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PIONEERS A Simulation of Decision Making on a Wagon Train

Author JOHN WESLEY and his wife Diane currently live and work in Spokane, WA. Since writing his first Interact simulation, Discovery, John has authored or co-authored more than twenty additional Interact publications. Since 1981 John has held a number of positions at Spokane Community College, including Director of Learning Resources, Web Master, Director of Continuing Education, Director of Distance Learning and his current position as Director of Instructional Services. John also teaches a variety of classes and presents workshops related to various aspects of educational technology and distance learning. Before moving to Spokane, John taught elementary and Junior High in the Cajon School District in southern California for ten years.

Product Code: INT68

Copyright © 1974, 2001 Interact 10200 Jefferson Boulevard P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232 800-359-0961 • www.teachinteract.com ISBN# 978-1-57336-111-8

Project Editor: Kristen Muir Graphics Editor: Joelyn Brickner Managing Editor: Stacy Yount All rights reserved. Only those pages of this simulation intended for student use as handouts may be reproduced by the teacher who has purchased this teaching unit from Interact. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording— without prior written permission from the publisher.


STANDARDS

The nationwide movement for high standards has not only determined what students should learn, but also has mandated that students demonstrate what they know. PIONEERS is a standards-based program addressing National History and English Language Arts Standards. The content and skills presented in this unit are the targets of most state frameworks for language arts and American history. PIONEERS especially addresses Applied Learning Standards. In the simulation students, organized in wagon trains traveling in the mid-1800s, complete assignments and earn points that take them along a Westward Trail from Independence, Missouri to Oregon. Along the way students make trail decisions that affect their journey. Together they collect data about the problem, generate a list of solutions, and cooperatively decide their course of action. National Standards for History Standards in Historical Thinking Standard 2: The student comprehends a variety of historical sources The student is able to: • Read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals and groups involved—their probable values, outlook, motives, hopes, fears, strengths, and weaknesses. Standard 3: The student engages in historical issues analysis and interpretation The student is able to: • Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past by demonstrating their differing motives, beliefs, interests, hopes, and fears. Standard 5: Historical issues analysis and decision making The student is able to: • Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation. United States History Standards Era 4 Expansion and Reform (1801–1861) Standard 1: United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans.

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STANDARDS

P I O N E E R S

PIONEERS Teacher Guide


STANDARDS

STANDARDS

P I O N E E R S

NCSS Curriculum Standards for Social Studies Strand 5: Individuals, Groups, & Institutions The learner can: • Demonstrate an understanding of concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the interactions of individuals and social groups. • Identify and analyze examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and group or institutional efforts to promote social conformity. Strand 6: Power, Authority, & Governance The learner can: • Analyze and explain the ideas and mechanism to meet needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, establish order and security, and balance competing concepts of a just society. • Examine conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations. NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts Standard 7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. Standard 8. Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

California Applied Learning Standards Standard 6. Students will understand how to apply communication skills and techniques. Students will demonstrate ability to communicate orally and in writing. Standard 8. Students will understand the importance of teamwork. Students will work on teams to achieve project objectives.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Setup Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Unit Time Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Daily Directions Day 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Day 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Day 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Day 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Day 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Day 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Day 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Day 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Day 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Day 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Day 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Day 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Day 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Day 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Day 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Reproducible Masters PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Pretest/Posttest). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 CHALLENGE PROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 HACKER TRAIL MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 WAGON: Travel Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 WAGON MASTER’S LOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 TRAIL DECISIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 WRITING CONVENTIONS RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

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CONTENTS

P I O N E E R S

PIONEERS Teacher Guide


PURPOSE P I O N E E R S

Attitudes • Understanding the importance of the great migration west • Valuing the impact of the human spirit • Appreciating the settlers’ rugged life • Valuing teamwork

PURPOSE

In PIONEERS, students simulate situations and events similar to those experienced by pioneers who headed west in early wagon trains. As settlers heading west during the mid-1800s (1840–1870) the students face challenges such as floods, droughts, blocked trails, snakes, Native Americans, and lack of food. The would-be homesteaders must make numerous individual and smallgroup decisions (e.g., what to do about a lack of water, how to cross a flooded river, how to deal with others on the trail, and which trail to take). These decisions and the other events provide the students with a realistic view of what pioneer life was like, why people went west, and what happened to them along the trail. While learning about wagon trains and pioneer life, students learn how to take notes, how to outline material, and how to write a brief research paper.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 1

Specifically, your students will experience the following: Knowledge • Supplies that early pioneers took west • Reasons people went west • The effect of nature on pioneer life • Obstacles that pioneers faced • Possible fates that awaited early homesteaders along the trail • The 5 Ws of writing: who, what, where, when, and why Skills • Decision making • Outlining • Note taking • Developing a focus question • Writing a short research paper • Writing diary entries • Working with limited supervision


OVERVIEW P I O N E E R S

OVERVIEW

PIONEERS starts when students, role-playing family identities on wagon trains, select supplies to take west. The wagon trains then begin the long journey along the Hacker Trail—an imaginative trail patterned after the Oregon and California trails. Along the trail students must make numerous decisions, write diary entries, research and write a paper, and experience various fates. The speed with which wagons move along the trail depends upon the points students earn for their class work. Each student writes four diary entries concerning why they are going west, what happens to them along the way, and how they cross a flooded river. In addition to these diary entries, students make a series of individual and group decisions concerning water rights, which trail to take, and how to handle daily problems that arise along the trail. Once students become involved in moving west they write a short research paper on a topic related to westward expansion in America. Finally, students experience “Fate” during Days 5–14. The Frontier Fates simulate events that might have occurred along the trail west. These fates also provide students with direct involvement in their journey and give them some feeling of the helplessness that early pioneers must have felt. The simulation concludes with the wagon trains either reaching or failing to reach their destination in Oregon. Like all Interact units, PIONEERS provides differentiated instruction through its various learning opportunities. Students learn and experience the knowledge, skills, and attitudes through kinesthetic, hands-on activities. Adjust the level of difficulty as best fits your students when assessing their work, and encourage special needs students to select activities which utilize their strengths and allow them to succeed. Work together with the Resource Specialist, Gifted and Talented Specialist, or other itinerant teacher to coordinate instruction.

2 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

1. Before You Begin Carefully read PIONEERS in its entirety to become familiar with its elements, lessons, and procedures. Study the Student Guide, which contains student materials and student directions. 2. Timing Options PIONEERS consists of 15 lessons. The Unit Time Chart suggests that you work with each lesson for approximately 60 minutes. This simulation is meant to be flexible. The lesson plans provide only one route to follow. The following suggestions are just a few ways this simulation can be modified. • Use only one or two of the trail decisions as a mini-unit or a decision-making lesson on frontier life. • Use only the diary entries as part of a social studies/language arts unit on frontier life. • Place the students in groups of three or four and use only the selection of supplies activity. This would be an introduction to frontier life and a very good exercise in group decision-making. • Spend additional time on the research skills and writing the research paper. Include expanded lessons on note-taking and the various requirements involved in writing a longer research paper. • Add additional Frontier Fates to portray events and situations you wish to emphasize. • Add additional diary entries or trail decisions to stress facts, events, and situations you deem important for your class. • Supplement the simulation with outside materials such as films, lectures, field trips, and internet resources. 3. Grouping Students Divide your students in advance into four heterogeneous groups (wagon trains). Strive to establish fair cooperative learning groups by including equal distribution of students abilities and personalities between groups. Each wagon train is set up to have a maximum of nine members. The number of students in each wagon train need not be equal, as the scoring procedure will even out any differences (See Setup Directions #10, Pioneer Progress on page 8 for more information). If you have more than 36 students, make five wagon trains and reuse the Wagon Train 1 identities (see page 4 in the Student Guide).

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15+ hours Take time to carefully look at the schedule and adapt the unit to meet your students’ needs. Take special notice of the short research project during Days 7–10. Additionally, note that the research papers are due back to students on Day 11. Schedule enough time between days 10 and 11 to read, correct, and score the research papers.

See Interact’s FUNDAMENTAL STEPS or BASIC STEPS writing programs for complete lessons on writing skills.

Cooperative Groups

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 3


SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

Family identity information is found on pages 4 and 5 of the Student Guide.

Assist groups with choosing their wagon masters as necessary.

4. Assigning Roles Within each group, students assume a particular identity. Once the students are members of a wagon train, assign them or allow them to choose one of the family identities on that wagon train. If you have only eight members on a wagon train, allow them to choose from only the first eight identities; if there are only seven on the wagon train, they choose from only the first seven identities. (This is because the identities in each wagon train have been balanced against those in other wagon trains and many Frontier Fates are directed to particular identities.) Each wagon train chooses a wagon master to lead them on their “journey” west. The wagon master is responsible for the following: Wagon Master’s Tasks • Correctly complete the Wagon Master’s Log — Enter all points earned by wagon train members — Keep track of the wagon train’s Energy Factor (EF) — Calculate Delay Points (DPs) — Tabulate Total Trail Points • Move the wagon train marker the appropriate distance on the Hacker Trail Map Wagon Master’s Leadership Responsibilities • Coordinate Pioneer Paperwork Folder • Lead discussion of Trail Decisions; make final decision if wagon train does not all agree • Help resolve any conflicts; encourage cooperation among wagon train members 5. Materials The following materials are needed for this unit, particularly for the Frontier Fates. Gather materials in advance of the simulation. • Bulletin board (large; for Hacker Trail Map) — one • Construction paper (for diary covers; 9" x 12") — class set • File folder (for Pioneer Paperwork Folders; or construction paper; 12" x 18") — one per wagon train • Index cards (3" x 5"; lined) — 10–15 per student • Overhead projector — one • Paper (lined) — four sheets per student (Diaries) + two class sets (Pretest and Posttest)

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SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

• •

Paper (blank) — three class sets (Optional) Resource Materials (Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, resources related to research topics, and for various Frontier Fates) — several • Stapler — several For Frontier Fates • Coins (for coin toss) — at least one per wagon train • Chair — one • Checkers — class set • Die — one per wagon train • Fabric (to make an arm sling) — two pieces per wagon train • Tape (masking) — roll • Trash can — one 6. Preparing Materials a. Classroom Map Make an overhead transparency of the HACKER TRAIL MAP to track your students’ progress during the simulation. Project this map onto butcher paper on the wall to create a large-scale version. The wagon master from each wagon train will move the group’s wagon marker each day. Other displays such as pictures, exhibits of homesteading supplies, models of covered wagons, or maps of the old West also increase student interest. Invite students to color/decorate the map. b. Travel Markers Pioneers traveled in covered wagons during their journey west. Prepare small wagon markers for the wagon trains to chart their travels. Use the template (WAGON: Travel Markers) provided on page 83 or make your own if the size does not match your Classroom Map. c. Frontier Fates Many of the Frontier Fates require student participation in determining the consequences. Students are asked to call coin tosses and the roll of a die, pitch a coin or checker into a chair, at a wall, and into a trash can. Due to this component of the simulation, there are several things you can do to prepare your classroom. Below is a list of the Frontier Fate, day, and the preparation necessary. • Frontier Fate 10 (Day 6) — mark off 12 inches and 15 feet from wall with masking tape • Frontier Fate 23 (Day 9) — mark off 15 feet from chair with masking tape INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | ©2001 Interact

If your copying is limited, students can use blank paper for Trail Decisions 2–4.

The bigger and more colorful your students make the map the more motivation it provides.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 5


SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

Frontier Fate 24 (Day 9) — mark off 10 inches and 20 feet from wall with masking tape • Frontier Fate 31 (Day 10) — mark off 10 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 33 (Day 10) — mark off 10 inches and 20 feet from wall with masking tape • Frontier Fate 36 (Day 10) — mark off 15 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 43 (Day 11) — mark off 25 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 51 (Day 12) — mark off 10 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 53 (Day 13) — mark off 15 feet from wall with masking tape • Frontier Fate 68 (Day 14) — mark off 20 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 69 (Day 14) — mark off 25 feet from trash can with masking tape • Frontier Fate 71 (Day 14) — mark off 20 feet from trash can with masking tape Additionally, many Frontier Fates require students to complete research and write a 50–100 word paragraph on a specific topic. To prepare for this component of the simulation, have resources available on the following topics. • Frontier Fate 12 (Day 6) — burns • Frontier Fate 15/17 (Days 7 and 8) — rattlesnake bite • Frontier Fate 19 (Day 8) — broken leg • Frontier Fate 25 (Day 9) — scorpion sting • Frontier Fate 48 (Day 9) — cholera • Frontier Fate 58 (Day 13) — dysentery • Frontier Fate 60 (Day 13) — rabies 7. Reproducible Masters For your convenience, the Reproducible Masters are listed in the order of use and are located at the end of the Daily Directions. You may duplicate them now or wait until you need them. The quantity of each is indicated in Italics. • PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Pretest/Posttest) — two class sets • CHALLENGE PROJECTS — class set or one per wagon train, and/or one to post • COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post • AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST — class set • HACKER TRAIL MAP — one per wagon train + transparency 6 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

• • • • • • • •

DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post WAGON: Travel Markers — one per wagon train WAGON MASTER’S LOG — four (one per wagon train) + four (Optional) TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post TRAIL DECISIONS — three class sets or transparency WRITING RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post (Optional) CONVENTIONS RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post (Optional) ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post (Optional)

The second copy of the log can be posted for examination by the class. If copying is limited, use a transparency instead of the class set of TRAIL DECISIONS. Students use blank paper for these assignments.

8. Pioneer Paperwork Folders Prepare a folder for each group of students using file folders or construction paper. Inside the front cover of the folder, attach a copy of HACKER TRAIL MAP. During the simulation, students keep their Student Guides, Diaries, Trail Decisions, and the WAGON MASTER’S LOG inside this folder. 9. Unit Elements a. Student Guide Each student uses this 16-page document for background information relevant to the unit, instructions related to the simulation, and guidance in writing their research papers. b. Travel Diary Writing diary entries give students an opportunity to synthesize and express their new knowledge and understanding. c. Trail Decisions Along the trail to Oregon, there are four opportunities for students to make decisions given a specific situation. Students use note-taking skills to write down important information related to the situation. Students individually decide the best action to take and then participate in a group discussion leading to a group decision. d. Frontier Fates Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail (For more information see Setup Directions #12, Frontier Fates on page 10). INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | ©2001 Interact

Rubrics are provided for the diary entries, trail decisions, and research paper.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 7


SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

Students work on their research papers Days 7–10. Plan for time outside of class between these simulation days for student research. Research papers are returned to students on Day 11. Be sure to allow enough time between Days 10 and 11 to read and complete the scoring for all research papers.

Adapt the specialized rubrics to the Challenge Projects. Students can use these points to increase their wagon train’s movement west. To provide additional incentive for cooperation, use the Cooperative Group Work Rubric. Provide groups with a daily score they add to their total points earned (line 1 on the Wagon Master’s Log).

e. Research Paper Students write a short research paper on a topic related to Western history. Suggestions are provided on page 16 of the Student Guide. f. Challenge Projects Challenge projects offer more opportunities to enhance the learning experience. Some students want or need additional work. Optional challenge projects are found on CHALLENGE PROJECTS (page 78). Those listed are intended to stimulate your students’ imagination. You and your students can list additional projects, depending on interests, skills, and available materials. Have your students work on these projects during free time inside or outside class. Grade these projects on a scale of 1–20 using one of the rubrics provided. These points are added to those earned from other assignments and help move wagon trains west. 10. Pioneer Progress a. Earning Points Using your own assessment criteria or the rubrics included in this Teacher Guide, score the following student assignments from 1–10 points: • Diary entries (four) • Trail decisions (four) • Note cards (assessed Day 8) On Day 10, students work in their cooperative groups to complete an objective assessment of learning (earning 1–10 points per student). Using the RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC included in this Teacher Guide, score the research paper from 1–20 points. Additional points can be earned through the following: • Challenge Projects (scored 1–20 points) • Other classroom work (scored as appropriate to assignment) Normal progress of a wagon train is based on the average student receiving a 6 or 7 on each assignment and several students in each wagon train doing a Challenge Project sometime during the simulation.

8 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

b. Moving Along the Trail Students use the points they earn for each assignment to help move their trains along the trail. The daily points earned by each student on the wagon train are added together and then multiplied by the wagon train’s Energy Factor (EF; see Setup Directions #11, Energy Factor on page 10 for more information). This number translates into the Total Trail Points used to move the wagon train along the map. Use the following schedule to determine the number of Total Travel Points necessary to move any size wagon train one dot across the Hacker Trail Map. This schedule was developed to ensure equality among differing sized wagon trains.

No. of members 1-member train 2-member train 3-member train 4-member train 5-member train 6-member train 7-member train 8-member train 9-member train

Points 110 130 150 175 200 220 250 280 310

c. Turning Back There may be a time when a wagon train finds it necessary to turn around, go back to a junction, and take another trail. Going backward is permitted and requires the same number of trail points to move each dot. Thus, if a wagon train were six dots past the Prairie Crossing junction on the Burial Grounds Trail and decided to turn around, it would have to earn enough points to move the six dots back to the junction before it started down the Cheyenne River Trail.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 9


SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

11. Energy Factor At the beginning of the simulation, each wagon train has an Energy Factor (EF) of 50. This EF represents three things on the wagon train: • People’s enthusiasm and ability to work • Wagons and their supplies • Livestock the homesteaders are taking

Use EF for classroom management, awarding for appropriate behavior as well as work completed.

At the beginning, the people are healthy, their spirits are high, their animals are well-fed and healthy, their wagons are in good repair, and the families have the maximum amount of supplies. As the trip progresses, however, supplies diminish, people and animals get sick and some even die, wagons begin to fall apart, and the spirits of the people sometimes fall. The wagon train’s EF is intended to simulate all of these events. Certain Frontier Fates that individuals and trains will experience reduce the wagon train’s EF (e.g., if a man or woman dies, the train’s EF is reduced by 3; if an oxen is lost, the EF falls by 2). To see how the EF is used in the simulation, study the WAGON MASTER’S LOG. (Notice that the EF is multiplied by the actual number of points the train’s members earn to give the number of Total Trail Points that move the train along the Hacker Trail.)

The Frontier Fates are found at the end of the Daily Directions for Days 5–14.

10 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

12. Frontier Fates Beginning Day 5, you will read Frontier Fates. These fates incorporate events and facts that are not covered by one of the diary entries or one of the trail decisions. The Frontier Fates add an important element of realism to the simulation. Students enjoy them because of anticipation and excitement. Before each day begins, review the Frontier Fates that will appear during that day. This will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. a. Three categories of Frontier Fates Each fate describes Who is involved, What actually happens, Where the action takes place, and the Fate of those involved. • Some fates apply to everyone • Some fates apply only to those using certain trails • Some fates apply only to specific identities

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SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

b. Chance Factor Many Frontier Fates include a chance factor, since these things did not happen to everyone or every wagon train. For example, not everyone was bitten by a rattlesnake, but it was probable that someone would be bitten before a train reached its destination. Once the who, what, and where of a Frontier Fate is read, the students involved either receive the fate or have a chance to avoid the fate. To simulate chance, students may call a coin toss or the roll of a die or try to pitch a checker or coin into a trash can. Any student who “loses,” has the event and fate happen to him/her. c. Adding your own Fates As the simulation progresses, add additional Frontier Fates as the need arises (for example, to meet unexpected needs, such as decisions not covered; to incorporate other events and material; to make a specific point, such as the cruelty of the desert or the importance of salt). d. Assessing Responses to Fates Some Frontier Fates require a student to analyze a problem, work out a solution, and write a brief research paragraph. The fate of the student depends on whether he/she does an acceptable job on this assignment. Only you can fairly judge whether a given student has done an acceptable job on any given assignment. No attempt has been made to predetermine types of responses or quality of individual student work. Use your own judgment of what a certain student is capable of doing.

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You may invent other ways to simulate fate. Be creative!

When assessing responses to fates, use a rubric when appropriate.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 11


SETUP DIRECTIONS P I O N E E R S

Cooperative Groups Dividing or uniting wagon trains is possible, but not recommended since it complicates the simulation and detracts from the realism of both the Frontier Fates and the Trail Decisions.

Consult Setup Directions #10, Pioneer Progress on page 8 for scoring information for wagon trains with 1 to 9 members.

13. Dividing/Joining Wagon Trains At the beginning of the simulation, the class is divided into four wagon trains. As the simulation progresses, one or more wagon trains may want/ask to divide or unite. If you allow a wagon train to divide or two or more to unite, follow these rules to ensure the smoothest operation. • Each new wagon train must have a wagon master. • Calculate a new EF. — If dividing, divide each train’s current EF evenly among all wagon train members. For example, if a wagon train’s EF is 45 and has nine members, each member would take an EF of 5 to his/her new train. — If two trains are joining together, simply add their EFs together to get the EF for the new, larger train. • Use the following schedule to determine the number of Total Travel Points necessary to move larger wagon trains one dot across the Hacker Trail Map.

No. of members 10-member train 11-member train 12-member train 13-member train 14-member train 15-member train 16-member train 17-member train 18-member train 19-member train 20-member train

Points 340 370 410 440 470 510 540 580 610 650 680

14. Extensions a. Research Presentations Have students prepare a short oral presentation of their research for whole class learning. b. Campfire Circle Consider having a “campfire circle” if several students complete imaginative Challenge Projects. Have the class form a large circle and allow students to present their projects (poems, songs, skits, etc.) to the whole class. 12 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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ASSESSMENT P I O N E E R S

1. Determine Assessment Standards PIONEERS is designed for students from elementary through high school grades. Therefore, establish your own level of what “meets the standard” for your grade level. a. “Meeting the standard” on the diary entries requires that students write creatively and incorporate requested material. b. “Meeting the standard” on the trail decisions requires notetaking, analysis, and decision-making. Require more written elaboration of these skills for more capable students/grades. If a student has auditory processing difficulties, consider providing a written version for Trail Decisions 2–4. c. Clear instructions are provided in the Student Guides regarding what “meets the standard” for the note cards (page 16). “Meeting the standard” for upper grades may mean more elaboration on these criteria. d. “Meeting the standard” on the research paper has two parts, content and writing. Students are required to use at least two sources and to appropriately cite these sources in a bibliography. e. Student responses to the Posttest (Pioneer Travel Trivia) provide objective assessment of students’ mastery of the material covered in this unit. f. Students who do not “meet the standard” on any part of the assessment must be required to redo that section. Sometimes students need a second chance to demonstrate what they know. Consider allowing students to rewrite their work after reviewing with you. Also consider allowing them to provide their responses orally.

The assignments being assessed require a great deal of writing. If a student has written-language difficulties, consider alternative methods of assessment.

2. Performance Assessments PIONEERS includes rubrics to assess student writing and cooperative group work. Individual students, regardless of how their wagon trains finish in the simulation, may strive to achieve an “Exemplary” using each of these rubrics. Always post rubrics before running the simulation. Complete the Cooperative Group Work Rubric for all students at least twice: first, after three days of the simulation, and again at the end. After the first evaluation, students generally attend to their tasks better and work to improve their rubric scores by the end of the simulation.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 13


ASSESSMENT P I O N E E R S

3. What do Rubric Scores Mean? When completing performance assessments, focus on “student work.” This work is not limited to written work. It includes demonstrated skills, oral exchanges, individual and cooperative group behavior, processes, strategies, and any other evidence that proves that the students have learned the targeted content or skill and can apply what they know. 4 — Exemplary — Student work that exceeds the standard for the activity. The descriptor includes words such as “consistently,” “complete,” “with detail,” “actively,” and “willingly.” Students who earn a “4” demonstrate leadership and knowledge during participation in the simulation. 3 — Expected — Student work that meets the standard with quality. The descriptors lack some of the positive adjectives of a “4,” but this student has mastered the content or skill and can demonstrate his/her understanding in an application setting. 2 — Nearly There — Student work that almost meets the standard. Sometimes inconsistent effort or a misconception of the content will result in a “2” rating. This student needs a little reteaching, needs to try a little harder, or needs to revise his/her work in order to meet the standards described. 1 — Incomplete — Student work that has not yet met the standard in content and/or skill. This student will require more instruction and another opportunity to demonstrate a knowledge or skill, or will require alternative instruction and assessment.

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RESOURCES P I O N E E R S

For more resources on the West and Westward Expantion, go to:

www.socialstudies.com/interact_resources

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 15


P I O N E E R S

16 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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UNIT TIME CHART P I O N E E R S

DAY 1

DAY 2

• Administer PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Pretest) • Student Guide pages 1, 2, and 3 • Discuss CHALLENGE PROJECTS • Discuss western movement and overview of this simulation

• Place students into four wagon trains • Discuss COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC • Assign identities • Each wagon train selects a wagon master • Discuss the type of people who settled the West

DAY 6

DAY 7

DAY 8

DAY 9

DAY 10

• Trail Decision 2: Prairie Crossing • Read Frontier Fates

• Diary Entry 2: Trail to Cheyenne Crossing • Introduce writing a research paper • Students choose research topics and begin research • Read Frontier Fates

• Students continue research • Read Frontier Fates

• Students complete research, organize note cards, and begin writing paper • Read Frontier Fates

• Groups complete “pop quiz” • Students complete writing research papers • Read Frontier Fates

DAY 11

DAY 12

DAY 13

DAY 14

DAY 15

• Discuss and evaluate • Trail Decision 3: research papers Trail to Devil’s Flat • Diary Entry 3: • Read Frontier Fates Flood at Cheyenne Crossing • Read Frontier Fates

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DAY 3

DAY 4

DAY 5

• Examine • Discuss Hacker Trail • Introduce Frontier AVAILABLE Map Fates SUPPLIES LIST • Make Travel Diaries • Explain WAGON • Students select • Discuss DIARY MASTER’S LOG supplies to take west ENTRY RUBRIC • Discuss TRAIL • Diary Entry 1: DECISION Moving West RUBRIC • Trail Decision 1; analyze possible actions

• Diary Entry 4: Devil’s Flat • Read Frontier Fates

• Trail Decision 4: • Administer Snow Pass PIONEER TRAVEL • Read Frontier Fates TRIVIA (Posttest) • Complete simulation • Conduct evaluation and debriefing

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 17


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 1 P I O N E E R S

Day 1 Objectives • Gauge understanding of material to be covered during the simulation with a Pretest • Read Introduction and Student Directions in the Student Guide • Discuss Challenge Projects • Discuss the westward movement and the overview of this simulation Materials • Student Guides — class set • PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Pretest) — class set • CHALLENGE PROJECTS — class set, one per wagon train, and/ or one to post • Paper (lined) — class set Procedure 1. Distribute PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA and paper, and allow students approximately 10–15 minutes to complete. Collect the tests, correct later, and file for use during the final evaluation period. 1. c 6. a 2. c 7. c 3. b 8. a 4. a 9. d 5. d 10. c 11. Who, What, Where, When, Why 12. adventure, excitement, land, freedom, fresh start, lush/rich prairies, wealth, etc. 13. accidents, animals, weather, unknown factors, disease 14. water, firewood, rope, rifle, Dutch oven, shovel, pick axe, salt, extra wagon wheel, flour, pinto beans, etc. 15. Advantages: Safety in numbers, having a guide who knows the trails, sharing resources if necessary (when you do not have something), etc. Disadvantages: Having to get along with others, having “hot heads” in group who bring on trouble, having to share resources (when you have something and others do not), diseases from others, etc.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 1 P I O N E E R S

2. Distribute the Student Guides and instruct students to write their names on them. Read the Background Information/Introduction (page 1) together as a class. Discuss the material covered in the Introduction and related material you have available for motivation and background. Raise some of the following considerations: • Unknown factors—broken wagon wheels, lost trails, prairie fires, etc. • Problem of disease—small pox, measles—and other maladies—fevers, broken bones (the fact that medical knowledge and facilities at the time were nothing like today) • Variety of land that these people crossed—prairie, mountains, valleys, deserts • Contacts with Native Americans, both friendly and hostile — many early contacts were positive (there are stories of Native Americans pulling out stuck wagons, rescuing drowning pioneers, even rounding up lost cattle) — contacts after the pioneers had overgrazed the prairie grasses, burned all available firewood, and depleted the buffalo were more hostile • Importance of weather—floods, drought, blizzards, dust storms, avalanches, extreme heat • Contact with wild animals—snakes, scorpions, buffalo, etc. • Fear factor—existence along the trail was tenuous and often travelers acted/reacted violently to new/unknown situations Note: In this unit the term Native American has been chosen in an effort to be respectful of the indigenous peoples. However, this term was not known to the Pioneers of the mid-1800s. They instead used the term “Indian” when referring to these peoples. 3. Read the Student Directions (pages 2–3 in the Student Guide) together as a class. Answer any questions.

During this discussion, you cannot hope to cover the entire history of wagon trains; nor can you answer all questions asked by students. Tell them that their questions will be answered as the simulation progresses.

Discuss terms and labels used now versus the mid-1800s. In addition, share historical facts regarding the increased hostility of Native Americans as “white men” passed through…and later took over their land. Examples of hostilities between Native Americans and the “white man” include: Grattan Massacre, Massacre Rocks Incident, and Bear River Massacre. Discuss feelings of distrust that remain today.

4. Display and discuss CHALLENGE PROJECTS (distribute if appropriate). Inform students that normal progress on a wagon train is based on several students in each wagon train doing a Challenge Project sometime during the simulation.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 19


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 2 P I O N E E R S

Day 2 Objectives • Form four wagon trains • Discuss Cooperative Group Work Rubric • Receive a pioneer identity • Select a wagon master for each wagon train group • Discuss the type of people who settled the West Materials • Student Guides (pages 4–5) — class set • COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post

To provide incentive for cooperation, use the Cooperative Group Work Rubric. Provide groups with a daily score they add to their total points earned (line 1 on the Wagon Master’s Log).

Procedure 1. Divide your class into four wagon trains of equal size (see Setup Directions #3, Grouping Students). Distribute or display and discuss COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC. 2. Assign or allow students to select family identities (see Setup Directions #4, Assigning Roles). 3. Using the Student Guide, discuss the role of the wagon master on a wagon train. The wagon master: • is the wagon train’s scorekeeper • is the wagon train’s leader and spokesperson • must see that all persons on his/her wagon train are doing their fair share of the work (Work that is late, poorly done, or missing all delay the progress of the entire wagon train.) • is in charge of wagon train meetings during the simulation • has the authority to delegate responsibilities, but must be extremely careful to delegate them to persons who will carry out his/her wishes 4. Instruct each wagon train to select its wagon master.

Based on the needs of your students, groups may also select an assistant wagon master. PIONEERS covers the first three topics. If students are interested in what was found in the West and how pioneers changed the West and how it changed them, additional research is recommended.

20 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

5. Lead a discussion of the people who settled the West. Link this discussion with content from class. Among possible topics are: • who actually went west • what type of person packed his/her family and all their possessions into a wagon and traveled four to six months across a wild, unknown continent looking for a new home • what these people were looking for • what they actually found in the West • how they changed the West and how the West changed them ©2001 Interact | www.teachinteract.com | INTERACT


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 3 P I O N E E R S

Day 3 Objectives • Examine and discuss a list of supplies that early homesteaders took west • Select supplies and list them on their Wagon Supply List Materials • Student Guides (pages 6–7) — class set • AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST — class set • Resource Materials (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias) — several Procedure 1. Distribute AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST. Instruct students to examine the list carefully and discuss the items in a wagon train meeting. Encourage students to discuss: • what the item is • how the item would be useful on the trail, at the homestead, or both • the relative importance of each item • the bulk weight units (BWU) of each item

Have dictionaries and encyclopedias available for students to use if they need to learn more about a particular supply item.

2. Go over the directions on the AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST and the Wagon Supply List in the Student Guide. Ensure that all students understand what is expected from them. 3. Allow students to begin making their selections and filling out Column A of their Wagon Supply List. As the students work, circulate around the class to make sure that all students understand what to do. 4. Instruct students to complete the Wagon Supply List at home before the next day. Encourage them to discuss the assignment with their parents, older brothers and sisters, and other adults. Not only will this provide them with necessary help in selecting their supplies, but it will also involve the parents in the students’ work.

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Caution students to choose their supplies wisely as “fate” will penalize unwise decisions. (For example, Frontier Fate 1 penalizes students who do not have enough water.) Students should also carefully consider the information provided in their family identity (i.e., the number of family members and animals) when selecting supplies.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 21


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 4 P I O N E E R S

Day 4 Objectives • Examine the map and its various routes • Make Travel Diaries • Discuss Diary Entry Rubric • Complete Diary Entry 1: Moving West Materials • DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post • Classroom Hacker Trail Map — one • Pioneer Paperwork Folder — one per wagon train • Student Guides (page 8) — class set • Travel Diaries — class set — Construction paper (9" x 12") — class set — Paper (lined) — four sheets per student — Stapler — several

The bigger and more colorful your students make the map the more motivation it provides. During the simulation, students keep their Student Guides, Diaries, Trail Decisions, and the WAGON MASTER’S LOG inside their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. Inside the front cover of each Pioneer Paperwork Folder, attach a copy of HACKER TRAIL MAP.

22 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

Setup 1. Prepare a classroom map of the Hacker Trail. Make an overhead transparency of HACKER TRAIL MAP on page 81 and create a large-scale version. Invite students to color/decorate the map. 2. Prepare a Pioneer Paperwork Folder for each wagon train (See Setup Directions #8, Pioneer Paperwork Folders). Procedure 1. Discuss with students the classroom version of the Hacker Trail Map you made earlier. Distribute the Pioneer Paperwork Folders (one to each wagon train). Instruct students to locate a copy of this map on the inside of the front cover. Among the topics for discussion: a. Who else beside guides might have made such early maps? b. How accurate is this map? (Tell students that for the purposes of this simulation most of the guides seem to agree as to the general accuracy of Hacker’s map; however, there are some disagreements. Point out the Salt Flats Trail, which is incomplete on the map. Explain that two different guides disagree violently as to where the trail goes and how safe it is. One guide claims it is a safe shortcut around Massacre Canyon; the other guide says it is a death trap leading into a vast desert.)

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 4 P I O N E E R S

c. Explain that the distances on the map are relative and only correspond to the dots. The dots are related to the points they earn. d. Also explain that the map represents no actual route west; rather it is a combination of areas crossed by several western trails. 2. Distribute the construction paper, lined paper, and staplers for students to make their Travel Diaries. Instruct students to write their names on the front cover. 3. Read together the Situation and Entry for Diary Entry 1: Moving West (page 8 in their Student Guides). Briefly answer any questions that arise. 4. Distribute the DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC and discuss. 5. Inform students that they have approximately 30 minutes to write their diary entry on the first page of their Travel Diaries. Remind them that this is the first assignment that will earn points to move their wagons out of Fort Independence. 6. Collect and grade the diary entries on the basis of their originality and how well students incorporated requested material. Use the DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC for grading purposes.

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Grade this assignment and all other student assignments in the simulation on a scale of 1–10, with 10 being the highest grade. Normal progress of a wagon train is based on the average student receiving a 6 or 7 on each assignment and several students in each wagon train doing a Challenge Project sometime during the simulation.

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 23


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 5 P I O N E E R S

Day 5 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Review the scoring procedure and examine the WAGON MASTER’S LOG • Discuss Trail Decision Rubric • Read and Resolve Trail Decision 1

Consider posting the second copy of the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for examination by the class.

Materials • Student Guides (pages 10–11) — class set • WAGON: Travel Markers — one per wagon train • WAGON MASTER’S LOG — four (one per wagon train) + four (Optional) • TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post • Overhead projector — one Setup 1. Prepare a WAGON: Travel Marker for each wagon train. Use the template provided on page 83 or make your own if the size does not match your Classroom Map. 2. Review the day’s Frontier Fates.

Reviewing the Frontier Fates will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail.

24 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

3. Write out the following point schedule on a transparency. Show to the students later in the class (Procedure #12.)

No. of members 1-member train 2-member train 3-member train 4-member train 5-member train 6-member train 7-member train 8-member train 9-member train

Points 110 130 150 175 200 220 250 280 310

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 5 P I O N E E R S

Procedure 1. Review scoring procedures with students. Each assignment gets a numerical grade. The wagon master adds up all points earned each day and multiplies this total times the wagon train’s current Energy Factor (EF). The Delay Points (DPs) are then subtracted from this total, which then gives the wagon train’s actual points earned for the day. 2. Distribute WAGON MASTER’S LOG. Instruct wagon masters to fill in the wagon train members’ names (the names of the students, not their identities). Return each student’s evaluated Diary Entry 1 and have wagon masters fill out their logs. 3. Read Frontier Fates 1–2 (pages 26 and 27) and have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 4. Introduce Trail Decisions. They provide students with an opportunity to make creative decisions. They also teach listening and note-taking skills. The situation and possible actions for Trail Decision 1 are in the Student Guide. The remainder of the Trail Decisions require that students take notes while you read the situation to them. 5. Have students read the Directions for Trail Decision 1 on page 10 of their Student Guides. Emphasize the 5 Ws. Ask if students understand what they are to do. Read the Situation for Trail Decision 1. Briefly answer any questions.

To provide additional incentive for cooperation, use the Cooperative Group Work Rubric. Provide groups with a daily score they add to their total points earned (line 1 on the Wagon Master’s Log) or provide each student with points for today (to add to the points earned from Dairy Entry 1) to boost their wagon train’s initial travel. Optional: Have each wagon master assign a wagon train member to post and maintain the second copy of the log on the bulletin board. The wagon master keeps track of he EF and DPs for each fate on scratch paper before entering these on his/her WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

6. Distribute or display and discuss the TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC with students. 7. Instruct students to respond to Trail Decision 1: a. Fill in the 5 W’s chart. b. Read Analyze the Possible Actions on page 11. c. Complete the chart, following the directions. 8. After all members have filled out their Trail Decision 1 chart (pages 10–11), the wagon master calls a team meeting. a. The team chooses the best possible action to solve the problem facing them. b. The wagon master writes—or assigns someone to write—a short paragraph explaining what the wagon train decided to do. 9. Collect the Student Guides and grade Trail Decision 1. INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | ©2001 Interact

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 25


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 5 P I O N E E R S

Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

10. Read Frontier Fates 3–4 (page 27). Have wagon masters write the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day (including Fates 1–4). 11. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 12. Display the transparency (see Day 5 Setup #3) and discuss the point structure for different-sized wagon trains. Explain that this point structure makes progress more equitable. Have each wagon master note the points needed for his or her train based on how many members in the train. Have the wagon masters write these points on line 8 of the WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

Stress that these are the number of points they must earn to move the wagon train from one dot to the next dot on the Hacker Trail Map.

No. of members 1-member train 2-member train 3-member train 4-member train 5-member train

Points 110 130 150 175 200

No. of members 6-member train 7-member train 8-member train 9-member train

Points 220 250 280 310

13. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (line 9 of their Logs). Groups check these computations. 14. Distribute WAGON: Travel Markers to each wagon master. The wagon masters place their markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) the location of the wagon train on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders.

FRONTIER FATE 1 • Who: Everyone • What: You have already learned that water is vital for survival of you and your animals. Since this spring has been extremely dry, the water you have brought with you has become crucially important. Searching for and collecting water along the trail is risky and time consuming. • Where: Just west of Fort Independence • Fate: For each wagon without any water barrels lose 1 EF. 200 DPs for each wagon with only one barrel.

26 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 5 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 2 • Who: Everyone • What: If you did not bring along firewood, you must spend time during the day searching for wood, bushes, and buffalo chips since the prairie has very few trees. This takes time and delays your wagon train. • Where: West of Fort Independence • Fate: 200 DPs for each wagon without firewood.

FRONTIER FATE 3 • Who: Everyone • What: Last night one of the members of your wagon train failed to make his family fire in a trench and embers blew out and started a prairie fire. You and the other members of the wagon train spent all night and most of today fighting the fire. • Where: Just east of Prairie Wells • Fate: Each wagon train calls a coin toss. 600 DPs, if your call is incorrect. Each wagon master or another member calls the coin toss.

FRONTIER FATE 4 • Who: Identity 9 on each wagon train • What: Your oxen ate loco weed and are too sick to travel this morning. • Where: West of Prairie Wells • Fate: Call a coin toss. 500 DPs, if your call is incorrect.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 27


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

Day 6 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Read and Resolve Trail Decision 2

If copying is limited, use a transparency instead of a class set of TRAIL DECISIONS. Students use blank paper for this assignment. Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail. The wagon master keeps track of the EF and DPs for each fate on scratch paper before entering these on his/her WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

Materials • Student Guides (pages 12–13) — class set • TRAIL DECISIONS — class set or transparency • Paper (blank) — class set (Optional) • Resource Materials (related to burns) — several Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Trail Decision 1 and have wagon masters record the grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Read Frontier Fates 5–9 (pages 31 and 32) and have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 3. Have students turn to Trail Decisions (in their Student Guides) and read the Directions at the top of page 12. Distribute TRAIL DECISIONS or display the transparency and distribute blank paper. 4. Slowly read Trail Decision 2 aloud to your students. Students take notes as you read. If you feel it is necessary, reread it. Read the following:

If using the transparency and blank paper, allow time for students to copy TRAIL DECISIONS onto their papers before you begin reading. Review TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC with students.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

Trail Decision 2: Prairie Crossing Situation: Tomorrow you will cross the Sand Flats River and begin the second part of your trek west. Tonight, after a month on the trail, you are celebrating your safe arrival at Prairie Crossing and making plans for the next part of your journey. The guide has informed you that tonight the wagon train has a very important decision to make. As soon as you cross the river, the trail splits. As the map shows, both trails lead to Cheyenne Crossing.

read or tell

The Burial Grounds Trail is shorter and leads almost directly from Prairie Crossing to Cheyenne Crossing. Since time is so important to you, this trail seems to be the better choice. The guide, however, has told you that it might not be safe. The trail crosses a sacred Native American burial ground and once on the trail there is no way to get around these burial grounds. The guide also informs you that several previous wagon trains have been attacked near these burial grounds. This trail is also very dry, and since there is a general lack of water this spring, finding water might become a serious problem. The Cheyenne River Trail heads south along the Sand Flats River, cuts across to the Cheyenne River, and follows it upstream to Cheyenne Crossing. This trail is almost twice as long as the Burial Grounds Trail but there is plenty of water and less chance of attack by Native Americans. 5. Once students have finished their notes, instruct them to read Analyze the Possible Actions at the top of page 13 in the Student Guide. INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | Š2001 Interact

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 29


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

6. Read these possible actions: read or tell

a. You can decide that time is very critical and you will take a chance on the Burial Grounds Trail. b. You can decide to play it safe and take the Cheyenne River Trail. c. You can split your wagon train in half and send half on each trail. d. You can send several scouts ahead on the Burial Grounds Trail to check on water supplies and Native American activity. While they are gone, you must wait at Prairie Crossing. 7. Have students individually write their analysis of each possible action and what they consider to be the best possible action. 8. After all members have completed their Trail Decision 2, the wagon master calls a meeting and the members choose the best possible action to solve the problem facing them. 9. The wagon master writes a short paragraph—or assigns someone to write the paragraph—explaining what the wagon train has decided to do. 10. Collect and grade the Trail Decision 2 pages.

Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

11. Read Frontier Fates 10–12 on page 33 and have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day (including Fates 5–12). 12. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 13. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

14. Instruct wagon masters to place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 15. Collect identity 4’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 12 prior to Day 7.

FRONTIER FATE 5 • Who: Everyone • What: You are now beginning to see the need for a rifle. It is an all-purpose weapon to a settler. It is used for hunting, fighting, and protection. • Where: Prairie Wells • Fate: For each wagon without a rifle subtract 1 EF.

FRONTIER FATE 6 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to buy the water and share it. • What: No longer having the money that you spent on water could become important later when supplies are running low, when you need to pay Native Americans for crossing their land, or when you need other supplies. Buying water could also mean the difference between making it to Prairie Crossing and not making it.

Frontier Fates 6–9 relate to Trail Decision 1.

• Where: Prairie Wells • Fate: Wagon masters roll a die to determine your wagon train’s fate: 1 = no change, 2 = add 1 EF, 3 = subtract 1 EF, 4 = no change, 5 = subtract 3 EF, 6 = add 2 EF.

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PIONEERS Teacher Guide 31


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 7 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to buy water and share it only with those who helped buy it. • What: Because of a lack of water along the trail west of Prairie Wells, much of your livestock becomes weak and some die. • Where: Prairie Wells • Fate: Call four coin tosses. Each time you fail to call it correctly you lose one head of livestock and 1 EF.

The wagon master or another member of the wagon train calls each coin toss.

FRONTIER FATE 8 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to continue without water. • What: Because of a lack of water on the trail between here and Prairie Crossing, much of your livestock is weak, ill, and dying. • Where: Prairie Wells • Fate: Call seven coin tosses. Each time you fail to call it correctly you lose one head of livestock and 1 EF.

The wagon master or another member of the wagon train calls each coin toss.

FRONTIER FATE 9 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to fight. • What: As you sneak up on the wells in the middle of the night, the guards see you and a fight breaks out. • Where: Prairie Wells • Fate: You finally capture the wells and take the water, but at a cost. Call five coin tosses. Each time you fail to call it correctly one man is injured and you lose 1 EF.

The wagon master or another member of the wagon train calls each coin toss.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 6 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 10 • Who: Everyone • What: The heat has shrunk the green wood in your wheels. Because of this, the iron rims on your wheels keep slipping off. You must stop and repair them. • Where: West of Prairie Wells • Fate: Each person on the wagon train stands 15 feet from the wall and pitches a checker or coin as close to the wall as possible. 100 DPs for each wagon train member’s checker/coin that is within 12 inches of the wall. 200 DPs for any checker/coin more than 12 inches from the wall.

FRONTIER FATE 11 • Who: Each wagon train • What: Sagebrush three feet high and growing as thick as hair on a hog’s back has clogged up the trail and your wagons cannot pass. You must stop and clear the trail. • Where: West of Prairie Wells • Fate: Each wagon master calls a coin toss. 200 DPs if the call is incorrect.

FRONTIER FATE 12 • Who: Identity 4 on each wagon train • What: You fell over a stone and landed in the fire last night while cooking dinner. You burned both of your hands. To recover you must write a research paragraph (50–100 words), with source indicated, on burns and how to treat them. Your wagon train’s fate is dependent on you. • Where: Just east of Prairie Crossing • Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 200 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph; 200 DPs and call a coin toss for no paragraph turned in. If incorrectly called, your burns become infected and the wagon train subtracts 2 EF.

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Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs. You must collect and examine/evaluate the paragraphs prior to the beginning of class on Day 7.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 7 P I O N E E R S

Day 7 Objectives • Diary Entry 2: Trail to Cheyenne Crossing • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Read about and discuss the writing of a research paper • Select a topic for a research paper • Begin research for the paper Materials • Student Guides (page 8, pages 14–16) — class set • RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post • WRITING CONVENTIONS RUBRIC — class set or transparency + one to post (Optional) • Resource Materials (encyclopedias and other relevant sources related to research topics and rattlesnake bites) — several • Index Cards (3" x 5"; lined) — 10–15 per student Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Trail Decision 2. Have wagon masters record grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail. The wagon master keeps track of the EF and DPs for each fate on scratch paper before entering these on his/her WAGON MASTER’S LOG. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

Review DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC with students.

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2. Return identity 4’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 12 (with consequences indicated on their papers). Read Frontier Fates 13–16 (pages 35 and 36). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. 3. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 4. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 5. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 6. Read together the Situation and Entry for Diary Entry 2: Trail to Cheyenne Crossing (page 8 in their Student Guides). Briefly answer any questions that arise.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 7 P I O N E E R S

7. Inform students that they have approximately 20 minutes to write their diary entry on the second page of their Travel Diaries. 8. Collect and grade the diary entries on the basis of their originality and how well students incorporated requested material. Use the DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC for grading purposes. 9. Have students turn to Writing a Research Paper (page 14 in their Student Guides). Read together as a class. a. Discuss research papers. Among the topics to cover: • avoiding plagiarism • making the paper an original work • the 5 Ws—who, what, where, when, and why • how to take notes • how to make proper bibliographic citations b. With the class read the George Washington article, note cards, and research paper on page 15. Answer questions. 10. Read Your Research Paper on page 16. Distribute or display and discuss the RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC. Depending on your course objectives, introduce and review the WRITING CONVENTIONS RUBRIC. 11. Help students select research topics and get started on projects. a. Distribute index cards and clarify any note-taking questions. b. Point out resources available. c. They may begin immediately. 12. Collect identity 6’s (on the Cheyenne River Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 15 before Day 8.

Be sure students are clear on how to make proper bibliographic citations.

Work with individual students to select a topic, locate research materials, write note cards, etc. as necessary. Inform students that their research papers are due at the end of Day 10.

FRONTIER FATE 13 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to send out scouts on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: The scouts traveled four days before reaching the burial grounds area. They found little water along the way. Once they arrived they were surprised by a small band of Native Americans and they barely escaped with their lives. They warn against taking the trail.

Frontier Fates 13–16 relate to Trail Decision 2. For Frontier Fate 13, the wagon master writes a short paragraph—or assigns someone to write the paragraph— explaining what the wagon train has decided to do.

• Where: Prairie Crossing • Fate: 200 DPs for the time lost in sending out the scouts. You must now make a decision on which trail you are going to take.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 7 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 14 • Who: Those wagon trains that decided to split their wagon train. • What: You must divide your group and form two wagon trains, each with its own wagon master. • Where: Prairie Crossing See Setup Directions # 13, Dividing/Joining Wagon Trains for more information on dividing wagon trains.

• Fate: Your EF must be divided between the two new wagon trains.

FRONTIER FATE 15 • Who: Identity 6 on all wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail • What: Your spouse was bitten by a rattlesnake at noon today. To ensure a prompt recovery write a research paragraph (50–100 words), with source indicated, on rattlesnakes and how to treat bites. Your wagon train’s fate is dependent on you. • Where: Cheyenne River Trail

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs as you must collect and examine them before Day 8.

• Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 200 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph; 200 DPs and call a coin toss for no paragraph turned in. If incorrectly called, your spouse dies and the wagon train subtracts 3 EF.

FRONTIER FATE 16 • Who: All wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: When your wagon train arrives for overnight camping, you find that grazing buffalo have clipped the prairie grass clean for miles around. If you are not carrying extra feed for your animals, they will become weak and unable to perform well. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: 300 DPs for each wagon without extra animal feed.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 8 P I O N E E R S

Day 8 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Continue to do research Materials • Resource Materials (encyclopedias and other relevant sources related to research topics and rattlesnake bites) — several • Index Cards 3" x 5" (distributed Day 7) — 10–15 per student Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Diary Entry 2 and have wagon masters record grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Return identity 6’s (on the Cheyenne River Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 15 (with consequences indicated on their papers). Read Frontier Fates 17–21 on pages 39 and 40. Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet and write down their decisions for Frontier Fates 18 and 20/21. Read fates accordingly. 3. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. 4. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7).

Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

5. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 8 P I O N E E R S

6. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 7. Each student should work on his/her individual research and should take notes on the note cards. Inform students that their note cards will be collected and graded at the end of the day. 8. Assist students in finding materials and writing correct note cards.

Award two points for each of the five items or determine your own scoring method.

9. Collect all completed note cards and grade them (1–10 points per student, for all note cards). Based on the instructions on Your Research Paper the note cards should include at least* the following: • a heading • one important fact or event • use of own words (not exact words of source) • the source—cited appropriately • neatly written *Based on your own classroom situation, add or substitute your own criteria. 10. Collect identity 6’s (on Burial Grounds Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 17 and identity 2’s (on Cheyenne River Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 19 before Day 9. 11. Optional Allow additional research time at this point. Students who finish their research earlier or who wish to work outside of class can work on Challenge Projects.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 8 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 17 • Who: Identity 6 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: Your spouse was bitten by a rattlesnake at noon today. To ensure a prompt recovery write a research paragraph (50–100 words), with source indicated, on rattlesnakes and how to treat bites. Your wagon train’s fate is dependent on you. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 200 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph; 200 DPs and call a coin toss for no paragraph turned in. If incorrectly called, your spouse dies and the wagon train subtracts 3 EF.

Frontier Fates 17 and 19–21 relate to Trail Decision 2.

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs as you must collect and examine them before Day 9.

FRONTIER FATE 18 • Who: All wagon trains • What: The wagon train’s dogs have been running wild over the prairie at night, howling and chasing coyotes and other animals. A number of people are complaining that the dogs are keeping them awake. Several people have said they will shoot the next dog that howls tonight. You must have a brief wagon train meeting to decide what to do. Your fate will be read when you hand in your written decision. • Where: Burial Grounds and Cheyenne River Trails • Fate: (Read after you collect the written decisions.) If you chose to restrain the dogs to keep them closer to the wagon train at night (or other solution to continue using the dogs as an important warning system) continue with no delay. 100 DPs if you chose to ignore the concerns of those members without dogs, allowing them to shoot the next howling dog. 400 DPs for no solution turned in.

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Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 8 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 19 • Who: Identity 2 on all wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs as you must collect and examine them before Day 9.

• What: Your daughter fell off the wagon seat; the wheel rolled over her leg and broke it severely. It will be a number of weeks before she will be of any use to you along the trail. You must write a research paragraph (50–100 words), with source indicated, on how to treat her broken leg. • Where: Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 400 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph. 400 DPs if no paragraph is turned in and you call a coin toss. An additional 400 DPs and subtract 1 EF if the call is incorrect.

FRONTIER FATE 20 • Who: All wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

• What: Native Americans have stopped your wagon train asking to trade. They need clothing and rifles and are willing to trade horses and food for these items. You must have a wagon train meeting to decide what to do. Your fate will be read when you hand in your written decision. • Where: Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: (Read after you collect the written decisions.) 200 DPs if you chose to stop and make the trade, but add 2 EF for the positive interactions with the native tribe. If you chose to continue, you do so with no delay/consequences.

FRONTIER FATE 21 • Who: All wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail The wagon master or another member calls the coin toss. Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

• What: Native American warriors angrily demand that you turn back. They claim that previous wagon trains damaged their sacred burial grounds. They warn that if you go farther north you will be killed. Your wagon train must meet immediately to decide whether to turn around or continue on. Hand in your written decision and then learn your fate. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: (Read after you collect the written decisions.) If you chose to turn back, call a coin toss. If you call it correctly, immediately return to the trail split and take the Cheyenne River Trail. If you call it incorrectly, you must follow the dots back at a normal rate and then continue on the Cheyenne River Trail. If you chose to continue, there are no immediate consequences.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 9 P I O N E E R S

Day 9 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Complete research, organize note cards, and begin to write research paper Materials • Student Guides (page 16) — class set • RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC (already distributed and/or posted) — class set or transparency + one to post • Resource Materials (related to scorpions) — several Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated note cards and have wagon masters record grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Hold a brief discussion on the note cards. Discuss strong points you noticed on the note cards and address areas where students need to focus. 3. Return identity 6’s (on the Burial Grounds Trail—Frontier Fate 17) and identity 2’s (on the Cheyenne River Trail—Frontier Fate 19) paragraphs with consequences indicated on their papers. Read Frontier Fates 22–25 (pages 42 and 43). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet and write down their decisions for Frontier Fate 22 and hand in. 4. Review Step #8 on Your Research Paper in the Student Guide (page 16). Review the RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC. Clarify any remaining questions.

Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail.

5. Instruct students to organize their material in the order it will appear in their final paper. 6. Optional Students outline their paper before they begin writing. 7. Once they are organized, students begin writing their research papers. 8. While students are working, read responses to Fate 22 and determine whether the decision is “acceptable.” Indicate fates on papers and return to wagon trains.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 9 P I O N E E R S

9. Read Frontier Fates 26–28 (page 44). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet and write down their decisions for Frontier Fate 26 (all wagon trains of Burial Grounds Trail). Read fates accordingly. Advise students to select carefully the supplies they leave behind. COLUMN A Item Description ✔ Piano Hunting Knife Cooking Stove 25 lbs. of Salt

BWUs x Number = Total of Items BWUs 100 3 75 25

1 1 1 2

100 3 75 50

COLUMN B Use Column B only while on the Trail Left piano near burial grounds

Total BWUs 100

10. Frontier Fate 28 requires that wagons on the Burial Grounds Trail lighten their loads to a maximum of 800 BWUs. a. Turn to the Wagon Supply List on pages 6 and 7 in the Student Guides. b. To the left of the Item Description in Column A, make a check mark next to each item that is being left behind. c. Fill in Column B by writing where you are on the trail when you leave each item. Write the Total BWUs for each item. 11. Wagon masters compute their consequences for the day. Wagon train members check their wagon master’s computations. Wagon masters complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 12. Wagon masters compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 13. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 14. Collect identity 7’s (on Burial Grounds Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 25 before Day 10.

FRONTIER FATE 22 • Who: All wagon trains • What: Wagon train members who did not bring extra livestock are getting tired of standing night guard and collecting strays. Immediately, you must have a wagon train meeting and decide how to solve this problem. Turn in your written decision. • Where: West of Prairie Crossing Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

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• Fate: Continue with no delay for an acceptable decision. 400 DPs for an unacceptable decision. 800 DPs for no decision.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 9 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 23 • Who: Identity 1 on all wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail • What: Your spouse and youngest child wandered off while picking wildflowers. It is noon time and you suddenly realize that they are missing. You and a number of other members must take the afternoon to go looking for them.

Frontier Fates 23–26 and 28 are related to Trail Decision 2.

• Where: Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: Stand 15 feet from a chair and flip a coin or checker onto the chair seat. If it stays, you avoid the fate; otherwise 300 DPs for time lost.

FRONTIER FATE 24 • Who: All wagons traveling the Burial Grounds Trail • What: Some of your livestock disappeared overnight. There is no sign of their remains, they were probably stolen. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Each person on the wagon train stands 20 feet from the wall and pitches a checker or coin as close to the wall as possible. Each person whose checker/coin is more than 10 inches from the wall loses one head of livestock—you choose the livestock lost. For each animal lost subtract the following: oxen . . . . . . . . . . 2 EF mules . . . . . . . . . 1 EF cows. . . . . . . . . . 1 EF horses. . . . . . . . . 1 EF goats . . . . . . . . . 1 EF

FRONTIER FATE 25 • Who: Identity 7 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs. You must collect and examine/check them before Day 10.

• What: A scorpion gets into your shoe in the middle of the night. When you put on your boot, the scorpion bites you. You must write a research paragraph on scorpions and what you should do about the bite (50–100 words), with source indicated. Your wagon train’s fate depends on you. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: 200 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 400 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph; 1000 DPs for no paragraph turned in.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 9 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 26 • Who: All wagons trains on the Burial Grounds Trail Successful solutions to the water problem: boiling water or having enough because there are at least two water barrels per wagon. Examples of unsuccessful solutions: going on without any water or drinking it the way it is.

• What: Many wagons are running low on water and the only water near tonight’s camp is dirty and stagnant. You must have a wagon train meeting and decide what to do about this water problem. Turn in your written decision. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: No delay for a successful solution. 200 DPs for unsuccessful solution. 400 DPs for no solution.

FRONTIER FATE 27 • Who: Identities 6 and 8 on all wagon trains • What: You have been traveling for a number of weeks and the shoes on your horses and/or mules have worn down to the point that they must be shod before you continue. This means stopping on the trail for a half day. • Where: Both Cheyenne River Trail and Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss (each person—identity 6 and 8). 200 DPs for each incorrect call.

FRONTIER FATE 28 • Who: All wagons on Burial Grounds Trail • What: As you are traveling near the sacred burial grounds, a large band of Native Americans begin to follow you. Your guide is worried that they may attack and has ordered all wagons lightened so you can make a run for it. The guide hopes that you will get close enough to Cheyenne Crossing that the Native Americans will be afraid to attack. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Before day 10 all wagons must lighten their loads to a maximum of 800 BWUs. Due to the loss of supplies, subtract 1 EF for each wagon on your wagon train (e.g., if eight wagons on wagon train, subtract 8 EF). Additionally, 300 DPs for each wagon that has not lightened the load to 800 BWUs by day 10.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

Day 10 Objectives • Groups complete “pop quiz” • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Complete the writing of the research paper Materials No additional materials are needed for this day Procedure 1. Instruct wagon trains to get out one piece of paper per group for a “pop quiz.” Groups discuss and respond to the following:

1. List three difficulties or dangers pioneers faced in their travels west. 2. Describe advantages of traveling in wagon trains. 3. Describe disadvantages of traveling in wagon trains. 4. List three supplies that were important for pioneers traveling west in the mid-1800s. 5. What are the five Ws in writing? 2. Instruct wagon masters to “grade” their wagon trains’ papers. Use the following for guidance (Each team member earns 2 points for each correct answer): 1. Rattlesnakes, scorpions, accidents, broken wagon wheels, lost trails, prairie fires, the weather—drought, blizzards, dust storms, avalanches, extreme heat, the problem of disease— small pox, measles—and other maladies—fevers, broken bones (the fact that medical knowledge and facilities at the time were nothing like today), etc. 2. Safety in numbers, having a guide who knows the trails, sharing resources if necessary (when you do not have something), etc. 3. Having to get along with others, having “hot heads” in group who bring on trouble, having to share resources (when you have something and others do not), diseases from others, etc. 4. water, firewood, rope, rifle, Dutch oven, shovel, pick axe, salt, extra wagon wheel, flour, pinto beans, etc. 5. Who, What, Where, When, Why

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read or tell Choose other discussion prompts as appropriate for your classroom situation.

Discuss the pop quiz as a class and agree to give credit for additional responses that are acceptable.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

3. Have wagon masters record the grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. Note: each student earns two points for each correct answer (for a total of 10 points possible per student).

Award additional EF for groups that worked especially well together. Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail.

4. Inform wagon trains that in working together (to find the answers to the “pop quiz”) they have found a spring (water) and lots of grass for their animals. Instruct each group to add 1 EF. 5. Return identity 7’s (on the Burial Grounds Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 25 (with consequences indicated on their papers). Read Frontier Fates 29–30 (pages 47 and 48). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet and write down their decisions for Frontier Fate 29 and hand in. Read fates accordingly. 6. While wagon trains on the Cheyenne Trail are meeting to discuss Frontier Fate 29, check lightened loads from Day 9 Frontier Fate 28 (for wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail). 300 DPs for each wagon that has not lightened the load to 800 BWUs. 7. Students finish writing their research papers, which are due at the end of the day. 8. Students who finish early should work on Challenge Projects.

Research papers are due back to students on Day 11 of the simulation. Plan accordingly. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

9. Collect all the research papers and grade them using the RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC. 10. Read Frontier Fates 31–37 (pages 48–50). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 11. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. 12. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7).

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

13. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 14. Instruct wagon masters to place their travel markers on the appropriate place on the classroom version of the Hacker Trail Map. Additionally, instruct wagon masters to record (or have another member record) travel on the Hacker Trail Map on the inside front cover of their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 15. Optional Students prepare a brief presentation to share their research with the class on Day 11.

FRONTIER FATE 29 • Who: All wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail • What: Despite choosing this trail in order to avoid the sacred burial grounds and potential Native American hostilities, the ultimate disaster took place today. Three young men from your wagon train are known as “hot heads.” They are fast with guns, fists, and mouths. Late this afternoon they rode into camp with the scalps of two Native Americans. The three had spotted a small hunting party from a nearby village. They tracked the Native Americans down, then killed and scalped two of the hunters. You must have a wagon train meeting to decide what to do about these men before hostilities break out. The written decision must be handed in.

Frontier Fates 29–36 relate to Trail Decision 2.

Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

• Where: Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: 400 DPs for an acceptable solution; 600 DPs for an unacceptable solution; 800 DPs for no solution turned in and subtract 6 EF due to two men being lost in the fight that breaks out with the Native Americans.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 30 • Who: All wagons on the Cheyenne River Trail • What: You have been out for several months and you have been using a lot of your food and some of your other supplies. Food is beginning to run short on many wagons. If you did not bring enough food to reach Fort Choice where there are some limited supplies, you will become weak and have a greater chance of getting sick and slowing down your wagon train. • Where: Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: For each wagon not carrying the following supplies, reduce your EF as indicated. sugar . . . . . . . . . 1 EF dried meat . . . . . 1 EF pinto beans . . . . 2 EF flour . . . . . . . . . . 1 EF salt . . . . . . . . . . . 2 EF

FRONTIER FATE 31 • Who: Identities 1 and 9 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: Your wagon train has been attempting to outrun the Native Americans who have taken up the chase. It is almost dusk and you all realize that you will not be close enough to Cheyenne Crossing for help. So the decision has been made to stop, circle the wagons, and hope you can successfully defend yourselves against any attack that might occur. Suddenly the fight begins at dawn with more than 30 warriors attacking your wagon train. During the ensuing fight you are struck by an arrow in the right arm. For the next two days of the simulation you must wear your right arm in a sling. (Yes, even if you are right-handed and that is your writing arm!) • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Stand 10 feet from a trash can with your back toward it. You have two chances to toss a coin or checker into the trash can. If you fail to do so, this fate is yours—250 DPs because of the time spent helping you.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 32 • Who: Identities 2 and 7 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: During the fight your spouse is shot and killed by an arrow. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss (each person—identity 2 and 7). This fate is yours if the call is incorrect—subtract 1 EF.

FRONTIER FATE 33 • Who: Everyone on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: During the fight, three of your livestock were run off and lost. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: From 20 feet members of each wagon train pitch coins/checkers at a wall. Each person whose coin/checker is more than 10 inches from the wall loses one head of livestock. For each animal lost subtract the following: oxen . . . . . . . . . . 2 EF mules . . . . . . . . . 1 EF cows. . . . . . . . . . 1 EF horses . . . . . . . . 1 EF goats . . . . . . . . . 1 EF

FRONTIER FATE 34 • Who: Identity 4 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: During the fight your daughter was shot and killed. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss. This fate is yours if the call is incorrect—subtract 1 EF.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 10 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 35 • Who: Identity 3 on all wagon trains on the Burial Grounds Trail • What: During the fight your wagon was struck by a flaming arrow and it burned. You lost your wagon and all of your supplies. • Where: Burial Grounds Trail • Fate: Pick a number between 1–6. Roll a die. If your number does not come up, you escape this dire fate. If your number comes up you must subtract 2 EF for the loss of your wagon and 1 EF for the loss of your supplies. For the remainder of the trip you must find another family that will allow your family to ride with them.

FRONTIER FATE 36 • Who: Identity 2 on all wagon trains on the Cheyenne River Trail • What: Heavy rains began falling several days ago and still have not let up. Your youngest child was soaked the other night when your wagon leaked. He/she caught pneumonia and died early this morning. • Where: Just east of Cheyenne Crossing on the Cheyenne River Trail • Fate: From 15 feet flip a checker or coin into a trash can. The coin/checker must be placed on your thumbnail before you flip it. If you fail, you receive this fate and your wagon train loses 1 EF plus 400 DPs for the delay of the funeral.

FRONTIER FATE 37 • Who: Identity 7 on all wagon trains • What: Rain has fallen for seven days. The trail has become an impassable, gummy mass. Your wagon is bogged down and must be pulled out before you and the wagons behind you can proceed. • Where: East of Cheyenne Crossing on both trails • Fate: Call a coin toss. 300 DPs for an incorrect call.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 11 P I O N E E R S

Day 11 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Discuss and evaluate the research paper assignment • Complete Diary Entry 3: Flood at Cheyenne Crossing Materials • Student Guides (page 9) — class set Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated research papers and have wagon masters record grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Discuss the research papers with the class. 3. Optional Students present their research to the class. 4. Read Frontier Fates 38–40 (pages 52 and 53). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 5. Frontier Fate 39 requires that everyone lighten their loads to a maximum of 650 BWUs. a. Turn to the Wagon Supply List on pages 6 and 7 in the Student Guides. b. To the left of the Item Description in Column A, make a check mark next to each item that is being left behind. c. Fill in Column B by writing where you are on the trail when you leave each item. Write the Total BWUs for each item. COLUMN A Item Description ✔ Piano Hunting Knife Cooking Stove 25 lbs. of Salt

COLUMN B

BWUs x Number = Total of Items BWUs 100 3 75 25

1 1 1 2

100 3 75 50

Use Column B only while on the Trail Left piano near burial grounds

Total BWUs 100

If time permits, read one or two capable examples. Discuss what the authors did and how they worked through each step. Get student feedback concerning their papers—what they learned and what they found most interesting. Review the Frontier Fates ahead of time. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail. Advise students to select carefully the supplies they leave behind.

6. Read together the Situation and Entry for Diary Entry 3: Flood at Cheyenne Crossing (page 9 in their Student Guides). Briefly answer any questions that arise. 7. Instruct students that they have approximately 20 minutes to write their diary entry on the third page of their Travel Diaries.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 11 P I O N E E R S

8. Collect and grade the diary entries on the basis of their originality and how well students incorporated requested material. Use the DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC for grading purposes. 9. Read Frontier Fates 41–44 (pages 53 and 54). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 10. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

11. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 12. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 13. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders.

FRONTIER FATE 38 • Who: Everyone Students receive 1–20 points from their research papers today, thus the large number of delay points related to this fate. Make adjustments to the DPs as necessary.

• What: Because of the high rushing river, your guide has decided to delay the crossing for several days in hopes that the water level will fall. But three days pass, the rains continue and the river rushes on. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: 1000 DPs for each wagon train for the time lost waiting at Cheyenne Crossing.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 11 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 39 • Who: Everyone • What: Since the rains have not stopped and since the river may not be down for several weeks, the decision has been made that no more time can be wasted and you must cross the river today. The guide has informed you that your wagons are all too heavy and will sink unless they are lightened. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Everyone must lighten their load to 650 BWUs. Fill in Column B on your Wagon Supply List. Show what you are leaving behind.

FRONTIER FATE 40 • Who: Everyone • What: As you prepare for the crossing, you suddenly realize the importance of rope. Without enough rope you cannot safely guide the wagons and pull them across the river. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: If your wagon train is not carrying seven or more ropes, your wagon train loses 1 EF.

FRONTIER FATE 41 • Who: Identity 9 on all wagon trains • What: Your oldest son fell off the wagon and drowned in the fast-moving river while you attempted to cross. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Pick two numbers between 1–6. Roll a die. If either number comes up, this fate happens to you and your wagon train loses 1 EF.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 11 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 42 • Who: Identity 3 on all wagon trains • What: One of your draft animals drowns in the river while you cross. Your wagon is almost lost, but friends rush to your aid and help you save it. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Call a coin toss. If your call is incorrect this is your fate and your wagon train loses 1 EF.

FRONTIER FATE 43 • Who: Identity 2 on all wagon trains • What: A large tree, rushing down the river, smashes into your wagon and crushes it in the raging water. You manage to hold on to the lifeline but your wagon, your supplies, and your draft animals are all lost. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Stand 25 feet from a trash can. You have three chances to toss a coin/checker into the trash can. If you fail to do so (one of the three chances), this fate is yours and the wagon train must subtract 3 EFs for the lost wagon, supplies, and animals. You must find another wagon on which to ride for the remainder of the trip.

FRONTIER FATE 44 • Who: Identity 1 on all wagon trains • What: Your wagon swamps in midstream. You manage to get it across, but you lose 60 BWUs of supplies, including all your flour and salt. • Where: Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Call a coin toss. If you call it incorrectly, this is your fate. Fill in Column B on your Wagon Supply List to show lost supplies—including all flour and salt.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

Day 12 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Read and Resolve Trail Decision 3 Materials • Student Guides (pages 12–13) — class set • TRAIL DECISIONS — class set or transparency • Resource Materials (related to cholera) — several Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Diary Entry 3 and have wagon masters record the grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Read Frontier Fates 45–46 (page 58) and have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 3. Have students turn to Trail Decisions (Student Guides). Read the Directions on page 12. Distribute TRAIL DECISIONS or display the transparency and distribute blank paper. 4. Slowly read Trail Decision 3 aloud to your students. Students take notes as you read. If you feel it is necessary, reread it.

Trail Decision 3: Trail to Devil’s Flat Situation: Last night you arrived at Fort Choice. Today you have been resting, purchasing a few supplies, and asking questions about the trail ahead. The map indicates that the trail divides into three separate trails just west of Fort Choice. Massacre Canyon Trail is the shortest and fastest route, but is rumored to be the most dangerous. The country along the Massacre Canyon Trail is wild, rugged, and lonely. There are no settlements before you reach Devil’s Flat. You have heard many stories about wagon trains who found only dry water holes, hostile Native Americans, or huge rocks blocking the trail. One man you talked with reported that last year the commanding officer sent horse soldiers to punish the tribes along the trail. In this fight, many Native Americans were killed, including women and children. INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | ©2001 Interact

If copying is limited, use a transparency instead of a class set of TRAIL DECISIONS. Students use blank paper for this assignment. Review the Frontier Fates ahead of time. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail. If using the transparency and blank paper, allow time for students to copy TRAIL DECISIONS onto their papers before you begin reading.

read or tell

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

This cruel attack had angered the Native Americans and they were now fighting back. Last month a wagon train on Massacre Canyon Trail was attacked by Native Americans. They came limping back to the fort with half the people dead or severely wounded. The cavalry at Fort Choice protects travelers only as far west as the division in the trail. The soldiers advise against taking the Massacre Canyon Trail. Long Trail is much longer and also passes through some pretty rough country. However, water is generally no problem and the chance of attack is much less. Wagon trains taking Long Trail almost always get through, though a man told you that last year a wagon train was attacked by Native Americans and suffered several casualties. Finally there is the Salt Flats Trail. Reports concerning this trail are very confusing. One report is that hostile Native Americans along the trail make that route as dangerous as Massacre Canyon. It would be suicide for anyone foolish enough to take it. A man who claimed to have taken the trail just a few months ago said the trail is a safe shortcut around Massacre Canyon. He said that he had seen no sign of Native Americans. Hearing these stories about the different trails has done little to help you decide which trail to take. Your wagon train still has to make that decision. Whatever you decide you will need a lot of luck if your whole wagon train is to make it safely to Devil’s Flat. 5. Once students have finished their notes, instruct them to read Analyze the Possible Actions at the top of page 13.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

6. Read these possible actions:

a. Time is becoming a very critical problem for you and your fellow travelers. It is mid-August and you still face several more months on the trail. Because of the time factor, you believe you must gamble and take the Massacre Canyon Trail. b. Even though time is important, you feel taking the Massacre Canyon Trail is too risky. You want to make sure that you reach Oregon and do not end up dead beside the trail. For this reason you want to play it safe and go on the Long Trail. c. You are a gambler, always willing to take a chance on the unknown. Since Massacre Canyon Trail seems too risky and Long Trail too long, you favor the Salt Flats Trail. You have a gut feeling that the man who said it was a safe shortcut was right. d. You are a very cautious person. You are in favor of sending scouts ahead on the Massacre Canyon Trail to check the trail’s condition, if water is available, and if hostile Native Americans are in the area.

read or tell

7. Have students individually write their analysis of each possible action and what they consider to be the best possible action. 8. After all members have completed their Trail Decision 3, the wagon master calls a meeting and the members choose the best possible action to solve the problem facing them. 9. The wagon master writes a short paragraph—or assigns someone to write the paragraph—explaining what the wagon train has decided to do. Collect and grade the Trail Decision 3 pages. 10. Read Frontier Fates 47–51 (pages 59 and 60) and have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet, make a decision for Frontier Fate 50, and turn in their decision. Read the consequences as appropriate.

Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

11. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

12. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 13. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 14. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 15. Collect identity 1’s (on Salt Flats Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 48 before Day 13.

FRONTIER FATE 45 • Who: Everyone • What: A large mud slide has blocked the trail and it will take you several days to clear the mud away so the wagons can get through. • Where: West of Cheyenne Crossing • Fate: Each wagon master picks a different number between 1–6. The teacher rolls the die. 500 DPs for the wagon train whose number comes up.

FRONTIER FATE 46 • Who: Identity 5 on all wagon trains • What: Your wagon came down off of a rise and fell into a ditch, breaking its front axle. Your wagon train must stop while your wagon is repaired. • Where: East of Fort Choice • Fate: Call a coin toss. 300 DPs if your call is incorrect. 100 additional DPs if you are not carrying axle grease.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 47 • Who: Identity 9 on all wagon trains on the Salt Flats Trail • What: You fell into a large cactus when your wagon hit a huge rock. It takes you the rest of the day to extract the spines and you are very sore for several weeks.

Frontier Fates 47–51 relate to Trail Decision 3.

• Where: Salt Flats Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss. 300 DPs if your call is incorrect. Additionally, you must stand up for the remainder of today’s class (up to 20 minutes) because it is too painful to sit down!

FRONTIER FATE 48 • Who: Identity 1 on all wagon trains on the Salt Flats Trail • What: Your child has evidently contracted cholera. People on your wagon train are very concerned that they will get the disease. To help your child and your wagon train you must write a research paragraph (50–100 words), on what cholera is, what chances you think your child has to survive, and on what chances others have of catching the disease, with source indicated. • Where: Salt Flats Trail • Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 400 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph. 400 DPs if no paragraph is turned in and you call a coin toss. An additional 400 DPs and subtract 3 EF if the call is incorrect.

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs as they need to be collected and examined by you before Day 13.

FRONTIER FATE 49 • Who: All wagons on the Massacre Canyon Trial • What: As your wagon train rounds a bend, you find that a landslide has blocked the canyon ahead. You must stop and clear the trail before you can continue. You find that shovels and pick axes are very vital. • Where: Massacre Canyon Trail • Fate: 100 DPs for each wagon in your wagon train without a shovel; 150 DPs for each wagon in your wagon train without a pick axe.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 12 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 50 • Who: All wagon trains on the Long Trail Wagon masters lead the discussion and determine who writes the decision.

• What: You are getting very low on food, particularly meat. Scouts have spotted a herd of buffalo about five miles southwest of the trail. They also report that a small band of Native Americans has been following your wagon train for the last three days. You must make a decision whether to forget the buffalo, to take the whole wagon train after the buffalo, or to send out a hunting party. Have a brief wagon train meeting to decide what to do. Turn in your written decision. • Where: Long Trail • Fate: (Read after decisions are turned in.) If you decided to forget the buffalo, subtract 2 EF for low rations; 500 DPs if you decided to take the wagon train after the buffalo, but add 2 EF for the meat obtained and 2 EF for cooperative hunting efforts with the Native Americans. If you decided to send out a hunting party add 1 EF for the meat obtained in the hunt and choose a number between 1–6. Roll a die. If your number comes up add 2 EF for positive interactions with the Native Americans also hunting the buffalo.

FRONTIER FATE 51 • Who: Identity 4 on all wagon trains on Long Trail • What: Your youngest/only child suddenly got a fever and died during the night. You insist on stopping the wagon train for a day so you can have a decent burial and mourn your loss. • Where: Long Trail • Fate: Stand 10 feet from a trash can. Place a coin/checker on the toe of your shoe. If you can flip it into the trash can on your first try, you avoid this fate. 400 DPs and subtract 1 EF if you fail.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

Day 13 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Complete Diary Entry 4: Devil’s Flat Materials • Student Guides (page 9) — class set • Resource Materials (related to dysentery and rabies) — several Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Trail Decision 3 and have wagon masters record grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG. 2. Return identity 1’s (on the Salt Flats Trail) paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 48 (with consequences indicated on their papers). Read Frontier Fates 52–58 (pages 63–65). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct identity 2s on the Massacre Canyon Trail to lead a wagon train meeting, make a decision related to Frontier Fate 55, and turn in a decision. Read the fates accordingly. 3. Read together the Situation and Entry for Diary Entry 4: Crossing Devil’s Flat (page 9 in their Student Guides). Briefly answer any questions that arise.

Reviewing the Frontier Fates ahead of time will give you an idea of where things are going and will allow you to be a step ahead of the students. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail.

4. Instruct students that they have approximately 20 minutes to write their diary entry on the fourth page of their Travel Diaries. 5. Collect and grade the diary entries on their originality and how well students incorporated requested material. Use the DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC for grading purposes. 6. Read Frontier Fates 59–64 (pages 66 and 67). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

Advise students to select carefully the supplies they leave behind.

7. Frontier Fate 64 requires that everyone lighten their loads to a maximum of 500 BWUs. a. Turn to the Wagon Supply List on pages 6 and 7 in the Student Guides. b. To the left of the Item Description in Column A, make a check mark next to each item that is being left behind. c. Fill in Column B by writing where you are on the trail when you leave each item. Write the Total BWUs for each item. COLUMN A Item Description ✔ Piano Hunting Knife Cooking Stove 25 lbs. of Salt

COLUMN B

BWUs x Number = Total of Items BWUs 100 3 75 25

1 1 1 2

100 3 75 50

Use Column B only while on the Trail Left piano near burial grounds

Total BWUs 100

8. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

9. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 10. Wagon masters compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 11. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders. 12. Collect identity 5’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 58 and identity 8’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 60 before Day 14.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 52 • Who: All wagon trains on the Salt Flats Trail • What: You took the Salt Flats Trail because you were a gambler and you hoped it would be a safe shortcut to Devil’s Flat. Now you have found that the trail wanders through a vast, waterless desert and you must return to the place where the trail divides and choose another trail.

Frontier Fates 52–57 relate to Trail Decision 3.

• Where: Salt Flats Trail • Fate: You must turn around and earn your way back to the place where the trail forked. Once there, choose either Long Trail or Massacre Canyon Trail.

FRONTIER FATE 53 • Who: All wagons on the Salt Flats Trail • What: Animals start falling dead due to the extreme heat and the absence of water. • Where: Salt Flats Trail • Fate: From 15 feet members of each wagon train pitch coins/checkers at a wall. Three-fourths of the coins/checkers tossed represent dead animals—the 3/4ths that are the farthest distance from the wall. Each person whose coin/checker is in this group (the 3/4ths farthest from the wall) loses one head of livestock. For each animal lost subtract the following: oxen . . . . . . . . . . 2 EF mules . . . . . . . . . 1 EF cows. . . . . . . . . . 1 EF horses. . . . . . . . . 1 EF goats . . . . . . . . . 1 EF

You need enough checkers/coins for each member of all wagon trains on the Salt Flats Trail. To be clear on which checker/coin belongs to which student, attach masking tape with student’s initials to each before pitching.

FRONTIER FATE 54 • Who: All wagon trains on Massacre Canyon Trail • What: As you reached the halfway point through the canyon, a large band of Native Americans began firing on you from the surrounding hills. You circled your wagons as quickly as possible but you lost several animals. • Where: Massacre Canyon Trail • Fate: Each wagon master picks a different number between 1–6. The teacher rolls the die. If a wagon master’s number comes up, his/her wagon train subtracts 3 EF due to dead animals.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 55 • Who: Identity 2 on all wagon trains on the Massacre Canyon Trail • What: Earlier this evening your spouse went looking for the water that your family and animals need and never returned. When you and several others went to investigate, you found signs of a struggle indicating that your spouse was carried off by a small band of Native Americans. Lead a wagon train meeting to decide what to do. Should you continue without your spouse or should members of the wagon train go out after him/her? Your fate will be read once your written decision is turned in. • Where: Massacre Canyon Trail • Fate: (Read after decisions are turned in) If you decide to go on without your spouse, your wagon train loses 3 EF. 800 DPs if you decide to go after your spouse, and you call a coin toss. If you call it correctly, you get your spouse back; if you call it incorrectly, the search was in vain and you must subtract 3 EF for the loss as well as the 800 DPs.

FRONTIER FATE 56 • Who: Identity 1 on all wagon trains on the Massacre Canyon Trail • What: During the Native American attack on your wagon train you were wounded by an arrow in your side, although the wound is very painful and you will be unable to do your share of the work for a week or more, you will survive. • Where: Massacre Canyon Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss. 400 DPs due to you being unable to work if your call is incorrect.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 57 • Who: Identity 5 on all wagon trains on Long Trail • What: As you are passing through a very narrow gorge, a huge boulder comes crashing down. It crushes your right front wagon wheel and overturns your wagon. No other wagons can proceed until your wagon is turned upright and the wheel is repaired. • Where: Long Trail • Fate: Call a coin toss. 300 DPs if your call is incorrect.

FRONTIER FATE 58 • Who: Identity 5 on all wagon trains • What: You have come down with a very high fever and a bad case of dysentery. Since you are too sick and too weak to drive your wagon, someone must do your work until you are well. Write a research paragraph (50–100 words), with source indicated, on what dysentery is, its cause, and its treatment. • Where: On all trails

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs you must collect and examine/check them before Day 14.

• Fate: 100 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 200 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph. 200 DPs if no paragraph is turned in and you call a coin toss. An additional 200 DPs if the call is incorrect.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 59 • Who: Identity 6 on all wagon trains • What: Your water barrel jarred loose while going across a very rocky stretch of the trail. It fell on the rocks, split open, and you lost all the water you had in it. • Where: West of Devil’s Flat • Fate: If this was your only water barrel, subtract 1 EF; 400 DPs if you have only one additional barrel; 100 DPs if you have two additional barrels.

FRONTIER FATE 60 • Who: Identity 8 on all wagon trains Rabies was a fatal disease in the mid-19th century.

• What: While out looking for firewood you and your dog encounter a coyote that is acting strangely. The coyote attacks your dog. You think the coyote is rabid. Write a research paragraph (50–100 words) on rabies and how to treat the bite, with source indicated. Your wagon train’s fate is dependent on you. • Where: West of Devil’s Flat

Make note of who is responsible for these paragraphs as you must collect and examine/check them before Day 14.

• Fate: 200 DPs for an acceptable paragraph; 400 DPs for an unacceptable paragraph; 1000 DPs for no paragraph turned in.

FRONTIER FATE 61 • Who: Everyone • What: There is very little food along the trail for the animals and those who are not carrying feed for their animals find them growing weak, unable to work, and in need of special care. • Where: West of Devil’s Flat • Fate: 100 DPs for each animal without feed.

Students check their Wagon Supply Lists for “feed for 1 pair of animals” to determine if any animals are without feed.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 13 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 62 • Who: Everyone • What: Animals are dying because of continuing lack of water, lack of feed, and the extreme heat. • Where: Out in the Hades Desert • Fate: A member of the wagon train flips a coin twice, trying to get heads up on the first flip and tails up on the second flip. If you cannot, you lose an animal. Choose an animal and subtract the following: oxen . . . . . . . . . . 2 EF mules . . . . . . . . . 1 EF cows. . . . . . . . . . 1 EF horses. . . . . . . . . 1 EF goats . . . . . . . . . 1 EF

FRONTIER FATE 63 • Who: Everyone • What: After finally making it across the Hades Desert, you have reached the small settlement of Paradise. There is plenty of fresh water from melting snow high in the mountains, lush green grass for your animals, and a few supplies to replenish those used and lost crossing Hades Desert. • Where: Just east of Sunrise Pass • Fate: After five days at Paradise you are rested, the animals are strong, and your spirits are high. Add 10 EF and go!

FRONTIER FATE 64 • Who: Everyone • What: You are just two days out of Paradise and the climb has begun to take its toll on your animals. The altitude is now 7,000 feet and you still have to climb 2,000 feet to get over the pass. The guide and scouts have just returned from checking the trail ahead and they have informed everyone on the wagon train that the trail is going to become very steep and narrow. Oxen, mules, and horses will have to be hitched eight or 10 to each wagon to pull it over the top. This will mean repeated trips for all of the livestock. • Where: Just below Sunrise Pass • Fate: To make the final climb a little easier everyone must reduce their wagon loads to a maximum of 500 BWUs. Fill in Column B of your Wagon Supply List accordingly.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 14 P I O N E E R S

Day 14 Objectives • Frontier Fates simulate events that might occur along the trail • Read and Resolve Trail Decision 4 • Complete simulation Materials • Student Guides (pages 12–13) — class set • TRAIL DECISIONS — class set or transparency If copying is limited, use a transparency instead of a class set of TRAIL DECISIONS. Students use blank paper for this assignment.

Procedure 1. Return each student’s evaluated Diary Entry 4 and have wagon masters record the grades on their WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

Review the Frontier Fates ahead of time. Add additional fates of your own to further increase your control of events and to simulate additional happenings along the trail.

2. Return identity 5’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 58 and identity 8’s paragraphs related to Frontier Fate 60 (with consequences indicated on their papers). Read Frontier Fates 65–67 (page 71). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. Instruct wagon trains to meet, make a decision for Frontier Fate 66, and turn in their decision. Read the consequences as appropriate.

The wagon master keeps track of the EF and DPs for each fate on scratch paper before entering these on his/her WAGON MASTER’S LOG.

3. Have students turn to Trail Decisions (Student Guides) Read the Directions on page 12. Distribute TRAIL DECISIONS or display the transparency and distribute blank paper.

If using the transparency and blank paper, allow time for students to copy TRAIL DECISIONS onto their papers before you begin reading.

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4. Slowly read Trail Decision 4 aloud to your students. Students take notes as you read. If you feel it is necessary, reread it.

Trail Decision 4: Snow Pass Situation: Your long journey west is almost over. There is only one more mountain pass to scale. Then you will descend into the rich valley you have been dreaming of for many months. Unfortunately it is already early November. It is snowing in the mountains. A Native American guide has been with your wagon train since you left Paradise. He tells you that this is the fourth snow of the season. The snow has nearly blocked Snow Pass. He believes that the pass is still open but, with the snow now coming down, it will soon be closed for the rest of the winter. What should you do? ©2001 Interact | www.teachinteract.com | INTERACT


DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 14 P I O N E E R S

Everyone in the wagon train is talking and arguing. You realize that you must waste no time; your wagon train must make a decision soon! 5. Once students have finished their notes, instruct them to read Analyze the Possible Actions at the top of page 13. 6. Read these possible actions:

a. Your wagon train can head directly for Snow Pass and hope it is still open when you get there. If the pass is open, you will soon reach Hacker’s Valley. You will spend the winter in a warm shelter you can construct on your own property. If the snow closes the pass while you are there, you will be trapped and unable to move either forward or backward. This will undoubtedly mean death for almost everyone and everything on the wagon train. b. You can send scouts ahead to see if Snow Pass is open. This might waste valuable time and allow the pass to close before you can reach it, or it might be the action that saves your life. c. You can spend the winter in High Valley. However, staying in the valley could present many problems since there are no shelters, you have few supplies left, and the winter will be very severe. If you stay, you must immediately begin building shelters, sending out hunting parties, and preparing for a very rough time for the next five months. d. You can turn the wagon train around and head back to Paradise. This is probably the safest action. Sunrise Pass is a very rugged climb, but it is not as high as Snow Pass. It should still be open. Paradise offers grazing for your animals, food and shelter for you, and your children can go to school for six months. However, you will undoubtedly not be the first people into Hacker’s Valley and therefore much of the better land will be gone when you arrive.

read or tell

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 14 P I O N E E R S

7. Have students individually write their analysis of each possible action and what they consider to be the best possible action. 8. After all members have completed their Trail Decision 4, the wagon master calls a meeting and the members choose the best possible action to solve the problem facing them. 9. The wagon master writes a short paragraph—or assigns someone to write the paragraph—explaining what the wagon train has decided to do. 10. Collect and grade the Trail Decision 4 pages. 11. Read Frontier Fates 68–71 (pages 72 and 73). Have wagon masters write down the consequences on scratch paper. 12. Instruct wagon masters to compute their consequences for the day. Remind students that DPs are Delay Points and are subtracted from their total.

13. Instruct wagon train members to check their wagon master’s computations. Instruct wagon masters to complete the WAGON MASTER’S LOG for today (filling in columns 1–7). 14. Instruct wagon masters to compute the number of dots their wagon train is able to move for the day (columns 8–10). Groups check these computations. 15. Wagon masters place their travel markers on the classroom Hacker Trail Map. Wagon masters record (or have another member record) progress on the Hacker Trail Map in their Pioneer Paperwork Folders.

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FRONTIER FATE 65 • Who: Identity 3 on all wagon trains • What: The tongue on your wagon snapped when you turned it too sharply. You must stop and repair the tongue before you continue. • Where: West of Sunrise Pass • Fate: Call a coin toss. 200 DPs if your call is incorrect.

FRONTIER FATE 66 • Who: Identity 8 on all wagon trains • What: Someone in your wagon train stole all your flour and dried meat last night. Your wagon train must have a brief meeting to decide what to do. Write your solution and hand it in. • Where: West of Sunrise Pass • Fate: Acceptable solution turned in, continue with no delay; 400 DPs for an unacceptable solution; 800 DPs for no solution turned in.

Decide what is acceptable for this situation. Read decisions and provide consequences today.

FRONTIER FATE 67 • Who: Everyone • What: Last night a pack of hungry wolves attacked the wagon train’s herd of cattle. Two cows were killed and you had to destroy two others because of the wounds they received. • Where: High Valley • Fate: The wagon master picks two numbers between 1–6. Roll a die. If either number chosen comes up subtract 4 EF for this loss.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 14 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 68 • Who: All wagon trains that decided to go over Snow Pass Frontier Fates 68–71 relate to Trail Decision 4.

• What: The heavy snow continues to fall, making your progress slow and difficult. As you near the top, one of the lead wagons slides halfway off the trail and overturns. You are trapped and the cruel winter has you at its mercy. The snow continues to fall for nearly a week and your wagons are snowed in for the winter. Several men manage to walk over the pass and reach safety, but the rest of your wagon train dies of starvation and exposure. • Where: Snow Pass • Fate: Each wagon master stands 20 feet from a trash can. He/she has three tosses of a coin/checker to save your lives. If he/she fails, you die. If he/she succeeds, somehow you all manage to struggle over the pass and reach Hacker’s Valley.

FRONTIER FATE 69 • Who: All wagon trains that decided to send scouts ahead to check the trail • What: The scouts take several hours to make it up to the pass and then return. Valuable time is lost. They report that the pass was still open, but the hard snow will close it within the next few hours. You now have one minute to decide as a wagon train what you are going to do. Your fate will be read as soon as your decision has been reached. • Where: Snow Pass • Fate: Same as Frontier Fate #68 except wagon master stands 25 feet from the trash can.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 14 P I O N E E R S

FRONTIER FATE 70 • Who: All wagon trains that elected to stay in High Valley for the winter • What: The winter came quickly. You managed to build a few shelters and collect some additional supplies before the earth was buried for the long winter. During the winter the game was scarce and the weather extremely cold. • Where: High Valley • Fate: When spring arrives and you can move again, you find that you have lost three-fourths of your livestock; most of your supplies; and a number of men, women, and children. The wagon train weakly makes its way to Hacker’s Valley, a mere skeleton of the enthusiastic group that left Fort Independence.

FRONTIER FATE 71 • Who: Those wagon trains that elected to return to Paradise • What: Going back is rough; the snows clog the trail and Sunrise Pass is full of deep snow. • Where: High Valley • Fate: Your wagon master stands 20 feet from a trash can. He/she has three tosses of a coin/checker to get you to safety. If he/she fails, your wagon train is trapped at Sunrise Pass and wiped out by the savage winter. If he/she succeeds, you make it back to Paradise and spend the winter there. When spring arrives, you have only a few supplies left, your money is gone, and the best land in Hacker’s Valley is gone. At least, however, you still have your life and your family.

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 15 P I O N E E R S

Day 15 Objectives • Gauge understanding of material covered during the simulation with the Posttest • Discuss the decisions that were made during the simulation • Evaluate the simulation Materials • PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Posttest) — class set • Paper (lined) — class set Procedure 1. Distribute PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Posttest) and paper, and allow students approximately 20 minutes to complete. Collect tests, correct later, and examine student learning (Pretest versus Posttest; see Day 1 for answers to test). 2. As a class, discuss the knowledge gained during PIONEERS. Among the topics to cover: a. Pretest/Posttest • How did the second answers compare with the first answers? Why are there differences? b. The supplies that were taken • Would you choose supplies differently if you did this simulation again? c. Other knowledge • Are you more aware now than you were previously of the dangers that homesteaders faced along the trail west? • Did you gain any new appreciation of the importance of maps during the Westward movement? • What other knowledge would have helped you make your diary entries more realistic? 3. Ask students to evaluate their trail decisions: • Which were good decisions? • Which were bad decisions? • Why in each instance? • Did individual or group decisions tend to be wiser?

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DAILY DIRECTIONS DAY 15 P I O N E E R S

4. Ask wagon masters to comment on the following: • Did your members cooperate when cooperation was essential or did they bicker and fight? • How did their cooperation or lack of cooperation affect your wagon train? • Did each student work as hard as possible both as an individual and as a member of a team working toward a common goal? 5. Ask students if they believe that they grew in the following skill areas: • Note taking • Listening • Decision making • Writing a research paper • Analyzing alternative solutions to a problem 6. Solicit students’ opinions about this simulation as a learning environment. • How does a simulation compare with other ways of learning (texts, lectures, films, etc.)? • What were the strengths of PIONEERS? • What were its weaknesses? • Should next year’s students do this simulation? If no, ask their reasons why not? If yes, why? Also if yes, what would improve the simulation?

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PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (1) Pretest/Posttest P I O N E E R S

Name:__________________________________________________ Directions: Circle the letter before the best answer for questions 1–10. 1. Most settlers traveled to the West by way of a. boat around the tip of South America b. boat to Panama; then by land across the Isthmus; then by boat to the West coast c. wagon train d. steam locomotive (train) 2. The Westward movement and the settling of California and Oregon took place during a. 1780–1810 b. 1810–1840 c. 1840–1870 d. 1870–1900 3. Most wagons were pulled by a. mules b. oxen c. cows d. horses 4. A bellows is a. a device for making a hot fire b. an old-fashioned pair of shoes c. the metal with which the blacksmith formed horse shoes d. an old-fashioned skirt worn by pioneer women 5. A prairie schooner was a a. boat used by pioneers to cross large rivers b. small animal related to the prairie dog c. sod house pioneers lived in d. covered wagon 6. Which one of the following was not a major trail west? a. Highland Trail b. Santa Fe Trail c. Oregon Trail d. Mormon Trail

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PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (2) Pretest/Posttest P I O N E E R S

7. Which of the following supplies would be the most important to a settler moving west? a. saddle b. cooking stove c. seeds for planting d. piano 8. Most people who went west as homesteaders were a. farmers b. miners c. storekeepers d. doctors 9. Which of the following would have been most important to members of a wagon train? a. spices b. extra pair of boots c. family heirlooms d. Dutch oven 10. Which of the following was not a problem for most wagon trains? a. weather b. accidents c. Native Americans d. disease Respond to the following on a separate piece of paper. 11. Explain the five Ws of writing. 12. List at least three reasons why the West was a magnet in the mid-1800s. 13. List at least three difficulties faced by pioneers as they traveled west. Consider whether you would have taken this trip. Explain why or why not? 14. List at least five supplies necessary if you were traveling west by land in the mid-1800s. 15. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of traveling in a wagon train.

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CHALLENGE PROJECTS P I O N E E R S

The following extra credit assignments earn you additional points to speed your wagon train’s progress on the Hacker Trail. Work on one of these Challenge Projects during your spare time inside or outside of class. If you dream up some project other than those listed below, make sure it is related to westward movement or wagon trains. Clear the project with your teacher before beginning. Speaking • Read a Western novel, biography, or autobiography and then ask another wagon train member to interview you as you role-play the main character. Try to explain how the West shaped your character. • Read some Western tall tales. Then tell one or two to the class. Also consider making up an original tale to tell the class. • Bring actual artifacts to class that someone took West during frontier days. Explain each to the class. Film Making • Make a three- to four-minute movie. Keep it simple. Your story does not have to be too elaborate. You could show one thing that happened to a family on a wagon train. For example, at twilight a family preparing for the evening meal suddenly finds out that its littlest child is missing… Writing • Write an original story taking place on a wagon train or a Western homestead. • Research and write a second paper on Western history. • Compose an original Western poem. • Write a book report based upon a Western novel, biography, or autobiography. Singing • Research songs of the Westward movement. Then bring in a guitar (or have a fellow wagon train member bring his/her guitar), sing several songs, and explain what they meant to Americans on the frontier. • After studying songs of the Westward movement, compose an original Western song and sing it to the class with guitar accompaniment. Model Making • Make a three-dimensional model of either a Conestoga or the smaller prairie schooner wagon. • Make a diorama of a group of miners digging into a hillside and panning for gold. Dancing • Five students research Western dancing. One explains the dancing that the other four perform for the class. Illustrating • Illustrate a family in trouble on their way West when… • Research one of the Western trails, draw it on a large map, and then place it on a bulletin board. • Make a perspective drawing of the interior of a wagon and how a family packed all its goods for safe travel on the trail.

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COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Cooperative Group-Work Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • You consistently and actively help your group achieve its goals. • You consistently communicate with other group members. • You consistently encourage the group to work together. • You willingly accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • You help your group achieve its goals. • You communicate with other group members. • You encourage the group to work together. • You accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • You sometimes help your group achieve its goals. • You sometimes communicate with or encourage other group members. • You do not always accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • You do very little to help your group achieve its goals.

Cooperative Group-Work Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • You consistently and actively help your group achieve its goals. • You consistently communicate with other group members. • You consistently encourage the group to work together. • You willingly accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • You help your group achieve its goals. • You communicate with other group members. • You encourage the group to work together. • You accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • You sometimes help your group achieve its goals. • You sometimes communicate with or encourage other group members. • You do not always accept and complete the necessary daily work. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • You do very little to help your group achieve its goals.

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AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST P I O N E E R S

Survival in the wilderness depended on careful planning. Stocking and packing a wagon was serious work. In the mid-1800s covered wagon pioneers took with them some or all of the following 90 supplies. Your covered wagon cannot hold every item on the list. Select your supplies carefully. Consider the usefulness and importance of each item both on the trail and once you get to Oregon. Your fate—even your survival—may depend on how wisely you select your supplies. Each item on the supplies list has a Bulk Weight Unit (BWU) listed in parentheses. A BWU represents a combination of the item’s size and weight. As you select supplies, notice that heavy or large items soon fill your wagon. Small, light items take less room. The capacity of your covered wagon is 1000 Bulk Weight Units. Household Items baby cradle (15) bed frame — one (30) bedding — for one bed (2) Bible — family heirloom (5) blanket — one (3) butter churn (10) butter mold (2) candle sticks — one pair (2) candles — five (1) chest for clothing (35) clock (5) coal oil — one gallon (12) coffee grinder (3) coffee pot (3) cooking/serving utensils (6) cooking stove (75) dishes — family set (20) Dutch oven (6) fabric — 15 yards (12) family heirlooms (20) flint and steel (2) frying pan (6) lantern (3) loom (35) mirror (10) needle, thread, sewing kit (2) piano or small organ (100) pitcher and bowl (10) plants (10) rocking chair (15) rug (25) 80 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

spinning wheel (25) stool (8) table and four chairs (50) trunk for storage (20) wooden bucket (5) woven basket (4)

Personal Items boots — one extra pair (4) clothing — one person (20) children’s toys (8) eating utensils — one person (1) fiddle (5) first aid kit — family (10) guitar (6) hunting knife (3) pistol (4) powder horn (4) rifle (10) snow shoes (4) Tools anvil (40) axe (7) axle grease (13) bellows for fire (10) corn sheller (25) cross-cut saw — two-man (7) grain cradle (10) grind stone — large (20) hammer (2) hatchet (4) hoe (4) metal plow (40)

oxen yoke repair kit (15) pick axe (5) pitch fork — three-prong (6) rope — 100 feet (6) scythe (7) shovel (7) steel animal traps — four (20) tool assortment (10) twine — 100 feet (1) vise (5)

Food bacon — 25 pounds (25) coffee — 10 pounds (10) dried beef — 25 pounds (25) dried fruit — 10 pounds (10) dried pinto beans — 25 pounds (25) flour — 50 pounds (50) salt — 25 pounds (25) spices — assorted (1) sugar — 20 pounds (20) vegetables — 25 pounds (25) vinegar — 3 gallons (24) Miscellaneous Supplies animal feed — two animals (30) chicken coop (12) gun powder — keg (20) olive press (25) saddle (25) seeds — 50 pound bag (50) water barrel — 20 gallons (160) wood box — full of wood (25)

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HACKER TRAIL MAP P I O N E E R S

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DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Diary Entry Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • You clearly express many creative or original ideas. • You include many adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include all requested material. • You consistently use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • You express some creative or original ideas. • You include some adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include most requested material. • You use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • You express few creative ideas. • You include few adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include some requested material. • You do not always use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • You express few ideas. • You include little requested material. • You seldom use descriptive phrases or correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

Diary Entry Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • You clearly express many creative or original ideas. • You include many adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include all requested material. • You consistently use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • You express some creative or original ideas. • You include some adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include most requested material. • You use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • You express few creative ideas. • You include few adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You include some requested material. • You do not always use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • You express few ideas. • You include little requested material. • You seldom use descriptive phrases or correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

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WAGON TRAVEL MARKERS P I O N E E R S

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WAGON MASTER’S LOG C L A S S WAGON TRAIN MEMBERS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 Total points earned by your members today

2 Your wagon train’s current EF (Energy Factor)

3 Multiply line 1 x line 2; put the product here

4 Your wagon train’s DPs (Delay Points) today

5 Subtract line 4 from line 3 = today’s total

6 Enter yesterday’s Total Trail Points (line 7 of yesterday)

7 Add line 5 to line 6 = today’s Total Trail Points*

8 Enter number of points needed to move one dot

9 Divide line 7 by line 8 = Total Trail Dots*

10 Subtract yesterday’s Total Trail Dots (line 9) from today’s Total Trail Dots = movement for today *Since leaving Fort Independence

D A T E S


TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Trail Decision Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • Your note taking includes all of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is exceptionally thoughtful and concise. • You clearly express your decision using many adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You consistently use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • Your note taking includes some of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is thoughtful and concise. • You clearly express your decision using some adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • Your note taking includes little of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is not clear and/or lacks evidence of thoughtful reflection. • You express your decision using few adjectives and/or descriptive phrases. • You do not always use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • Your note taking misses most of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is disorganized and/or off topic. • Your decision is not clear. • You seldom use correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

Trail Decision Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • Your note taking includes all of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is exceptionally thoughtful and concise. • You clearly express your decision using many adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You consistently use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • Your note taking includes some of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is thoughtful and concise. • You clearly express your decision using some adjectives and descriptive phrases. • You use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • Your note taking includes little of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is not clear and/or lacks evidence of thoughtful reflection. • You express your decision using few adjectives and/or descriptive phrases. • You do not always use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • Your note taking misses most of the relevant and important information. • Your analysis is disorganized and/or off topic. • Your decision is not clear. • You seldom use correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

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TRAIL DECISIONS (1)

Directions for Trail Decisions 2, 3, and 4 1. As your teacher reads, listen carefully for the 5 Ws: Who, What, Where, When, Why. 2. As you recognize each, write down the appropriate information on your paper. 3. Write any other important information you feel you should remember in the Notes box. 4. Follow the steps outlined in Analyze the Possible Actions. The 5 Ws Who

What

Where

When

Why

Notes


TRAIL DECISIONS (2) Analyze the Possible Actions 1. Listen carefully as your teacher reads the four Possible Actions. 2. Write down the main points outlined in the action. Remember the 5 Ws. 3. If you can think of a better action to take, write it in the Another Action box. 4. Analyze every possible action. Possible Actions

Another Action

Best Action

5. Write the strengths and weaknesses of each. Explain why you do or do not favor it. 6. Write your best solution of all in the Best Action box. This might be an action read to you, one you thought up, or a combination. 7. After everyone is finished, meet with other members of your wagon train. Decide together what action your train will take. Analysis of Possible Actions


RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Research Paper Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (18–20 points) • Your research paper demonstrates a thorough, well-developed understanding of concepts addressed. — Your introductory paragraph clearly tells why you chose the topic and identifies your focus question. — Your body paragraphs clearly answer the focus question. — The ending paragraph clearly mentions your main ideas and your conclusions. • You use ample details to clearly support statements and/or positions. • You consistently use proper mechanics—paragraph form, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization. • You appropriately cite at least two sources. Level 3 — Expected (14–17 points) • Your research paper demonstrates a general, adequately developed understanding of concepts addressed. — Your introductory paragraph tells why you chose the topic and identifies your focus question. — Your body paragraphs answer the focus question. — The ending paragraph mentions your main ideas and your conclusions. • You use some details to support statements and/or positions. • You use proper mechanics—paragraph form, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization. Level 2 — Nearly There (11–13 points) • Your research paper demonstrates a limited, partially developed understanding of concepts addressed. — Your introductory paragraph does not tell why you chose the topic and/or identify your focus question. — Your body paragraphs stray from the topic. — The ending paragraph is incomplete/missing your main ideas and conclusions. • You used few details to support statements and/or positions. • You sometimes use proper mechanics—paragraph form, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–10 points) • Your research paper demonstrates a minimal, undeveloped understanding of concepts addressed. — Your paper fails to include an introduction, body paragraphs, and/or ending paragraph. — Your paper lacks organization and clarity. • You used no details to support statements and/or positions. • You do not use proper mechanics—paragraph form, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization.

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WRITING CONVENTIONS RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Writing Conventions Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (18–20 points) • You consistently use proper paragraph form. • You effectively use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You effectively use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 3 — Expected (14–17 points) • You use proper paragraph form. • You usually use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 2 — Nearly There (11–13 points) • You occasionally use proper paragraph form. • You do not always use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You inconsistently use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–10 points) • You do not use proper paragraph form (do not indent; do not include five paragraphs). • You include many errors in punctuation and capitalization. • You include many errors in grammar, spelling, or sentence structure.

Writing Conventions Rubric Level 4 — Exemplary (18–20 points) • You consistently use proper paragraph form. • You effectively use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You effectively use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 3 — Expected (14–17 points) • You use proper paragraph form. • You usually use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 2 — Nearly There (11–13 points) • You occasionally use proper paragraph form. • You do not always use proper punctuation and capitalization. • You inconsistently use correct grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and word variety. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–10 points) • You do not use proper paragraph form (do not indent; do not include five paragraphs). • You include many errors in punctuation and capitalization. • You include many errors in grammar, spelling, or sentence structure.

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ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC P I O N E E R S

Oral Presentation Rubric: Volume, clarity, eye contact, and visual aids Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • Your voice was loud and very clear. • You maintained eye contact with your audience. • You effectively used visual aids and your model. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • Your voice was loud and clear. • You made eye contact with your audience. • You used visual aids and your model. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • Your voice was not loud enough or you did not speak clearly. • You seldom made eye contact with your audience. • You did not effectively use visual aids and/or your model. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • The audience could not understand your presentation.

Oral Presentation Rubric: Preparation, organization, and detail Level 4 — Exemplary (9–10 points) • You provided an excellent explanation of your project. • The information was very well organized and you provided more information than expected. • You consistently provided detailed descriptions. Level 3 — Expected (6–8 points) • You provided an accurate and appropriate explanation of your project. • You provided some detailed descriptions. Level 2 — Nearly There (3–5 points) • You offered only some information about your project and/or were somewhat disorganized. • You seldom provided detailed descriptions. Level 1 — Incomplete (0–2 points) • You offered too little information or were disorganized.

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T E A C H E R

F E E D B A C K

F O R M

At Interact, we constantly strive to make our units the best they can be. We always appreciate feedback from you—our customer—to facilitate this process. With your input, we can continue to provide high-quality, interactive, and meaningful instructional materials to enhance your curriculum and engage your students. Please take a few moments to complete this Feedback Form and drop it in the mail. Address it to:

Interact Attn: EDITORIAL 10200 Jefferson Blvd. P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232-0802 or FAX it to us at (800) 944-5432 or you may visit our Web site and send your comments to: access@teachinteract.com. We always love receiving photos or videotapes of our units in action! Happy Teaching! Your Name: ________________________________________________________________________ Address: __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________________________________ Interact Unit:

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P H O T O G R A P H I C

I M A G E S

To Teachers: To help illustrate to others the experiential activities involved and to promote the use of simulations, we like to get photographs and videos of classes participating in the simulation. Please send photos of students actively engaged so we can publish them in our promotional material. Be aware that we can only use images of students for whom a release form has been submitted. To Parents: I give permission for photographs or videos of my child to appear in catalogs of educational materials published by Interact.

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PIONEERS

PIONEERS Name:______________________________________

STUDENT GUIDE

A Simulation of Decision-making on a Wagon Train

The West as a Magnet Adventure! Excitement! Land! Freedom! Wealth beyond belief! These dreams defined “the West” for most Americans in the mid-1800s. The West stretched from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The explorations of Lewis and Clark and the fur traders introduced that vast expanse of land to a restless and ambitious nation. Stories of rich prairies, fast horses, majestic mountains, rushing rivers, and Native Americans excited the imagination. Tales of the richness of the Oregon Territory were especially tempting. Leaving Home Farmers in Ohio, shopkeepers in Indiana, and blacksmiths in New York heard the stories and dreamed. When farmers had a bad year, they became discouraged. They were eager to move on. Some people were restless, always seeking new lands and new places. They moved every time a new frontier opened. Some people were dreamers. They were convinced that this time they would strike it rich. Whatever their motivation, Americans began to move west. Throughout the 1830s and 1840s courageous families packed, left their friends and families, and set off to seek a better life in “the West.” Traveling West by Sea Some settlers went by sea. Ships would leave a port on the East Coast and sail south around the tip of South America. From there the ships headed north for a West Coast port. This was a lengthy, dangerous, and expensive trip. Few pioneers traveled this route. For a while, pioneers tried a shorter sea route. They boarded ships that sailed south to the Isthmus of Panama. A guide would take them to the Pacific Ocean side. They then waited for a ship to take them further north. This was also dangerous, unhealthy, and expensive. The Overland Trail Most pioneers packed everything into a covered wagon and set out across the plains. Trails were narrow, steep, and poorly marked. Sometimes there was no water. Rain, lightning, and windstorms were dangerous. They experienced terrible heat or brutal cold. Travelers were victims of disease, snakes, hunger, accidents, and death. They never knew what would happen from day to day, or if they would survive until tomorrow. But wagons were the cheapest way to travel. Wagon Trains Pioneers felt safer if they traveled with other wagons. Several families would form a train of wagons. They hired a guide and guards to protect them on their trip into the unknown. Sometimes guides organized wagon trains. The families elected a wagon master to set and enforce the rules for the trip. The wagon master could punish or banish those who violated the rules. In 1843 more than one thousand men, women, and children left Independence, Missouri, in one wagon train—the largest ever to set out for Oregon.

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S T U D E N T   D I R E C T I O N S

Your Westward Journey You are about to become a member of a simulated wagon train heading for Oregon. You will begin to understand many aspects of frontier life. For example, why did people leave their relatively comfortable homes, pack all their worldly possessions into small wagons, and face the uncertainties of life on the trail? What did these adventurous people take with them? What problems did they face when they were far from civilization? When they had problems, how did they solve them? Your experiences in PIONEERS will answer these questions and many more. Your Wagon Train For the next three weeks you will be a pioneer traveling west on a wagon train. Each member of the wagon train will have a separate identity and family history. Your backgrounds and occupations will resemble those of travelers on actual wagon trains headed for Oregon between 1840 and 1870. Every member of your wagon train needs to work together to ensure that your train reaches Oregon as quickly and safely as possible. Choose a Wagon Master Before your wagon train leaves Fort Independence, you will choose a wagon master. The wagon master manages the wagon train and helps wagon train members solve problems. The wagon master completes tasks and provides leadership every day throughout the journey. Wagon Master’s Tasks • •

Correctly complete the Wagon Master’s Log — Enter all points earned by wagon train members — Keep track of the wagon train’s Energy Factor (EF) — Calculate Delay Points (DPs) — Tabulate Total Trail Points Move your wagon train marker along the Hacker Trail Map

Wagon Master’s Leadership Responsibilities

• Coordinate Pioneer Paperwork Folder • Lead discussions of Trail Decisions; make final decision if wagon train does not all agree • Help resolve any conflicts; encourage cooperation among wagon train members

Supplies After receiving your identity, you will decide what supplies your family will take. This will not be easy because the number and variety of supplies is far greater than your small wagon can hold. Once you have made your supplies decision, you are ready to start west. Traveling Along the Trail Each day you earn points by completing assignments, making decisions, solving problems, or completing Challenge Projects. Good work by every member of your wagon train will speed you on your way. During your trip you will write diary entries about your experiences, make trail decisions (both as individuals and as a group), and complete a short research paper related to western history. PIONEERS Scores Diary Entry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 points Research Paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 points Trail Decision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 points Challenge Project (extra credit) . . . 20 points Completing a Challenge Project will certainly speed the progress of your wagon train. 2 PIONEERS Student Guide

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S T U D E N T   D I R E C T I O N S

Energy Factor When leaving Fort Independence, your train is at its strongest. The people and animals are healthy and strong, your wagon is full of supplies, and your spirit of adventure is high. Your wagon train begins the journey with an Energy Factor of 50. As you travel, you will use up or lose supplies, animals and people may get sick (some may die), wagons will break down, and people will become discouraged. To simulate this change in the condition of your wagon train, any misfortunes decrease your Energy Factor. Every day you will multiply your daily Energy Factor by any points your members earn for work accomplished. The resulting Travel Points move you along the trail each day. Frontier Fates As your wagon train moves west, your teacher reads Frontier Fates representing events along the trail. Some of these Frontier Fates tell of good fortune while others relate disasters that have struck you. In either case your train’s progress is affected. A Frontier Fate might present disease, death, washedout trails, or floods; burdened by such a disaster, your wagon train moves more slowly. A Frontier Fate might instead help you across the desert to a cool, green valley with plenty of water; your spirits will be lifted and your wagon train moves faster.

Moving Along the Hacker Trail Energy Factor x Points earned = Travel Points

Delay Points Someone on your train may fail to complete an assignment, or your group may fail to solve a problem that arises along the trail. Not completing assignments and careless problem solving results in your train being given Delay Points. Remember, when you are miles from civilization any delay can be fatal! Every member of the wagon train must work hard to ensure that everyone reaches the end of the trail as quickly and as safely as possible. You will face many hazards during your perilous trip to Oregon. Cooperate with your wagon master and your fellow travelers. Get ready for your new life. GOOD LUCK!

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PIONEERS Student Guide 3


F A M I L Y   I D E N T I T I E S

WAGON TRAIN 1

WAGON TRAIN 2

1

NAME: Dr. Albert and Beryl Smith FAMILY: daughter, 10; son, 6 HOME: Pennsylvania OCCUPATION: doctor LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen

1

NAME: Sam and Francie Conrad FAMILY: daughter, 6; son, 4; son, 3; grandmother, 77 HOME: Iowa OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 4 cows, 1 horse, 2 goats

2

NAME: Joseph and Amanda Black FAMILY: son, 16; daughter, 13; son, 11; grandmother, 66 HOME: England OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 4 oxen, 4 cows

2

NAME: James and Lavina Wright FAMILY: daughter, 3; son, 1 HOME: Illinois OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 2 cows, 8 chickens

3

3

NAME: Roger and Mary Eller FAMILY: daughter, 8; son, 3; daughter, 1 HOME: Missouri OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 5 cows, 1 horse, 8 chickens

NAME: Nate Page FAMILY: son, 15 HOME: Ohio OCCUPATION: blacksmith LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 2 mules, 1 horse

4

4

NAME: John and Katherine Adams FAMILY: son, 6; son, 4; daughter, 2; expecting a child in 4–5 months HOME: Ohio OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 3 oxen, 3 cows, 3 goats

NAME: Paul and Ruby Bryant FAMILY: son, 12; son, 6; daughter, 2; grandfather, 67; male slave, 22; female slave, 19 HOME: Virginia OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 4 oxen, 6 cows

5

NAME: Pat Richards FAMILY: none HOME: Iowa OCCUPATION: blacksmith LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 2 horses, 1 cow

5

NAME: Walter and Kathleen Sanders FAMILY: daughter, 14; son, 6; daughter, 3; expecting a child in 5 months HOME: Indiana OCCUPATION: storekeeper LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 goat

6

NAME: Allen and Martha Long FAMILY: daughter, 12 HOME: Minnesota OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 1 ox, 2 cows, 2 mules

6

NAME: Dr. Dan and Esther Cotton FAMILY: daughter, 12 HOME: Massachusetts OCCUPATION: doctor LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 horse

7

NAME: Fred and Jeanne Cox FAMILY: son, 16; daughter, 11; son, 4 HOME: Illinois OCCUPATION: lawyer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen

7

NAME: Juan Hernandez FAMILY: none HOME: Texas OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows

8

NAME: Sam Fleming FAMILY: none HOME: New York OCCUPATION: storekeeper LIVESTOCK: 2 mules

8

NAME: Robert and Clara Rise FAMILY: none HOME: Kentucky OCCUPATION: minister LIVESTOCK: 2 mules

9

NAME: George and Rachel Dodge FAMILY: son, 7; daughter, 6; son, 4 HOME: Iowa OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows

9

NAME: John and Helen Grant FAMILY: son, 15; son, 13; daughter, 4 HOME: Missouri OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows

4 PIONEERS Student Guide

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F A M I L Y   I D E N T I T I E S

WAGON TRAIN 4

WAGON TRAIN 3 1

NAME: Dr. Joseph and Elizabeth Mingo FAMILY: daughter, 16; son, 13; grandfather, 59 HOME: Virginia OCCUPATION: doctor LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen

2

NAME: Kenneth and Minnie Flag FAMILY: son, 4; daughter, 1 HOME: Iowa OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 4 cows, 2 mules,1 goat

3

NAME: Mick and Marie Colloni FAMILY: son, 11; son, 9; son, 6; expecting a child in 4 months HOME: Italy OCCUPATION: blacksmith LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 horse, 8 chickens

NAME: Marvin and Anna Ives FAMILY: son, 20; daughter, 18 HOME: England OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen

4

NAME: Norm and Sophie Cline FAMILY: daughter, 6; grandmother, 59 HOME: Indiana OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 4 oxen, 6 cows, 1 horse

5

NAME: Paul and Irene Brown FAMILY: daughter, 19; daughter, 4 HOME: Ohio OCCUPATION: cabinetmaker LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 horse

5

NAME: James Seiple FAMILY: none; female slave, 18; male slave, 16 HOME: Kentucky OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 5 cows, 2 goats

6

NAME: Robert and Florence Conners FAMILY: son, 17; son, 12; daughter, 3; expecting a child in 4 months HOME: Iowa OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 3 oxen, 3 cows, 1 horse, 1 goat

6

NAME: Albert and Laura Swanson FAMILY: son, 14; son, 10; daughter, 6 HOME: Sweden OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 horse

7

7

NAME: Dr. Kenneth and Mabel Moore FAMILY: daughter, 10 HOME: Ohio OCCUPATION: doctor LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen

NAME: Fred and Leah James FAMILY: daughter, 13; son, 3 HOME: Delaware OCCUPATION: cabinetmaker LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 1 horse

8

8

NAME: Mike Smith FAMILY: none HOME: Indiana OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 3 cows, 2 mules

NAME: Clarence Jones FAMILY: none HOME: Indiana OCCUPATION: retired army soldier LIVESTOCK: 2 mules

9

9

NAME: Alan and Abigail Shepard FAMILY: son, 13; daughter, 12; son, 1 HOME: Illinois OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows

NAME: Gary and Hannah Weaver FAMILY: daughter, 12; son, 4; son, 1 HOME: Ohio OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows

1

NAME: Caleb and Pearl Butler FAMILY: son, 6; daughter, 1; grandmother, 70; grandfather, 74 HOME: Missouri OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 3 cows, 2 mules, 2 goats

2

NAME: Larry and Sarah Morris FAMILY: daughter, 3; son 1 HOME: Tennessee OCCUPATION: blacksmith LIVESTOCK: 3 oxen, 1 horse

3

NAME: Tony Wilson FAMILY: none HOME: New York OCCUPATION: farmer LIVESTOCK: 2 oxen, 6 cows, 8 chickens

4

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PIONEERS Student Guide 5


W A G O N   S U P P L Y   L I S T

( 1 )

Directions: Select your wagon supplies from the Available Supply List and fill in Column A. Remember that your wagon holds only 1000 Bulk Weight Units (BWUs). • Under Item Description write the name of the supply (hoe, rifle, etc.) • Under BWUs write the Bulk Weight Units for each item. • In the Number of Items column write the number of those items you plan to take (you may take up to three of any item). • To find the Total BWUs, multiply the BWUs for each item times the Number of Items. COLUMN B

COLUMN A Item Description

BWUs x Number of items

Wagon Supply List (1) Column A, Total BWUs

= Total =BWUs

Use Column B only while on the trail.

TOTAL BWUs

Wagon Supply List (1) Column B, Total BWUs

Final Note Leave Column B blank until your teacher instructs you to fill it in while you are on the trail. 6 PIONEERS Student Guide

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W A G O N   S U P P L Y   L I S T

COLUMN A Item Description

BWUs x Number of items

( 2 )

COLUMN B = Total =BWUs

Use Column B only while on the trail.

Wagon Supply List (2) Column A, Total BWUs

Wagon Supply List (2) Column B, Total BWUs

Wagon Supply List (1) Column A, Total BWUs

Wagon Supply List (1) Column B, Total BWUs

Total BWUs

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TOTAL BWUs

Total BWUs PIONEERS Student Guide 7


D I A R Y   E N T R I E S

DIARY ENTRY 1: MOVING WEST

Situation You have made the decision to leave your home, pack everything you own into a small prairie schooner and head west. This was a big decision on your part because you have no real idea of what is going to happen to you before you get to Oregon. You have heard many stories about the long, arduous Hacker Trail—Native Americans, disease, snakes, too little water, too much water, raging rivers, narrow mountain passes. On the other hand, you have also heard about Oregon’s rich, green valleys and its vast, uncrowded land. The many opportunities out there have stimulated your imagination. Entry Begin a diary about your experiences since leaving home. Include the following in your diary entry: • Describe yourself, your family, and your animals. • Explain why you are going to Oregon on the Hacker Trail. • Tell about your last home and your family’s feelings about going west. • Mention your last job and what you expect to do once you reach Oregon. • Describe your trip to Fort Independence. • Describe what you expect to happen during your trip to Oregon.

DIARY ENTRY 2: TRAIL TO CHEYENNE CROSSING

Situation At Prairie Crossing, your wagon train had to decide which trail to take to reach Cheyenne Crossing—the Burial Grounds Trail or the Cheyenne River Trail. This was a big decision for your wagon train. Your wagon train members may have disagreed about which trail to take. This was an opportunity for your wagon train to band together or split apart.

Entry Write a diary entry about your wagon train’s discussion and decision on which trail to take. Include the following: • Describe your thoughts and feelings about the discussion and the final decision. • If you did not agree with the wagon train’s decision, explain your reasons for disagreeing. • Describe what your wagon train has experienced since taking that trail. • Respond to the following questions: — What do you expect to find along the rest of the trail? — Has your attitude concerning travel by wagon train changed?

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D I A R Y   E N T R I E S

DIARY ENTRY 3: FLOOD AT CHEYENNE CROSSING

Situation You have been on the trail for nearly three months and have faced many challenges. After previous water problems such as dried-up water holes and armed guards denying you water, now the summer rains have finally come. It has rained steadily for the last three days. The mud makes the trail almost impassable at times. Your wagons have been bogging down in deep mud holes, small streams have grown wide, and now you have reached the Cheyenne Crossing. As you look across the river through falling rain, you see a normally small, peaceful river that has been swollen by the heavy rains to a width of one-quarter mile. Its current seems to be running dangerously fast.

Entry Write a diary entry about your travels since you left Fort Independence. Include the following: • Relate recent events that happened to you and other members of your wagon train. • Tell about the rains and how they changed your trip. • Respond to the following questions: — As you look across the raging Cheyenne River, do you believe you can cross it safely? — What do you expect to find along the rest of the trail?

DIARY ENTRY 4: DEVIL’S FLAT

Situation Five months have passed since you left Fort Independence. The trip has taken its toll on you and the other members of your wagon train. There have been broken wagons, sickness, lack of water, and other terrible problems. Since you left Fort Choice, the trip has become even more difficult and dangerous. The trail has been much narrower, the threat of attack has been almost constant, and now you are in the middle of Devil’s Flat. Ten days ago you filled your water barrels at the last water hole on the trail. Now those water barrels are almost empty, the livestock are thin and sickly, and a few cattle have even died. Your wagon train’s scouts report that there is little chance of water for six or seven days. Daytime temperatures have hovered between 95 and 100 degrees, making travel by day almost impossible. Entry Write a diary entry concerning your trip since you crossed the Cheyenne River. Include the following: • Relate recent events that happened to you and other members of your wagon train. • Describe Devil’s Flat; use vivid descriptive words so that your reader can feel the heat and see the oven-like desert, the dry water holes, the empty water barrels, and the dying stock. • Explain how you expect to get through Devil’s Flat. • Write about what you expect to encounter between Devil’s Flat and Oregon.

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PIONEERS Student Guide 9


T R A I L   D E C I S I O N   1

Directions 1. Read the Situation. 2. Fill out The 5 Ws chart. (List who is involved, what the problem is, where the action took place, when the action took place, and why it is a problem.) 3. Follow the steps outlined in Analyze the Possible Actions.

Situation Two weeks ago your wagon train left Fort Independence and traveled west toward Prairie Wells. Normally wagon trains stop at that small community to water the stock and fill water barrels. Since there has been little rain this spring, most streams have been dry and water has been scarce. You and the rest of the members of your train have been looking forward to the fresh well water from Prairie Wells. Even though you are all tired when you finally reach Prairie Wells, you go directly to the wells to fill your water barrels and water your stock. You are shocked to find four armed men guarding the wells. These residents of Prairie Wells inform you and the others that the water level is low. With water so scarce the once-free water is now going to cost you $10 a barrel. Several people on the train say they cannot afford $10 for even one barrel, but most people need four barrels (two for themselves and two for their stock). Tired and discouraged, you return to your encampment just outside Prairie Wells to decide what to do.

The 5 Ws Who

What

Where

When

Why

11 PIONEERS Student Guide

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T R A I L   D E C I S I O N   1

Analyze the Possible Actions 1. Study the Possible Actions your wagon train can take to solve the problem. 2. After each action analyze what may happen if you take that action. Tell whether or not you favor the action. Explain why. 3. If you can think of a better action to take, write it in the Another Action box. Then analyze it as you did the other four. Possible Actions 1 You need water desperately. You will not likely find water between here and Prairie Crossing. You should pay the $10 a barrel. Those who have the money should share the water with those who cannot afford the $10. 2 Since you need the water and can afford to pay the $10 per barrel, you want to pay. Those who cannot afford it will have to try to find their own water along the trail.

3 You should not pay the ridiculously high price for the water. You should plan to move on first thing in the morning and hope to find enough water along the trail to get you safely to Prairie Crossing. 4 You need water but should not have to pay $10 a barrel. You and the others should wait until dark, attack the guards and take the water.

Another Action

Best Action

4. Write the Best Action of all in the box at the bottom of the page. This action might be one of the four given you, the one you thought up, or a combination of several different actions. 5. After everyone is finished, meet with the other members of your wagon train. Decide together what action your train will take. Analysis of Possible Actions


T R A I L   D E C I S I O N S

Directions for Trail Decisions 2, 3, and 4 1. As your teacher reads, listen carefully for the 5 Ws: Who, What, Where, When, Why. 2. As you recognize each, write down the appropriate information on your paper. 3. Write any other important information you feel you should remember in the Notes box. 4. Follow the steps outlined in Analyze the Possible Actions. The 5 Ws Who

What

Where

When

Why

Notes

11 PIONEERS Student Guide

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T R A I L   D E C I S I O N S

Analyze the Possible Actions 1. Listen carefully as your teacher reads the four Possible Actions. 2. Write down the main points outlined in the action. Remember the 5 Ws. 3. If you can think of a better action to take, write it in the Another Action box. 4. Analyze every possible action. Possible Actions

Another Action

Best Action

5. Write the strengths and weaknesses of each. Explain why you do or do not favor it. 6. Write your best solution of all in the Best Action box. This might be an action read to you, one you thought up, or a combination. 7. After everyone is finished, meet with other members of your wagon train. Decide together what action your train will take. Analysis of Possible Actions


W R I T I N G   A   R E S E A R C H   P A P E R

As long as you are in school, you will need to do research. One key to success in school is the ability to take brief notes and then write a short, organized research report. If you learn how to do simple research, you will have an easier, more satisfying time while you are in school. Even after you leave school, you will find the skills developed while writing research papers useful in organizing and presenting facts and ideas. Put It in Your Words As in any type of work or study, the key to writing a good research report is being organized. First of all, you must take clear, simple notes while you are studying your research materials. If you learn to take notes in your own words, and under clear headings, you will find it much easier to write your paper. You will also have the satisfaction of knowing that you wrote the report—you did not copy it out of an encyclopedia. Anyone can copy, but copying is not what is expected of you when you are assigned to write a research paper. You are expected to take notes in your own words from several sources such as books, newspapers, magazines, and encyclopedias. Who, What, Where, When, Why As you read your research materials, remember the 5 Ws— Who, What, Where, When, Why. Almost all important information falls into one of these areas. • Who is involved? • What important things are going on? • Where are the people and the events taking place? • When are these events happening? • Why did these events happen, and why are they important? If you include this information in your notes, you will be able to actually use many of your notes in your actual paper. Note Taking As you read and think about the 5 Ws, it is best to organize your thinking and your note taking in a systematic way. There are several ways to take notes. The note card example below represents only one acceptable method. Study it carefully and ask your teacher any questions you have about what is there and why it is there. Do this before you begin making your own note cards. Organize your note cards like this example: 1. Place a heading at the top. Limit your notes on the card to one subject. 2. Take notes only about the heading (in this case George Washington’s birth). 3. Do not take notes in the exact words that appear in the encyclopedia. Take notes in your own words. 4. At the bottom of the card write the name of the source and the page where you found the information.

Birth Born 2/22/1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 64

Taking Notes When you do research, you are looking for answers to a question you want to answer. Imagine, for example, that you have asked this question: What did George Washington do for his country before he became President? Study the Sample Encyclopedia Article, Sample Note Cards, and Sample Short Research Paper. Study the words in the note cards and compare them to the words in the encyclopedia article.

11 PIONEERS Student Guide

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W R I T I N G   A   R E S E A R C H   P A P E R

Sample Encyclopedia Article, George Washington (1732–1799) He found the French had already built Fort Duquesne near the site. After defeating a small French force, Washington met a much larger French force and he and his men were forced to surrender. The French allowed Washington and his men to return to Virginia, where he retired and became a farmer. Later during the French and Indian War, Washington participated in several other expeditions before finally retiring in 1759. He now settled down, married a young widow, Martha Custis, and became a gentleman farmer. For the next 15 years he divided his time between farming, politics, and personal interests. During this period the relations between the American colonies and Great Britain were deteriorating. Washington was a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. The following year he returned to the Second Continental Congress where, on June 15, 1775, he was unanimously elected to command American colonial forces during the War for Independence.

George Washington, the man who was “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen,” was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia on February 22, 1732. George’s father Augustine and his mother Mary were both descendants of English families who came to Virginia in the 1650s. In 1753, Virginia’s Governor Robert Dinwiddie sent Major George Washington, then 21 years old, to warn the French that they had intruded into the British territory west of the Allegheny Mountains. After a long, hard march, Washington finally found the French at Fort Le Boeuf, near Lake Erie. He delivered his message, which the French ignored. Unable to do anything more, Washington began the long march back to Virginia. The cold eastern winter was hard on Washington and his companions. Upon returning to Virginia in 1754, Washington was promoted to Lt. Colonel by Governor Dinwiddie. Washington’s next assignment was to go to the area where Pittsburgh stands today and build a fort to protect the British frontier. With a force of 150 men, Washington set off. Paren ts

Birth Born 2/22/1732 in Virginia’s Westmoreland County American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 64

The student who made the sample note cards used them to write a research paper.

Sample Note Cards

Paren childrets–Augusti arrive n of Englisne and Ma d in 1 650s h families ry, who Ameri Vol. 1 can Encyc 5, p. 6 loped ia, 4

Sent by Governor

Married Captured and Released In 1754 sent by VA governor to build fort at Pittsburgh. Captured by French and released. American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 65

In 1753 GW was sent by Virginia Governor to warn French about trespassing on British land. American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 65

Retired from Army Retired from army to his farm in VA in 1759. American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 65

Married widow Martha Custis and settled down to be a farmer. Worked as a farmer and statesman. American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, p. 65

Delegate

ier

and Sold

e First gate to th ngresses 5 a dele Co In 1774-7 nd Continental out ab co and Se lutionary War ted With Revo animously elec forces un to start, der of all colonial comman ia, in 1775.an Encycloped Americ p. 65 Vol. 15,

Sample Short Research Paper The man who was to become our first president was George Washington. He was born on February 22, 1732, in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His parents were Augustine and Mary Washington. Both of his parents were children of English settlers who came to Virginia during the 1650s. George Washington did much for our country before he became our first president. The Governor of Virginia sent Major George Washington on a military mission in 1753. He warned the French that they should leave British land. The next year he and his soldiers went to the Pittsburgh area to build a fort. The French were already there. The two sides began to fight. George Washington was captured and later released. Washington retired from the army in 1759. He married a widow named Martha Custis. For many years he managed his farm in Virginia. The American colonists were unhappy with the British government. Men from many colonies agreed to meet. They thought that together they could persuade the British to change. The First Continental Congress met in 1774. George Washington attended. He was a delegate from Virginia. He also attended the Second Continental Congress in 1775. The other delegates respected him. They elected him to lead our army against the British. He led our army throughout our Revolutionary War. Bibliography* ____________, “George Washington,” American Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, pp. 64–68. INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | www.teachinteract.com | ©2001 Interact

* (A bibliography tells your reader where you did your research.)

PIONEERS Student Guide 11


Y O U R   R E S E A R C H   P A P E R

Steps for Writing a Research Paper 1. Choose a topic that interests you and that you feel is an important part of our Western history. You may want to choose one of the 50 topics listed below. 2. Find at least two sources for your research. One should probably be an encyclopedia article that gives you an overview in a few hundred words. 3. Read the encyclopedia overview on your topic to see if the topic still interests you. If it does, go on to Step 4. If it no longer interests you, go back to Step 1 and start over. 4. Narrow down your topic by creating a focus question that you wish to answer. For example, if you choose the topic The Mormon Trail, you might ask: “What were the biggest hardships people faced on The Mormon Trail?” 5. Clear your focus question with your teacher. 6. Take notes on note cards. Write neatly. Each note card should contain: • a heading • one important fact or event (in your own words) • the source where you found the information 7. Once you have enough notes to write a paper of 300 or more words, clear your note cards with your teacher. 8. Write your paper. An introductory paragraph should tell why you chose the topic and introduce your focus question. The body paragraphs should contain information that answers your focus question. An ending paragraph should once again mention the main ideas of your paper and any conclusions you reached. 9. Write a Bibliography under your final paragraph. List your two or more sources in alphabetical order based upon their authors’ last names. 50 Possible Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Apache Arapaho Bridget “Biddy” Mason Buffalo Soldiers California Gold Rush Cattle drives Cheyenne Chief Joseph Cochise Colonel John Fremont Conestoga wagons and prairie schooners Daniel Boone Davey Crockett Desert Trail Donation Land Act (Oregon) Donner Party Forts along the trails

11 PIONEERS Student Guide

18. George Caleb Bingham, painter 19. Hopi 20. Indian Territory / Five Civilized Tribes 21. Indian Wars 22. Jean Baptist Pointe Du Sable 23. Jedediah Smith 24. Jim Bridger 25. Kit Carson 26. Lewis and Clark 27. Louisiana Purchase 28. Maps of trails and purchases in the West 29. Mexican War 30. Mormon Battalion 31. Mormon Trail 32. Nez Perce 33. Northwest Territory

34. Old Spanish Trail 35. Oregon Territory Treaty with Britain, 1846 36. Oregon Trail 37. Paiute 38. Pony Express 39. Pueblo 40. Santa Fe Trail 41. Shoshone 42. Sioux 43. Sitting Bull 44. Songs of the Westward Movement 45. Tecumseh 46. Telegraph 47. Texas / Mexico / Alamo 48. Trail food 49. Transportation in the West 50. Value of the Oregon Territory

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Pioneers Simulation