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TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić

TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES

AND CITIESSources: Image ofTOWNS the Town in the Narrative OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Reality and/or Fiction? Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: RealityEdited and/orbyFiction?

Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić Edited by Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić

Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History Zagreb, 2017. Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History Zagreb, 2017


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TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction? Edited by Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić

Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History Zagreb, 2017


2 Series Hrvatska povjesnica – Special Editions – Conference Proceedings Publisher Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History 10000 Zagreb, Opatička 10, Croatia http://www.isp.hr For the Publisher Jasna Turkalj Editors Irena Benyovsky Latin Zrinka Pešorda Vardić Peer reviewers Mirjana Matijević Sokol Vlado Rezar Translation Marina Schumann Printed by Tiskara Zelina d.d., Katarine Krizmanić 1, Sveti Ivan Zelina Print run 300 copies A CIP code for this book number 000982508 is available from the National and University Library in Zagreb. ISBN (hardback) 978-953-7840-68-6 Graphic design of the cover page Sandra Begonja

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Illustration on the front page: View of Hvar, Konrad von Grünenberg - Beschreibung der Reise von Konstanz nach Jerusalem, f. 12v (ca. 1487) Co-financed by the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education


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TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction? Edited by Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić

Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History Zagreb, 2017


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About the volume Towns and Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages continues the series on medieval urban history, which started with the international triennial at the Croatian Institute of History in 2010 and the papers published in 2014, in the proceedings titled Towns and Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages: Authority and Property.1 The present volume focuses on the Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction? and results from the second international triennial, held in Zagreb in Autumn 2013. Our aim was to encourage a scholarly debate on the narrative sources from the medieval and early modern periods as sources for exploring the image of medieval towns and cities (primarily Croatian). We wanted to address the following questions: What was the image of the city in specific types of narrative sources, regarding their nature, date of composition, and provenance? How was the urban memory of a city construed through them? Is it possible to reconstruct medieval urbanity based on narrative sources? What is the level of research on individual medieval towns and cities based on this type of sources? And eventually, to what extent does the image of the town in narrative sources correspond to the reality? Sources for research of the medieval town (its appearance, social structures, urban institutions and phenomena) are very varied. These may be written sources of different provenances, visual or material, contemporary or coming from a later historical period. In international scholarship, narrative sources have been increasingly perceived as offering important insights on medieval urbanity. In this context, narrative sources have been used in various ways in Croatian historiography: some have been analysed in great detail, others only partially and selectively. Their authenticity and credibility have often been questioned, and there are still many controversies in research approaches. When other types of sources are missing, narrative sources may appear very attractive, since they offer at least some sort of a picture, which may perhaps be used with the help of “critical methodology” to discover grains of historical truth. However, narrative sources are also historical facts in their own right – as the historiographic image of the city within them is created in correlation with the context of their time and the motives behind their composition. In the territory of present-day Croatia, a considerable number of narrative sources outlining the image of the town to a greater or lesser extent were produced during the medieval and early modern times, and they belong to a range of different genres. The level and area of their preservation likewise vary, from fragments to complete works. Some Dalmatian centres preserve an exceptionally rich opus, while Slavonian towns and cities can offer an incomparably smaller number of known and/or preserved narrative sources. Of course, one should by no means neglect a number of “foreign” narrative sources that mention this region, which have only been partly known and used in the research on the Croatian Middle Ages. 1

Towns and Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages: Authority and Property, ed. Irena Benyovsky Latin and Zrinka Pešorda Vardić (Zagreb: Hrvatski institut za povijest – Croatian Institute of History, 2014).


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The image of the town in narrative sources depends on the time and place of their composition, as well as their nature and provenance. For this reason, it is extremely important to take into account the local setting, time period, and circumstances of writing. Besides determining the tradition, heritage, or influence of another source upon the narrative, it is crucial to understand its reception in the given time and space, as well as to know the structure and availability of previous writings that the authors could rely upon. Narrative sources were mostly written by the clergy, from the High Middle Ages increasingly by secular persons: local ones or foreigners who lived (temporarily or permanently) in the given settings or elsewhere. Moreover, narrative sources are not merely individual products; they also reflect the collective production of an urban community. In some of them, hands of several compilers may be discerned, and some works have been preserved in various redactions adapted to individual local settings. All these issues bring us back to the open question from the title of this volume: Are the narrative sources from the medieval and early modern periods fiction or do they contain some specific realia that we are looking for in absence of other sources (and does it make sense to look for them at all)? And even if they do contain grains of historical truth, do we possess instruments to discover them, to distil them from various narrative discourses that our sources consist of? Eventually, what kind of image of the medieval town do these narrative sources offer? Articles in this volume offer some answers to these numerous research questions by focusing on various topics related to the (Croatian) medieval urban history.

About the editors Irena Benyovsky Latin is a research advisor at the Department of Medieval History, Croatian Institute of History, and PL of the research project “Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages: Urban Elites and Urban Space” (Croatian Science Foundation). Her main field of research is medieval urban history in the Eastern Adriatic. Zrinka Pešorda Vardić is a senior research associate at the Department of Medieval History, Croatian Institute of History. Her research focuses on the issues of social and urban history in medieval Dubrovnik.


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Towns and Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction?

Notes on Contributors Stanko Andrić is a research advisor at the Croatian Institute of History, Department for the History of Slavonia, Syrmia and Baranja, in Slavonski Brod.  He works primarily on the medieval history of north-eastern Croatia, with a special interest in church history, cultural history, historical topography, and history of noble families.  Ivan Basić is Assistant Professor at the Department of History, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Split. His research interests include the late antique and medieval Adriatic, church history, urban history, historical geography, Early Christian and medieval art and architecture. Sandra Begonja is a senior research assistant at the  Department of Medieval History, Croatian Institute of History, Zagreb. Her academic research interests include medieval urban and military history in the Eastern Adriatic (especially Zadar), urban social topography, and the development of the urban nobility (also medieval Zadar). Irena Benyovsky Latin is a research advisor at the Department of Medieval History, Croatian Institute of History. Her research focuses on medieval urban history in the Eastern Adriatic (especially Trogir and Dubrovnik), urban social topography, and the development of medieval urban institutions. Donal Cooper is Senior Lecturer in History of Art and a Fellow of Jesus College at the University of Cambridge. His principal research interest is the ecclesiastical art and architecture of the medieval and Renaissance Mediterranean, especially the artistic patronage of the Franciscan Order and the material and spatial configurations of church interiors.  Marija Karbić is a senior research fellow at the Department of History  of Slavonia, Syrmia, and Baranya of the Croatian Institute of History.  Her research interests include history of nobility, urban history,  family and gender history in the Late Middle Ages, mainly focusing on  the history of the area between the Sava, Drava, and Danube rivers. Zoran Ladić is a research coordinator at the Department of History of the Institute of Historical and Social Sciences in Zagreb, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is dealing with daily life and piety in medieval Eastern Adriatic communes. He is


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currently working on a critical edition of late medieval and early modern Latin and Glagolitic sources. Dušan Mlacović is Assistant Professor at the Department of History, Faculty of Arts at the University of Ljubljana, where he teaches courses in medieval history of SouthEastern Europe. His main research interest is the history of medieval urban societies in the Mediterranean, especially their elites, as well as social history in general. Zdenka Janeković Römer is a senior researcher at the Institute of Historical Sciences of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Dubrovnik. She also teaches at the Croatian Catholic University and the University of Zagreb. The principal objects of her study are nobility, family, social practices, political and social institutions, culture and religion in late medieval and early modern Dubrovnik and Croatia. Ivan Majnarić is Associate Professor at the Department of History of the Catholic University of Croatia, Zagreb. His research interests include medieval Croatian church, diplomatic, intellectual and social history, as well as medieval political thought and archival sources. Zrinka Nikolić Jakus is Associate Professor at the Department of History, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb. Her research focuses on medieval social history, especially urban elites in the Eastern Adriatic (Zadar, Trogir, and Split), family history, women’s history, history of children, and history of everyday life. Zrinka Pešorda Vardić is a senior research associate at the Department of Medieval History, Croatian Institute of History. Her research focuses on the issues of social and urban history in medieval Dubrovnik, especially the history of Ragusan elite citizens and confraternities. Željko Rapanić is a historian, art historian, and archaeologist, formerly director of Archaeological Museum in Split, director of the Office for the Protection of Cultural Monuments in Split, and scholarly adviser at the Institute of Archaeology in Zagreb. He has led numerous archaeological excavations, and published about 300 papers on the late antique and early medieval society and culture of the Eastern Adriatic. Ana Plosnić Škarić is a senior researcher at the Institute of Art History, Zagreb, Croatia. Her research interests encompass medieval urban history, archival sources, urban development and changes of urban tissue, typology and architectural forms of residential architecture. Trpimir Vedriš is Assistant Professor at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. He teaches history of Christianity and Croatian


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medieval history. His research focuses on the hagiography and the cult of saints in Dalmatia. Nenad Vekarić is a scientific adviser with tenure and director of the Institute for Historical Sciences at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Dubrovnik. He is also the founder and director of the PhD Program “History of Population” conducted at the University of Zagreb and University of Dubrovnik, and a fellow of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His research focuses on the history of population, genealogy, and Dubrovnik’s nobility. László Veszprémy is a senior researcher at the Institute of Military History in Budapest and Professor (currently also Head) of the Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Piliscsaba. His research interests include medieval military history, medieval Latin palaeography, and historiography.


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Table of Contents Irena Benyovsky Latin

Introduction: Towns and Cities of the Croatian Middle Ages: Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction....................................... 13

Ivan Basić

Spalatensia Porphyrogenitiana. Notes on the poleogenesis and urban development of early medieval Split.................................................................... 61

Željko Rapanić

Two Notes on the Salonitans and the Spalatins: Narratives of Emperor Porphyrogenitus and Thomas the Archdeacon.................................................. 115

Zrinka Nikolić Jakus

The Use of Narrative Sources in Establishing the Genealogies of Dalmatian Urban Elites before the 14th Century................................................................. 123

Ivan Majnarić

Croatian Nobility in the Broader Hinterland of Zadar during the Siege of the City in 1345/46 ........................ 137

Sandra Begonja

The Urban Appearance of Zadar in Medieval Narrative Sources – Obsidio Iadrensis/ The Siege of Zadar........... 151

Trpimir Vedriš

Changes in the Iconography of St Chrysogonus as a Reflection of Cultural, Social, and Political Change in Medieval Zadar............................................................. 179

Stanko Andrić

Lives of St John Capistran as Sources for the History of Ilok................................................................... 213

Marija Karbić

Are Narrative Sources Silent on the Urban Settlements in Slavonia in the Middle Ages, or What Do They Tell Us?.................................................... 241

Laszlo Veszpremy

Buda in Medieval Historiography: Etzilburg. Sicambria, Óbuda, Buda.................................................. 253

Ana Plosnić Škarić

Trogir in a Poem by Ivan Lipavić (1465)....................... 265


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Zdenka Janeković Römer Laudes civitatum: Filip de Diversi’s “Description of the Position of Buildings, the Governance, and the Praiseworthy Customs of the Glorious City of Dubrovnik“........................................................................ 275 Zrinka Pešorda Vardić Orders of Society in Ragusan Narrative Sources: The Case of Cittadini Ragusei.......................................... 291 Nenad Vekarić

Reflections on the Processes of Demographic Transition in the Middle Ages, Based on an Analysis of the Traditional Genealogy of the Noble Kindred of Pecorario-Gozze from Dubrovnik................................................................ 313

Donal Cooper

“The silver there is very good“: Pilgrim Narratives as Sources for Sacred Art in Dubrovnik and a New Proposal for Lovro Dobričević........................................ 331

Zoran Ladić

Croatian Regions, Cities-Communes, and Their Population in the Eastern Adriatic in the Travelogues of Medieval European Pilgrims ..................................... 359

Dušan Mlacović

Medieval Rab in Travelogues (16th-19th Centuries)...... 395

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TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES  

TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction? Edited by Irena Benyovsky L...

TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES  

TOWNS AND CITIES OF THE CROATIAN MIDDLE AGES Image of the Town in the Narrative Sources: Reality and/or Fiction? Edited by Irena Benyovsky L...

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