to the world-beating quality of Scotland’s food and drink output

BANNOCKBURN LIVE 28#29 JUNE Join visitors from around the world to commemorate Scotland’s most famous battle

THE opening on 1 March of the new heritage centre at Bannockburn marked the culmination of a project that began four years ago and was managed by Historic Scotland’s Major Projects Team in partnership with the National Trust for Scotland. Teams from both organisations were brought together in 2010 to take on the challenge, supported by £9.1 million in funding from Historic Scotland and the Heritage Lottery Fund. For visitors, the experience starts with the story of King Robert and Edward II. From there you enter ‘Prepare for Battle’ in the main exhibition space

a 270-degree, full-size, 3D 14th-century conflict. Next stop is a circular arena where you join units to do battle in an exciting interactive game. The official launch takes place during the last weekend in June to coincide with the anniversary of the battle. All eyes will be on Stirling and its surrounding area as it hosts a series of spectacular events, including Pipefest on 27 June, the Armed Forces Day National Event on 28 June and Bannockburn Live running on 28 and 29 June. The new centre funded by Historic Scotland and the Heritage Lottery Fund

IN THIS YEAR

SHUTTERSTOCK, ALAMY

THE FORTH BRIDGES FESTIVAL 4"13 SEPTEMBER Recognising the lasting impression of the Forth Road and Rail Bridges

HIGHLAND HOMECOMING 2014 1 SEPTEMBER#31 OCTOBER A celebration of contemporary Highland culture in Inverness

TO FIND OUT MORE about how Historic Scotland properties played their part in battle, page 16

1928

Field-Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig is interred at Dryburgh Abbey.

Medical breakthrough as Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

Women’s athletics and gymnastics debut at the Summer Olympics.

Gilbert Mackenzie Trench designs the Police Box, still found in Glasgow today.

Designer, Charles Rennie Mackintosh passes away, aged 60.

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 5


THE SCRIPT

Robert the Bruce: read what he wrote in Stirling exhibition

WIN

THREE GREAT BOOKS Published by Birlinn

LEADERS’ LETTERS AT STIRLING CASTLE

EXHIBITION Medieval documents shine a light on a stormy period of history

MAVERICK AGENCY, SHUTTERSTOCK

HISTORIC Scotland and the National Records of Scotland have collaborated to create an exhibition at Stirling Castle that explores the achievements of Robert the Bruce and William Wallace. The exhibition, ‘Wallace, Bruce and Scotland’s Contested Crown’, brings together for the first time two

WWF’S EARTH HOUR: IN THE DARK FOR A BRIGHTER FUTURE AT 8.30pm on 29 March, millions of people across the world will be plunged into darkness as part of the WWF’s Earth Hour. This extraordinary event focuses the world’s attention on our planet by encouraging people to switch off their lights for 60 minutes. Historic Scotland will again be showing its support at a number of locations across the country. Find out more: www.wwf.org.uk/earthhour

rare medieval documents that provide a fascinating glimpse into a stormy period of Scottish history. The letters illustrate the different paths taken by the two leaders. The National Records of Scotland has also launched an initiative to provide family history research training to members of Historic

Scotland’s Visitor Services Team. The intention is for this knowledge to be passed on to visitors to our properties who are keen to find out a bit about their own family tree. FIND OUT MORE ‘Wallace, Bruce and Scotland’s Contested Crown’ runs from 3 May to 1 June at Stirling Castle.

2013 EARTH HOUR PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED

871 schools

32

authorities

25

public bodies

11

historic properties

ANGELS of Mercy by Eileen Crofton tells the remarkable story of the Scottish ladies who set up a hospital staffed entirely by women during the First World War. Jewel in the Glen by Ed Hodge is the intertwining history of the Ryder Cup and of golf at Gleneagles. Shackleton’s Boat Journey by Frank Worsley relives Ernest Shackleton’s 1914 Antarctic expedition, when Endurance got stuck in ice For you chance to win a copy of each of these books answer the following question: PRIZE QUESTION In 1908, Shackleton led an expedition to the Antarctic for the first time. What was the name of the ship on which he made this journey? Post your answer and details to Birlinn Books Competition, Think Scotland, 20-23 Woodside Place, Glasgow, G3 7QF, or email hs.comps@ thinkpublishing.co.uk (with ‘Birlinn Books Competition’ in the subject line). The closing date for entries is 18 April.

WINTER COMPETITION ANSWERS AND WINNERS WORDSMITHS & WARRIORS Robert and William Chambers were the two Scottish brothers who first published Chambers’ English Dictionary, as correctly answered by Ian Paul from Penicuik and Peter Kerr from Prestbury THE GREAT TAPESTRY OF SCOTLAND The Great Tapestry of Scotland is 143-metres long, as correctly answered by Neil Angus Mackay from Culloden, Hazel Agnew from Christchurch, New Zealand, R J Hyder from Edinburgh, Kathie Brown from Stromness and Cressida Ryan from Oxford

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 7


THE SCRIPT

JUNIOR GUIDES GET TOP MARKS TOURS

Junior costumed interpreters in action

The finale of the Military Tattoo

HOSPITALITY AT MILITARY TATTOO

EVENT

EDINBURGH Castle is the venue for an evening of firstclass hospitality during the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in August. You can join a table in the Jacobite Room and enjoy an evening of excellent food and

THE LOWDOWN ON RCAHMS

the Tattoo is the perfect way to celebrate that very special occasion.

fine wine with a glimpse of the behind-the-scenes action before the performance. After dinner take the magical walk through the Tattoo backstage area and over the drawbridge to one of the best seats. An evening of hospitality at

FIND OUT MORE Visit edinburghcastle.gov.uk/events/ military-tattoo or contact the Tattoo hospitality team on 0131 225 4783, email hospitality@edintattoo.co.uk

RCAHMS SERVICES INCLUDE...

MERGER

WITH Historic Scotland set to merge with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), more than 100 years’ experience of working with the built heritage and a wealth of specialist skills will enhance the new organisation. FIND OUT MORE about what RCAHMS will offer our new organisation at www.rcahms.gov.uk 8 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

PHOTOGRAPHY RCAHMS sends photographers out across the country documenting buildings, archaeology and industrial sites for the national record.

1

SURVEYS The organisation produces high-quality, measured survey drawings, digital renderings and 3D scans of everything from buildings to stone circles.

2

EDUCATION RCAHMS offers learning services to a range of audiences including those in schools, higher and further education, plus lifelong learners, professionals and academics.

3

THE ROYAL EDINBURGH MILITARY TATTOO, CANMORE, ALAMY, SHUTTERSTOCK

YOUNG people are getting involved in history thanks to Historic Scotland. Junior Guides are pupils from primary schools who deliver costumed tours of ‘their’ historic property. The initiative is great fun and helps with pupils’ education. Castleview Primary in the Edinburgh area had an excellent school inspection recently, with the Junior Guides at Craigmillar Castle highlighted as an example of excellence. Meanwhile, pupils from Leith Primary are busy learning about their area’s maritime past as they prepare to be the first Trinity House Junior Guides.


THE SCRIPT

EAST LOTHIAN TREASURE TRAIL

The Dirleton Castle ruins are surrounded by lovely gardens

WALK THIS WAY

FROM April the new John Muir Way trail will be launched, stretching coast-to-coast from Dunbar to Helensburgh. The existing East Lothian section offers a wealth of treasures and we’ve picked out a few highlights that can be found on the nine-mile leg that runs between the village of Aberlady and North Berwick.

ABERLADY This pretty coastal village was once a bustling port and a centre for weavers in the 18th century. While trade ships no longer visit, it is home to abundant wildlife and became Britain’s first Local Nature Reserve in 1952.

GULLANE The origins of this ancient town in the heart of golf country lie in the ninth century when a church was established here. Around 200 years later it was replaced by St Andrew’s Church, the ruins of which still stand in the town’s west end.

YELLOWCRAIG This attractive beach and grassland area offers great views over to the 1885 lighthouse on the island of Fidra, thought to be the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island.

DIRLETON CASTLE Originally built in the 13th century, Oliver Cromwell’s siege of 1650 left Dirleton Castle badly damaged, but the ruins have grown old gracefully and are today surrounded by beautiful formal gardens.

NORTH BERWICK The seaside town and former royal burgh of North Berwick played host to a series of witch trials in the 16th century. At least 70 people were accused of holding their covens on the Auld Kirk Green.

YELLOWCRAIG

WALK FACTS Distance: Nine miles Approximate time: Three to four hours Grade: Easy

FINISH

Railway Station NORTH BERWICK

DIRLETON North BerwickLaw Gullane Bay

GULLANE

Aberlady Bay

START ABERLADY

1km

VOICE FOR THE WILDERNESS BORN in Dunbar in 1838, John Muir left Scottish shores for America while still a boy. He was to become the father of the modern conservation movement and a driving force behind establishing

the national parks that so define our image of the great American outdoors. The East Lothian section of the John Muir Way was established in 2008. For more see tinyurl.com/johnmuirway

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 9


By HOWARD BRENTON Director JOHN DOVE

18 to 22 March 2014

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16 to 19 April 2014

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22 to 26 April 2014

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7 to 10 May 2014

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KING’S THEATRE


THE SCRIPT

APPRENTICES TAKE ON THE WORLD STONEMASONS

MALCOLM COCHRANE, MARY EVANS

TWO Historic Scotland stonemasonry apprentices have been accepted into the pool of stonemasons to be trained in preparation for WorldSkills 2015 in Brazil. John Reid, a fourth year at Elgin Cathedral, and Connor Crawford, a third year at Lochgilphead, will gain knowledge and experience in hewing different types of stone, and will have a chance to put Historic Scotland on the international map by showcasing their talents. WorldSkills International has come to symbolise the pinnacle of excellence in vocational training. Every two years, hundreds of young skilled people gather together from around the world to compete before the public in their various trades and test themselves against demanding international standards. They represent the best of their peers drawn from regional and national skill competitions held currently in 67 countries/ regions.

Our stonemasons have world-class skills

The Scottish troops prepare for battle

Local knowledge

Historic Scotland’s Natural Heritage Advisor, Bob Tevendale, looks at how the lie of the land may have given King Robert the upper hand at Bannockburn BEFORE the Battle of Bannockburn, the Scots camped in the royal hunting park. A park in 1314 was very different from what we would recognise today. The only features that distinguished it from any other hunting forest were a ditch and an earthen bank designed to confine the to-behunted deer. Similar structures have been used for millennia as military defences. But the key difference in a hunting park is the ditch was on the inside – it was designed to keep deer in rather than enemies out. The hunting park would have been made up of dense woodland, deliberately managed as such. That sort of ground is totally unsuitable for fighting, especially for knights on large horses. Had the battle been fought in a park in England, the result may have been quite different. South of the border, hunting followed the European tradition of ‘the chase’. All the scrub and lower branches were removed, allowing hunters on horseback to see their quarry and move freely. The English

VIEW FROM OUTDOORS

horsemen had no such advantage in a dense Scottish hunting park. While the Scots camped in the hunting park, the English army was situated across the Stirling-to-Falkirk road. The lower ground here swept down to the River Forth, bounded by the Bannock Burn. The lower ground became ‘merrais’ or marsh, referred to as ‘the Carse’ or ‘Pows’. The historian GWS Barrow defined a pow or poll as a burn ‘flowing sluggishly through carseland, often having deep, peaty pools with crumbling overhanging banks’. The impenetrable, boggy land to the west of the battlefield was a key factor in the battle and its aftermath. During the clash, King Robert advanced rapidly, using the terrain to confine the English forces, allowing them no room to spread out. Even when defeated, the English could not flee east and most of those who tried perished in the boggy ground of the Carse. Bruce’s strategy grew from, and exploited, his knowledge of the terrain, and in this sense it was the land itself – Scotland’s own, notoriously waterlogged, turf – that triumphed over the invading foe. WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 11


THE SCRIPT

THE ANTONINE WALL

OUR WORLD HERITAGE

Concluding our series on the World Heritage Sites of Scotland is the Antonine Wall built by the ancient Romans STRADDLING the Central Belt from Bo’ness on the Firth of Forth to Old Kilpatrick on the River Clyde are the remnants of a defensive final frontier that graphically proclaimed the might and reach of ancient Rome. Built on the orders of Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD 142, the Antonine Wall once marked the north-west edge of the Roman Empire. Like his predecessor Hadrian, Antoninus had sought to bolster his imperial reputation with an ambitious military engineering project, extending colonial influence in Britannia and protecting the province against the ‘barbarian’ Caledonian tribes. The wall’s intimidating ramparts ran for 37 miles and were constructed from turf cut out of the rolling pasture and laid on stone foundations. A huge deep ditch on its northern side enhanced security, as did a strategic system of almost 20 forts along its length. These forts were connected by a road on the wall’s southern side, known as the military way, which allowed the swift movement of troops and communications. Responsible for building this highly organised military zone were detachments from the 2nd Legion based in Wales, the 6th at York, and the 20th at Chester – the same legions that had lent 12 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

A bird’s-eye view of the Wall today

their expertise to the construction of Hadrian’s Wall a generation earlier. Their toil is celebrated in a series of lavishly sculpted stone distance slabs, unique in the Roman world and now on display at the University of Glasgow’s Hunterian Museum, and the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

The Wall at Watling Lodge


WHO WAS ANTONINUS? Antoninus Pius was the Roman Emperor from AD 138 to 161. Described as mild-mannered and capable, he was the fourth of the ‘five good emperors’ who guided the empire through an 84-year period (96–180) of internal peace and prosperity. He eventually died of fever. Left: How Bar Hill may have looked Above: Croy Hill fort with a plan overlaid; and Below: a reconstruction of its signal beacons

The Wall and fort at Rough Castle

PROTECTION FOR THE FUTURE

CANMORE

Despite the many resources invested in the Antonine Wall, its position at the apex of the empire was short-lived. Following the death of Emperor Antoninus, the last linear frontier built by the Romans was abandoned in the AD 160s as his successor, Marcus Aurelius, withdrew his troops south to Hadrian’s Wall. What remains of Antoninus’ symbolic triumph in stone and sod today sits in a varied urban and rural landscape. Some of the best-preserved

sections are visible at Croy Hill and Seabegs, with good forts at Bar Hill and Rough Castle, while the bathhouse at Bearsden shows how those stationed here enjoyed a relatively sophisticated life. The ramparts may have crumbled and the forts may have been reduced to their foundations, but the Antonine Wall still offers an insight into the brilliance of Roman defensive architecture and the unbridled ambition of the empire’s rulers.

Some of the best-preserved sections are visible at Croy Hill and Seabegs

In December, the Antonine Wall World Heritage Site Partners (including Historic Scotland) launched a fiveyear management plan for the Site. The plan provides a framework for management, conservation, promotion and interpretation. It will focus on strengthening local, national and international partnerships; increasing the provision of digital resources, including

a new website; improving signage, paths and interpretation; and strengthening links between museum collections and physical sites. The plan will provide a strong framework for the Partners (Historic Scotland, East Dunbartonshire Council, Falkirk Council, Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council and West Dunbartonshire Council) to deliver

collaborative projects, but also enable the individual organisations to realise the social, cultural and economic potential of the Wall in their areas. The plan also includes objectives to work closely with Hadrian’s Wall and the German Limes on the international stage. FIND OUT MORE Read the plan at www.historicscotland.gov.uk/ antonine-wallmanagementplan-2014-19.pdf

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 13


THE SCRIPT

WHERE THE BIRDS GO

PUFFIN (between Scotland and Iceland)

MIGRATION

Some Historic Scotland properties are the part-time home to a number of exotic feathered friends. Bob Tevendale reveals where they spend the rest of the year

WHEATEAR (Sub-Saharan Africa)

Corncrake

Once a common bird in the Scottish countryside, the spread in the early 1900s of mechanical grass cutters and the practice of making silage led to a massive reduction in numbers. SPOT THEM AT Iona Abbey and Calanais

Numbers in Scotland were decimated by collectors in the Victorian era and the breeding population became extinct in 1916. Individuals were occasionally noted returning to nest in Scandinavia. It was presumably a pair of these birds which finally nested again in Scotland in 1954. SPOT THEM AT Inchmahome, Loch Leven and Threave

14 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

ARCTIC TERN (South Atlantic)

Wheatear

This small bird can often be seen on a fence post or on a wall, mainly on moorland and in open country. It has a distinctive white rump, which is displayed when disturbed and led to it being named ‘white arse’. Offended Victorian ornithologists changed the name to wheatear. SPOT THEM AT Corgarff Castle and Castle Campbell

Arctic tern

This small gull is similar in size and shape to a swallow, earning it the alternative name of ‘seaswallow’. The Arctic tern has the longest migration of any bird, travelling all the way to the south Atlantic. During its lifetime it will travel the equivalent distance of three return trips to the moon. SPOT THEM AT Inchcolm and Mousa broch

Puffin

These iconic birds return to land in the spring to breed and rear their young in burrows similar to rabbit holes. The grassland at the Brough of Birsay in springtime is rich in spring-flowering plants, such as spring squill and thrift, flourishing on the guano the puffins deposit. SPOT THEM AT Inchcolm and Brough of Birsay

SHUTTERSTOCK, ALAMY, MARY EVANS

Osprey

CORNCRAKE (Africa)

OSPREY (West Africa)


Witness the re-enactment of the sealing of the Declaration of Arbroath

THAT’S A FACT

KINGS KILLED IN BATTLE

Duncan I

was killed in battle by Macbeth, one of his commanders, near Elgin, on 14 August 1040

THE PIPES ARE CALLING AT ARBROATH

EVENT Town to become focal point of local Homecoming activity in April

James II

Disaster struck in August 1460 when James stood next to one of his cannons as it exploded during the siege of Roxburgh Castle

THE Tartan Day Scotland Homecoming Weekend will feature a programme of special events around Arbroath town, including free entry to Arbroath Abbey, where a range of fun, historical activities for all ages will take place. On Sunday, Webster Theatre will be the venue for Tayroots family and local

The Largs war memorial by Glasgow sculptor Kellock Brown

James IV

died at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513, leaving his one-yearold son to succeed him

history day. There will be talks from genealogists and historians, family history workshops and the chance to talk to members of local and family history organisations, archivists and other groups. There will also be a pipe band march from Kirk Square to Arbroath Abbey’s high altar, where the sealing of the Declaration of Arbroath by

the nobles of Scotland on 6 April 1320 will be re-enacted. This will be the first time in many years it has been performed within the walls of Arbroath Abbey. FIND OUT MORE The weekend is part of the Tartan Day Scotland Festival 2014 from 5-13 April (www.tartandayscotland.com) Book a tour at Arbroath Abbey at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ tartandaytours

MEMORIALS OF WAR To mark the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War, £1 million has been made available to local communities. The Centenary Memorials Restoration Fund has been put in place to help restore war memorials. The fund will help people across Scotland to continue to pay their respects to those who fell during both world wars and other conflicts. FIND OUT MORE at www.historicscotland.gov.uk/warmemorials

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 15


HISTORY

BATTLING BEYOND

BANNOC


FEATURING

OCKBURN STIRLING CASTLE

EDINBURGH CASTLE

LINLITHGOW PALACE

BOTHWELL CASTLE

CAMBUSKENNETH ABBEY

The most famous battle in Scotland’s history was fought on 24 June 1314. CHRIS TABRAHAM tells us how some of Historic Scotland’s properties featured in the dramatic events of that time


STIRLING CASTLE

A BONE BETWEEN TWO DOGS

I

f it hadn’t been for the mighty royal stronghold of Stirling Castle guarding the meandering River Forth – ‘the brooch clasping Highlands and Lowlands together’ that had passed back and forth between the two warring nations since the outbreak of hostilities in 1296 - the greatest battle in Scotland’s history would never have been fought. It began in the summer of 1313. King Robert I (the Bruce) was on the Isle of

18 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Man, taking the fight to the English. Meanwhile, his younger brother, Edward, Earl of Carrick, was making heavy weather of recapturing Stirling Castle, held by the English since 1304. After a three-month siege, Sir Philip Mowbray, Edward II of England’s keeper, was showing little sign of surrendering. Then, shortly before Midsummer Day, Mowbray rode out through the castle gate and made Carrick an offer he couldn’t refuse – if Carrick lifted the siege, Mowbray would keep his men in the castle, and if by Midsummer Day

1314 no English army had advanced to within a league (three miles) of the castle, Mowbray would surrender and leave. Carrick accepted. Robert Bruce was not best pleased when he heard the news, for he knew exactly where that parley would lead – a showdown with one of the mightiest armies in Christendom. He had spent six years successfully avoiding a pitched battle but now that daunting prospect seemed inevitable. Immediately on returning from Man he began to prepare his countrymen for their greatest trial of strength.


HISTORY

Linlithgow Peel was the first stronghold to fall to the Scots

With the opening of the new Bannockburn visitor centre (run by the National Trust for Scotland) in March, timed to coincide with the 700th anniversary year of the historic battle, there are a number of events taking place at the location over 2014. Historic Scotland is staging ‘The Road to Bannockburn’ event at Stirling Castle on 24 and 25 May. The weekend will tell the story behind the events that led to the battle. Hear of the tactics used by both sides and join the forensic team to discover more about the injuries and trauma sustained by soldiers in battle. Meanwhile, you can be part of history and join 20,000 visitors from around the world to commemorate Scotland’s most famous battle at Bannockburn Live, a two-day spectacular taking place on Saturday 28 and Sunday 29 June, the

weekend following the 700th anniversary and the official opening. It features a brutally realistic re-enactment of the Battle of Bannockburn in a specially created festival arena, allowing spectators to witness medieval warfare first-hand. For more on The Road to Bannockburn go to page 51 For more information on Bannockburn Live and to book tickets for this event visit www. bannockburnlive.com

EDINBURGH CASTLE % LINLITHGOW PEEL

THE ENEMY WITHIN

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ruce began by attempting to remove the English from their remaining bolt-holes. The first to fall was Linlithgow Peel, the formidable fortress built by Edward I a decade earlier. A local farmer, William Bunnock, taking a wagonload of hay to the garrison, was passing under the portcullis when he ‘struck the porter such a blow that blood and brains spilled out’, whereupon the armed men concealed under his hay sprang out and

In a feat of derring-do, Bruce’s nephew, Sir Thomas Randolph, took Edinburgh Castle

soon had the other guards despatched in similar fashion. Next was mighty Roxburgh Castle, its recapture being entrusted to ‘The Good Sir James’ Douglas, Bruce’s closest friend, on a dark night in February 1314 – Shrove Tuesday – while the garrison were partying before the Lenten fast. The last, Edinburgh Castle, fell three weeks later, to Bruce’s nephew, Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, in another feat of derring-do. The assault took place on 14 March, another dark and stormy night as luck would have it. A diversion near the castle’s main gate distracted the attention of Sir Pierre Libaud’s guards as Moray’s assault party made their perilous ascent up the northern precipice. At their head was William Francis, who knew a secret route he had used as a servant lad in the castle when sneaking out to meet his sweetheart in the city. Inching their way up the slippery rock face, the party paused momentarily on a narrow ledge before continuing to the summit. With weapons muffled, they finally scaled the stone parapet and stormed the castle, caught the enemy completely off guard, and let in the rest of their comrades at the east gate. Most of the defending garrison fell in the ensuing fight. Now only Berwick and Stirling castles remained as the chief strengths in enemy hands. From then on, though, Bruce would have to focus on the latter. WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 19

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BANNOCKBURN 2014


Bell tower of Cambuskenneth Abbey

DAYS OF BATTLE

THE EVENTS LEADING UP TO BANNOCKBURN AND BEYOND

23/24 JUNE 1314 Cambuskenneth Abbey, the Scottish supply depot, is attacked during the night and its commander, William of Airth, killed

SEPTEMBER 1313 Linlithgow Peel is retaken by the Scots

1314 MIDSUMMER 1313 Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert the Bruce, gives the English a year to relieve Stirling Castle

MARCH 1314 Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, recaptures Edinburgh Castle

23 JUNE 1314 Day one of Bannockburn

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24 JUNE 1314 Day two of Bannockburn. Stirling Castle falls to the Scots

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HISTORY

CAMBUSKENNETH ABBEY

SUPPLY DEPOT AND PARLIAMENT

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y June, Bruce had assembled his army in the Torwood, dense forest south of Stirling Castle. They’d come from a’ the airts – Carrick and men from Galloway; Moray and men of the north and Nithsdale; Douglas and men of Strathclyde and the eastern Borders; Robert Keith, the Great Marischal of Scotland, with his light cavalry; and Bruce himself with the men of Carrick, Argyll and the Isles. The Scots were heartened by the appearance of a force of terrifying islemen led by Angus Og MacDonald, Lord of Islay, who’d given safe haven to the fleeing Bruce after his defeat at Methven in 1306. At the rear, Sir William of Airth and his men set up the supply depot at the abbey of Cambuskenneth, east of Stirling Castle. On the evening prior to the main battle, the depot was attacked. Sir William and many of his men were killed and supplies of food carried off. The man responsible was David of Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl and Constable of Scotland, in revenge for Bruce’s murder of his father-in-law, Comyn of Badenoch.

Five months later, at a parliament in the very place he had perpetrated his foul deed, Earl David was stripped of his lands and titles. His lordship of Strathbogie was given to Sir Adam Gordon, of Huntly in Berwickshire, and Strathbogie Castle would eventually become known as Huntly Castle. Doubtless the bells high up in the great campanile that still towers over the site rang out to welcome the conquering king and his nobles. Bruce returned to Cambuskenneth for another sitting of parliament in July 1326. The chronicles are silent on the matter,

25 JUNE 1314 The Earl of Hereford and many other English knights surrender, trapped inside Bothwell Castle

Cambuskenneth served Stirling Castle, pictured to the west

JULY 1326 Bruce presides over a second parliament at Cambuskenneth Abbey, at which his son, David, is proclaimed heirapparent

1318 NOVEMBER 1314 At a parliament in Cambuskenneth Abbey, the Earl of Strathbogie and others are disinherited by Bruce

but I wager that the ageing sovereign ventured forth from the abbey with his trusted lieutenants Moray and Douglas to revisit the scene of his greatest triumph across the River Forth. Bruce may have paused at the spot where, on day one of the battle, he’d brought his axe down on Henry de Bohun, nephew of the Earl of Hereford and Constable of England, cleaving it and the young man’s head in two. Most memorably of all, the king would have relived the moment on day two when he saw proud Edward II of England being led crest-fallen from the battlefield.

AUTUMN/ WINTER 1318 Angus Og MacDonald is probably killed at the Battle of Dundalk alongside Edward Bruce while fighting the English, and his body possibly laid to rest in St Oran’s Chapel, Iona

7 JUNE 1329 Bruce dies at Cardross, near Dumbarton Castle. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, but Sir James Douglas takes his heart on crusade

1329 25 MARCH 1330 Douglas dies at Teba, in Spain, fighting the Moors. Bruce’s heart is returned to Scotland and interred at Melrose Abbey. Douglas’s body is buried in the family vault at St Bride’s, Douglas, where his effigy remains

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HISTORY

The castle guards a strategic crossing point of the River Clyde

Bothwell Castle’s 14th-century hall and chapel still stand today

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BOTHWELL CASTLE

BOLT+HOLE OF THE BEATEN

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ABOVE The spiral staircase within Bothwell Castle’s great keep

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dward escaped to England. Hereford and the English cavalry sped south, reaching Bothwell Castle. Its keeper, Walter FitzGilbert de Hameldone, a Scot in Edward’s pay, admitted the knights, but Edward Bruce and his men laid siege. FitzGilbert surrendered his charge. Bruce rejoiced for he knew what use he could make of the ransoms on offer. Hereford alone was exchanged for his queen Elizabeth, his sister Mary, his daughter Marjorie, and his trusty Bishop of Glasgow, Robert Wishart, all of whom had been in English prisons since 1306. Poor, blind Bishop Robert, ‘indisputably one of the great figures in the struggle for Scottish independence’, according to the late Professor Geoffrey Barrow, died two years later and was laid to rest in his beloved cathedral. FitzGilbert de Hameldone entered Bruce’s peace and founded the powerful Hamilton family. Pierre Libaud and Philip Moubray were also forgiven by a generous king. But Bruce razed the retaken castles to the ground ‘lest the English ever afterwards might lord it over the land by holding castles’.

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EDINBURGH

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Stirling Castle is at the head of Stirling’s historic Old Town off the M9, Junction 9 or 10 2

Cambuskenneth Abbey is one mile east of Stirling off the A907 3

Bothwell Castle is at Uddingston off the B7071 4

An artist’s impression of how the interior of the keep may have looked

Bothwell’s great keep remains, and today dominates this remarkable castle. At Edinburgh, only tiny St Margaret’s Chapel survived the destruction. Of mighty Stirling nothing remained above ground other than the castle rock itself. You can find out more about Scottish battlefields at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/battlefields.

Linlithgow Palace is in Linlithgow, off the M9 5

Edinburgh Castle is in Edinburgh at the top of the Royal Mile


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O U R H E R I TA G E

The Forth Bridge pioneered the use of mild steel in bridges and is soon to be assessed for inclusion on UNESCO’s World Heritage List

5 BRIDGES OVER SCOTTISH 24 HISTORIC SCOTLAND


FEATURING

FROM THE ROMAN PERIOD UP UNTIL THE MAJOR ENGINEERING FEATS OF THE 20TH CENTURY, SCOTLAND’S BRIDGES TELL A FASCINATING STORY. HISTORIC

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SCOTLAND’S DESIGNATIONS TEAMS LOOK AT SOME FINE EXAMPLES THAT SPAN OUR WATERWAYS

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FORTH BRIDGE Built 1890 Designer Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker

WATERS

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wide, submersible wrought-iron cylinders called caissons. The caissons were carefully positioned on the sea bed before being filled with concrete. The bridge is known for its distinctive paint colour, called Forth Bridge Red, 7,000 gallons of which are required to cover the surface. Similar in shade to iron oxide, but containing lead, the paint was designed to protect the steel from rust. The act of painting the bridge is used in conversation to refer to any task that appears to be never-ending. Between 2002 and 2011, all earlier coats of paint were removed and a new hard-wearing coating system was applied. The new coating, originally developed for North Sea oil platforms, is expected to last for at least 20 years. This summer, the bridge will be assessed by UNESCO for inclusion on its prestigious World Heritage List.

Forth Bridge spans the Firth of Forth, linking Edinburgh with Fife 2

Tay Bridge, Aberfeldy takes the B846 across the River Tay 3

Crathie Suspension Bridge is a footbridge over the River Dee en route to Balmoral 4

Carrbridge Packhorse Bridge used to carry a road over the River Dulnain at the north end of Carrbridge 5

Kelvin Way Bridge crosses the River Kelvin into Glasgow’s Kelvingrove Park

The bridge across the Firth of Forth took 5,000 workers seven years to build and used 50,000 tonnes of steel WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 25

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Internationally acclaimed, the Forth Bridge is one of the most ambitious and successful engineering achievements of the 19th century. With its distinctive cantilevered design, it’s perhaps Scotland’s most instantly recognisable industrial landmark and has become a symbol of national identity in much the same way as the Eiffel Tower has to France. On completion it was the longest bridge span in the world and the largest steel structure, and it was responsible for pioneering the widespread adoption of mild steel in bridge construction. The challenge posed by the bridge’s construction was immense. It took a 5,000-strong workforce seven years to build, using more than 50,000 tonnes of SiemensMartin open-hearth steel and 8 million rivets. The bridge was first built in sections, on land, before being disassembled and sent out on boats for re-erection at the bridge site. The towers rise from massive granite piers, the underwater foundations of which were constructed using 21-metre

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O U R H E R I TA G E

TAY BRIDGE, ABERFELDY Built 1733 Architect William Adam

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The Tay Bridge in Aberfeldy was built to carry the Crieff to Dalnacordoch military road over the River Tay, but far outstrips most other bridges in the military road network in terms of its cost, monumentality and grandeur.

It may have been intended to symbolise Hanoverian military might. The bridge was designed by William Adam, one of Scotland’s foremost architects at the time. It cost a total of £4,095 5s 10d, whereas a modest masonry bridge in the same period might have cost around £40.

Built for military purposes, the Tay Bridge is also known as General Wade's Bridge

The Tay Bridge was one of 40 important bridges built to facilitate the movement of Government troops after the 1715 Jacobite uprising

CRATHIE SUSPENSION BRIDGE Built 1834 Architect J Justice Junior

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Situated in the picturesque Aberdeenshire countryside next to the Balmoral Estate is Crathie Suspension Bridge. Crafted from iron, with its sweeping parapet it is an elegant and delicate presence in the landscape. It was constructed in 1834 by the Dundee engineering company of J Justice Junior, pioneers of suspension bridge technology. Wide enough for vehicular traffic, the bridge was the main route across the River Dee to Balmoral.

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The Crathie Bridge was once the main route across the Dee to Balmoral

However, Prince Albert commissioned an alternative and more robust bridge in 1854 while building work on the new Balmoral Castle was under way. Completed in 1856 in the same year as the Castle, the Crathie Girder Bridge is the only known structure in Scotland designed by the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The suspension bridge remained in use as a pedestrian bridge and was partly renewed at Queen Victoria’s expense in 1884 by the Blaikie Brothers who were based in Aberdeen. WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 27


O U R H E R I TA G E

CARRBRIDGE PACKHORSE BRIDGE Built 1717

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This beautiful bridge was commissioned in 1717 by BrigadierGeneral Alexander Grant and paid for by the parish in Badenoch and Strathspey at a cost of £100. Built of random rubble, it survives as a single high arch springing from the natural

Now unstable, the bridge across the River Dulnain was badly damaged in the 'muckle spate' of 1829

bedrock. Its narrow width and steep approach suggests it was meant only for horses and pedestrians, rather than carriages. Traditionally it is thought to have been known as the ‘funeral bridge’ because people passed over it carrying coffins to the burial ground at Church of Duthil. Today it is a scheduled monument.

KELVIN WAY BRIDGE Built 1913-14 Architect A B McDonald

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What sets the Kelvin Way Bridge apart is not its engineering achievement or construction material, but the beautiful bronze sculptures found at its four corners. Built from 1913-14, the bridge itself was designed by the city’s engineer A B McDonald, but a competition was held to choose a sculptor for the figurative groups. Assessed by the sculptor Sir George Frampton, the winner was Paul Raphael Montford, who later emigrated to Australia. Set on high pedestals at the four corners of the wide bridge are four bronze groups representing Peace and War, Philosophy and Inspiration, Navigation and Shipbuilding, and Commerce and Industry. The First World War interrupted the groups being cast and they were not erected until 1926. War was once again to have an impact on the bridge when the sculptures were badly damaged during an air raid in 1941. In 1951 Benno Schotz, who had emigrated from Estonia to Scotland in 1912, was chosen

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The bridge carries the Kelvin Way across the River Kelvin within the area of Kelvingrove Park

LEFT Peace and War is one of four statues that adorn the Kelvin Way Bridge

S CANMORE, SUPERSTOCK

to repair the sculptures. A member of the Royal Scottish Academy, he became Head of Sculpture at the Glasgow School of Art in 1938 and held the post until his retirement in 1961. He was appointed the Queen’s Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland in 1963.


PHOTOGRAPHY COMPETITION

History on camera

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The winning entries in our photography competition reveal the beauty and drama of properties across Scotland

n summer 2013 we challenged you to send us your best photographs in our ever-popular Historic Scotland magazine photography competition. Once again we were inundated with entries, capturing the breadth of interest and landscape in and around many Historic Scotland properties. From gargoyles to gulls, castles to combines, the entries impressed the judges.

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TOP SHOTS OF SOME TOP SPOTS IN HISTORIC SCOTLAND'S CARE

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MELROSE ABBEY Gary Gardner This distinctive figure keeps watch over Melrose Abbey

HOLYROOD ABBEY Stuart Robertson An early-morning trip brought to light a panoramic view of Holyrood Abbey

CAERLAVEROCK CASTLE Grant Glendinning Grant captures Caerlaverock Castle basking in the sunshine


PHOTOGRAPHY

WINNER

PROPERTIES & OVERALL STIRLING CASTLE Fraser Hetherington The judges were especially impressed by Fraser’s atmospheric shot of Stirling Castle looming out of the mist. Fraser wins a year’s renewal membership to Historic Scotland (as do all our category winners), as well as a tour for four people around Stirling Castle, and an iPad mini.

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 31


PHOTOGRAPHY COMPETITION

NAT UR E

SCOTLAND’S BIRDS AND BEASTS THROUGH THE LENS

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IONA ABBEY Jessiah Nickel Jessiah ingeniously frames this lone sheep taking a break from grazing next to Iona Abbey

STIRLING CASTLE Trevor Griffin Timing was everything in Trevor’s photograph of a bird in flight through the fog at Stirling Castle

WINNER NATURE

c INCHCOLM ABBEY Whitney Dooley The winning entry in this category was a photograph of two young gulls set against Inchcolm Abbey

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U NDER 16

JUNIOR READERS PUT HISTORIC SCOTLAND IN THE FRAME

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URQUHART CASTLE Daniel Casey Daniel skilfully captures the ruins of Urquhart Castle reflected in Loch Ness

STIRLING CASTLE Eva Dallas (10) A lovely photo of blue skies over Stirling Castle taken by Eva

WINNER UNDER 16

d ST ANDREWS CATHEDRAL Daniel Boyle (13) It was the clever composition of 13-yearold Daniel’s photo of harvest time by St Andrews Cathedral that appealed to the judges

WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 33


Journey to the

Kingdom PAUL COCKBURN uses public transport to travel to the historic centre of Scotland


OUT ! ABOUT FIFE

PAUL COCKBURN is a journalist based in Edinburgh. He writes about arts and culture, disability and science. He loves nothing better than a really good beach

As someone born and raised in Edinburgh, who later lived and worked for more than 20 years in Glasgow, it’s easy to assume that Scotland’s two largest cities have always been at the core of the country’s history. Yet, actually, there’s plenty of evidence to the contrary, not least that built in solid stone and still standing up to the Scottish elements. Indeed, for a confirmed Edinburgher, it’s sobering to be reminded how, for most of the medieval period, the centre of Scottish public life – not least in terms of royal politics and religion – was located firmly north (rather than south) of the Firth of Forth, and that, between the 11th and 15th centuries, Dunfermline was a significant location, while St Andrews was the heart of the Church in medieval Scotland.

TOUR NOTES Paul's journey took him out of Edinburgh, across the Forth Rail Bridge and into Fife. He used public transport exclusively to get to each of his destinations

Dunfermline Abbey and Palace A favoured Royal residence and birth place of many kings including David II, James I and Charles I

Aberdour Castle and Gardens The castle boasts delightful walled garden terraces and a beehiveshaped dovecot

GETTY

St Andrews Castle and Cathedral The castle (main image) was the residence of the archbishops of St Andrews


OUT ! ABOUT FIFE

Aberdour Castle is arguably the oldest standing stone castle in Scotland LEFT The walled garden dates from the 17th century

ABERDOUR CASTLE AND GARDENS he importance of Fife in Scottish history isn’t just a matter of royalty. Aberdour Castle is physical proof of the status, wealth and longevity of some of its noble families. The first house on the site was built by Alan de Mortimer, who acquired the barony of Aberdour in the early 12th century. By the early 14th, however, it was gifted by Robert I to his nephew, the earl of Moray, whose own youngest son bequeathed it to Sir William Douglas, in whose family it subsequently remained. Reaching Aberdour Castle is simplicity itself; clearly visible from Aberdour train station, the approach can be accessed via wooden steps from the far end of the station’s car park. Apparently the building of the railway forced the relocation of the

LEFT From above, it's easy to see the terraced gardens, rediscovered in the 1970s ABOVE The beehiveshaped dovecot once supplied the house with meat

36 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

castle’s 17th-century gatehouse in the 1890s, but otherwise the castle and its surrounding grounds are undoubtedly authentic, revealing an architectural history of the changing needs, tastes and aspirations of the Douglas family. In the 15th century, for example, an additional storey was built on top of the original building to create a tower house. Then, during the 16th century, ancillary buildings (including a bakery) were added to the west while the east gained a ‘central range’, consisting of an impressively large kitchen space and some suitably lordly chambers above. These were the work of the fourth Earl of Morton, James Douglas, who effectively ruled Scotland (between 1572-78) as the final regent before James VI gained adulthood.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY SOLUTIONS, SHUTTERSTOCK, CORBIS, PREVIOUS PAGE: GETTY

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DUNFERMLINE ABBEY AND PALACE s a confirmed urbanite who never felt the need to own a car or even to learn to drive, it’s a relief that many of the most historic sites in the Kingdom of Fife are accessible easily enough by public transport – by either rail or bus. So I began my journey back through the centuries by train, entering ‘the Kingdom’ on the back of that global icon of Victorian engineering, the Forth Bridge. For most rail commuters, the ‘Fife Circle’ is just an everyday means of getting around Fife and to and from Edinburgh, yet it feels an appropriate means of travelling into history. A ten-minute walk from Dunfermline Town Station (follow the signs for the ‘Garden for heroes’) brings you to the

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town’s historic quarter. Given the current size of Dunfermline – it has barely a tenth of Edinburgh’s population – the abbey and remains of the associated monastery and guest house (a de facto royal palace) are clear proof of both its past importance and the great piety (and wealth) of successive monarchs. Royal residence in Dunfermline goes way back. Dunfermline had already been a religious centre of sorts since the 9th century, but it was the monastic community founded by Malcolm Canmore’s second wife Margaret (who established the ferry for pilgrims across the Firth of Forth that gave the towns of South Queensferry and North Queensferry their names), which inspired the buildings still visible today.

The nave is among the best examples of Romanesque buildings still standing in Scotland

Most of these buildings are now largely ruined, although the east range (built in the 17th century) is still very much watertight, with some upper rooms clearly refurbished in recent times – though at least one still retains the faded beauty of its original painted ceiling (a low-powered torch is provided to aid illumination). The other remarkable feature of Aberdour Castle is the grounds in which it stands; by 1650, its terraced gardens and orchard were among the finest in Scotland, although many of the features were subsequently lost and only rediscovered during excavations in the 1970s and 1980s. Even in winter, the freshness of the views is invigorating, and the distinctive beehive dovecot a fascinating focus of attention.

It is likely that the pillars at Dunfermline Abbey and Durham Cathedral were carved by the same masons WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 37


BACKSTORY: DUNFERMLINE ABBEY % PALACE

c.1070 Margaret (above) and Malcolm Canmore marry in a small church on or near the site of Dunfermline Abbey

The Abbey Church is the last resting place of many Scottish kings and queens

1153 David I (above) is buried beside his parents, Margaret and Malcolm ●

1249 Queen Margaret is canonised by Pope Innocent IV; her body is moved into the shrine chapel the next year

Dunfermline Abbey and Church captured in art ●

1303 Edward I of England (above) sacks Dunfermline Abbey to create his winter campaign headquarters

1559/60 The Reformation takes hold. Dunfermline Abbey loses its Catholic furnishings and its buildings are sacked

1329 King Robert Bruce (right) contributes to the rebuilding of the abbey complex, shortly before his death. He is buried in the choir (now the Parish church) 38 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

Dunfermline Abbey to his bride, Queen Anna of Denmark. Charles I is born in the Royal Guest house in 1600 ●

1818 Remains widely thought to be those of Robert I are discovered ●

1590 King James VI gifts

1821 A new Parish church designed by Scottish architect William Burn is built on the site of the original Abbey choir

While only the southern wall of the Royal Guest House is intact, the internal layout – not least the thickness of its walls – is still very obvious. On my visit, I took shelter from the rain in an elegantly vaulted cellar beneath the kitchens, which still impress with their solid strength and unassuming decoration. As a favoured Royal residence, the Abbey and its monastic buildings were rebuilt by successive monarchs, which included King Robert Bruce, who was just one of several royals buried here. Not that there’s much made of this now; two dark blocks of stone to the east of the parish church built on the site of the original abbey choir are all that remain of the shrine to Queen Margaret that was built after she was made a saint in 1250. The abbey buildings didn’t survive the Reformation well, though its nave must surely be one of the best examples of Romanesque buildings still standing in Scotland. Its tall arcade is carried on heavy cylindrical piers which are remarkably similar to those that you can find in Durham Cathedral.

MARY EVANS, SUPERSTOCK, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY SOLUTIONS, CANMORE

1093 King Malcolm (above) is killed fighting Normans in the north of England. A heartbroken Margaret dies days later


ST ANDREWS CASTLE AND CATHEDRAL ue to Dr Beeching’s cuts in the 1960s, it’s not possible to reach St Andrews directly by train (although there’s a campaign to reinstate a rail link from Leuchars). For the time being, therefore, the only public transport to the town is by coach, either from Leuchars or a journey of nearly two hours from Edinburgh. St Andrews is a compact, busy place, especially during term time at the university. Yet it’s not without its sharper edges and dark history, for which you need look no further than

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RIGHT The 8th-century St Andrews Sarcophagus is on display in the cathedral museum BELOW The castle ruins stand on a headland to the north of St Andrews town centre

St Andrews Castle, the ruins of which reside by the North Sea on a headland just to the north of the town centre. This was the main residence of the bishops and archbishops of St Andrews, at a time when the town was the undoubted focal point of the Christian Church in medieval Scotland. While there has been a castle of some kind on the site since the 12th century, it was destroyed and rebuilt several times during the Wars of Scottish Independence. The current ruins date mostly from the 15th century (when it was rebuilt by Bishop Walter Trail) and the 16th, when Archbishop John Hamilton oversaw reconstruction (including the addition of a sumptuous new frontage still known as the Hamilton Façade) after the brutal breaking of a Protestant occupation. It’s a reminder that some of the most important events of the Scottish Reformation – including the arrest of the preacher John Knox – took place here. While the castle has, on occasions, acted as a royal residence, its most colourful history is possibly as a prison, best symbolised by its infamous Bottle Dungeon, cut out of solid rock and still a claustrophobic prospect. Meanwhile, the Mine and Counter-mine (underground passages that are not for the fainthearted) are both thrilling and chilling reminders of the harshness of medieval siege warfare.

St Andrews is not without its sharper edges and dark history WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 39


TREYN


SHUTTERSTOCK, CORBIS

Which is perhaps why I felt somewhat melancholic completing the short walk from the castle to possibly the most impressive historical monument in the town. St Andrews Cathedral was undoubtedly Scotland’s largest and most magnificent medieval church; frankly, even in such a ruinous state, the building’s scale makes it difficult to miss today, so one can only imagine to what extent it, and the surrounding monastic buildings, must have physically and spiritually dominated the town 600 years ago. Even more so than the University of St Andrews’ various buildings do today. Despite the ravages of time and the vandalism of the building at the time of the Scottish Reformation, substantial fragments of the cathedral still survive, such as the east gable of what was probably the relic chapel, where relics of St Andrew were once venerated. The cloister to the south also retains a ruined chapter house and stone-vaulted undercroft, the latter home to part of the cathedral’s museum. This was undoubtedly the perfect conclusion for my journey; while I had seen various displays of the stonemason’s craft at the other properties, this display – including some carvings, unearthed nearby, dating as far back as the Pictish era and the St Andrews Sarcophagus, a masterpiece of 8th-century Pictish sculpture - provided the widest context for Fife’s central place in Scotland’s history.

RIGHT St Andrews Castle was home to one of the most powerful men in the country - the Bishop (later Archbishop) of St Andrews BELOW AND BELOW LEFT St Andrews Cathedral was medieval Scotland's largest church

EXPLORE

3

1

2

EDINBURGH 1

Dunfermline Abbey and Palace is a 10 minute walk from the Dunfermline railway station. The Parish church part of the Abbey is not run by Historic Scotland and is normally open from April to October. At other times access is limited to service times. Call 01383 723005 for details 2

Aberdour Castle and Gardens is a short walk from Aberdour Railway station 3

St Andrews Castle and Cathedral is accessed by bus from Leuchars railway station

Despite the ravages of time, substantial fragments remain WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 41


TEACHER Alan McKenzie oversees Jack's attempts to clean one of the Kirkmadrine stones

PUPIL Jack Kibble-White dons forensic suit and gets steaming

CONSERVATOR Where do historic artefacts go when they need some tender loving care? JACK KIBBLE$WHITE tracks them down and tries out some conservation and repair techniques for himself

42 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

MALCOLM COCHRANE

MY DAY AS A


BEHIND THE SCENES

ABOVE Armed with a dental-specification steam cleaner and deionised water, Jack detaches unwanted detritus from a 6th-century stone

I

t’s a wet weekday and I have joined the queue of commuters making their way into Edinburgh. My destination may be an industrial park to the west of the city centre, but I am on the road to a treasure trove – at Historic Scotland’s Applied Conservation Unit at South Gyle. I am going to try my hand at being a conservator, a job that encompasses a range of disciplines. As well as conventional conservation duties, at South Gyle they are responsible for digital documentation (which involves making three-dimensional laser scans

of objects and locations) and for carrying out scientific research which underpins much of the conservation activity at the unit. Today, my focus will be on the stone and paintings conservation works. I am greeted by Stephen Gordon, Head of Applied Conservation. We warm up over a coffee in the kitchen. ‘My team is involved in the conservation of the built heritage, buildings and paintings,’ he explains. ‘There are seven of us in total, two paintings conservators, three stone conservators and two conservation technicians.’ Stephen manages the team, and is also a stone conservator. Their work takes them out to Historic Scotland locations across the country, but also requires them to bring artefacts back to the unit. Recently the team brought back the Kirkmadrine sculpted stones, early Christian memorials that may date back to the 6th century. ‘The stones had been pulled in from round about the surrounding area and set up in a Victorian church,’ says Stephen. ‘A display was set up there in the late 1900s, and there was work done in the 1960s to give the display a glass front. This has created various problems, which led us to take the stones away for conservation treatment.’ Before any job of this nature is carried out, a condition survey is conducted on site, which is followed up with a detailed report from which a conservation plan

From Christian stones to a unicorn, the Applied Conservation Unit at South Gyle is temporary home to numerous historic treasures

It’s a wet weekday and I am on the road to an Edinburgh treasure trove WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 43


44 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

THE UNIT

SOME OF THE FACES BEHIND HISTORIC SCOTLAND'S APPLIED CONSERVATION TEAM

AILSA MURRAY Paintings Conservator Along with Damiana Magris, Ailsa conserves easel and structural paintings, or 'anything that has a painted surface'

STEPHEN GORDON Head of Applied Conservation Stephen manages the team and is actively involved in conservation as one of the three stone conservators

DAMIANA MAGRIS Paintings Conservator As well as conservation, Damiana and Ailsa are often asked to identify the original paint schemes used in old interiors

ALAN McKENZIE Conservation Technician Alan has more than 20 years' experience in dealing with stonework and showed Jack some steam and laser cleaning techniques

MALCOLM COCHRANE

COLIN MUIR Stone Conservator As well as working on stone, Colin is a closerange 3D specialist and is involved in making threedimensional laser scans of objects


can be developed. As part of the plan for Kirkmadrine, the team needed to determine how to move ancient objects weighing more than half a tonne to South Gyle without causing any damage. Eventually 14 carved stones were transported to the unit, where another survey could be conducted. ‘Some of these stones were built into the church walls, which meant you couldn’t see all the faces, so we did a further, more thorough, investigation of their condition. The next stage is to clean them.’

LEFT Jack 'vaporises' soiling on a practice piece using laser technology BELOW A mould is used to recreate timber heads; painting materials used by the paintings conservators

T

his is my cue to try my hand at conservation. Stephen hands me over to Alan McKenzie, a conservation technician with more than 20 years' experience dealing with stonework. Under his tutelage, I am about to come face to face with one of the Kirkmadrine stones. For this, I will be dressed in a forensic suit and armed only with a dental-specification steam cleaner and some deionised water. What I am about to do is a thorough, but extremely gentle, cleaning of this ancient stone. Steam is an excellent way to detach unwanted detritus without physically touching the stone itself or applying abrasive action. ‘The steam massages the soiling out of the stone,’ says Alan, ‘sometimes hundreds of years’ worth.’ As I work, I spot the odd rivulet of something foreign emerge from the stone surface and know that this technique is bearing fruit. Such visible evidence is very satisfying. My next task is to try out the laser cleaning technology which, Alan explains, is ‘by far the most controllable method of cleaning’. You point a laser at an object and fire an intense beam of light to remove unwanted soiling elements embedded in the surface. ‘It’s a micro-explosion that’s removing the soiling,’ Alan says, ‘but it has been well recorded that the laser can create micro fractures within the stone you’re using it on if not used with great care. You have different materials in the make-up of any sandstone and it can work in different ways. You have to be careful, but it’s by far the best and most

I spot the odd rivulet of something foreign emerge from the stone

sympathetic tool to use on stone that is subject to a hard pollution crust.’ Such a crust will resist steam cleaning, because it’s an impervious build-up on the surface that can’t be detached via steam alone. As such, it literally needs to be vaporised. ‘Any cleaning method is down to control and operator skill,’ says Alan, before wisely only letting me loose on a practice piece, rather than a stone of any historic value. Conservation takes in many forms, and next I spend some time with Ailsa Murray and Damiana Magris, two paintings conservators. ‘We are involved in the conservation of easel paintings

and structural paintings – everything that has a painted surface really,’ says Damiana. ‘There is also an investigative part of our role. We are asked on a pretty regular basis to identify the original paint schemes used in old interiors.’ My attention is drawn to a lovely, quite understated painting in their workshop. It once rested on a cabinet in the Master’s Room at Trinity House. I peer at it through an impressive magnifying glass, which reveals confident oil strokes. ‘The Collections Unit asked us to remove some of the discoloured varnished layers,’ says Ailsa. ‘We’ve done some surface dirt cleaning, but the painting is only partially cleaned.’ I spot some areas of chipped paintwork and Ailsa says some paint consolidation has been done, but it is likely these chipped areas will be looked at. In addition to knowing what kind of paint was used, I wonder how Ailsa and WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 45


SKARA BRAE & MARKED NO MORE

The Conservation Team successfully removed marker pen from a stone

I

MALCOLM COCHRANE, SHUTTERSTOCK

n 2007 a visitor to the ancient stone houses of Skara Brae decided to adorn one of the stones with a message. The story made the national news, but it was up to Historic Scotland’s Conservation Team to work out the best way to remove the permanent marker-penned addition without damaging the stone underneath.

GENTLY DOES IT ‘We always use the most sympathetic method first,’ says Conservation Technician Alan McKenzie of his general approach to graffiti. ‘You have to start by identifying the medium you are trying to remove. We would start with something like de-ionised water and take it from there. You always apply the substance for the shortest time and at the weakest solution possible.’ Alan was part of the team that tackled the Skara Brae graffiti and remembers it well. ‘It was the worst kind of graffiti that could have been applied – black permanent marker, which is always the most difficult medium to use, particularly on sandstone. But thankfully it was a cheap

magic marker, so it wasn’t quite so effective at being permanent.’ The team removed the graffiti using a dichloromethane-based product, which due to changes in regulations is currently no longer available for use. ‘We could only take three materials on the airline, due to flight security restrictions, so for a fortnight before we travelled I assessed a number of possible cleaning solutions, before settling on three options. Thankfully, the first material that we used proved to be effective. The stonework at Skara Brae is pretty dense, so that coupled with the poor quality of the permanent marker definitely really helped.’ SPEED IS OF THE ESSENCE Apparently, with graffiti, time is critical - the quicker you can apply a cleaning solution the better. The longer it’s left the more ‘curing’ time it has to truly take hold. But beware, if you choose the wrong cleaning medium you could end up locking in the unwanted graffiti, so if you take on your own clean-up job, then proceed with care.

TOP Jack examines RB Fairclough's painting, which is being conserved ABOVE Watercolours are used for 'in-painting' work, even though the original is in oils

Damiana might approach this type of repair. ‘When you do something that’s non-original, you actually want it to look different to the original anyway, and be done using reversible materials. So even though this piece is an oil painting, we will use watercolour to carry out the “in-painting” work.’ Damiana explains that ‘sometimes it’s almost better to not have a background in painting. Conservation work has to be impersonal, and an artist might be tempted to put their own interpretation into the piece. Conservation is really a technical, rather than an artistic, skill’. Neither my technical nor artistic skills are advanced enough for me to be let loose on this masterpiece – by RB Fairclough (according to the signature). So I content myself with preparing a sample of paint for cross-section analysis using a wet stone process to sand down an encased paint sample and reveal its pigments. It’s been a beguiling day, getting close to works of art and stones of religious significance. Progress here is necessarily painstaking, but everything is done with the utmost care and respect for the historical artefacts. Apparently there are around 100 here, in this anonymouslooking treasure trove. History can crop up in the most surprising places. WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 47


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great value too, and with 20 per cent off the annual cost, a concession membership is only £2.43 a month. Terms and conditions apply. For new annual membership only. Not available for renewals, life or gift membership. For details, see www. historic-scotland.gov.uk/member

MEMBER GET MEMBER SCHEME There are two ways to take advantage of the Member Get Member scheme: Go to any staffed Historic Scotland attraction with your friend or family member and show your membership card. Your

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FOR FULL DETAILS Pick up your events guide at any of our properties or visit www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/events DAYTIME EVENTS ARE FREE TO MEMBERS, UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED

LOTS OF EXCITING THINGS TO DO RIGHT ACROSS SCOTLAND

3

MARCH#JUNE

2014 H HOMECOMING HIGHLIGHTS

50 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

istoric Scotland is delighted to be part of Homecoming Scotland 2014. Join us as we welcome the world in this year-long celebration of Scotland – from its food and drink, fantastic activities and natural resources to its creativity, culture and ancestral heritage. Keep up to date with all our Homecoming activity at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming


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Dogs not permitted

Parking

LEFT Jousting and japes at Linlithgow Palace ABOVE The Romans are on the move in Celebration of the Centuries

THE ROAD TO BANNOCKBURN

SPECTACULAR JOUSTING

CELEBRATION OF THE CENTURIES

STIRLING CASTLE

LINLITHGOW PALACE

FORT GEORGE

Sat 24-Sun 25 May 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885 www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk/ events

Sat 5-Sun 6 July 12.30pm-4.30pm 0131 668 8885, www.historicscotland.gov.uk/jousting

Sat 9-Sun 10 August 11am-5pm 0131 668 8885; www.historicscotland.gov.uk/celebration

Our daring knights return to the magnificent setting of Linlithgow Palace to stage an unforgettable display of horsemanship and skill. Hear the thunder of hooves and the crack of lances splintering as our knights battle it out in the arena. Outside the arena, learn about the fashions of the day from the ladies of the court, meet the palace jester and sign up to join our kids army. There’s lots to keep everyone entertained at our bustling camps and living history displays.

This flagship event presents a vibrant introduction to 2,000 years of history. The Fort will come to life as more than 250 performers, including an aerial display team, depict centuries of history from Picts and Romans, through Viking, Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation and Jacobite eras to both world wars. As part of Homecoming Scotland 2014 the event will have special emphasis on marking the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War. Supported by EventScotland.

In the 700th anniversary year of the Battle of Bannockburn learn the true story behind the turbulent events that led to this decisive clash and ultimate defeat of Edward II’s army. Hear of the tactics used by both sides and join our forensic team to discover more about the injuries and trauma sustained by soldiers during the battle. Wander through the encampments and witness combat demonstrations with authentic arms and armour.

ABOVE Experience what life was like for soldiers in the 14th century at The Road to Bannockburn weekend at Stirling Castle WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 51


The Mark of Heritage and Craftsmanship Cairncross has served the people of Perth since 1869, and it is with pride that we present the unique Perth kilt pin, beautifully crafted in silver. The pin, featuring a flowing, Celtic inspired design to reflect the meandering River Tay, is topped by Perth’s emblem - the double headed imperial eagle. Cairncross have been granted permission by the Edinburgh Assay Office to revive the town mark, which was used by Perth silversmiths in the 18th century and is now stamped on the reverse of these superb kilt pins. Available exclusively from

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MARCH

STANDING STONES OF STENNESS WALK STANDING STONES OF STENNESS

Every Wed in March, April and May. Every Mon, Wed, Fri in June, 10am 01856 841 732 orkneyrangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Stirling Castle plays host to a range of family activities

Join us for an easy guided tour of our oldest stone circle and explore the fascinating links with the Neolithic village of Barnhouse.

RING OF BRODGAR WALK RING OF BRODGAR

A MAGICAL EASTER

Every Thu in March, April and May. Daily in June, 1pm 01856 841 732 orkneyrangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

An easy walk around Brodgar exploring the wildlife, archaeology and natural environment. Discover valuable wildlife and the significant role the area plays in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site.

WOLVES IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING EDINBURGH CASTLE

Fri 14-Sun 16 March 11.15am, 12.15pm, 2pm, 3pm 0131 225 9846 www.edinburghcastle.gov.uk/ events

Step back in time to 700 years ago and meet Sir Thomas Randolph and hear tell of his audacious early morning attack to take Edinburgh Castle for Robert the Bruce (pictured below).

WATCH OUT, TOADS ABOUT HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 29 March, 8am-10am 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi. gov.uk

Every year many toads are killed by cars as they make their way from the hillside to Dunsapie Loch to

Kramus will appear at Edinburgh

spawn. Join the Rangers for a walk to Dunsapie, helping toads climb the kerb. Booking essential.

MOTHERING SUNDAY: THE POWER BEHIND THE THRONE

STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 19-Mon 21 April, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885 www.edinburghcastle.gov.uk/ events

Sun 20-Mon 21 April, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885 www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events

Join us over Easter weekend for magic, mirth and merriment. Family activities include a science show, conjuring with Kramus the Magical Wizard and the chance for little explorers to test their knowledge of Edinburgh Castle in the Easter Quiz.

hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Come on a moderate guided walk to learn more about Arthur’s Seat’s turbulent past.

DÜRER’S FAME

STIRLING CASTLE

DUFF HOUSE

Sun 30 March, 12pm-4pm 01786 450 000 www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events

Thu 3 April-Sun 13 July, 11am-5pm 01261 818 181 www.duffhouse.org.uk/whats-on

Discover how women have been the power behind the throne and the heart of the home for centuries at this Mother’s Day event. APRIL

ARTHUR’S SECRETS HOLYROOD PARK

Every Tue from April to July, 1pm-3pm 0131 652 8150

A STIRLING EASTER

EDINBURGH CASTLE

Explore the work of the 16th-century German artist Albrecht Dürer. The exhibition, from the National Galleries of Scotland, will include many of his famous prints, such as his iconic ‘Melancholy’, ‘Saint Jerome in his Study’ and ‘Knight, Death and the Devil’. Dürer (1471-1528) was the most important artist of the Northern Renaissance.

For a great family day out this Easter enjoy a series of entertaining shows and fun-filled activities. Meet Pickles the Bear and Hamish the Highlander and hear stories of Scotland’s past. Learn how to play the fool at the royal court and see if you have what it takes to be a winner in our games in the gardens.

FRAGMENTS OF RED: THE LAST SONG MELROSE ABBEY

Sat 5 April, 7pm Adults £15, concessions £13, children £10, 10% member discount 0131 668 8885 www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ fragments

Join us in the magnificent surroundings of Melrose Abbey for the last event in our truly amazing trilogy of the Fragments Project. Drawing inspiration from the Hawick Missal Fragment and the settings of the great Border abbeys, we present the world premiere of a brand new piece of music by celebrated composer Grayston Ives. The piece will be performed by the Andante Chamber Choir. WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 53


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JOHN MUIR TOUR

walk around Hunter’s Bog and St Margaret’s Loch to learn more about Arthur’s Seat. Find out about the people who lived and worked in the park and the wildlife that makes it so special. Booking essential.

HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 19 April, 10am-2pm 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

On the 176th birthday of one of the founding fathers of conservation, and to mark the launch of the John Muir Way, come on a tour of Holyrood. In the company of the Scottish Wildlife Trust we’ll explore Bawsinch, travel along part of the John Muir Way and ascend Arthur’s Seat. Booking essential. MAY

WHISKY GALORE DALLAS DHU DISTILLERY

Sat 3-Sun 4 May, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885

Find out about the cat-andmouse game played between the owners of illegal stills and the government soldiers sent to destroy them. And savour a free wee dram.

WALLACE, BRUCE , SCOTLAND’S CONTESTED CROWN STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 3 May-Sun 1 June, 9.30am-6pm 01786 450 000 www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events

This exhibition explores the achievements of Robert the Bruce and William Wallace. It brings together for the first time two rare medieval documents to provide a fascinating glimpse into a stormy period of Scottish history.

ARCHAEOLOGISTS UNDER SIEGE TANTALLON CASTLE

Sat 10-Sun 11 May, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885

See history brought to life as a team of archaeologists hold a live dig and Cromwell’s soldiers recreate the scene of one of the castle’s most bitter sieges. Witness the firing of muskets and try your hand at a pike drill.

Reasonable wheelchair access

HOLDING THE ROCK FOR SCOTLAND DUMBARTON CASTLE

Whisky Galore at Dallas Dhu, 3-4 May

MINIBEAST+ MONSTERBEAST HOLYROOD PARK

Sat 17 May, 1pm-3pm 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Help us mark Scotland’s Nature Festival. Discover the giant insects and spiders from around the world and go on a minibeast hunt to see what crawls, slithers and wriggles in Holyrood Park. Make your own insect hotel for your garden or neighbourhood. Booking essential.

SILENT WITNESSES: TRAUMA TALES FROM STIRLING CASTLE STIRLING CASTLE

Sat 24 May, 7.30pm Members discount available 01786 450000 www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk/events Booking required

Following on from BBC2’s History Cold Case, Dr Jo Buckberry, an expert in battle trauma from the University of Bradford, presents an analysis of the skeletons found beneath Stirling Castle’s forgotten chapel. Supported by Gordon Ewart from Kirkdale Archaeology.

Sun 8 June, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885

Hear the firing of the musket volleys and watch the clash of pikes and swords as you relive the Scottish civil wars of the 1600s. Gain an insight into the significance of Dumbarton Castle as a strongpoint during these wars and hear the soldiers’ story.

ARTHUR’S ADVENTURE

Dogs not permitted

Parking

WILDFLOWER WANDER RING OF BRODGAR

Sun 15 June, 2.30pm 01856 841 732 orkneyrangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

An easy guided walk around Brodgar’s meadow.

THE RISE OF THE STEWARTS DUNDONALD CASTLE

Sun 22 June, 12pm-4pm 01563 851 489

In the late 13th century, Dundonald Castle lay in smoking ruins, but out of the ashes rose the powerful Stewart family. Come along and hear about their influential role as the High Stewards of Scotland.

WITHIN THESE WALLS

HOLYROOD PARK

HOLYROOD PARK

Mon 9, Mon 23 June, 1pm-4pm 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Sun 22 June, 11am-3pm 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Join us for a guided walk to learn about Arthur’s Seat. Booking essential.

Built in the 1540s, the boundary wall that surrounds Holyrood Park has its own story to tell. Booking essential.

BANNOCKBURN TO BOTHWELL BOTHWELL CASTLE

Sun 15 June, 12pm-4pm 0131 668 8885

The day after the Battle of Bannockburn, Edward Bruce arrived at Bothwell Castle to force the English commander to surrender. Visit the encampments and witness the outcome of this intense stand-off.

SCOTTISH CHAMBER ORCHESTRA DUNBLANE CATHEDRAL

Fri 27 June, 8pm Tickets from Albert Halls Box Office on 01786 473544 10% members discount. 0131 668 8885

Classical works by Schubert, Haydn, Mozart and Mendelssohn, led by conductor Richard Egarr.

JUNE

ARTHUR’S AMBLE HOLYROOD PARK

Mon 2, Mon 16, Mon 30 June 1pm-2.30pm 0131 652 8150 hs.rangers@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Come along on a gentle guided

8 June: Holding the rock for Scotland will bring sound and fury to Dumbarton Castle WWW.HISTORIC!SCOTLAND.GOV.UK 55


GUESS THE YEAR

WIN d

WORK OUT THE MYSTERY YEAR AND WIN

HOW TO ENTER If you can identify the correct year from the options below, visit www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ guesstheyear or post your answer, with your name, membership number and address, to Guess the Year, Historic Scotland magazine, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH by 18 April. See www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ member for terms and conditions. WINNING PRIZE The winning entry will receive a cheese and wine hamper from Scottish Hampers (www.scottishhampers.co.uk) containing a bottle of Bordeaux, Scottish cheese, crackers and flame roasted coffee, among other treats. Please note competition is only open to members aged over 18 THE PAINTING Depicted in this evocative painting by Joseph Severn from c.1850 is Mary Queen of Scots looking resigned to her fate. She is shown imprisoned in Lochleven Castle and being compelled to sign her abdication in favour of James, her one-yearold son by Lord Darnley. Visitors to the 14th-century tower house today can stand in the rooms that served as Mary’s prison before her eventual escape.

ABDICATION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, BY JOSEPH SEVERN %1793"1879), C.1850, OIL ON CANVAS, 48x33 cm. SCOTLAND, 16TH CENTURY

LAST ISSUE’S VIEWFINDER COMPETITION The location was Melrose Abbey. It was correctly identified by James Harrold from Melrose 56 HISTORIC SCOTLAND

SUPERSTOCK

WHAT’S THE ANSWER In which year was Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate while a prisoner at Lochleven castle? A: 1562 B: 1567 C: 1572


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Historic Scotland, Spring 2014  

The magazine for Historic Scotland members

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