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Contributions to the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Conference 29-30 October 2013

Edited by May Cassar and Debbie Williams

Contributions to the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Conference 29-30 October 2013

Edited by May Cassar and Debbie Williams

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements The AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme wishes to thank the following: the House of Lords Science and Technology Select Committee for raising awareness among policy makers and funders of this important area of research; the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for jointly funding the Science and Heritage Programme; Dr Gail Lambourne (AHRC), Dr Louise Tillman (EPSRC) and Dr Caroline Batchelor (EPSRC) as Programme Managers for their respective Research Councils; and the Chair, Margaret, Baroness Sharp of Guildford and the members of the Science and Heritage Programme Advisory Group, Professor Dana Arnold, Nancy Bell, Simon Cane, Dr Edward Impey, Professor Nigel Llewellyn, Ingval Maxwell OBE, Professor Tadj Oreszczyn, Dr David Saunders, Professor Chris Scull, Professor Norma Tennent and Professor Heather Viles for their valuable input; the principal investigators, co-investigators, postdoctoral fellows, PhD students and partners of the Programmefunded projects for their significant contribution to the body of heritage science research; the speakers and presenters who have given their time to participate in this conference as well as all the Programme events; the review panel who reviewed the conference abstracts and to the wider heritage science community for participating in the Programme events, engaging with and disseminating the research and for helping to create a successful Science and Heritage Programme. Finally thanks are due to the Dean and staff of Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment at University College London for unreserved support for science and heritage in general and the Science and Heritage Programme in particular.

Review Panel Professor Dana Arnold, Middlesex University Professor May Cassar, University College London Professor Nigel Llewellyn, Tate Dr David Saunders, The British Museum Professor Ian Simpson, University of Stirling Dr Steve Trow, English Heritage Professor Heather Viles, University of Oxford Published by the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Centre for Sustainable Heritage Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London WC1H 0NN Copyright Š 2013 AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Although the editors and publisher have made every effort to ensure that the information in this book was correct at the time of going to press, the publisher does not assume any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident, or any other cause. Responsibility for the statements contained in this publication rests solely with the contributors and the views expressed by individual authors herein are not necessarily those of the editors or reviewers. Design and layout: Rory Morrison ( Printed in the UK by: SLS Print, London Front cover image: Š The RHS Lindley Library and Dr Haida Liang (Nottingham Trent University) All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the copyright holder.



Foreword 2 About the Programme


Venue map


Conference programme


Social Media at the Conference


Abstracts 10 Session 1 – Materials


Session 2 – Culture


Session 3 – Technology


Poster Abstracts


Plenary Speaker Profiles


List of Projects


Collaborative Research Studentships (PhDs)


Science and Heritage Programme Research Clusters


Science and Heritage Postdoctoral Fellowships


Interdisciplinary Research Grants Scheme


Research Development Awards


Research Councils Funding the Programme





The AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme was launched in 2007 as a direct response to the recommendations of a House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology inquiry which I chaired. That inquiry coined the phrase ‘heritage science’ to describe the diverse range of scientific challenges presented by the need to conserve our cultural heritage so that future generations could enjoy it as we do. We found that the UK had a high reputation in this area, based substantially on the development of science-based conservation by the British Museum and the National Gallery in the mid-20th century, but that the sector was now fragmented and under-valued. Amongst other recommendations was one to the research councils to set up a joint research programme which would help to develop the research base and build new capacity in the sector, while also helping overcome fragmentation by providing a focus for the community. The Select Committee were delighted therefore the AHRC and the EPSRC took up the challenge and established this joint programme on Science and Heritage. I was asked, and agreed, to continue my involvement with science and heritage by becoming chair of the Advisory Panel to the Joint Programme, a task which I have much enjoyed, not least from the friendship and stimulus provided by the other members at our regular meetings. As a panel we have been grateful for the continuing support of our funders in an era when championing multi-disciplinary research projects has not been easy. While both the previous Labour government and, since 2010, the Coalition have protected the science budget, austerity has hit in many other ways, not least by cuts to the DCMS budget and its allocations to its ‘arms’ length bodies’ many of whom have been involved as partners in research projects. A number of factors have contributed to the success of the Science and Heritage Programme. One has been the emphasis on research outcomes, a highly contentious issue amongst researchers but where the clear benefits of conservation in the context of degradation from both time and climate change can be shown to be real. In addition, increasing emphasis on the role of the creative and cultural sectors in regeneration, job creation and not least wellbeing and citizenship has helped raise the profile of the sector in national economic terms. According to surveys 80 per cent of tourists visit the UK because they wish to see and experience our cultural heritage, be that visiting historic sites, museums and galleries or enjoying our theatre, music and the arts. Tourism is now one of the UK’s biggest earners with total spending topping £115 billion – some 8 per cent of GDP. Conserving that cultural heritage – which is what this research is all about – is essential if we are to maintain and expand this industry.

Another factor contributing to the importance of this research has been the development of European research under successive Framework Programmes in which cultural heritage has consistently featured. This has enabled UK researchers to develop and enlarge their involvement with their European counterparts and benefit from the networking, data-creation and data mining opportunities these links have provided. Thanks in part to the high profile of the Science and Heritage Programme, the UK is now a leading partner in both the EU’s Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) on Cultural Heritage and Global Change and has been seminal in ensuring that cultural heritage research remains a key theme in Horizon 2020, the next EU five year Framework Programme. Finally, it is worth noting that the development of this Programme has gone hand in hand with the evolution of the National Heritage Science Forum, launched in June 2013 and itself the outcome from another Select Committee recommendation, namely that the various fragmented parts of the sector should unite to develop a common strategy. This has taken longer in gestation but has been helped by the degree to which the Science and Heritage Programme has itself championed the formation of the Forum with AHRC whose support brought it to fruition. This conference presents us with a chance to look both backwards and forwards. Looking back over the last seven years the Science and Heritage Programme has, it seems to me, achieved all that the Select Committee hoped. It has raised the profile of the sector, laid firm foundations on which to build new capacity and above all brought the different players together to work alongside each other, to recognise themselves as a sector and to be proud of their achievements. Looking forward, the key issue now is to ensure that the impetus achieved by the Programme is not lost. We need to see wider recognition both within Government and amongst the wider public that the past does not necessarily look after itself. The next decade presents huge challenges in terms of infrastructure funding, in the creation and management of big data sets and in the training and development of the heritage science workforce to meet the needs of the sector. None of these are trivial issues – indeed it is a fair prediction that they will around for some time to come.

Margaret Sharp The Baroness Sharp of Guildford August 2013


About the Programme It may seem premature or at least ambitious to organise a conference on the impact and sustainability of science and heritage research in the UK that the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme will have when the Programme has some time yet to run and with some projects still in progress.

Forty seven Principal Investigators representing twenty one individual institutions led the research, along with sixty five Co-Investigators from thirty one individual institutions. In addition, more than two hundred and twenty individual partner institutions engaged with the projects, including forty five Gallery, Library, Archive and Museum (GLAM) partners from the UK, eight international GLAM partners, twenty UK heritage organisations and six international heritage partners. These numbers compare favourably with the sixty nine UK and the twenty one overseas universities/ HEIs/research institutes that participated in the Programme. The number of international partners engaging with the Programme has been significant with the thirty seven international partners distributed among twenty one academic/research institutes (eight in the USA, twelve in Europe, one from Canada); fourteen heritage organisations/GLAM (three international, four Europe, five USA, one from India, one from Africa) and two industrial partners (one from Europe, one from the USA). Forty six industry partners including SMEs from a range of industries have participated in the Programme. These have included conservation, restoration, art, archaeology, construction and engineering, architecture, textiles, radiography, ultrasound and medical imaging, acoustics, optics and photonics, chemical detection and sensing, instrumentation, insurance, auctioneering and fine art

The Programme has been an exemplar of gender equality for the number of women engaging in heritage science research. According to the Government Equalities Office, women make up 46% of the workforce, but only 15.5% of the STEM workforce and 8% of the engineering workforce. Yet the Science and Heritage Programme has bucked this trend with women constituting over 50% of named project leaders, better even than the national average. But why have a Programme? Could individual competitions not have the same impact? A fragmented approach offers no route for sustained or strategic engagement with the diverse institutions within the sector – a museum or a heritage SME cannot keep up a regular relationship with an academic department that occasionally does interesting things with a heritage application in the way that it could with a sector focussed programme. Thus cultural heritage has benefited from a programme that has explicitly focussed on the needs of the sector, rather than the needs being considered as individual applications amongst many in a techniquefocussed activity. Purpose of the Conference This conference showcases the research results and impact of the projects supported by the Science and Heritage Programme. Projects will be grouped under three headings: Materials, Culture and Technology which will run as parallel sessions. An opening plenary session will set the scene for the presentation of research and a closing plenary session will look at the future legacy of the Programme. In between there is a research poster exhibition and demonstration salon. The reception celebrates the achievements of the Programme researchers as well as providing a backdrop to the launch of the English Heritage Science Strategy and the arrival of the National Heritage Science Forum. The contemporary renaissance in heritage science in the United Kingdom that this conference is celebrating provides evidence of the energy, commitment and creativity of researchers working in the field of science and heritage and whose achievements are recognised here today.

Professor May Cassar Director AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Director, Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL


Yet there is credible evidence that the £7.4 million investment by AHRC and EPSRC is already having a major impact on the development and growth of heritage science. Purely in financial terms, the investment has been distributed through five competitions designed to support heritage science researchers at different stages of their career: new entrants (ten PhD students estimated at £600,0000); early career researchers (eight Post-Doctoral Fellows at just over £2 million); development of crossdisciplinary research ideas (thirteen Research Clusters and nine Research Development Awards at just over £1 million) and funding for large research projects (seven Interdisciplinary Research Grants at just under £3.75 million). While it could be argued that only forty seven projects were funded out of two hundred and eight five proposals submitted, thus satisfying only 13.5% of the demand, in terms of value for money, the Programme has democratised research by engaging with a broad spectrum of research partners and supervisors beyond the Academy while achieving an enviable gender balance.

valuation, geophysics and remote sensing, environmental sensing, visualisation, land and estate management, multimedia software, 3D applications, exhibition design and interactive lighting.


Venue map

6 5






















Conference programme DAY 1 – Tuesday 29 October 2013 TIME



8.30 – 10am


QE2 Lobby


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room


Origin and Purpose of Science and Heritage Programme

Churchill Auditorium

Margaret, Baroness Sharp of Guildford

Overview of Science and Heritage Programme from Advisory Group Professor Nigel Llewellyn (Tate)

Reflections on End-User Needs from Science and Heritage Research Simon Cane (Birmingham Museums Trust)

10.45 – 11.15am


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room

PLENARY SESSIONS (continued) 11.15am – 12.05pm

Guest Speaker

Churchill Auditorium

The Rt Hon David Willetts MP (Minister for Universities and Science)

Response to the Minister Dr Michael Dixon (Natural History Museum) Research and Engagement: The Science and Heritage Programme, 2007-2014

12.05 – 1.30pm


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room


Thames Room


Session 1 – MATERIALS Chair: Barney Sloane (English Heritage)

St James’s Suite

EGOR: Environmental Guidelines, Opportunities or Risks Kostas Ntanos (The National Archives)

Evidence-Based Condition-Monitoring Strategy for Preservation of Heritage Iron Professor David Watkinson (Cardiff University) Change or Damage? Effect of Climate on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties Dr Naomi Luxford (University College London) Questions and Discussion 1.30 – 3.15pm

Session 2 – CULTURE Session chair: Professor Dana Arnold (Middlesex University)

Cultural Encounters and Explorations: Conservation’s ‘Catch-22’ Professor Elizabeth Pye (University College London)

“Collections demography” – on Dynamic Evolution of Populations of Objects Dr Matija Strli (University College London)

Nottingham Lace: Capturing and Representing Knowledge in People, Machines and Documents Professor Tom Fisher (Nottingham Trent University)

Questions and Discussion

Henry Moore Room


Professor May Cassar (Director, Science and Heritage Programme)


DAY 1 – continued TIME 1.30 – 3.15pm



Session 3 – TECHNOLOGY

Westminster Suite

Session chair: Fionnuala Costello (Technology Strategy Board)

Visualising Animal Hard Tissues Dr Andy Wilson (University of Bradford)

Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings Dr Gillian Walker (University of Reading)

Next Generation of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Art Conservation Dr Haida Liang (Nottingham Trent University)

Questions and Discussion 3.15 – 3.45pm


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room


Session 1 – MATERIALS (continued)

St James’s Suite

Session chair: Barney Sloane (English Heritage)

Colour photographs in Archival Collections: Generating Impact Dr Ann Fenech (Danfoss)

Interventive Conservation of Black-Dyed Organic Materials: The Problem of Metal-polyphenol Complexes Dr Helen Wilson (The National Archives)

Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues Dr Sonia O’Connor (University of Bradford)

Questions and Discussion 3.45 – 5.30pm

Session 2 – CULTURE (continued)

Henry Moore Room

Future-proofing Heritage: Understanding Transformation and Resilience in Our Cultural Landscapes, Archaeology and Built Heritage Dr John Hughes (University of the West of Scotland)


Professor Philip Lindley (University of Leicester)

Towards an Integrated Approach to the Management, Scientific Study and Conservation of Conflict Archaeology Artefact Assemblages Rob Janaway (University of Bradford)

Questions and Discussion 3.45 – 5.30pm

Session 3 – TECHNOLOGY (continued)

Westminster Suite

Modelling, Interpretation and Alternative Heritage Representations Dr Andrew Wilson (Bangor University)

Acoustics and Music of British Prehistory Research Network and Songs of the Caves: Acoustics and Prehistoric Art in Cantabrian Caves Dr Rupert Till (University of Huddersfield)

Touching the Untouchable: Increasing Access to Archaeological Artefacts by Virtual Handling/Touching the Past: Investigating Sensory Engagement and Authenticity in the Provision of Touch Experiences in Museums Across a Range of Media Dr Linda Hurcombe (University of Exeter)

Questions and Discussion



6 – 7.30pm


Pickwick Suite and Thames Room


DAY 2 – Wednesday 30 October 2013 TIME



8.30 – 9am


QE2 Lobby


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room


Session 1 – MATERIALS

St James’s Suite

Session chair: Professor Heather Viles (University of Oxford)

Prioritising Future Research Using Indoor Climate Change Predictions Dr Paul Lankester (English Heritage)

Cracking Cement and Concrete – Decline of Civil Infrastructure and Heritage Dr Andrea Hamilton(University of Strathclyde)

Materiality, Authenticity and Value in the Historic Environment: A Study of the Effects of Material Transformation and Scientific Intervention Dr Thomas Yarrow (Durham University)

Questions and Discussion 9 – 10.30am

Session 2 – CULTURE

Henry Moore Room

Session chair: Nick Poole (The Collections Trust)

Mind the Gap: Rigour and Relevance in Heritage Science Research Nancy Bell (The National Archives)

Technology and Data-Driven Collaboration – Archaeological Practice in the 21st century Professor Anthony G Cohn and Dr Anthony R Beck University of Leeds)

A Responsibility of CARE: Heritage and Science in the Service of Safeguarding Threatened Ancient Rock Art Dr Aron Mazel and Professor David Graham (University of Newcastle)

Questions and Discussion 9 – 10.30am

Session 3 – TECHNOLOGY

Westminster Suite

Session chair: Robin Higgons (Qi3)

Dr Henoc Agbota (University College London)

The PARNASSUS Project: Ensuring Integrity, Preserving Significance. Protecting Cultural Heritage from Flood and Driven Rain Dr Dina D’Ayala (University College London)

Smelling Museum Objects: Why? Dr Lorraine Gibson (University of Strathclyde)

Questions and Discussion 10.30 – 11am


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room


UK INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SCIENCE AND HERITAGE RESEARCH Professor Brian Collins (University College London)

Diamond Light Source and Cultural Heritage Professor Fred Mosselmans (Diamond Light Source)

Big Data: The Archaeology Data Service and Science and Heritage Catherine Hardman (Archaeology Data Service, University of York)

The Value of the Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN to Science and Heritage Alex Efimov (Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN)

The National Heritage Science Forum: Purpose and Vision Nancy Bell (NHSF Deputy Chair)

Museum Collections as Research Infrastructure Professor Ian Owens (Natural History Museum)

Questions and Discussion

Churchill Auditorium


Environmental Monitoring in Developing Countries and Remote Assessment of Cultural Materials Through Nano-Scale Weight Monitoring


DAY 2 – continued TIME



1 – 2.20pm


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room



Churchill Auditorium

Chair: Professor May Cassar (Science and Heritage Programme)

The Future of Cultural Heritage John Fidler (John Fidler Preservation Technology Inc.)

European Cultural Heritage and Global Change Strategic Research Agenda Dr Gail Lambourne (AHRC)

ICCROM Consortium for Conservation Science: Global Agenda in the Making Dr Alberto de Tagle (ICCROM Council)

CHARISMA: A European Research Infrastructure Project for Science Applied to Cultural Heritage Marika Spring (The National Gallery)

Questions and Discussion PANEL DISCUSSION 4 – 4.45pm


Churchill Auditorium

Chair: Baroness Sharp of Guildford Panelists: Rick Rylance (AHRC); Dave Delpy (EPSRC); Philip Campbell (Nature); The Baroness Andrews OBE


A VISION FOR UK SCIENCE AND HERITAGE RESEARCH Professor May Cassar (Director, Science and Heritage Programme)


5.15 – 5.45pm


Pickwick Suite


Thames Room




Social Media at the Conference Getting the most out of the Sustaining the Impact of UK Science and Heritage Research Conference

Here are a few things you can do to get the most out of your time at the conference:

Sustaining the Impact of UK Science and Heritage Research is a unique opportunity to find out more about how the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme has transformed the landscape for collaborative research, to connect with your peers and, we hope, to start new collaborative partnerships!

1.  Use the hashtag #SHP13 on all social media communications – whether you are posting on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram or Pinterest. We will be using the hashtag to facilitate the conversation across a range of platforms!

To facilitate this, we have created a parallel social media strand running throughout this conference and we’d like to invite you to get involved and join in the conversation. The social media strand of the event helps you: •   Join in the debate about the key conference themes in the run-up to the event •   Keep connected to peers and new contacts on the day and after the event is over •   Stay on top of sessions or discussions which you aren’t able to attend

We’ll be displaying Twitter messages on the hashtag #SHP13 throughout the venue, so this is a great way to share your thoughts and reflections on the discussions. 2.  Follow @heritagescience on Twitter and use our lists to find fellow delegates – using our Twitter list, you can find and connect with delegates who will be attending, follow the conversation and discover new connections! 3.  Tell your networks about the event – whether it is 100 words or 10,000, we would love it if you let us know about any blog posts or updates that you share with your network. It really helps us to gauge the value and reach of the event! Just email us at to let us know how you have shared the findings of the day.

•   Be the first to know about any important announcements, changes or updates

•   Don’t spam fellow conference-goers with unwelcome sales or marketing – social media is about relationships, not selling! •   Retweet interesting/relevant links (making sure you use the hashtag #SHP13 of course!) •   Always think about how your message might be perceived or interpreted before hitting ‘send’!

The Museum & Gallery Services team will be on hand throughout the day to answer your questions and help with any social media-related issues. Come and find us at the desk in the foyer!


Here’s a few quick reminders on good social media etiquette to keep the conversation flowing!


Abstracts – Session 1 – Materials

St James’ Suite October 29th 1.30–5.30pm Session chair – Barney Sloane October 30th 9–10.30am Session chair – Professor Heather Viles


* indicates presenter for each abstract


EGOR: Environmental Guidelines Opportunities or Risks Nancy Bell*, M. Strlič and S. Hackney Research Cluster – EGOR: Environmental Guidelines: Opportunities and Risks

Environmental parameters and tolerances set out in national and international guidelines, standards and legislation play a critical role in shaping practices in the cultural heritage sector. They inform how collections are stored, accessed, loaned and displayed. They provide a baseline for preservation activities, visitor comfort and access to collections locally as well as internationally. These include the control of temperature, moisture, light and pollution – the main factors affecting the long-term conservation of cultural material.

•   current environmental guidelines, standards and legislation provide for a level of responsible stewardship which will ensure that our understanding of cultural values and identity continues and can be enhanced in the future; •   global responsibility requires consideration of the implications of current guidelines, standards and legislation in the context of heavy reliance on fossil-fuel energy sources.

Aims The purpose of EGOR was to appraise the costs and risks of current environmental guidelines for cultural heritage in the context of climate change. This theme had a national and international dimension since climate change, energy consumption, visitor activity and pressures for greater access to collections continue to make considerable demands on cultural heritage across the globe. The scale and pace of change in these areas pose challenges in managing the

Equally, the cultural sector is not immune to the challenges posed by global responsibility: reducing reliance on fossil fuels and changing behaviour in favour of re-use and alternative energy sources, for example. In this context, the appropriateness of long-standing environmental guidelines


EGOR: Environmental Guidelines, Opportunities or Risks, a Research Cluster sponsored by the AHRC/ EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme, brought together some 65 researchers and practitioners representing a range of arts, humanities and science disciplines to investigate the implications of current environmental standards and guidelines for collections, buildings and the people who work in and visit cultural heritage institutions. To explore this theme, three working group meetings were held between February and June 2009 to consider whether:

long-term preservation of material culture and is the focus of discussion amongst professional communities internationally.


designed to meet an agreed standard of comfort, and provide access to collections both locally and internationally, continues to be scrutinised as the true ‘costs’ of this are being realised. Unfortunately, there are no headlinegrabbing answers to this problem: the risks need to be identified, the costs understood and the options appraised.


internal environment conditions? •   The ongoing debate around energy consumption versus responsible stewardship has yet to be fully understood. Costs need to be identified according to use of space and the inter-relationship of spaces with multiple uses: storage, display, office, restaurants, shops, for example. •   Knowledge and technology transfer from industry to the preservation of cultural heritage are not effectively exploited.

The main objectives of the EGOR Research Cluster were to: •   identify the critical research themes and questions emerging from EGOR and the means by which this research could be addressed; •   create multidisciplinary expertise in the context of this cluster to inform decision-makers, government agencies, policy makers and standard-setting bodies; and •   provide a forum for lively debate and comparative thinking to transform our understanding of the costs and risks of current environmental standards, guidelines and targets for people, places and collections.

Three multidisciplinary working groups met between February and June 2009 to address questions within this theme, the main conclusions were:

Main conclusions (Group 1) •   Environmental standards and guidelines are critical to managing material change. •   As yet there is no internationally agreed environmental standard. •   Improved scientific evidence, technological developments or experience have seldom led to a speedy revision of standards.


•   Existing standards are often limited by a lack of an advanced knowledge of materials science and the relationship between tolerances and actual damage. Better understanding of the effects of fluctuations versus relative humidity on specific materials, particularly at the extremes, is critical to developing effective guidance. •   Damage factors need to be firmly and scientifically established for materials routinely found in collections. •   Acceptable loss to different communities is yet to be defined, since we have neither the vocabulary nor tools to measure loss. Usually conservators and those with curatorial expertise make these judgements empirically, yet seldom is the public’s opinion ever captured. •   There is little understanding of the relationship of loss of value to different damage types. Nor have there been studies to consider how the condition of individual objects relates to collections generally.

Main Conclusions (Group 3) •   The historical record can tell us a great deal and help to predict the future particularly in understanding how we adapt to systemic change; the historical record is seldom considered. •   Given that we compete with the leisure industry, visitors expect a full experience of hospitality, retailing, extensive access (sometime 24/7), to be kept cool in summer and warm in winter. Evidence suggests this is not manageable in the future, yet little is done to balance user expectations. •   Measuring the extent of change leading to loss is key, as is the impact of this on communities.

Recommendations •   Revise existing environmental standards drawing upon scientific evidence of the last ten years.

•   The longevity of different materials needs to be compared to different set points/bands/fluctuations.

•   For meaningful standards to be embedded, tools to define the health of collections are required to include: effective, searchable databases that will enable comparative analysis; standardised information on condition and history of objects; and collection demographics.

Main conclusions (Group 2)

Outcomes and Impact

•   The consensus was that one of the impediments to developing meaningful environmental standards, and improved building design is poor data capture. The absence of meaningful data across a spectrum of activities is needed to inform building design, and performance of the internal environment.

The knowledge exchanged in this Cluster served as a successful starting point for reviewing existing standards, which then led to the publication of Publically Available Specification 198: Specification for Managing Environmental Conditions for Cultural Heritage (BSI:2012) which has received recognition internationally.

•   There is no consensus as yet as to the kinds of data we should capture and what level of data capture is meaningful. Nor is there the means to monitor according to observed problems – do protocols exist (risk management)? If no problem – don’t monitor? •   Can we get useful data on buildings to enable predictive modelling of performance and

All images from the EGOR Project event, Price No Object held at the Royal Academy in 2009


Evidence-based Condition-Monitoring Strategy for Preservation of Heritage Iron David Watkinson*, Melanie Rimmer, Stuart Lyon and James Dracott Interdisciplinary Research Grant – Evidencebased Condition-Monitoring Strategy for Preservation of Heritage Iron

Introduction: Managing Ferrous Metal Heritage

Linking corrosion of the metallic iron in archaeological objects to its physical impact on corrosion layers determines object longevity and develops a scale for managing heritage value preservation by corrosion control. The corrosion rate of archaeological iron has been quantitatively determined by remote measurement of oxygen concentration within closed reaction vessels containing an archaeological iron object, conditioned silica gel controlling internal relative humidity to a fixed value between 20% and 80% and a sensor to log temperature and relative humidity. This iron oxidation rate data is linked to a criteria anchored image-based methodology for recording damage to objects to produce a scale for loss of heritage value (Figure 2). The semi-quantiative method is based on multiple superimposed images of objects before and after their controlled corrosion and records visible damage factors such as crack development by pixel area. This is further refined by linking it to the chloride content of each object as determined by their digestion. Measuring corrosion for large numbers of objects at differing relative humidity values provides statistical validation to support

Research Overview and Method Archaeological and heritage iron can contain soluble chloride ions that act as a driver for corrosion according to the availability of water as atmospheric humidity. The outcome is loss of all corrosion layers above the corroding iron core and resulting destruction of heritage value, as these layers contain evidence of original surface and technology (Figure 1).

Figure 2. Recording corrosion as physical damage that is equated to heritage value and hence useful lifespan of the object; visual changes (A) before and (B) after corrosion for 37 days at 80% relative humidity.


Millions of archaeological iron objects exist worldwide and their storage and preservation present a major drain on the resources available within the heritage sector. While preventing corrosion is an ideal approach, it is resource hungry for capital outlay, on-going management and energy. A realistic alternative is to control corrosion less expensively and accept a finite lifespan for objects. This requires quantitative data to identify no-corrosion points and to determine the rate of corrosion above them, producing a scale for predicting object lifespan as a function of intrinsic and extrinsic corrosion variables. This will provide the evidence base for developing conservation methods and applying predictive management to ensure that corrosion control is not just qualitative guesswork. Cardiff University is experimentally generating quantitative data on the corrosion rate of archaeological iron objects to build a predictive management model. The statistical approach of the research is ideal for developing best practice guidelines.

Figure 1. (top) The corrosion problem; fragment of iron blade cracking and laminating.


prediction for management purposes. Additionally, the University of Manchester is developing Electrical Resistance Corrosion Monitors (ERCM) made of iron pre-corroded with chloride to emulate chloride-contaminated iron objects. These will remotely record corrosion in any given space by change in resistance, which can be scaled to object corrosion using the Cardiff data on corrosion of archaeological objects. Their design is nearing completion and their corrosion reproducibility has been tested at Cardiff. These are to be field tested at the ss Great Britain in July 2013 within the humidity controlled area protecting the hull.

Research impact


For the first time, the relative humidity surrounding archaeological iron can be quantitatively scaled with corrosion rate. For any object or group of objects it is possible to note that corrosion at x% relative humidity is n times faster than at y% relative humidity. This offers a guide to how much object lifespan can be expected to differ according to ambient relative humidity. In itself this is a powerful management tool, since it allows calculation of risk, which is what all heritage organisations aim for when dealing with complex corroded objects. Examining risk as corrosion rate for archaeological iron reveals that a jump from 50% relative humidity to 70% increases corrosion and therefore risk by a factor of 60 (Figure 3). This makes it possible to calculate costs for maintaining differing levels of risk and determine if treatments that slow corrosion are cost effective in order to make decisions on longevity.

expand and refine the predictive model. The holistic approach of the research is supported by statistical methods which integrate understanding of many variables into a single model, rather than looking at one or two variables in isolation. By allowing a complex system to be understood more fully the model more closely replicates real life, making it flexible, adaptable to different scenarios and suited to further development. It is planned to examine impact of time span and storage conditions of iron since excavation, corrosion profile thickness, chloride removal and airbrasion on corrosion rate to enhance the management tool, to better support predictive evidence-based conservation for archaeological iron collections internationally. Delivery to the heritage sector has taken place via collaboration with English Heritage to produce a set of sector-specific guidelines Guidelines for storage and display of archaeological metalwork to be published in autumn 2013. These will offer best practice for archaeological iron. The research is entirely transferable to all chloride-driven wrought iron corrosion, both for the assessment of risk for single objects and large collections. Its outcomes allow the ss Great Britain to better assess corrosion risk to the hull should relative humidity spikes occur above the target desiccation value of 20% (Figure 4). Stepping back into a broader context, it is easy to see that quantitative materials science is essential for developing informed management processes for all heritage materials.

Figure 3. Mean corrosion rate of objects from Caerleon, South Wales, across humidity range 20-80%, measured by oxygen consumption normalised for mass of object. Each point is based on 10 to 15 objects: error bars are 1 standard deviation.

Corrosion rate alone is not sufficient to assess risk; linking it to physical damage shows the complexity of the corrosion-heritage value relationship. There appears to be little or no direct relationship between corrosion rate and the extent of physical damage; rather, damage is strongly influenced by individual corrosion profile and chloride. For the first time, it was shown that chloride location within individual objects influenced physical damage patterns, using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis to reveal chloride distribution at the Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC). More work is required to link corrosion characterisation to damage patterns and future collaboration with BNC is planned and sought with French researchers at Soleil to

Figure 4. Preserving the wrought iron hull of the ss Great Britain by desiccation designed to control corrosion.

We are grateful to Helen Ganiaris (Museum of London) and Dr Peter Guest (Cardiff University) for providing sample material for this study. Also to ss Great Britain Trust, Eura Conservation, English Heritage, Mary Rose Trust and Peter Meehan Historic Metalwork Conservation Consultant for their steering group input. This work was carried out as part of an AHRC and EPSRC jointly-funded Science and Heritage Programme Interdisciplinary Research Grant.


Veneer and marquetry furniture: new versus old materials and its response to the display environment Naomi Luxford Postdoctoral Fellowship – Change or Damage? Effect of Climate on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties

All these elements lead to veneer and marquetry furniture collections being commonly regarded as vulnerable to damage, especially from moisture changes in the display environment. A further complication is that wood is orthotropic, responding differently in the three main directions. The longitudinal direction (along the grain of

the wood) responds little to changes in moisture, whereas the tangential direction is very responsive. Veneers may be cut in many directions, rather than simply across or along the wood grain, creating a desirable pattern or effect. Different wood species are affected by moisture to differing extents, along with the other materials that can be present, which may have little dimensional response to changes in RH, for example metals. The complex interactions of the different decorative elements, the wood layers, coatings and glues have been little studied. However the damage these interactions can cause is familiar; warping, lifting, cracking, loss of veneer, etc.

Lifting veneers can be seen more clearly in raking light. Kenwood House, English Heritage


Veneer layers are thin slices of materials, usually wood, applied as a decorative surface to furniture. Different sections of veneer can be used to create a design; this technique is known as marquetry. These thin layers are glued to the wooden furniture carcass and then coated with waxes or varnishes to protect the surface. Marquetry designs can be composed of hundreds of individual pieces, made from different wood species, or even different materials. Mother of pearl shell, turtle shell, metals, ivory and horn are all commonly found on historic marquetry furniture collections. These different layers are all moistureresponsive (hygroscopic) and respond at varying rates to changes in relative humidity (RH). The carcass is assumed to respond slowly due to its thickness, whereas the surface layers thinness mean they react much quicker to any moisture changes. However the response will be affected by the presence of surface coatings, such as waxes or varnish. Similarly the glue layers which bond together both the construction joints, and the veneers to the surface, are also thin and moisture responsive, particularly when traditional animal protein glues have been used. The veneer layers often overlie areas of structural strain, for example joints between boards in the construction.

Top: Shrinkage crack formed after severe accidental overheating from under pew heaters. Carisbrook Castle Chapel, English Heritage.



To protect these vulnerable collections against damage from rapid fluctuations in the environmental conditions, a recommendation of 50% +/- 5% RH is often used. Whilst this can be achieved with the use of air conditioning in museums and galleries it is less realistic in historic houses. In these cases environmental control methods can be limited and the installation of air conditioning systems would be invasive and inappropriate to the historic building fabric. Currently there is still limited information on what happens outside of traditional museum parameters, and even less for what damage might occur outside the wider band of 40-60% RH. To understand the problem further, experiments on new surrogate test samples were undertaken in the lab, alongside an object monitoring campaign in the case study site, Kenwood House, belonging to project partner, English Heritage. This postdoctoral fellowship looked at both new and old materials to ascertain a greater understanding of the effects of the display environment on veneer and marquetry collections.

Laboratory test marquetry samples before (top) and after extreme light and fluctuating humidity cycle and subsequent handling during public exhibition.

One reason for using new and simpler surrogate materials in laboratory experiments is the complex nature of real objects. Historic objects present a wide range of potential variables, including different previous historical environments, unknown and varied production materials and methods, and previous restoration or conservation treatments. Such factors complicate the problems being studied. Additionally to monitor real objects, in real collections, ways must be sought to determine

very small changes or use sufficiently long timescales for experimental aspects to obtain meaningful results. In experiments using new materials the complexity of real objects is reduced to a smaller number of common elements, replicating historic objects found in collections. Using this conservation science approach, these materials can then be subjected to specific test conditions to study changes and deterioration. Additionally destructive analytical techniques can be used on new materials in laboratory tests, which would often be impossible to consider on historic objects. For this project it was felt that new materials would always be an oversimplification of the real collections. However they could provide valuable information on how objects behave, and could be tested in relatively extreme experimental conditions. For this reason a number of test panels were created, in each case using two pine boards, glue-joined with a marquetry panel adhered across the joint. Similarly monitoring real objects could provide data on the response of actual collections to real environments, which may not be seen in the simplified new materials. Historic furniture on display, and in the stores at Kenwood House, mostly dating from the 18th and 19th centuries and decorated with a number of different wood species were selected for onsite monitoring. The results of monitoring and analysing both new test samples and real furniture collections at Kenwood House, show that both aspects of the research are required to get the complete picture for these objects. For example whilst in the laboratory tests large colour changes, measured using a spectrophotometer and more commonly known as a colorimeter, were observed after each set of experiments, no colour changes were observed onsite. Light levels in the experiments were high and significantly greater than those which could be observed even in uncontrolled areas of the historic house. Different colours of woods within the new material test samples showed greater changes than others, for example the naturally dark brown and terracotta coloured sections, indicating some species of wood are particularly light sensitive. On site the lack of colour change indicates that current light levels are suitable for display. It may also imply that further colour changes to the furniture surface are unlikely, or will occur at very slow rates. Further examples of differences between the results from new materials in the laboratory, and historic materials onsite, will be presented, along with full experimental details and outcomes for both materials. It is hoped that sharing this method will enhance decision-making for preventive conservation and environmental recommendations for veneer and marquetry furniture collections. In addition the research should improve approaches taken during laboratory deterioration studies for a wide array of heritage materials. The results indicate current display environments at Kenwood House are not causing further damage to the veneer and marquetry furniture.


Colour Photographs in Archival Collections: Generating impact Ann Fenech Collaborative Research Studentship – The Lifetime of Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections

Developing Methodologies To obtain a more holistic understanding of the lifetime of colour photographs, research questions straddling the sciences (e.g. materials change) and the humanities (e.g. values) inevitably arose, so it was necessary to identify appropriate methodologies that straddled the disciplinary divide. This allowed for a dose-response function (linking environmental and material research) and a damage function (integrating values research) to be developed and allowed practical tools for conservation practitioners to be developed.

Environmental and Material Research Material stability of chromogenic photographs is highly dependent on environmental storage condition, particularly temperature, relative humidity and pollutant concentrations (Fenech, et al 2010). The traditional approach to understanding the effect of such variables on material stability in heritage science has long relied on the ‘one-factor-at-a-time’ method of experimentation. However, most deterioration agents do not operate

independently and changes in one often influence the effect of another. Therefore, it is also appropriate to investigate the presence of factor interactions. An efficient way to plan and conduct such experiments involves principles of Design of Experiments (DOE) since, while several factors are varied simultaneously, each factor may then be evaluated independently and interactions identified. This allows for the maximum amount of information to be extracted using the minimum number of experiments. The outcome of applying such DOE principles (Fig. 2) is the following multiparametric dose-response functions:

Where ∆ERGB is the magnitude of change occurring in time, t, AA is the acetic acid concentration (in ppb), RH is relative humidity (in %) and T is temperature (in K) (Fenech, Fearn et al. 2012). Figure 2: Samples from photographic objects prepared for degradation experiments

Material and Values Research Values are central to heritage as ‘end-of lifetime’ relies on determining the point at which an object’s value is gone. At The National Archives, utility value, specifically information value, was of greatest interest as it is the information held within the images that is of greatest importance to archival users. In order to investigate such a relationship, stakeholder input into such value assessments is appropriate. A suitable field for integrating stakeholder perceptions with physical stimuli, such as colour changes, is psychophysics. Psychophysical methods are widely established in the image quality field and formed the basis of assessment workshops (Fig. 3) designed to identify the extent of colour change considered to be unacceptable


Chromogenic prints represent more than 99% of all colour photographic prints in existence (Reilly, 1998), but due to technical limitations in the development process chromogenic prints, and more specifically dyes, are very vulnerable to unfavourable environmental conditions (Fig. 1) (Ritzenthaler et al, 2006). This is relevant as, for practical and curatorial reasons, colour photographic prints are often stored with other archival documents and environmental conditions are normally tailored to the most abundant archival material (paper) rather than the colder and drier storage conditions ideal for photographs (BS 5454:2000, PAS 198:2012). Therefore, despite the existence of standards for longterm storage of photographic materials, it is necessary to understand how mixed storage environments, such as those typical at The National Archives (UK), affect the lifetime of colour photographs.

Figure 1: The most vulnerable aspect of colour photographs is the dyes. Here is a photograph degraded sequentially over 9 weeks at 90 °C.


(Fenech et al. 2013). By integrating environmental, material and values research into one output, a multiparametric damage function was developed:

Figure 3: Value assessment workshop

Developing Tools It is only once research is implemented that it directly impacts on heritage materials stored in collections. Therefore, an important consideration was that preservation professionals would be able to easily apply the outcomes of this work in the field.


Isoperm and Isochrone Diagrams Isoperm and isochrone diagrams were developed for T, RH and acetic acid concentration. These tools enable straightforward appraisal of the three most relevant degradation agents. Isoperms represent a widely-known tool that archive staff are familiar with. They connect points of equal permanence. By applying the multiparametric doseresponse function, two-dimensional isoperms were calculated (Fenech et al. 2013). As the project also connected value changes to material change, points of equal lifetime could be calculated and connected into isochrones (Fig. 4) (Fenech et al. 2013). The isochrones show in an intuitive way how changes in one environmental factor can be compensated for by changes in another while the lifetime remains constant. To date, isochrone diagrams have not been used in heritage science, mainly due to difficulties with the definition of the end-ofuseful-lifetime.

Photographic Lifetime Calculator In terms of environmental storage conditions, as seen from isochrone diagrams, an increase in one parameter can be counterbalanced by a decrease in another to provide the same preservation outcome, but it is difficult to visually represent how more than two factors affect collection lifetime using isochrones in a simple and clear manner in 2D. Therefore, the research outcomes were synthesised into one computational tool (Fenech et al. 2013). This tool allows for input regarding the stability of materials in a collection following a survey of photographic materials using a Near Infrared based tool developed as part of this project (Fenech, Strlič et al. 2012). By combining the stability data of the collection with the multiparametric damage function developed that relates environmental conditions of storage to rate of material change and also incorporates the end-of-lifetime identified from the values research, collection managers have an appraisal tool for assessing the effect of various environmental scenarios on their photographic collection.

Conclusion This contribution outlines an interdisciplinary methodology for combining strands of research related to material degradation, environmental chemistry and utility value analysis. By taking a holistic view of the research questions several tools were also developed for practitioners in the field. Therefore, archives may have access to more concrete data on how different environmental management scenarios may affect the value of some of the most vulnerable materials in their collection over time. This will significantly improve and inform collection management and the preservation of photographic materials and may also serve as a model to study other types of heritage materials and objects.

Acknowledgments The financial support of the UK AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme and additional support from The National Archives, UK is gratefully acknowledged.

References British Standards Institution. BS 5454:2000 Recommendations for the storage and exhibition of archival documents, 15th April 2000. British Standards Institution. PAS 198:2012 Specification for managing environmental conditions for cultural collections, March 2012. Fenech, A., C. Dillon, et al. (2013). ”Modelling the lifetime of colour photographs in archival collections.” Studies in conservation 58(2): 107116. Fenech, A., M. Strli , et al. (2010). ”Stability of Chromogenic Colour Prints in Polluted Indoor environments.” Polymer degradation and Stability 95(12): 2481-2485. Fenech, A., M. Strli , et al. (2012). “The past and the future of chromogenic colour photographs: lifetime modelling using near-infrared spectroscopy & enhancement using hypoxia.” Applied Physics A 106: 411-417. Fenech, A., T. Fearn, et al. (2012). “Use of Design of Experiment Principles to develop a dose-response function for colour photographs.” Polymer Degradation and Stability in press.

Figure 4: Isochrone diagrams showing utility lifetime for temperature-RH and temperature-acetic acid concentration. Lifetimes are calculated based on time necessary to reach end of lifetime with respect to informational value.

Ritzenthaler, ML., D. Vogt-O’Connor, H. Zinkham, B. Carnell, and K. Peterson. Photographs: archival care and management. Society of American Archivists, Chicago,revised edition, 2006. Reilly, JM. Storage Guide for Color Photographic Materials. University of the State of New York, New York, 1998. Image Permanence Institute


Interventive Conservation of Black-dyed Organic Materials – the Problem of Metal-polyphenol Complexes Helen Wilson

Top: Science day stand at the British Museum 2009

Collaborative Research Studentship Interventive Conservation of Black-dyed Organic Materials – the Problem of MetalPolyphenol Complexes

to the potential deleterious effect of aqueous treatments on weakened fibres. The magnesium phytate/calcium bicarbonate treatment, a variant of an aqueous antioxidant and deacidifier treatment that is widely accepted for the stabilisation of iron-gall ink on paper, was also investigated due to the chemical similarity between iron-gall inks and iron-tannate dyes.


Summary of project The primary aim of the project was to establish the suitability of a range of non-aqueous antioxidants and deacidifiers for chemically stabilising iron-tannate dyed substrates. Non-aqueous treatments were the focus due

Iron-tannate dye reagents

A precursor to the stabilisation treatment studies was the development of model iron-tannate dyed materials and the characterisation of the dye-catalysed degradation of the substrate of these materials under controlled testing conditions. These model materials needed to be relevant to the artefacts present in the British Museum’s collection and had to degrade, under elevated temperature and humidity conditions, in a manner comparable to historic iron-tannate dyed substrates. Further, the accelerated ageing conditions needed to produce measurable and


For thousands of years societies all over the world have created dyes by combining tannins (from plant materials such as galls, bark, leaves or fruits) with iron (from sources such as vitriol, mud or iron filings) to form iron-tannate dyes of black, brown, and grey hues on fibres, textiles, basketry, leather, cloths, and more. Objects containing such dyes have a vast geographical and temporal spread and are part of our global heritage and as such are present in cultural heritage institutions worldwide; the British Museum’s extensive collection includes Japanese Hina dolls with hair made of iron-tannate dyed silk, Maori piu piu, African bogolanfini, Oceanian barkcloths, Egyptian basketry and many more examples. Yet the longevity of these objects is threatened by the dye itself since the presence of unbound iron(II) and iron(III) ions and the high acidity of the dyes can accelerate oxidation and hydrolysis of the substrate, respectively. The lack of a suitable conservation treatment to slow down the rate of degradation of iron-tannate dyed objects prompted the initiation of this collaborative project in 2007 between the British Museum and the University of Manchester.


statistically significant changes in tensile strength and colour within a 4 week accelerated ageing period. Accordingly ten model iron-tannate dyed materials have been developed using woven fabrics dyed with three specific iron-tannate dye formulations. Through characterisation of the model textiles before and after accelerated ageing using a variety of analytical techniques and comparison with results from historic materials, eight of the dyed model textiles, those made of cotton, abaca, and silk, have been validated for use as substitutes for historic iron-tannate dyed organic materials.

ion species. Respectively, these have confirmed the role of iron-tannate dyes in accelerating the rate of oxidation of organic substrates and improved our understanding of the structure of iron-tannate dye complexes. Additionally, while GPC-MALLS had already proven its value as a useful tool for monitoring the degradation of and effect of stabilisation treatments on iron gall inked rag paper at a micro-level through the calculation of degree of polymerisation and carbonyl content, it has now been proven successful for irontannate dyed cotton textiles also.

Of the eight non-aqueous antioxidants and one nonaqueous deacidifier that were tested using a range of concentrations and combinations, the antioxidant Tinuvin 292 and deacidifier magnesium ethoxide were identified as the most successful in maintaining the strength of the fabrics, while the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was the most successful at minimising colour change. The aqueous magnesium phytate/calcium bicarbonate treatment was also highly successful at retaining the strength of the samples.



This project has had impacts at individual, organisational, national, and international levels and the training, knowledge, and qualification provided by this PhD has enabled the student researcher to secure a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at The National Archives, Kew.

Model textiles

The project has made many contributions to knowledge that will be influential to private and public conservators and researchers. These include the production of approximately 80m2 of characterised and validated model iron-tannate dyed textiles available for future research and the development of multiple dye formulations to produce such model textiles with properties comparable to historic iron-tannate dyed substrates. Many methods and analytical techniques were evaluated for the assessment of deterioration and stabilisation of iron-tannate dyed materials including colour measurement, pH measurement, μ-X-ray Fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), Gel Permeation Chromatography with Multi Angle Laser Light Scattering detector analysis (GPCMALLS), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR), viscometry, bathophenanthroline testing, and tensile testing. In particular EPR has emerged as an innovative quantitative probe for the determination of the presence and type of radicals and the presence of EPR-active metal

Hina doll damage

The identification of promising antioxidants and deacidifiers provides a valuable base from which practical chemical stabilisation treatments for the conservation of iron-tannate dyed objects can be established. Without this research and the development of practical treatments for long-term preservation the survival of a vast range of objects with iron-tannate dyes is exposed to potential self-destruction. Numerous collaborations have been forged in this project between the British Museum, University of Manchester/ Leeds, science institutions, heritage institutions, and private companies, both nationally and internationally where all collaborating partners have a tangible interest in researching iron-tannate dyes. The success of these collaborations on a research and logistical level provides a foundation for future collaborations. The research outcomes of this project have been publicised widely on a national and international level through the presentation of conference papers and posters, publication of peer-reviewed papers, and presentations to researchers, conservators, and the public. This will continue through the publication of further peer-reviewed papers from this research and presentations to the public at the British Museum’s public engagement events (Science Day and Gallery Tours). Furthermore, a proposal for the continuation of this research with particular emphasis on the development of practical conservation treatments for the chemical stabilisation of iron-tannate dyed objects is under consideration by the AHRC to be carried out as a Collaborative Doctoral Award with the same supervisory team from the British Museum and the University of Leeds. A further proposal for a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the British Museum on the physical consolidation of iron-tannate dyed objects has been submitted to the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues Sonia O’Connor Postdoctoral Fellowship – Cultural Objects worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues

Recording historic inlays using a portable digital microscope. © By kind permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection.

Evidence for the exploitation of animals as a source of raw materials for tools, weapons and works of art, is found in the context of some of the earliest human habitation and their use is common to all human cultures, across every geographical zone and in all periods up to the present day. Some materials such as bone and horn are almost ubiquitous and selected on the basis of their physical properties to fulfil a wide range of practical applications. Other materials, such as walrus ivory, tortoiseshell and hornbill, have more restricted availability and can be indicators of long distance trade and the desire, on the part of the individual or society, to advertise status or conspicuous wealth. The use of particular materials for specific object types may indicate gift exchange traditions, as with the sperm whale tooth Tabua of Fijian society or may just be an expression of ‘otherness’, a tradition of usage that identifies a person as one of ‘us’ and not one of ‘them’. Material selection can also be allied to belief systems connecting these materials with particular deities or endowing them with miraculous qualities, such as the myriad of properties attributed to the narwhal tusk (unicorn’s horn) in Europe during the Medieval period or the use of rhino horn in contemporary Chinese medicine. It is not possible to detect these nuances in the cultural significance of objects if they cannot be identified with confidence or distinguished from substitutes, imitations, and fakes. During this project, work has been undertaken in examining and recording the features of raw materials and worked objects in different states of preservation, using low-power reflected light microscopy, from the collections of the project partners, the York Archaeological Trust, the Hawley Collection, Leeds Museums and Galleries, Hull Museums and Galleries, the Horniman Museum and


A central tenet of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme has been the development of a deeper and more critical understanding of culturally significant objects and fundamental to this is the need to recognise the materials from which these objects are made. The post-doctoral research project Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues has done exactly this for our ability to identify animal-derived materials through the development, evaluation and validation of curatorially acceptable examination and analytical techniques.

Top: Sonia O’Connor working at the Hawley Collection, Sheffield Industrial Museum.



numerous other museum and private collections across the country. A further project partner is the Henry Moseley Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, and here the use of micro-CT to aid identification was investigated whilst scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were evaluated at the University of Bradford. Further work into the potential and limitations of collagen and keratin analysis for species determination has been at the core of several collaborative projects with BioArCh researchers in the Department of Archaeology, University of York.

It also gave these neglected but essential items a higher profile amongst the dentistry history community. Delivery of outputs from the project has taken many forms apart from the familiar process of publication in the appropriate research literature. Identification workshops have been delivered to museum staff, conservation professionals, private collectors, archaeologists and fine art valuers and auctioneers. The aim of these workshops has been to deliver an enhanced degree of knowledge and understanding regarding hard tissues, but also to encourage the many different groupings of interested parties to meet and discuss. The workshops are skills-based, delivered as a mix of lectures and hands-on sessions, ensuring that the practical skills acquired are supported by a sound understanding of the raw materials, their composition, and their degradation processes. Other events have been directed more towards the general public, and have featured the objectives of this project and also of the wider Science and Heritage Programme. For example, an exhibition and hands-on session at the British Science Festival and a CafĂŠ Scientifique at Leeds Museum both attracted a diverse and enthusiastic general audience. Enhanced identifications have contributed to exhibitions put on by museums such as the Horniman and Manchester Museums, and made contributions to other projects such as the Leverhulmefunded Examination of Ritual and Dress Equipment from British Early Bronze Age Graves, led by John Hunter and Ann Woodward (University of Birmingham). For the future, a Science and Heritage Research Development Award has been successfully sought from the AHRC to allow the development of innovative means of visual representation of the study materials.

Decayed sperm whale ivory Iron Age sword hilt guard from South Cave, East Yorkshire.

The application of the best of these identification techniques, singly or in combination, has improved the precision and confidence of animal hard tissue identification, challenging received wisdoms, revealing unexpected materials and prompting re-evaluation of individual objects, such as Iron Age sword pommels, and of groups of objects. For instance, study of the late 19thcentury oriental ivory carvings produced for the European market has revealed the use of a surprising range of materials, sometimes including ivories of different species in a single piece. This begs the question of whether these materials were used as cheaper substitutes for elephant ivory or were chosen for their own qualities for specific design reasons. The research has led to the discovery of objects in baleen, rhino horn, hornbill and vegetable ivory previously mis- or un-identified, improved the distinction of tortoiseshell from its plastic imitations and has been central to a successful criminal prosecution. The mapping of the range and distribution of the materials in inlays attributed to the 17th-century gunstock maker Conrad Tornier has improved the ability to distinguish his work from that of his contemporaries and more recent fakes. The dominance of walrus and hippopotamus ivory in collections of historic dentures has led to a reconsideration of their selection for cosmetic reasons and for their biomechanical properties.

Photomicrograph of the underside of un-worked tortoiseshell from a hawksbill turtle.

To sum up, this project has tackled most of the objectives identified by the Science and Heritage Programme. It has explored the transformation of natural raw materials to artefacts and art objects, enhanced our confidence in questions of authenticity, enabled more informed and detailed interpretation of individual objects and groups of artefacts, highlighted the unexpected in some cultural encounters, facilitated greater resilience in devising conservation and curation strategies, and demonstrated that machine-based lab research can be an essential partner in the social and anthropological interpretation of artefacts.


Prioritising Future Research Using Indoor Climate Change Predictions Paul Lankester*, David Thickett and Peter Brimblecombe Collaborative Research Studentship – Preparing Historic Collections for Climate Change

It is widely understood that environmental conditions are critical for the preservation of historic collections and interiors. In historic houses, collections are usually on open display, with limited options for environmental control. Additionally, historic buildings are typically more permeable than modern buildings, and are vulnerable to changes in the outdoor environment. The future outdoor environment is projected to change, and the potential impact of climate change on historic interiors has been investigated by developing a model which is widely applicable to historic houses. Climate change is irreversible in the short term due to the slow response of the climate, thus using current scenarios similar results are predicted until 2045.

A simple transfer function was used to predict indoor temperature and relative humidity from external conditions. The method is widely applicable and can be easily applied to any unheated building. The function has been coupled with projected future climate outputs to predict the future indoor climates at specific sites. The model projects temperature increases indoors in unheated historic houses in the future, although these temperature rises will be less than those projected for outdoors. The annual, average relative humidity is largely unchanged in the future. Damage functions are used to determine the impact of the future indoor environment on collections materials. Typically, temperature-driven damage such as chemical degradation of paper or silk and insect pest activity will increase in the future, whereas damage driven by relative humidity, such as salt transitions, depends upon the location. In general, the risk of mould growth will increase in the future, and dimensional changes to wood will decrease.

The West front of Knole, Sevenoaks, Kent ©National Trust Images/Robert Morris


It has been shown that climate change will have an impact upon future indoor environments. This may damage objects in the future and shift the balance of risks to collections. English Heritage’s national collection audit and risk assessment has identified the material types which have suffered the most damage recently and the factors that caused the identified damage. This allows present research priorities to be set, but climate change may alter the levels of risk in the future. Research into the impact of climate change will help identify critical knowledge gaps that may be significant in the future. This foresight will give heritage practitioners time to develop, fund and implement research projects in these areas. It also allows the dissemination of the research findings and formulation of suitable and sustainable mitigation strategies against future risks to collections.

Top: The Cartoon Gallery, Knole, Sevenoaks, Kent ©National Trust Images/ Andreas von Einsiedel


Annual average predictions are shown to hide seasonal environmental changes, thus it is important to assess the seasonal effects, which can impact upon management strategies. At Knole it is projected that the summer humidity levels will decrease and in the winter humidity will increase slightly, raising the risk of mould growth. The application of conservation heating to control indoor environments, whilst still an effective strategy, has been shown to become less effective in the future.

The method presented for predicting future indoor climates has been used to estimate historic indoor data. Where damage to collections can be well-characterised this potentially allows the historic environmental conditions to be linked with material damage. This is likely to be more successful with cumulative collection damage processes that progress gradually, where long-term average environmental conditions will dominate, which are more precisely predicted by the method.

There are a number of inherent uncertainties associated with the predictive models used. Specifically with climate modelling, future emission levels are unknown, and the physical processes of the climate are not yet fully understood. In addition there is a statistical error associated with the transfer function, and the damage functions have a number of related uncertainties. These errors and uncertainties affect the accuracy of any predictions, therefore it is important to consider these when assessing future indoor climate projections.

One example where this has potential is the Swiss Cottage Museum at Osborne House. Several amber objects have been on display in the same environment for the last century and the ambers are in quite a poor state of degradation. It is likely that they were polished when initially received, as the object labels indicate insects within the amber that are no longer visible due to surface deterioration. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography have enabled analysis of the damage (oxidation) layer, giving an average thickness of the deteriorated surface. If a damage function for amber were developed, or indeed for alternate materials, historic environmental data may allow the damage function to be validated.


The climate change research has demonstrated the need for a further external project to investigate the effect of environmental conditions on populations of insect pests. This will statistically investigate the relationship between temperature, relative humidity and the numbers of insect pests that are trapped during regular monitoring. Previously, general assumptions have been used in an attempt to understand the impact of climate change. This additional research will have a wider benefit, helping to understand the present impact of the environment on insect pests. Where future temperature and humidity conditions have been predicted it has been possible to feed this data into other models. Research has investigated the impact of future environmental conditions on the concentration of acetic acid within an enclosure, helping plan mitigation strategies. This is particularly important in historic showcases where original wooden material, which off gasses acetic acid, cannot be removed or altered, and thus careful consideration is required to mitigate high pollutant concentrations. Below: Ambers under microscope. With thanks to Dr Haida Liang for use of the equipment.

Typically large scale projects have a long lifetime, perhaps at least 30 years, so research into the impact of climate change is important when planning large projects on this timescale. Current decisions, for example the type of heating installed, should consider how effective this may be under a changing climate. This is particularly relevant to conservation heating, where the ability to maintain optimal conditions is likely to decrease in the future. While research into the impact of climate change presents results that are many years in the future, this knowledge will help to direct current research policy. The research may take many years to complete, but it can still be executed before damage mechanisms become problematic. Therefore, understanding the potential threat from climate change allows for long term planning of research and mitigation strategies in preparation for the impact of climate change, thus preserving heritage for future generations.


Cracking Cement and Concrete – Decline of Civil Infrastructure and Heritage. Andrea Hamilton*, Isobel Griffin, Christopher Hall and James Tate Collaborative Research Studentship – Deterioration and Conservation of Historic Concrete Structures: the National Museum of Flight Military Airfield at East Fortune

Figure 1: Cracking – cement render on a shelter at East Fortune.


Patented in the early 19th Century and popularised in UK construction in the early 20th Century, Portland cement and concrete are by far the most widely employed construction materials worldwide by volume1. Every year nearly 2 billion tonnes of Portland cement is produced worldwide2 and with it 1.6 billion tonnes of CO2, making cement production a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently there is increasing drive in materials research to improve the ecological credentials of cement by recycling it, using alternative energy sources and using cement to encapsulate industrial waste products1. Concrete is widely used because it is a remarkable and highly versatile material, capable of being tailored chemically, mechanically and aesthetically while cheap and fast setting. Its chameleon-like qualities means that it is also used for high end construction, such as the Burj Dubai skyscraper2. Quite simply, cement and concrete are fundamental to society. Prolonging the life of existing cement and concrete structures will help significantly lower anthropogenic carbon emissions while preserving our built heritage. Although often regarded in the past as ugly, compared to more traditional building materials, many cement and concrete structures are now listed and range from sculptures to factories3 and in this case, a set of utilitarian World War 2 shelters. The conservation of concrete has received very little attention to date, yet the chemical complexity and composite nature of these buildings renders conservation a serious challenge. Prior to any applied conservation efforts, a full understanding

of the deterioration mechanisms of concrete has to be reached. The aim of this PhD project was to use a combination of field surveys, experimental laboratory work and non-destructive testing to understand the cause of deterioration and develop a transferable model. The site is a military airfield in East Lothian, Scotland, with buildings dating from the First and Second World Wars. The Second World War buildings, owned by National Museums Scotland and operated as the National Museum of Flight (NMOF) are collectively a Scheduled Historic Monument. There are 23 cement rendered brick huts and a reinforced concrete air raid shelter.


which predicts fracture propagation in the render and will also be of wide use in the building industry. The final part of this investigation focused on deterioration of the reinforced concrete air raid shelter. Severe delamination resulted from chloride ions attacking the rebars. The surprising conclusion was that the chlorides came from a set accelerator added to the original mix and were not environmental. This raises concern for similar structures built in the same time period.

Figure 2: Shelter at National Museum of Flight, East Fortune

Concrete deterioration requires the presence of water and damage follows. This is a significant problem around the world and particularly in hot humid environments such as Hong Kong, where some of the World’s most expensive real estate is crumbling. The future of this work is to understand water movement across varying environments and use it to optimise conservation solutions.


Infra-red thermography image of a shelter at East Fortune showing wet regions at a glance.

This study discovered several mechanisms of deterioration which are highly transferable to similar structures. The results of the non-destructive testing were used to inform a programme of destructive testing. The sampling strategy obtained the maximum amount of information from a minimum number and size of samples. Materials investigated included original and repair renders, original mortar, historic and modern bricks and historic concrete from the air raid shelter, with some samples of historic cementitious materials from other sites for comparison. Chemo-mechanical characterisation and innovative strain experiments on replica samples found that the longevity of the render depended on the strength of the brick-render bond which was highly affected by the sorptivity of the bricks. Considerable variability was found in the sorptivity of these traditional shale bricks which is very unusual. This experimental work indicated why repeated repairs to the render failed and led to a new mathematical model which describes moisture dynamics through non-uniform porous materials. The impact of the model is its wide applicability to rising damp issues in the built environment. Visible cracking and delamination was proven to result from freeze-thaw episodes rather than thermal-hygral cycling, and coupled with surveys and non-destructive monitoring, we identified the most vulnerable regions of the buildings. Importantly we discovered the cement render was more vulnerable to frost damage than the underlying brick work, therefore render properties could potentially be tailored, which is applicable to similar problems elsewhere. Strain testing and geo-characterisation showed that the original renders contained expansive mudstone aggregates which expanded considerably on wetting and more so on wetting and freezing. A model was constructed

Concrete deterioration (and blocked drains) in a relatively young (~30 years) building. Hong Kong Island.

Trees roots growing through and along a cement mortared wall in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

References 1 Damtoft, J.S., Lukasik, J., Herfort, D., Sorrentino, D. and Garner, E.M. (2008). Cement and Concrete Research, 38, p115-127. 2 The Concrete Conundrum. Chemistry World, Royal Society of Chemistry. March 2008. 3 Concrete. English Heritage Practical Building Conservation, Odgers, D. (ed.)


Materiality, Authenticity and Value in the Historic Environment: A Study of The Effects of Material Transformation and Scientific Intervention Research Development Award – Materiality, Authenticity and Value in the Historic Environment: a Study of the Effects of Material Transformation and Scientific Intervention It is widely recognized that the historic environment provides a source of cultural enrichment, and enhances people’s quality of life and well-being. However, it also undergoes cycles of material transformation, of decay and renewal, which inform the meanings and values associated with it. Indeed, these changes contribute to the experience of authenticity. In this interdisciplinary project we have used methods from the arts and humanities, including interviews and forms of participant observation, to examine the kinds of value attached to deterioration and decay in historic buildings. We ask how processes of deterioration and decay inform the cultural values attached to historic buildings, when and why we use science-based interventions to retard or arrest these processes and explore how these interventions impact on perceptions of authenticity and value. The impact of this project is built into its design and conduct, and puts conversations with practitioners at the heart of the field of enquiry. It is oriented toward providing knowledge and understanding

that will inform the application of heritage science to problems of material degradation and decay. Processes of decay and degradation are assessed and arrested by organisations charged with conserving the historic environment for future generations. Much of this work relies on scientific methods and techniques that have been developed for use in conserving the historic environment. The application of scientific research in heritage contexts is often concerned with the materials and specific methods and techniques that can be used to study or alter processes of deterioration. However, by intervening to modify processes of transformation and decay, these techniques can have a powerful impact on the fabric of historic buildings. They can alter their appearance and introduce new materials, as well as affect the cultural meanings and values attached to them by various groups of people. Decay acts as a tangible mark of age, and the patina produced by everyday weathering and wear provides a sense of connection across generations. There has been less attention paid to these cultural values attached to materials and processes of decay or renewal. In this project, we investigate how decisions about the conservation of materials is informed by these values and related ideas of authenticity. We also explore how sciencebased interventions alter these meanings and values, and impact on perceptions of ‘the real’ and the ‘authentic’.


John Hughes, Siân Jones and Tom Yarrow*



Our partners include the National Trust for Scotland (NTS) and Historic Scotland (HS), organisations that are involved in conserving and managing some of Scotland’s most important historic sites. They provide case studies involving particular historic buildings or monuments that are currently the subject of active conservation. The case studies selected with the cooperation of NTS and HS illustrate different aspects of scientific interventions in practice. They include the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Hill House, Skelmorlie Aisle in Largs, Dryburgh Abbey in the borders, and Drum Castle in Aberdeenshire. The research has involved interviews with key actors related to these sites, observations of meetings and discussions about how decisions are made. The interdisciplinarity of our research team has helped draw out the interactions between disciplines and professions involved in heritage science.

collaboration permits us to take the development of cutting edge scientific technologies as a case study in itself, extending the range of our analysis to the pre-market phase of scientific heritage interventions and allowing us to explore the values that inform the development of new products and underpin their research. The case studies thus represent a range of scientific approaches and arenas of expertise, and interviews with a range of actors involved have provided us with the opportunity to study how the science-based techniques they use both inform, and are informed by, cultural values and ideas of authenticity. The work we have done directly affects our partner organisations, who are involved in conserving and managing some of Scotland’s most significant historic assets. The majority of the practical research underpinning the project has involved frequent dialogue and contact with relevant individuals in the NTS and HS. Members of these organisations will gain first hand experience of the application of arts and humanities methods in the context of heritage science. During the project, representatives of HS and NTS have been involved in on-site project meetings at their respective sites, and engaged in dialogue through interviews. This has ensured their involvement in the project not just as beneficiaries, but also as collaborators and subjects of research. Members of our partner organisations will therefore experience the most immediate impact of our research. However, the international dimension of our research means that the scope of impact is broader, with the research aiming to provide knowledge and understanding that will inform the application of heritage science to problems associated with material degradation and decay. Of benefit to a wide range of academic researchers and professionals involved in conserving the historic environment, the results are intended to inform future conservation policy and practice, ensuring that sciencebased techniques are used in a culturally sensitive way in conserving the historic environment. With this in mind, we will be holding an invited workshop in November 2013 to facilitate access to our preliminary results and foster dialogue within the project team and its wider participants.

The Hill House, Helensburgh (C.R. Mackintosh, 1904). The building is very significant in Scottish architectural history, but suffers from a range of water ingress problems (and salt, below) related to the condition of the external Portland cement render. Our project is looking at how perceptions of material authenticity affect the value placed on the building by a range of stakeholders.

Our research also has international reach and impact through our participation in an international workshop, part of the work of the EU-funded 7th FP HEROMAT project (Perugia, May 2013). The HEROMAT project is developing multi-functional consolidants and surface treatments for use in the historic built environment. This unusual

Skelmorlie Aisle, Largs. Inside this modest remaining fragment of a larger, precursor church is perhaps the finest funerary monument in Scotland, finely carved in an impermeable sandstone but suffering from decay, the cause of which is, to date, proving difficult to diagnose. A range of scientific characterisation and condition-monitoring methods are being applied, allowing the project to consider their effect of decision-making for future interventions and how that affects the values associated with the monument.


Abstracts – Session 2 – Culture

Henry Moore Room October 29th 1.30–5.30pm Session chair – Professor Dana Arnold October 30th 9–10.30am Session chair – Nick Poole * indicates presenter for each abstract



Cultural Encounters and Explorations: Conservation’s ‘Catch-22’: Impacts Elizabeth Pye*, Dean Sully and Jonathan Ashley-Smith Research Cluster – Cultural Encounters and Explorations: Conservation’s “Catch-22”


Introduction The importance of cultural significance and its role in reaching conservation decisions is fully acknowledged and routinely applied by conservators. However it may be less readily accepted that some important aspects of significance are conveyed only ‘in the hand’ ie through touching or handling objects (to discover, for example, the weight and balance of a hand-tool, or the texture of a ceramic surface).

Top: Handling a model bat

ensure their long term survival. However they are now increasingly faced with the expectation that they put the interests of people above the material wellbeing of objects. This presents conservators with a dilemma which could be described as conservation’s ‘Catch-22’: •   Access to heritage objects brings social benefit •   Greater access brings greater social benefit •   Greater access brings greater damage •   Greater damage brings reduced social benefit

This dilemma was explored in the short-term Cultural Encounters and Explorations research cluster: Conservation’s ‘Catch-22’ which ran for 9 months during 2009. It aimed to generate wide-ranging discussion in order to identify key issues and practicalities, and to suggest areas for future research.

Methodology Through three workshops, a conference, a website and a blog, the research cluster enabled a wide range of conservators and other heritage professionals to exchange their views. It generated lively debate of conservation issues within the wider topic of access, and particularly physical access, to museum objects and collections.

Issues Identified

Condition assessment exercise

As physical contact with objects can cause damage, conservators’ traditional attitude to promoting touch and handling has been cautious or, more frequently, negative – they have protected objects from people in order to

Difficulties in identifying effects of handling and mechanisms of damage. Crucial to this whole topic is what constitutes damage, what causes it, and how it is detectable. It was agreed that apart from sudden and catastrophic damage (eg crushing) most damage starts as gradual and initially imperceptible change. Although one way to understand damage is through observable indications of physical change, it is debatable when changes become damage.


Contextual nature of ‘condition’ thus impossibility of precise definition A consensus emerged that the concept of condition is shifting and unstable and that cultural significance is just as important an influence on assessing condition as it is on conservation decisions. It was agreed that rather than being a fixed reference point, condition is contextual and should be understood in relation to criteria such as function, purpose, expectation and use, in other words in relation to the potential of an object, rather than in terms of a diminished original carrying the sum of past damage. Varying approaches to providing meaningful access Ways of providing satisfactory access to objects, including different approaches to direct physical access generated wide-ranging discussion. A number of alternative approaches to providing ‘intimate’ access to objects, not involving physical contact but involving more than simply looking were also presented as means of avoiding the risks inherent in touching and handling. Merits of encountering the ‘real thing’, rather than a replica, or a virtual object It was agreed that direct encounters with real objects is enriching for participants. However replicas or surrogates also have an important role, particularly as in some contexts (eg objects with moving parts) they may be more informative. The question was also raised of whether the development of virtual objects has reduced or enhanced access to objects and collections.

Suggestions for Future Research

Extent to which different forms of access (including physical access) are beneficial There is clear potential for research to discover in what ways and to what extent physical contact is stimulating or inspiring, and how it may compare with other forms of access. A concept that requires investigation is that of the reciprocity of care: the benefits that people gain from encounters with objects, and the reciprocal benefit that objects receive from the people responsible for their care. Conservators’ role in enhancing visitor experience It is now accepted that engagement is a core part of the job of a conservator. Research is needed into the skills in public relations conservators may need, and into new and creative conservation solutions focused on the quality of visitor experience. Development of immediate haptic virtual experience As the ‘reality’ of virtual objects is improving rapidly, and research into virtual haptics is developing, research is needed into the effectiveness of virtual physical contact with heritage objects. This would require investigation of the factors that might make virtual contact as satisfying and enjoyable as direct physical contact with the real thing.

Scientific detection of changes which result in damage The significant role of scientific investigation was discussed, and how it might improve our understanding of damage through quantitative evaluation of change. A number of analytical techniques which might have potential in detecting and measuring surface damage were presented, and would be worth researching in this context. Also identified as needing research are the surface effects of different types of physical contact with objects (touching, handling, manipulation, with or without gloves etc). Definition and measurement of condition The whole issue of how to define condition, both in philosophical and material terms, demands further research. In particular there is the question of whether it is possible to specify a point at which change in condition becomes identified as damage. A further question focuses on when damage may have reached the point of being considered bad enough for an object to be seen as in unacceptable condition.

‘What’s the Damage?’ presentation


Widespread support for provision of physical access Despite the complexities of the situation, and the agreed risks in facilitating physical encounters with objects, it was encouraging to find that there was widespread support from all the professionals who contributed to the debate, for taking the risk of providing increased physical access to objects, and, importantly, strong support for further research.

Handling a small basket


Demography of Heritage Collections: Impact on Collection Care Matija Strlič*, Nancy Bell, Peter Brimblecombe, Kalliopi Fouseki, Jinghao Xue, Catherine Dillon Carlota Grossi, Eva Menart, Kostas Ntanos, William Lindsay, Gerrit De Bruin, David Thickett and Fenella France


Interdisciplinary Research Grant – “Collections Demography” On Dynamic Evolution of Populations of Objects The Collections Demography project has developed an innovative model exploring the dynamics of change in collections by comparing them to populations, with processes of degradation leading to loss of fitness of objects for use and consequently finite collection lifetime. In the frame of the project, research strands focussed on understanding future collection environments and their effect on material degradation. Other innovative research was undertaken to assess the attitudes of library and archival users to the useful life of a collection, values users associate with objects and their attitudes to document use and degradation. Predictive modelling of the processes of change and user attitudes to change could significantly improve preservation of collections and in turn its public accountability.

engagement exercise with 543 participants. The survey captured how the context of use affected user attitudes, as reflected in the values they associate with documents. The questionnaire allowed for the collection of information on the user, the particular document they were using or viewing, what they thought was important about the document, their perspective on the desired lifetime of the document and their opinions on the document’s condition, care and use. Factor analysis was used to reduce and summarise this data2. Nine factors were extracted, related to personal significance as well as the wider significance of historic archives and libraries.

Expected collection lifetime In the VALUE questionnaire, the respondents were additionally asked how long they would like documents to last in a usable state. The majority of responses focused on 50, 100, 200 and 500 years, with 86% of respondents giving a response of ≤500 years, which could be used as a useful planning horizon in long-term decision-making. Interestingly, only a small proportion of respondents were of the opinion that the documents need to remain in a useable state indefinitely.

User engagement A questionnaire was developed based on value statements collected in interviews with readers at The National Archives (Kew), and from the literature. The VALUE (Value and Lifetime – User Engagement) questionnaire1 represents the first comprehensive survey of user attitudes to large library and archival collections and was distributed at The National Archives (UK), English Heritage properties, the Library of Congress (USA) and the Capitol Visitor Center (USA), in what represented a significant public

Image: © The National Archives

Fitness for purpose Properties that might negatively affect the fitness of objects3 are colour (a direct consequence of chemical degradation) and features that reduce the readability of such an object, such as tears and missing pieces, which may accumulate due to use. The decision on when a document becomes unfit for use was explored in a series of user workshops, where users were requested to rank the fitness of differently distressed documents (discoloured, with tears or missing pieces). In this exercise, carried out at The National Archives (Kew), Library of Congress (Washington) and the Wellcome Library (London), 331 users participated. The results showed that users are concerned with colour and tears only to a minor extent (irrespective of the purpose, i.e. display or reading), while they generally rank documents as ‘unfit’ only once a piece of text is missing. It is important to stress that by unfit, we mean that some users will likely find the accumulated degradation unacceptable, which does not mean that the document becomes unsuitable for use.

environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity), accumulation of wear and tear and associated loss of fitness, and expected collection lifetime. This model enables the exploration of collection care scenarios based on environmental considerations, conservation interventions and frequency of use.


Conclusion/impact beyond the Programme Collections can be seen as dynamically changing entities. In the Collections Demography project, we developed a general model to be used for examining and optimising different collection management scenarios, as suggested in recent environmental management guidance4. To encourage the use of data and results from this project at heritage institutions, the data and the model will be made publicly available, so that better informed preventive conservation decisions can be taken. This will allow for better use of resources. Further research could develop the model for use with other types of collections. Through the research activities, the project engaged a number of stakeholders and more than 800 volunteers and has also proven to an effective tool for communication between practitioners and policy makers. The final project event, Collections Demography Colloquium, has been made publicly available on YouTube5.

Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to The National Archives (UK), English Heritage, the Library of Congress, the Capitol Visitor Centre and the Wellcome Library for hosting the questionnaire study and the fitness for purpose workshops. The financial support of the UK AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme is gratefully acknowledged.

A study of accumulation of aspects of mechanical distress during handling was designed involving the handling of objects by reader-volunteers. The objects were either bound books or folders containing loose sheets of paper, resembling archival folders. The aim was to subject each document to repeated handling resembling the process of reading, and monitor the accumulation of physical degradation (tears, missing pieces) during use. Twenty-five different books and archival folders were used with paper with different material properties.

Collection model A substantial review of more than 150 paper degradation experiments carried out since the 1990s resulted in a new mathematical function, describing the change of material properties depending on environmental temperature and relative humidity, and on acidity of paper. Climate change predictions were downscaled for the two case study locations: Brodsworth Hall (English Heritage) and The National Archives in Kew and future pollutant concentrations were predicted based on policy and climate aspects. This enabled the development of a new population (stock) model of paper-based collections, with inputs based on material properties (acidity),

References 1 Dillon, C., Lindsay, W., Taylor, J., Fouseki, K., Bell, N. and Strli , M. (2012b). Collections Demography: Stakeholders View on the Lifetime of Collections. Paper presented at the Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties conference, Munich, 7-9 November 2012. 2 Tabachnik, B. and Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics, 5th edn, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 3 Strli , M., Thickett, D. Taylor, J.and Cassar, M. (2013). Damage functions in heritage science. Studies in Conservation. 58 80-87. 4 British Standards Institute, PAS 198: 2012 Specifications for Managing Environmental Conditions for Cultural Collections. London, BSI. 5 (accessed 12 August 2013).


Wear and tear


Impacts of Cross-Disciplinary Work in ‘Heritage Manufacturing – a Productive Matrix’ Tom Fisher Research Cluster – Understanding Complex Structures: the Conservation, Display and Interpretation of Lace and Natural Objects


Research Development Award – Nottingham Lace: Capturing and Representing Knowledge in People, Machines and Documents This presentation reports on the impacts and potential impacts of cross-disciplinary work led by Tom Fisher at Nottingham Trent University. The spread of disciplines and practice represented ensured potential for impact was built into the work from the start. It brought together academics in Design, whose ‘natural setting’ is close to business and innovation, leading regional and national museums, textile technologists and entrepreneurs, and researchers in natural science, social and economic history, material culture and museum studies. It began in 2009 with a Research Cluster award, based in NTU’s track record in textiles and optics. These workshops explored research imperatives and created opportunities for follow on projects.

In 2013, Fisher led a S&H development award with a focus on machine lace manufacture, working with Cluny Lace of Ilkeston and some of the cluster partners. The objective here was to use the variety of research traditions represented in the team to find ways to capture the knowledge held by Cluny Lace for the benefit of the non-HEI collaborators (museums and SMEs) and through them, the economy and society. The project team includes specialists in textile science, social history, computer visualisation and material culture studies, as well as potential research users from the museum sector, and the collaborating firm, Cluny Lace. It is motivated by the impacts which multidisciplinary academic research, based in a ‘live’ setting, may bring about when integrated by Design. Textile manufacturing was central to the economic development of Nottingham and the East Midlands from the early nineteenth century to the post-war period. Even in the 1930s the lace industry employed 14,000, with the same number again working in Nottingham’s hosiery and clothing manufacture. At the centre of the industry was the Leavers lace-making process, a complex 19th century technology based on early rapid innovation from the knitting frame, subsequent incremental change and diffusion, operated by a highly skilled and well paid labour force. At its peak there were 2600 Leavers machines in the Nottingham area – only 16 remain, operated by Cluny Lace. Despite the decline in manufacturing capacity, Nottingham’s intellectual skill base remains high, with centres of excellence in design, education and innovation. Textile manufacturing continues in the region though employing fewer people and addressing niche markets defined by quality or technology – the British textile industry still exports some £3.0 billion pa., primarily to economically advanced markets. Cluny Lace, is part of this, selling a product that is distinctive because of the

Leavers technology, retaining specialist markets in Haute Couture. The question motivating this work therefore, is what value remains in this technology, and how can it be best developed in the future as economic, social and cultural capital? To address this question, three methods have been deployed: visual/ video ethnography at Cluny Lace; oral history interviews with the workers and the representation of the technology through digital animation. The impacts of the work derive from the resource built up through these methods. While some parts of this resource point towards future impacts on academic and commercial stakeholders, others, such as the digital artefacts can be immediately applied in the museum context.

haute couture, young independent designers and students of art and design are also an important target audience for the outcomes of this research, connecting manufacturing and its outcome; machines, people and lace. The material engagement that this enquiry focuses on is prominent in recent debates about craft that emphasise the skill in making and this project promises to have impact on the relationship of designers to local manufacturers in the spirit of ‘glocal’ commercial production. Such innovation is essential for encouraging entrepreneurship and commerce in the region.


Taken as a whole, the work has a relationship to the signs that the coming years will bring new opportunities for UK textile manufacturing. A recent collaborative conference[i] between business, government and academics, argued that the ‘time was right for a revival in the UK textile industry’, but what is needed is supply side investment in skills and infrastructure, with the promotion particularly of good design and industrially-based training. Clearly, there exists a knowledge deficit in commercial practice as well as in the community’s understanding of manufacture generally, and of skills based technology in particular. The as-yet unrecorded loss of embedded knowledge is one of the key issues addressed in the Cluny dataset, which has recorded working practice as an educational and community tool so that process and knowledge may become re-embedded.

Perhaps most significantly, the narratives collected through this work will raise awareness of the uniqueness of the Leavers lace process and the resulting textile among those working in high and luxury fashion. Sarah Burton, head of design house Alexander McQueen sourced lace for the Duchess of Cambridge’s wedding dress from Cluny who are currently producing material for Burberry. Beyond

‘A New Dawn – Rebuilding UK Textile Manufacturing’ The Clothworkers’ Company, November 2012


The long-standing link between NTU and the Cité de la Dentelle et de la Mode, the museum of lace and fashion at Calais, means that the materials generated through the research may have immediate application in the training of lace-workers . Alongside conserving embodied knowledge through training, this research may contribute to design and entrepreneurship in the fashion and textile industry, through the mission of the collaborating museums. Understanding how Leavers lace is made may generate original technical and aesthetic resources for design.

The museums collaborating in this work will use its outcomes to develop new approaches to display that retain or attract new audiences. The project draws attention to the potential for community-based representation of heritage, both as topic, identity and location. In the past, there has been a strong local identification between textile manufacturing traditions and community, although in recent years such connectivities have declined markedly. Although manufacturing decline is partly responsible for this, modes of communication, and particularly the mechanisms of display are a key issue. Inanimate machines provide a poor representation of workplaces and the sense of belonging and material engagement they engendered. The outcomes of this research engage with this issue by identifying ways to make knowledge evident and to give vibrancy to archival material – whether lace samples, machines or patent drawings – that may properly represent these techo-cultural interfaces along with the knowledge embedded in them.


Future Proofing Heritage: Understanding Transformation and Resilience in our Cultural Landscapes, Archaeology and Built Heritage John Hughes*, Martin Lee, Bernie Smith


Research Cluster – Transformation and Resilience of our Landscapes, Archaeology and Built Heritage: Defining Responses to Societal and Environmental Pressures This abstract discusses the activities and outcomes of a Science and Heritage Programme funded Research Cluster. The cluster met three times in 2009, on each occasion focusing on issues relating to the vulnerabilities and resilience of a world heritage site. The context for the group’s work was that of risks from climate variability to landscape, archaeology and built environment. The range of participants was wide; many from academia, but also from local authorities and heritage organisations that influence devolved government policy in heritage and the private sector. At each meeting there were core participants, who were joined by stakeholders with more local interests. More than 60 individuals played a direct part in the cluster activities. This story includes outcomes in terms of the topics discussed and research directions considered important by the participants.

Activities The cluster met at three workshops of two days each, at contrasting world heritage sites: the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland, the Heart of Neolithic Orkney and Edinburgh. At each location presentations were given by local experts highlighting significant issues for heritage there, alongside presentations by cluster members on their specialisms and methodological approaches, that covered archaeology, engineering, materials science, earth science,

Top: Skara Brae, Orkney, threatened by the encroaching sea.

climate change, landscape evolution, architecture, tourism, the cultural and social value of heritage, community adaptations and economics.

The ring of Brodgar, Orkney. A site viewed in its landscape context, whose value could be affected by pressures of climate change mitigation through the development of renewable energy resources.

From these meetings, and the knowledge of the participants, we could demonstrate that heritage is at risk from transformational pressures caused by changing climate. For example, at the Giant’s Causeway increased rainfall and storminess has increased the frequency and number of slope failures, compromising access to the site. At Skara Brae in Orkney, rising sea levels and more intense storms threaten the integrity of the protection offered by the current sea wall. In Edinburgh, mitigation pressures include the requirement to reduce the energy use of historic buildings, which may compromise their historic authenticity and possibly their cultural value to society through changes to their original fabric.

Outcomes and impact The site-specific issues stimulated discussions centred around the development of a list of research priorities, a form of scoping for a research roadmap. This ‘community statement’ took the form of an exhaustive list of topics of concern and questions arising from discussion that were suitable for further research. These included the theoretical framework of ‘Dynamic Heritage’, meaning that heritage itself changes in condition through time, but also evolves in value. Allied to this is the idea that the environment, physical, social and economic, changes as well. Our values also change, and this it was realised could bring about the greatest change in our care for our heritage. A key development was the dialogue between those considering the material and on the other hand those whose expertise deals with the more intangible aspects of heritage. This joint approach, which represents perhaps the most important output of the cluster, is the recognition of the combination of approaches needed to meet grand challenges, such as the impact of climate change. Working together is clearly essential to ensure that we future-proof heritage.

The cluster at the Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland, where there was ample evidence of changing physical and ecological environment.

New collaborations were born and proposals for research developed that addressed key challenges in the field. Members of the cluster collaborated on submissions to the Interdisciplinary Research Grant scheme of the Science and Heritage Programme. These bids involved over 12 organisations and many more individuals from the cluster participants’ organisations. Following the cluster’s award period, additional funding bids were developed by members and submitted to the EPSRC and elsewhere, including the EU. A difficult to quantify aspect of the cluster’s activities was the extent to which informal relationships were built that may lead to new research projects in the future. Certainly, the members became better informed about research being carried out by others, thus broadening their awareness of possible synergies, and the individuals involved continue to discuss collaboration. Elsewhere, for example the co-investigators at Queen’s Belfast secured funds to begin PhD projects, and began an MSc programme in Heritage Science. The synergies generated between the participants also stimulated ideas for postgraduate studentships, with the benefits of an expanded pool of both supervisors and potential examiners. Constructive, and to date still working, connections were also made between researchers that have allowed interinstitutional support for fellowship bids (e.g. Science and Heritage and Historic Scotland funding). The cluster also encouraged the participation of postgraduate and early career researchers as well as early career workers in the non-academic participant organisations, amounting to at least twenty percent of participants.

Acknowledgements Example of poor application of stone cleaning in Edinburgh. In this case would a better control of interventions in the built environment maintain the appearance and hence value? Right: The cluster at the Giant’s Causeway, where there was ample evidence of a changing physical and ecological environment.

Around half of the participants were drawn from beyond academia, from organisations responsible for caring for heritage directly and also, importantly, from organisations with a more tangential connection to heritage, both governmental and non-governmental. An area for development would be in looking at the role of the


This presentation is dedicated to the memory of Professor Bernie Smith (1951-2012). The assistance of the National Trust in Northern Ireland, the staff and students of UHI Orkney College (Jane Downes and Julie Gibson in particular) and the Edinburgh World Heritage Trust is gratefully acknowledged for their help in organising and indeed driving participation in the site visits.


Value needs to be appropriated, either through legislative frameworks, economics or the understanding of cultural significance before management decisions can be made. In concert with this, we considered how developments in scientific and technical approaches to recording (e.g. condition assessment and baselining) and of conservation treatments (e.g. cleaning, consolidation, protection of sites with walls, roofs etc) may affect valuation and how they interact with proactive management to promote creative and well-informed decision making. The critical pathway through the priorities raised, that would generate a true roadmap, and a blueprint for a bigger, strategically oriented research programme or programmes, is still a matter of open questioning. The difficulty with this is the diversity of subjects covered, the interdisciplinarity of the research community and the identification of the critical research needed to address specific questions.

private sector, as the resources (human mainly, rather than financial), the motivations and the innovation capacity of the private sector could be very important for future strategies for heritage protection and enhancement.


Representing Re-Formation: Reconstructing Renaissance Monuments Phillip Lindley


Interdisciplinary Research Grant – Representing Re-Formation: Reconstructing Renaissance Monuments This project offers a case study in collaboration between Arts & Humanities specialists and scientists. Our primary aim has been to investigate the four tomb-monuments of the Howard Dukes of Norfolk and their family in St Michael’s, Framlingham, Suffolk. The monuments of Thomas, the third duke (d.1554) and of his son-in-law, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond (d. 1536), are two of the finest Renaissance monuments in the country, as befits the status of those whom they commemorate. The Howards were the premier nobles in Tudor England and Henry Fitzroy was Henry VIII’s illegitimate son. The question of the structural homogeneity of these monuments – which feature complex religious imagery – and their precise dating during the revolutionary changes of religious obedience in the mid-sixteenth century make them important and fascinating objects to study.

3D scan of the Duke of Richmond’s monument, Framlingham

Top: East end of Thetford Priory, Norfolk, the original burial site of the Dukes of Norfolk

A letter from the third duke to Henry VIII in 1539, trying unsuccessfully to stave off the Dissolution of Thetford Priory, reveals that sculptors had nearly finished work on both monuments, which were intended to stand in the priory church. However, the priory was closed in 1540. The duke decided to move the monuments forty miles to a new location in the parish church at Framlingham, close to his great castle. He started to rebuild the church’s chancel as an impressive new mausoleum. Meanwhile, some pieces of the tombs were stored in his house at Kenninghall; other components were simply abandoned at Thetford (where they were excavated in the nineteenth century and in a clearance campaign of the 1930s). However, before work on Framlingham’s chancel was finished, Howard and his son, the Earl of Surrey, were arrested and tried for treason. The ailing king feared they might pose a threat to his son, the future Edward VI. Surrey was beheaded and the duke only survived because the king died on the very day – 28 January 1547 – set aside for the duke’s execution. Howard, though, remained in the Tower throughout Edward VI’s reign and was only released after Queen Mary’s accession in 1553. The elderly duke died the next year. Both monuments were moved to Framlingham and were set up and finished off rather hurriedly by the fourth duke. He also commissioned two new monuments, one for his daughter, and one for himself and his wives. Neither of these was finished when the fourth duke was executed for treason in 1572. Such were the perils of power under the Tudors.

and historical researchers, museologists, conservators and computer scientists, working with physicists from the Space Research Centre [SRC] at Leicester. The SRC team has used 3D scanning to record every detail of the monuments’ surfaces. We distinguished those components which were originally planned to stand in Thetford Priory Church from those added later, at Framlingham in the 1550s. Then we virtually disassembled the monuments. We 3D scanned the pieces which had been excavated at Thetford, and virtually re-integrated them with the components which were moved to Framlingham. We have organised an exhibition at Thetford, showing how we built on the theories of earlier scholars. In it, we reunited many of the pieces and combined them with 3D printed and virtual models to visualise the monuments as they were planned, but never finished, in 1539.


3D scan of east end of 3rd Duke’s tomb, Framlingham.

Our research questions were these: first, to identify, on the basis of earlier scholars’ work, exactly which parts, if any, of the tombs of the third duke and of Richmond were moved from Thetford to Framlingham. Second, to discriminate those components of the tombs which were originally planned to stand in the priory church, and therefore antedate 1540, from those added in the 1550s when they were set up. This is particularly important in view of the religious imagery they feature. Third, to analyse all the fragments excavated at Thetford to determine how they were originally intended to be combined with the parts that were moved. In other words, we were trying to reconstruct exactly what the tombs planned for Thetford Priory in 1539 were intended to look like. Finally, we wanted to establish how all these components could be meaningfully exhibited, back in Thetford, in the Ancient House Museum and digitally, for everyone.

Our researchers have investigated the archaeology of the Priory site, the Howards’ burial strategies in the context of the major religious, political and social changes of the sixteenth century, and the visual sources of their monuments, simultaneously training humanities and science PhD students. We have deployed a multi-disciplinary team operating out of three universities – Leicester, Oxford and Yale – combined with staff working for English Heritage and the Norfolk Museums and Archaeology Service. The team includes archaeological, art-historical

Our dissemination of our results has deployed a spectrum of methods from the conventional to the cutting-edge: peer-reviewed articles in academic journals; lectures (local, national and international [Paris, Edinburgh, Vienna & Cincinnati] for public and academic audiences; the exhibition, guide & catalogue, with monograph to follow; conferences and symposia; a website, with researchers’ blogs; TV and radio appearances; a contemporary artist’s video employing the 3D data; and an innovative app for Thetford Priory, an English Heritage open access site. Our work has had many unexpected benefits in different fields. For example, one astonishing discovery amongst the excavated objects was part of a Renaissance terra-cotta roundel by the Italian sculptor Giovanni da Maiano, with its original colour intact. It has informed the curators and conservators working on the Hampton Court roundels of Emperors by the same sculptor. The SRC team have produced results which will inform other cultural scientists’ research, analysing the outgassing of 3D printed models, comparing the resolution of pico-scanners with commercial laser scanners, and using optical reflectance to analyse the different materials used in constructing the monuments. Our employment of 3D scanning, CAD, and 3D printing can be readily transferred to other projects and some of us are devising a bid to apply them to recovering the lost formal gardens of Boughton House, Northamptonshire, in their day amongst the most important in the country.


Detail of 3rd Duke’s tomb chest, Framlingham

Schematic phased plan of 3rd Duke’s monument, Framlingham


Towards an Integrated Approach to the Management, Scientific Study and Conservation of Conflict Archaeology Artefact Assemblages? Robert Janaway*, Andy Wilson and Glen Foard


Research Cluster – An Integrated Approach to the Management, Scientific Study and Conservation of Battlefield Artefact Assemblages Between February 2009 and February 2010 the Science and Heritage Programme funded a research cluster: An integrated approach to the management, scientific study and conservation of battlefield artefact assemblages. This research cluster brought together specialists both in battlefield excavation and conservation science to define fundamental requirements for new research. The network objectives were divided into two themes: 1. An integrated overview for the survivability of vulnerable metalwork assemblages on pre-industrial battlefields. 2. Complexities and challenges of modern battlefield assemblages.(20th century)

Battlefields and their associated artefacts form the basis of some of the most popular visitor attractions in Europe. While traditionally the term Battlefield Archaeology has been used, currently Conflict Archaeology is preferred as it encompasses a wider remit to include small scale actions, siege warfare, prisoner of war camps etc. The exact locations of battlefields are often in dispute complicated by the ephemeral nature of much battlefield artefact assemblages. For instance objects such as medieval arrow heads are subject to differential corrosion and loss in soil that has often been subject to agriculture for centuries. Battlefield archaeologists are starting to consider the effects of soil chemistry, agricultural practice, and the use of agrochemicals in the 20th century as having a significant impact on the survivability of vulnerable battlefield assemblages.

Figure 1 (left): The lead carbonate corrosion deposit on a musket bullet from the battle of Edgehill (1642) masks some of the critical surface detail despite this, the snip (a shallow scoop) in the form of two hemispheres with a central bar) where the casting sprue has been removed is still visible. Photo credit: G. Foard (University of Huddersfield) Figure 2 (right): This lead bullet from siege site at Wareham, Dorset (1640’s) shows the effect inter-granular corrosion and associated fragmentation of the surface. Photo credit G. Foard (University of Huddersfield)

Modern battlefield-related assemblages, as typified by assemblages from WW1 provide distinct challenges to excavators, finds specialists, conservators and curators. Twenty years ago this was not seen as the prevue of professional archaeologists and heritage organisation, but this is starting to change. These sites provide very specific challenges and do not lend themselves to traditional methods of finds processing and conservation. In addition to the issues related to identification and handling of unexploded ordinance, excavations of even short sections of WW1 trench produce vast quantities of metal artefacts. Industrial scale warfare produces industrial scale debris. With this type of excavation archaeologists and conservators are working with novel materials – early plastics such as the celluloid lenses in gas hoods, rubber and rubberised cloth, or the corrosion of sheet aluminium. While traditionally archaeologists and conservators have guidelines and well-established protocols for dealing

with most types of excavated artefacts, there is an urgent need for new techniques and procedures to deal with these new challenges. This paper will review the network content including a summary of material presented at the workshop held in March 2009 and the Symposium held in November of the same year and will conclude with consideration of developments since the end of the cluster. Work as a direct result of the symposium includes collaboration (including grant funding) between Evelyne Godfrey (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) and Glenn Foard (Bosworth project) utilising novel neutron imaging/analysis of medieval lead/iron composite cannon shot from Bosworth Battlefield.

In 2012 Glenn Foard and Richards Morris published The Archaeology of English Battlefields: Conflict in the PreIndustrial Landscape (CBA Research Report 168). This is the first national review of battlefield archaeology for any European country, which has in turn influenced English Heritage priorities. This led to collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and English Heritage in research into the factors impacting on metal artefact decay in the topsoil in order to be able to design appropriate mitigation measures. In addition the project also influenced the analysis of the conservation management considerations on Bosworth battlefield, leading Natural England to modify the coverage of the stewardship arrangements on the site, once the battlefield had been accurately located in 2009-10.

The identification of the dead from recent conflicts such as WW1 and WW2 is still of great interest to families and governments. While anthropological techniques have a role to play, in reality, except where dental records survive, the body itself does not often narrow down identification. It is increasingly recognised that the detailed analysis of kit/personal effects can refine an identification. In the first instance identification due to unit or army, based on surviving uniform remains including badges and buttons is relatively straightforward. Of more importance is the


The period since 2009 has been a critical one for the excavation, and identification of human remains and materials from 20th century conflicts. Just prior to the cluster in July 2008 No Man’s Land – The European Group for Great War Archaeology had excavated the remains of an Australian WW1 soldier from Factory Farm, St Yvon (Wallonia, Belgium) dating to the battle of Messines 1917. Rob Janaway (P-I) was the conservator responsible for the processing of the remains of his kit and personal equipment. The remains were subsequently identified and reburied with full military honours at Prowse Point Cemetery, near Ploegsteert, Belgium on 22 July 2010. During the Cluster a major excavation of a WW1 mass grave by a multidisciplinary team led by Oxford Archaeology (South) was conducted at Pheasant Wood, Fromelles, France starting in May 2009. An early public update on the work was shared by team members at the Cluster symposium in November 2009. Subsequently identifications have been made utilising an analysis of a combination of historical, artefactual and anthropological evidence, collected during the excavation, and comparison of DNA extracted from the soldiers’ remains with that of their living descendants. To date 124 Australian soldiers have been identified, almost half the number of individuals recovered. With a further 89 soldiers identified as Australian, two have been identified as British.

Figure 4: Example of WW2 British identity tags (unburied) made of compressed fibre board. These were usually worn suspended on a cotton cord around the neck in pairs: one green octagonal and one red round disc. Unsurprisingly these do not normally survive in damp burial conditions. Photo credit Andrew Holland (University of Bradford)

Figures Within the context of Pre-industrial Battlefields there has been recent work on the analysis of ballistic evidence. Unlike Medieval arrow heads the issue of depositional environment and corrosion is not one of survival versus non survival (e.g. Towton versus Bosworth) but composition, corrosion and the survival of critical surface detail.


Figure 3: Brass Australian shoulder title and fragment of khaki wool serge battle dress as excavated from Factory Farm, St Yvon (Wallonia, Belgium) dating to the battle of Messines 1917. Photo credit R. Janaway (University of Bradford)

ability to analyse highly degraded items for clues to personal identity in the form of initials or service number. This can be on range of materials e.g. tooth brush handles, through metal spoons to personal books and paperwork. Unfortunately identity tags used in WW1 were not made of material that survives well after 90 years burial; these include stamped sheet aluminium and compressed card. This challenging work is at the interface between conventional archaeology, forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy


‘Mind the Gap’: Rigour and Relevance in Heritage Science Research Nancy Bell, Matija Strlič, Kalliopi Fouseki, Pip Laurenson, Andrew Thompson


Research Development Award – Mind the Gap: Rigour and Relevance in Heritage Science Research The objective of this recently launched study, funded by an Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) award under the Science and Heritage Programme, is to use the context of heritage science to investigate the ‘rigour and relevance’ gap between research and practice. Collaborative research and practice is often seen as an effective way of bringing the interests of researchers and practitioners closer. Nevertheless, despite its potential, experience of collaborative working in heritage science suggests that issues with and between cross-disciplinary research and practice still persist. These difficulties have also been reported in other mixed-mode research practice disciplines such as management, law, medicine and education. The ‘Mind the Gap’ study aims to shed light on these issues and recommend positive steps to increase the impact of heritage science research on professional practice and vice versa. The National Archives, the UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, the University of Exeter and Tate are core partners in this project, working with other UK and international bodies to examine differences in culture, expectations and language between academic researchers and practitioners, which can hinder closer collaboration and affect the impact of publicly funded research.

Background The project developed from the Research Cluster EGOR: Environmental Guidelines Opportunities and Risks (2008). The Science and Heritage Research Clusters were intended to create a dynamic communication network to promote cross-disciplinary thinking and effective communication. However, EGOR’s work indicated that there were important differences in language, logic and methodologies between disciplines, as well as between the expectations of researchers and end-users. Similar findings were reported by other Clusters. It became clear that both the factors affecting collaborative research and the cognitive system within which researchers work merited careful evaluation.

It is crucial to understand how heritage science research can increase its economic and societal impact effectively. Research Councils United Kingdom (RCUK) has indicated that ‘changing organisational culture and practices’ is essential to generating useful research, and developing

the culture needed to foster it. However, it is not clear how this can be achieved or even assessed. The concept of culture has been linked to the study of organisations, where the organisation is defined as a cultural system of shared cognitions. Cultural issues are also embedded in differences in language, and other dynamics exist between professional practice and perceptions of groups which are not fully understood at present. Research has not yet been reported into the issues that define a ‘working culture’ and the interrelationship between research and practice, or into the rigour and relevance gap between communities. ‘Mind the Gap’ addresses complex questions, in which the attitudes of different stakeholders, managers, policy-makers, practitioners, and academic researchers are all relevant in examining the uptake of evidence and the impact of collaborative research.

in informing public bodies responsible for commissioning and evaluating research. Findings will be presented in a ‘Green Paper’ to AHRC in the first instance. While focusing on heritage science, this will also be relevant to other practice-led disciplines beyond the arts and humanities, and thus of interest to other research councils.


The study should significantly improve the way research needs are formulated and justified internally and communicated externally, as well as the take-up and use of research evidence. It should increase the impact of heritage science research within the UK, and enable public bodies within the heritage sector to become more effective, thus ultimately promoting the preservation of the nation’s heritage.

The project will achieve this through a survey aimed at both practitioners and academic researchers, examining their attitudes towards collaborative research. The attitudes have been formulated on the basis of a focus group meeting with project partners, and on the basis of literature, including policy documents.

Project aims The main aims of the study are to: •   understand the boundaries and dynamics of research so as to increase the effectiveness and impact of heritage science •   engage and challenge arts and humanities disciplines in dealing with communication and cultural barriers in collaborative research •   set out a framework for the practices and protocols necessary for successful collaborative research.

•   If there is a ‘rigour and relevance’ gap in heritage science research, how is it distinct from other similar fields? •   What communication and other barriers impede closer working between researchers and practitioners? •   How can the experience of other disciplines help bridge the gap and establish mutually beneficial collaboration? •   What framework is needed to bring together practitioner and research cultures?

Outcomes The expected outcomes will be to: •   identify barriers to communication between academic disciplines, and practitioner and specialist communities •   recommend ways of improving the effectiveness of cross-disciplinary working •   report on the attitudes of participants to collaborative research and practices •   publish a ‘Green Paper’ setting out a framework for collaborative research in heritage science.

Impact There has been considerable interest in this project across disciplines, suggesting that the impact of this work will be significant. We expect the research to be especially useful

•   practitioners in heritage organisations (public or private): collection/site managers, conservators, curators, facility managers and heritage science researchers •   universities and other research organisations •   practitioner researchers and academics both in the heritage sector and across a range of disciplines where there is a perceived research/practice divide; •   international conservation bodies and third sector organisations; •   external funders and charities supporting heritage science and collaborative research.

While the research project will focus on the UK, it is the first such study internationally, and will lead the way for more effective collaborative research elsewhere. It is expected that the outcomes will be relevant to, for example, the European Commission Framework Programmes for research and the US National Endowment for the Humanities, and that it has potential to influence the implementation of the European Joint Programming Initiative ‘Cultural Heritage and Global Change: a new Challenge for Europe’, where AHRC has an important role. Pictures: Mind the Gap workshop at UCL on February 15th 2013, © Anna Brass.


An important element is an examination of the attitudes of participants to collaborative research in arts and humanities disciplines and to consider:

The main beneficiaries of the research are expected to include:



Technology and Data Driven Collaboration – Archaeological Practice in the 21st Century Anthony G. Cohn and Anthony R. Beck

•   The policy, practice and curation implications of these advances have been examined within the consortium and the broader community.

Interdisciplinary Research Grant – The Detection of Archaeological residues using Remote Sensing Techniques (DART)

DART has adopted an Open Science philosophy. This has made the consortium critically consider current methods of scientific enquiry and identify how 21st-century information and communication technologies can lead to new ways in which scientists conduct, and society engages with, research. The Royal Society discusses these issues in the 2012 publication Science as an open enterprise:

The Detection of Archaeological residues using Remote Sensing Techniques (DART) project has the overall aim of developing analytical methods for identifying heritage features and quantifying gradual changes and dynamics in sensor responses. To examine the complex problem of heritage detection DART has attracted a consortium consisting of 25 key heritage and industry organisations and academic consultants and researchers from the areas of computer vision, geophysics, remote sensing, knowledge engineering and soil science. Sensor responses to surface and near-surface archaeological features vary under different environmental and landmanagement conditions. ‘Identification’ and ‘quantification’ concerns the differentiation of archaeological sediments from non-archaeological strata on the basis of remotely detected phenomena (resistivity, apparent dielectric permittivity, crop growth, thermal properties etc). DART is a data-rich project: over a 14 month period in-situ soil moisture, soil temperature and weather data were collected at least hourly, ground based geophysical surveys and spectro-radiometry transects were conducted at least monthly, aerial surveys collecting hyperspectral, LiDAR and traditional oblique and vertical photographs were taken throughout the year and laboratory analyses and tests were conducted on both soil and plant samples. The data archive itself is in the order of terabytes. Although analysis is ongoing there have been several methodological and modelling advances that will impact on: •   multi-sensor geophysical and remote sensing approaches •   the relationship of soil moisture, apparent permittivity and temperature variations on signal response in different soils •   the temporal applications of fine spectral resolution active and passive optical sensors

“Open inquiry is at the heart of the scientific enterprise. Publication of scientific theories – and of the experimental and observational data on which they are based – permits others to identify errors, to support, reject or refine theories and to reuse data for further understanding and knowledge. Science’s powerful capacity for self-correction comes from this openness to scrutiny and challenge.”

Above: Inserting TDR probes* Top: The DART project team*

The Royal Society recognises that ‘open’ enquiry is pivotal for the success of science both in research and in society. This goes beyond open access to publications (referred to as Open Access) by increasing access to data and other research outputs (Open Data) and the process by which data are turned into knowledge (Open Science). The underlying rationale of Open Data is that promoting unfettered access to large amounts of ‘raw’ information enables patterns of re-use and knowledge creation that

were previously impossible and/or largely unanticipated. Open Scientists argue that research synergy and serendipity occurs through openly collaborating with other researchers (more eyes/minds looking at the problem). Of great importance is the fact that the scientific process itself is transparent and can be peer reviewed; by exposing data and data analysis workflows other researchers can replicate and validate techniques. As a consequence collaboration may be enhanced and the boundaries between public, professional and amateur blurred. The creation of an openly accessible corpus of rich data introduces a range of data-mining and visualization challenges that require multi-disciplinary collaboration across domains (within and outside academia) if their potential is to be realised. The corollary is that knowledgeled policy and practice can transform communities, practitioners, science and society. An important step towards this is creating frameworks which allow data to be effectively accessed and re-used.

It is important that these organisational and infrastructure issues are addressed if we are to capitalise on the social and science benefits that open approaches offer. This vision requires co-ordination and can only be built by openly collaborating with other scientists and building on shared data, tools, techniques and infrastructure. For example, knowledge of heritage contrast dynamics is critical for policy makers and curatorial managers to assess both the state and the rate of change in heritage landscapes and helps to address European Landscape Convention (ELC) commitments. In this domain important developments will come from the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) community particularly from precision agriculture, soil science and well documented data processing frameworks and services. This is enhanced by core benchmarking data collected by projects like DART. What is required is an accessible framework that allows all this data to be integrated, processed and modelled in a timely manner, which automatically recognises licence incompatibilities and citation requirements. This vision goes far beyond the remit of DART, and arguably any research project, to deliver but sees the integration or research, practice, policy and public dimensions.

Open approaches have challenges that go beyond the technical. DART consortium members had concerns about: •   Timing of resource release – when in the research life-cycle should data be released. This can range from immediately upon capture to never. In some fields publication may be precluded by prior open release. Researchers can be concerned about the loss of competitive advantage, and the impact this may have on career progression. •   Licensing and IP – There is a clear need to examine the impact of licence frameworks and their clauses (by attribution (BY), share alike (SA) and non-commercial) on the data landscape and data re-use. This is particularly important when one considers that more data processing frameworks will be automated and that universities have an interest in protecting IP. •   Access – Who gets access to data, when and under what conditions is a serious ethical issue for the heritage sector. This needs addressing through co-ordinated cross-cutting approach throughout the discipline.

DART instituted its own repository framework since no existing analysis environment was available. Management and maintenance of a repository is a skilled and timeconsuming activity. Funding this through project resources means that there may be problems in maintaining the repository ‘in perpetuity’. It would make financial and


Kite aerial photo: Monthly survey in progress on the clay site in Cambridgeshire*

The archaeological knowledge base should be, by definition, dynamic: it is predicated on the complex relationship between the corpus of knowledge, theory and classification systems. These relationships are fluid and contain many interlinked dependencies: variations in one constituent part can have complex repercussions. Improved interpretative interplay between theory, practice and data as part of a dynamic knowledge system should empower all communities: “Knowledge is the prerequisite to caring for England’s historic environment. From knowledge flows understanding and from understanding flows an appreciation of value, sound and timely decision-making, and informed and intelligent action. Knowledge enriches enjoyment and underpins the processes of change” (English Heritage, 2005. Making the past part of our future). *All images licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic License. Images taken by Dave Stott, University of Leeds.


The DART data and other resources (documents, illustrations, scripts, software) are made available through open access mechanisms under liberal licences (Creative Commons by attribution (CC-BY) and Open Database by attribution (OBdL-BY)) and are thus accessible to a wide audience via a repository at This resource is referenced at a location on the web using a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) which means the resources can be uniquely referenced and accessed. Detailed resource description and discovery metadata have been produced from each resource so that the quality, provenance and re-use potential is fully articulated and effective discovery can occur. The metadata schema has been mapped to other metadata systems (Dublin Core, UK AGMAP, the Archaeology Data Service) to facilitate metadata interoperability. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been used so the metadata can be openly consumed by third party portals (such as the ADS and Europeana).

logistical sense to host such infrastructure at the institution or national level. This would also address issues associated with trust, provenance and credibility. However, the imposition of financial barriers would have an inevitable impact on uptake.


A Responsibility of CARE: Heritage and Science in the Service of Safeguarding Threatened Ancient Rock Art Aron Mazel*, David Graham, Patricia Warke and Myra Giesen Research Cluster - Decay of Ancient Stone Monuments


Research Development Award – Heritage and Science: Working Together in the CARE of Rock Art Open-air rock art panels are an iconic component of the UK’s ancient heritage. Over 3500 panels are known to exist across the UK from the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods, between 6000 and 3800 years ago. These non-renewable heritage resources have great cultural and aesthetic value (Figure 1) frequently acquiring Scheduled Ancient Monument status. They also provide an important testimony to a time without written records. Despite their perceived immutability, ancient rock art is under mounting pressure due to increasing population densities, pollution, and agricultural activity. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests that the rate of panel deterioration is increasing due to human intrusion and environmental change. As a result, rock art is growing in disrepair and ultimately may vanish from the UK countryside if we are not more proactive in its care. The research impact reflected in this paper originates in the 2009/2010 Research Cluster grant Decay of Ancient Stone Monuments awarded to Newcastle University (NU). Additionally, scientific assessments on ecological and mineralogical issues related to rock art condition and preservation were undertaken by two engineering MSc students at NU (Anais Ung 2010/2011 and Sadie Nelson 2011/2012), co-advised by Queen’s University Belfast (QUB). The third phase of the research revolves around the AHRC Science and Heritage Research Development Award Heritage and Science: Working Together in the CARE of Rock art (2013/2014) awarded to NU and QUB. The project researchers bring a wide array of research and management skills and experience to bear on the project. Giesen and Mazel have backgrounds in archaeology and heritage protection, Warke is a geomorphologist who is expert in rock-weathering and condition assessment

Figure 1: Weetwood Moor rock art

techniques and Graham is an engineer specialising in biogeochemistry and environmental impact assessment. Giesen, Mazel and Warke have extensive experience of engaging with heritage management practitioners to promote the preservation of in-situ heritage. At present, the underpinning science essential to guide management decisions is somewhat limited, especially for identifying panels at greatest risk and developing strategies to promote rock art survival into the future. Therefore, we performed field investigations on a wide array of panels in Northumberland to determine which factors most influence rock art condition, local or broader factors (e.g., those affected by climate variation). Over 25 panels with varied art motifs were studied and the state of deterioration was quantified for each panel (called “staging”). Staging estimates were then compared statistically with 27 geochemical and physical descriptors of local panel environments, e.g., moisture, salinity, and stone mineralogy (using x-ray fluorescence; XRF). Climate modelling was also performed to assess how future climatic condition might influence key negative factors. Two environmental parameters correlated with greater panel decay: panel height and soil cation levels. The former is influenced by stone wind exposure, while the latter increases susceptibility to erosion. Furthermore, XRF data have indicated that panels with intermediate weathering are most susceptible to sudden surface loss. One of the key challenges is how to harness professional and public interest to safeguard this vulnerable resource in relation to the growing scientific framework. Public interest in rock art was highlighted in the enthusiastic response to the award winning AHRC-funded NU Beckensall Northumberland Rock art website, launched in 2005 (Mazel & Ayestaran 2010), and was thereafter confirmed by the extensive efforts that local volunteers and enthusiasts dedicated to recording rock art during the Northumberland and Durham Rock Art Pilot project (2004-2008). Although the Condition Assessment Risk Evaluation (CARE) project is rooted in the science of stone weathering, one of its primary goals is to employ a heritage engagement perspective to make scientific

core data readily accessible to non-specialists, thereby empowering them to make informed decisions about the preservation of rock art panels. This will involve working with a range of stakeholders (rock art enthusiasts, landowners, tenant farmers, land agents and heritage managers) to co-produce a user-friendly, non-invasive CARE toolkit, informed by the underpinning science of stone weathering, for gathering and organising information essential for the long-term preservation of open-air rock art. As stated in the CARE application, ‘The work endeavours to make the core science behind our recommendations easily understood and publicly available via a range of dissemination routes, and to contribute to the growing ethos of Open Science reflected in the cultural/heritage sector and the natural and physical sciences.’ This objective will be further supported by the creation of a how-to-guide for individuals who have an interest and/or responsibility for the CARE of rock art.

articles and the NU press release about the impact of climate change on rock art conservation, which achieved extensive local, national, and international coverage (Figure 3)


Figure 3: Screen shot of publicity on BBC news website. http://www.

A growing impact also can be seen on the academic community, starting with their involvement in the Research Cluster, which, to the best of our knowledge, was the first UK gathering of scientists and heritage managers to address the challenges surrounding the safeguarding of rock art (Figure 2). This platform has resulted in academic publications (Giesen et al. 2010; 2011; 2013) and conference presentations (e.g., European Association of Archaeologists 2010; British Rock art Group 2013). Figure 2: Visit to Lordenshaw on 9 March 2009

Documented public engagement with Northumberland’s ancient rock art dates back to the 1850s and we continue in that tradition. Regarding this particular research, public engagement has involved attendance at the Cluster Grant public meeting; public talks; publishing popular

References Giesen, M.J., Mazel, A.D., Graham, D.W. and Warke, P.A. (2010). The resilience and care of ancient stone monuments in changing environments. In. Amoêda, R, Lira, S and Pinheiro, C. (eds.) Heritage 2010: Heritage and Sustainable Development. Barcelos: Green Lines Institute: 515-523. Giesen, M.J., Mazel, A.D., Graham, D.W. and Warke, P.A. (2011). Care of Ancient Stone Monuments in Changing Environments. International Journal of Heritage and Sustainable Development. 1: 60-71. (http:// Giesen_60_71.pdf) Giesen, M.J., Ung, A.,Warke, P.A.,Christgen, B., Mazel, A.D. and Graham, D.W. (2013). Condition assessment and preservation of open-air rock art panels during climate change. Journal of Cultural Heritage. (http://www. Mazel, A.D. and Ayestaran, H. (2010). Visiting Northumberland rock art virtually: The Beckensall archive analysed. In: Barnett, T. F. and Sharpe, K. E. (eds.) Carving a future for British rock art: new approaches to research, management and presentation: 140-150. Oxford: Oxbow Books.


From the outset, the research team has sought to ensure and achieve extensive impact. In this paper, we highlight the impact of our work with heritage managers; the general public; the academic community; and landowners and land agents. With heritage managers, the aspiration has been to ensure that they gain new knowledge and insights regarding the evaluation/monitoring of vulnerable rock art, which we can explain based on the underpinning science. The impact on heritage managers will be to create greater public awareness of the safeguarding of rock art. Heritage managers from English Heritage (EH), Northumberland County Council (NCC) and the Northumberland National Park Authority (NNPA) have been involved with the research from the outset (Figure 2). They participated in the Research Cluster and their involvement has continued via the critical role that they currently play on the CARE Steering Committee. All three organisations made presentations at the public meeting of the Cluster Grant, in 2009, which was attended by 37 people. Sara Rushton (NCC) gave ‘An Overview of Ancient Stone Monuments in Northumberland’, while Chris Jones (NNPA) highlighted the ‘Threats to Ancient Stone Monuments in Northumberland National Park’, and Rob Young (EH) addressed ‘Ancient Stone Monuments, the NE Regional Research Framework and ‘Heritage at Risk’.

Our work with landowners and land agents has revolved around enlightening them about the heritage resources on their property and encouraging them to understand their role in managing/safeguarding rock art to ensure its (and by implication other heritage resources that they have responsibility for), and gaining an appreciation of the heritage science approach. They also are playing an active role in the development of the CARE toolkit and ‘how-to-guide.’


Abstracts – Session 3 – Technology

Westminster Suite October 29th 1.30–5.30pm Session chair – Dr Fionnuala Costello October 30th 9–10.30am Session chair – Robin Higgons


* indicates presenter for each abstract


Visualising Animal Hard Tissues Andrew S. Wilson*, Sonia O’Connor, Robert C. Janaway, Hassan Ugail, Andrew D. Holland, Tom Sparrow. Research Development Award – Visualising Animal Hard Tissues

Figure 2 (above): A Roman perforated spoon and a cattle metapodial, likely to be the skeletal element from which these types of spoon were made, scanned using a Faro Quantum Laserarm with V3 laser (O’Connor/ University of Bradford)

Given that the complex 3D structures of animal hard tissues can look and behave entirely differently depending on how they are worked, their condition, and which aspects are revealed in the surfaces of an object, the project is working towards enhanced visualisation of these structures for accurate characterisation. For many people relating 2D images to a complex 3D structure is very difficult, presenting problems in translating, for instance, the features visible on a curved surface into the underlying structure of the material, research that has been an important focus of the JISC-funded Digitised Diseases index.php project. To interpret the evidence correctly it is also necessary to understand the orientation of the object in terms of the material’s natural axis. This is particularly difficult when similarly worked specimens of these materials are not available for comparison with the object being studied. Even when these raw materials are available, it would be illegal to prepare worked specimens if they are CITES protected, as with rhino horn. To overcome these problems and to provide a range of tools to enhance understanding of the complex structure of animal hard tissues, we have been combining 3D data using a combination of textured 3D laser scans, focus stacking and photogrammetry together with photographs, photomicrographs, X-ray and CT images. These combined data are being used to develop a comprehensive and intuitive resource to aid the identification and interpretation of surface features and structural detail through 3D visualisation of these animal hard tissues. Visualising Animal Hard Tissues combines 2D images with fully-rotatable 3D photo-realistic images of these raw materials that serve as a resource for exploring their internal shape and structure, drawing on technical information provided by microscopy and CT data. The surface of the material can be examined at different scales to show the structures revealed when it is cut in different directions, worked in different ways, fractured, aged or degraded. The resource also helps understand how the


Collectively the Science and Heritage Programme PostDoctoral Fellowship (O’Connor) Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues, and the research cluster Researching Ivory: Integrating Scientific Analyses, Historical Data, Artefact Studies and Conservation Needs have highlighted the need for confident identification of animal hard tissues such as bone, antler, ivory, horn, baleen (whalebone) and tortoiseshell – materials which have long been used as raw materials for the production of functional, decorative and sacred objects. The Research Development Award addresses this need further by utilising refined visual criteria for identifications developed as part of the Fellowship.

Figure 1 (top): 3D rotatable, virtual model of the spoon viewed in opensource software Meshlab (Andy Holland/ University of Bradford).


raw material was utilised and enables estimates of the size of the original tissue used, such as the minimum dimensions of the elephant tusk required to provide the material for a sculpture.


Figure 3. Detail of the spoon bowl showing structural detail of compact and cancellous bone (O’Connor/ University of Bradford, with Permission of Tom Lord).

Our interactive visualisation resource is designed to improve the accuracy of materials identification and to serve as an invaluable tool for researchers exploring the way that these raw materials have been used in the manufacture of artefacts in the past. Potential users

and stakeholders will come from audiences as diverse as archaeologists, conservators, social historians, art historians, heritage scientists, local history groups, private collectors and auction houses. This project will also benefit collections managers and curators who will gain from the enhanced quality and quantity of information available to them for catalogues, publication and presentation purposes, and will ultimately enrich the experience of the museum-going public. In addition, the resource will lead to more accurate identifications and a greater understanding of the diversity and significance of animal hard tissues to the benefit of all whose work depends on the correct identification of animal hard tissues, whether they are concerned with, zooarchaeology, wildlife conservation, ecology, customs and excise, the criminal justice sector or the detection of illegally trafficked CITESprotected material. The high accessibility of this web-based resource, coupled with the use of in-built tutorials will make it an attractive teaching tool for arts and science-based heritage courses and should also appeal to schools. The resource can be used in environments where interaction with museum collections are actively encouraged, for instance at talks and object handling sessions for both school and adult groups and also to enable identifications of objects they bring with them. The long-term success will be demonstrated by conservators, curators and researchers adopting protocols developed during this research, and by a greater precision and confidence in the published identifications of artefacts. Figure 4 (below). 3D rotatable, virtual model of bones reconstructed from CT data to show both the internal and external surfaces and occurrence of cancellous bone tissue (Tom Sparrow/ University of Bradford).


Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings Gillian Walker

Top: Terahertz source and detector at St. Thomas’ Church Salisbury

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings, has been from its inception a project dedicated to the integration of terahertz (THz) imaging technology into the field of cultural heritage research, specifically targeting the analysis of mural paintings and the imaging of paintings obscured by layers of covering plaster.

THz imaging is a technology in its infancy. It is approximately twenty years since the first THz image was recorded using the technology now available in a portable form. This is compared to over one hundred years since the first for X-ray, sixty for UV imaging etc. Additionally, and comparatively, THz imaging is an expensive technology. It has significant potential for the analysis of cultural heritage, and more specifically analysis of mural paintings for under-painting, being able to penetrate plaster up to approximately one centimetre in thickness and identify the internal layered structure of a wall to this depth in a nondestructive, non-contact, non-heating technique. However current portable imaging systems produce results which lack the lateral resolution that is taken for granted with imaging modalities (UV and IR for example) used for the analysis of cultural heritage.

Terahertz B-Scan from Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction in Villeneuve les Avignon

It has been important to manage expectations regarding the results of the technique and also to avoid situations where we were looking for an application for an expensive box rather than offering a technique to provide information that could not be provided non-invasively by more established techniques. This has led to a broadening of the remit of the proposed research, to provide results that are of use to the conservators and places of historic interest within which this project has worked. A deconvolution technique has been developed as part of this project which significantly increases the depth resolution, clarity and interpretability of depth profile images. In addition, signal processing techniques have been developed to extract images obscured in sub-surface paint layers. While the title very obviously addressed the potential of this technique to image obscured painting, the stratigraphic analysis has become almost as important an application for the technique. Through stratigraphic analysis we are more easily able to deal with a smaller


The impact of this research project can be broadly divided into four key areas: the scientific results achieved during the project; the degree to with which this technology has been integrated into the broader heritage conservation community; the pedagogical impact of the project contributing to a new generation of multidisciplinary researchers and finally the legacy, in terms of funding secured for the future, the impact of electronic outputs and the current direction of the field in terms of active research programmes and technology.



amount of data, predict the presence of a sub-surface painting, and to distinguish air gaps (which inform about the condition of the mural painting as a whole) or changes in plaster composition at a sub-surface level. The technique is able to non-invasively detail the condition and life history of the painting. However, as a consequence of analysing the mural painting in this way, the need became obvious for specialist knowledge from an on-site expert to fully interpret the results, through conservation expertise, documentary evidence and additional information from other imaging techniques or analysis of wall samples. In this sense, during the progression of this project, THz imaging has been integrated into the diverse tools employed by those working in cultural heritage conservation, as it has now been used alongside all of the above mentioned analysis techniques to provide information on the structure and condition of artworks. This research project has taken part in experimental missions to Chartres Cathedral, France, Çatalhöyük, Turkey, The Riga Dome and Mary Magdalene Church, Latvia, Church Hole, Creswell Caves, Derbyshire, Chapel of the Frescos, Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction in Villeneuve les Avignon, France and St. Thomas’ Church, Salisbury. Three of these missions, Çatalhöyük, Creswell Caves and St. Thomas’ Church, were initiated and organised by this research project and each came about as a result of contact developed following an oral conference presentation. Initially it appeared easier to instigate missions on archaeological sites as the end user was more used to the application of novel technology onsite and more open to any information that a technique could offer rather than having a specific concern as is the case in the conservation of historic buildings and churches. However, it was the presentation of the results from archaeological sites that demonstrated both the ability of the technology to perform in on-site environments and the results that could be achieved. Finally, through work with a private conservator, a mural painting has been scanned in a Church in England for the first time: The Doom painting in St. Thomas’ Church, Salisbury.

funded, under the banner of Seeing Through Walls. A total of eight students have been given the opportunity to develop research in the cultural heritage field, from the measurement of pigment samples, to the development of platform independent software for the analysis of THz data. These projects have enabled the students to develop research projects which address two key remits. As scientists they were asked to infer and investigate the potential of the technology, but further address the question of which of the techniques developed are of actual use in the cultural heritage field. The opportunity and time dedicated to the presentation of a new technique to diverse audiences has made the abstract possibility of the use of this technique an actuality through missions funded by this grant. Further, a bespoke piece of software has been developed to analyse results onsite. Complex signal processing algorithms are incorporated on a platform-independent suite for the use of non-THz specialists. This software is not only instrumental for non-specialist users – it has proved a teaching aid, as I have worked alongside computer science students to develop it.

The system at du Val de Bénédiction in Villeneuve les Avignon

The impact of this project has been diverse and wide ranging but ultimately with a singular aim: developing THz imaging as a cultural heritage tool for the needs of the cultural heritage community.

Gillian Walker at Mary Magdalene Church, Latvia

Three MSc projects have been hosted by the project: two were awarded distinctions, and a third is being conducted this summer. In addition, funding for six undergraduate research projects (UROPs) was sought and five were


Next Generation Optical Coherence Tomography for Art Conservation Haida Liang Interdisciplinary Research Grant – The Next Generation of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Art Conservation – in situ noninvasive imaging of subsurface microstructure of objects

This project aims to significantly improve the capabilities of OCT through increasing the depth resolution and the probing depth in order to:

1. An 800nm OCT optimised for imaging at high depth resolution: targeted towards applications where highest resolution is required but the material is relatively transparent, such as imaging of multiple thin varnish layers on painting surfaces, gel layers on degraded glass or glazes on the surface of ceramics and enamels. An ultra-high resolution OCT at 810nm with depth resolution of 1.2 microns in varnish or glass has been developed and can resolve thin varnish layers at similar resolution to invasive microscopic examinations currently employed in museums. The development of an ultra-high resolution OCT is challenging as it requires stable ultra-broad band light sources, specialist optical components and image processing techniques to achieve both high resolution and high sensitivity images. As the instrument is a Fourier domain OCT using a fast camera in the spectrograph, it can collect 50 virtual cross-section images per second or a 4mm x 4mm x 1.6mm volume in 10 seconds. Imaging of National Gallery paintings has shown the OCT produces superior images of varnish and glaze layers than invasive microscopic examinations of sample cross-sections.

•   firmly establish OCT for non-invasive imaging in the heritage field, as a useful new tool for conservators and for investigating technological aspects of an artefact.

2. A 2-micron (2000nm) OCT optimised for deeper penetration allows improved imaging of highly scattering or absorbing paint layers and underdrawings beneath them (at higher transverse resolution than conventional infrared imaging), as well as pigmented objects such as coloured enamels and glass with opacifiers. The development of long wavelength OCT requires the development of novel broadband sources. Three types of novel sources, a superfluorescent fibre source, a swept (tuneable) laser source and a supercontinuum source were developed. OCTs at 1950nm have been developed and shown to reveal layer structures of both highly scattering paint such as Titanium white and highly absorbing paint such as Prussian blue. These were not possible with shorter wavelength OCTs.

Increasing the depth resolution involves broad spectral band light sources and increasing the probing depth needs sources at longer wavelength than conventionally used in biomedical imaging. However, for a given bandwidth source, shorter wavelengths give better resolution, and to achieve this, two state-of-the-art OCT systems have been built so that when used in conjunction, they would

OCT has the potential to be widely used in museums for conservation, hence benefiting the general conservation community. As OCT is fast in collecting cross-section images, it could be a useful tool during conservation, e.g. during cleaning of a painting. For intact objects where sampling is not an option, it will be the only method of examining the subsurface microstructure for early warning of deterioration,

•   reduce the need for sampling and enable the subsurface microstructure to be imaged on intact objects where sampling is not possible. •   encourage more frequent and thorough examination of the whole object for early warning of deterioration. •   improve the visibility and resolution of underdrawing on paintings for art historical research.


Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an imaging method based on a fast scanning Michelson interferometer. Originally designed and optimised for biomedical applications such as in vivo examination of the eye, it is capable of non-invasive 3D imaging of subsurface microstructure. In previous projects, we were able to demonstrate the potential application of OCT to art conservation, art history and archaeology. Some major limitations are lower depth resolution compared to conventional microscopic examination of paint cross-sections and limited probing depth through highly scattering paint.

aim to match the information from conventional invasive microscopic examination of sample cross-sections (tiny samples removed from objects):


providing benefits for collection care and informing conservation decisions. The versatility of OCTs for subsurface imaging, dynamic imaging and multi-surface microprofilometry means that a range of objects can be examined to address not only conservation but also archaeological, curatorial and art historical questions, ultimately enhancing interpretation of the collection and engagement with the public. Close contact with museum scientists working directly on conservation problems has resulted in the research being led by detailed knowledge of potential applications and requirements. The research design is informed by direct communication with conservators and the best dissemination of OCT applications to the heritage community is through our museum partners.


Results on OCT applications to cultural heritage have been disseminated through several channels including journal publications, conference proceedings, presentations at international conferences and seminars, web publications and general media coverage.

After Raphael, The Madonna and Child (NG929), probably before 1600: Top Left: colour image of the painting © National Gallery London; Top Right: 930nm OCT en face image overlaid on a colour image of the painting; Middle right: an image of a small paint cross-section sample (taken from the Virgin’s blue cloak which appears green because of the yellowed varnish) under the microscope (460mm wide, aspect ratio 1:1) showing from the top downwards several varnish layers and possibly overpaint, blue paint containing azurite and a little red lake, a white priming layer and a ground layer containing chalk (appears translucent and greyish in the sample); Bottom: OCT image in cross-section (8mm wide and 0.4mm in depth) of the region above in an area of the blue cloak showing layers of varnish and paint as well as columns of shadow cast by underdrawing.

Apart from museum applications, we have taken OCT to the field to solve practical problems for heritage organisations in the UK and internationally. Imaging of the Byward tower 14th century wall painting at the Tower of London has generated considerable interest from the heritage, optics communities to the general public. New Scientist and NTU both recorded videos of the event and published these online. As a result over a dozen websites now feature articles and videos about this application. SPIE (an international optics and photonics society) featured an outreach article on the results of this field work. As a result we were invited to image wall paintings at a UNESCO world heritage site, the Mogao caves near Dunhuang, on the ancient Silk Road in the Gobi Desert. OCT imaging not only

revealed previously unknown underdrawings but was also able to separate the underdrawings from the final sketches. The development of the long wavelength OCT in this project has encouraged the development of 2-micron optical components such as optical fibre couplers at Gooch & Housego plc. and the development of 2-micron balanced photo-detectors at Thorlabs (optics component company). The demands from art conservation and art history have resulted in innovation in UK and international industries. Detectors and optical components at 2-microns are increasingly sought after in various applications from LiDAR to gas sensing. Funding from this project has enabled these two companies to make the first step in their development. Beyond the heritage field, non-destructive testing in industrial applications is an obvious area which can benefit from this research. Presentations at a recent international conference have attracted a great deal of attention from the industrial community (e.g. testing of photovoltaic cells, multi-layered 3D shaping technology, industrial paint). Discussions on collaboration are in progress with a major industrial paint company. Since OCT is a fast imaging technique, applications in material science such as the drying of industrial paints provides not only practical knowledge of paint film formation to inform paint formulation but also fundamental understanding of the soft matter physics involved in film and droplet drying. We have published an article (Journal of Colloid and Interface Science) in this new field in collaboration with experts in soft matter physics/material science from NTU and the University of Darmstadt. Collaboration is in progress with colleagues on OCT monitoring of the liquid surfaces generated by electro-optics effects for the development of tuneable liquid diffraction grating with benefits to the optics industry. NTU’s annual industrial showcase event has helped us in linking up with potential industrial partners. Ultra-high resolution OCT is also applicable to biomedical research. Collaboration is in progress with the Van Geest Cancer Research Centre for in vivo imaging of skin cancer development and transdermal drug delivery and with microbiologists on non-destructive monitoring of biofilms in feeding tubes for babies. In addition to OCT, the sources will have numerous applications in optical metrology, spectroscopy and sensing. The emission band of the superfluorescent source conveniently overlaps with overtone and combination absorption bands of many gases including methane and carbon dioxide. Thus, we anticipate that the source could find important applications in gas sensing and pollution monitoring. Potential beneficiaries include industrial manufacturers and users of optical systems targeting these applications.

Results of OCT in situ imaging of the Mogao cave paintings. Left to right: OCT image cube; top slice from image cube; deeper slice from image cube


Modelling, Interpretation and Alternative Heritage Representations - Research Cluster and Development Grant Jonathan C. Roberts, Bernie Tiddeman, Andrew Wilson* and Ray Karl Research Cluster – Modelling, Interpretation and Alternate Representations: Visualization Technology, Heritage Buildings & Coastal Threats Research Development Award – Alternative Views on the Lost Heritage of Gwynedd

The use of alternative representations is an important concept in the science and heritage domain. It is certainly beneficial to display the same information in different ways. Not only does it enable multivocality to take place, but also through using multiple forms and possibly coordinated views, users are able to explore the information and develop new insight and see the information in a different way. In addition, it is possible to use current information to create new views (this is exemplified by ‘photogrammetry’). By displaying the data in several forms users are able to perceive the information better (Roberts, 2007). In fact, one method may enable exploration, another high resolution; a further may display spatial information whereas another view method could provide better temporal depiction. For instance, while a photograph of

These concepts and opportunities of multivocality and alternative viewpoints, were discussed and explored in detail during the Science and Heritage research cluster Modelling, Interpretation and Alternate Representations: Visualization Technology, Heritage Buildings & Coastal Threats. In addition, a further AHRC Research Development Award focuses on Alternative Views on the Lost Heritage of Gwynedd, and specifically investigates the use of photogrammetry to generate alternative visual forms (including 3D models and rapid prototyped models). Furthermore it is sometimes possible to change one form into another. A good example of this is to change multiple two-dimensional photographs into a three-dimensional model using photogrammetry techniques. Users can then manipulate the three-dimensional model to display a heritage object through a projection that is not easily possible. For example, it would be generally expensive and thus prohibitive to create aerial photographs of most archaeological excavations, however several photographs can be readily taken from the ground, and then through


All heritage interpretation is complex. It is often based on uncertain information, or information extrapolated from other sites. Sites may cover many periods or have had varying functions. Therefore different viewpoints and interpretations of historic events, places and artefacts exist. These are multivocal interpretations that hold equal probability and validity, and they can be used to tell different stories (Walker et al, 2013). In addition, different technologies (such as models, photographs, sketches etc.) and indeed different visual forms can be utilized to help users understand the information better.

a heritage artefact provides the user with a high quality perception of the texture and information about its colour, the photograph may not precisely enable the user to understand its size or symmetry, and does not allow users to rotate the object through different projections. In addition, it is possible to coordinate and link together different windows that contain various forms. This is useful for coordinated exploration, where for example, two different three-dimensional models can be linked such that they rotate in synchrony as a user explores them. Or the highlight operation can be linked, so that selecting items in one window highlights corresponding elements in all linked views. It is apparent that different visual forms engender different tasks to be performed.


Figure 1. Individual photographs of an excavation at Moel Fodig hillfort in 2011


photogrammetry can be turned into a three-dimensional model, which can be used to view the site from any angle including the overhead view. This is demonstrated in Figure 1 and 2. Figure 1 shows individual photographs of an excavation at Moel Fodig hillfort in 2011 (Morton et al., 2012). The site consists of an oval enclosure with a ridge-top that measures about 34 by 77 meters and with a bank and ditch. Using photogrammetry software the photographs were changed to a three-dimensional model, which enables users to investigate different view orientations (as example shown in Figure 2). These ideas are further explored in the Research Development Award. In the Development Award the focus is specifically on the use of photogrammetry to develop threedimensional models and then to display them under various lighting conditions, creating physical models (through rapid prototyping techniques) to provide alternative representations. Figure 3 shows a photograph of a standing-stone on Anglesey. Several photographs (from different angles) are used to produce the threedimensional model. Figure 3 also shows two different orientations of the 3D model. Other forms augment these alternative presentations that will be displayed in an exhibition organised by the Gwynedd Archaeological Trust. School children have visited several stones, measured them, taken photographs and written stories about the stones. Finally, there are many opportunities for future research in this area, and a need to perform new research into these techniques. One idea that should be advanced further is to draw and fuse information from multiple sources. Each Figure 2 (below). Three dimensional views of the excavation at Moel Fodig, demonstrating projections of an excavation through the hillfort.

different source potentially provides another viewpoint, but when joined together a fuller and more comprehensive understanding could be gained. Indeed by analysing different meta-data, and by incorporating additional information and corresponding the information to other sites or from different research groups, researchers may be given new insights and make new interpretations. Second, and in addition to this knowledge fusion, there is potential to apply other visual analytic techniques, such as to develop additional knowledge and confirm or contradict different hypotheses. When collating information from several similar heritage sites (for instance) and from different researchers, it should be possible to develop new and better insights, though the joined datasets may be big. This creates a ‘big heritage data’ challenge that requires domain scientists, computer scientists and analysts to collaborate together, but the benefits and impact on society on the understanding of science and heritage and furthering of knowledge could be huge.

Figure 3. A photograph (left) and 3D model of the standing stone at Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey created with Agisoft PhotoScan modeling software. Two views are depicted.

References Roberts, J.C. (2007) State of the Art of Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization. In: Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization (CMV 2007). Zurich, Switzerland. IEEE Computer Society, July 2007. Morton Williams, S., Möller, K., Brown, I. and Karl, R. (2012). Hillforts of North Wales: Moel Fodig. Excavations 2011-2012. Interim Report. Bangor Studies in Archaeology Reports No 7, Bangor/Gwynedd: SHWHA. Walker, R., ap Cenydd, L., Serban, P., Miles, H., Hughes, C., Teahan, W. and Roberts, J.C. Storyboarding for Visual Analytics, Information Visualization, Sage, (Accepted), 2013.


Acoustics and Music of British Prehistory Research Network and Songs of the Caves: Acoustics and Prehistoric Art in Cantabrian Caves Rupert Till Research Cluster – Acoustics and Music of British Prehistory Research Network

The Acoustics and Music of British Prehistory Research Network involved academics from a range of backgrounds, including archaeology, acoustics, music, art and film, as well as specialists in music archaeology and archaeoacoustics. The cluster held a number of symposia, and developed a set of research questions, a best practice document, and standard forms for archaeologists to use in order to assess the acoustics or sonic profile of an archaeological site. Indeed its main research questions were: •   what are the key research questions for the field of music archaeology/sound archaeology/archaeoacoustics •   what are the main issues of methodology and best practice involved?

Although music archaeology has existed as a field for over 30 years, developments in portable digital music technology have made it possible to more readily carry out fieldwork related to acoustics. In addition, developments in computer analysis and modelling have made it possible to recreate ancient soundfields, resulting in new forms of qualitative and quantitative data. Research in this field has not been coordinated and has lacked solid methodological underpinning, and this project aimed to outline the research gaps that need exploring from three perspectives, music/sound, archaeology and acoustics.

The project has inspired a number of sessions at conferences and other research projects. Many project participants have presented their work in particular at Theoretical Archaeology Group conferences, and presented their work as part of the Palaeophonics project, including a public concert in Edinburgh. The cluster has generated a large amount of interest. It is hard to quantify how much the project has changed how researchers and the general public view archaeology, but the project has encouraged both groups to hear archaeology as well as seeing it. This can be seen by the popularity of the research.


Research Development Award – Songs of the Caves: Acoustics and Prehistoric Art in Cantabrian Caves

The direct research results of this project have been three sets of research questions, methodological best practice documents and assessment sheets for use in sound archaeology contexts, all of which have been published online on the project website. Increased networking, interactions and further research projects in this field have also resulted from this research network.


Research emerging from the cluster has been widely featured in national and international media, including newspapers, radio and television and on the internet. A History Channel cable TV programme was based on the research of participants. It continues to be shown regularly and generates numerous enquiries. A BBC Radio 4 programme ‘Hearing the Past’ featured many cluster participants, and was Winner of the Association of British Science Writers’ Award the Royal Society Radio Prize for the best scripted/edited radio programme or podcast. The New Scientist also ran a four page article on the subject, and the Sky at Night recently featured an interview with PI Till.


PI Till was approached by English Heritage to develop an iPhone app that would create a virtual interactive model of Stonehenge, featuring acoustic modelling. The app was number one in the iTunes Store travel app charts in 5 countries; was in the top 100 in 37 different countries; became iTunes app of the week and editor’s choice; and featured recently in Apple’s worldwide television advertising campaign. The impact that this research network has had is illustrated well by a 30 part BBC Radio 4 series ‘Noise: A human history’, presented by Prof. David Hendy, a Media and Communications academic based at the University of Sussex. The first few episodes of his series focused on acoustic archaeology, drawing heavily upon the work of cluster researchers. Although there was little acknowledgement of their work on the programme, Cluster Co-I Scarre in particular was consulted for the series, which discussed the acoustics of caves featuring prehistoric decoration, and echoes in stone circles. This research cluster has served to establish widely that musical history begins many thousands of years ago, not with the invention of notation. This research cluster has not only established amongst musicologists and historians that prehistory was a sonically interesting place, it has also shown archaeologists and heritage professionals the importance of studying the sonic as well as visual culture of archaeological sites. An AHRC Research Development Grant was awarded to carry out further work in a similar field by PI Till, Co-Is Scarre and Kang, and cluster participants Watson, Fazenda, Wyatt and Jimenez. This further project Songs of the Caves involved collaboration with researchers from Spain who had participated in the research cluster symposia. It will involve a research trip in June 2013 to Northern Spain. Archaeologists Reznikoff and Dauvois had suggested a number of years ago that the positioning of decorations in prehistoric caves, such as paintings and engravings, was chosen because of specific acoustic effects. This research is highly significant, but has not featured a rigorous methodological approach. Research questions for this project include: what, if any, are the relationships between prehistoric decoration in caves and their acoustics; what are the sonic characteristics of La Garma, Chimeneas, Pasiega, El Castillo and Tito Bustillo caves; what can we learn from the use of musical sound sources in the caves; what can we learn from an experimental reconstruction of the sonic environment of these caves as they may have sounded in prehistory; what can we learn about the role of sound in these ritual

sites in prehistory? Previous studies lacked the input of an interdisciplinary team of specialists. This study aims to fill the research gap created by this lack of detail. Results will include acoustic characterisations of each cave, assessment of the relationships between prehistoric cave decorations and acoustic parameters, as well as exploration and analysis of musical and sound recordings, and multimedia artworks. This project is one of the first in the field of archaeoacoustics to be funded, allowing a rigorous acoustic methodology using state of the art techniques to be applied. Previous sound archaeology projects have often been perceived as spurious or unproven, as there are often few objective measures that can be used to assure proof of causal links. The presence of dated cave decorations will allow a statistically significant link to be established or disproven at important prehistoric archaeological sites. These quantitative results will be accompanied by qualitative research, which will include audio recordings of reconstructions of ancient musical instruments being played, and digital films illustrating the research project.

The project is likely to show the worlds of archaeology, musicology, cultural heritage and heritage science, what sound archaeology is capable of achieving, and encourage managers of other heritage sites to consider sound with the seriousness that is applied to material remains and visual culture. Project results will feed into the European Music Archaeology Project. This five year, €4 million Culture Programme grant funded project will involve music archaeologists from across Europe working together to explore a common European musical heritage. PI Till is a co-organizer, leading one of eight main institutions that are participating. The project will create a media rich exhibition that will tour 7 countries and be seen by over a million visitors producing very high level international impact.


Touching the Past: Investigating Sensory Engagement and Authenticity in the Provision of Touch Experiences in Museums Across a Range of Media Linda Hurcombe*, Mark Wright, Alison Sheridan and Ian Summers Research Cluster - Touching the Untouchable: Increasing Access to Archaeological Artefacts by Virtual Handling

‘Please Touch’ is an invitation that visitors appreciate and curators want to offer. However, it is often not possible to provide this experience for objects which are rare, fragile, and thousands of years old. The project aims to show how touch experiences can be provided for even the most challenging artefacts. Most museums’ presentations of archaeological artefacts are dominated by displays behind glass; vision dominates the sensory experience. The emotional connections built by more multisensory engagement with artefacts offers a better appreciation of the objects and an enhanced museum visit. In particular, some artefacts call out to be touched, yet, for reasons of preservation, touch cannot be allowed. This project specifically focuses on icons of identity that are too precious to allow handling and items which are too fragile to touch, such as ancient clothing. The modern audience is shifting its expectations from passive viewer to active participant and the project offers ways of adapting to this change using digital technologies to connect past and present and overcome the emotional and physical distance

The installations explored have included a haptic version of a computer mouse, which delivers sensations via a pin array that vibrates against the user’s fingertip as the visitor moves the ‘mouse’ over a virtual textile image. Alternatively, it can be calibrated to react to an object displayed behind glass. Laser scans of museum objects have been used to create 3D prints. Some are coloured sympathetically to the original while others use neutral tones that highlight textural details; such prints allow colour and texture to be separated. The laser scans have in some cases been manipulated before printing to highlight details that are difficult to see on the original or they have been used to take a positive cast of an impressed detail, allowing textile and basketry impressions on ancient pot sherds to be printed to recreate the original surface of the perishable artefact. Prints have also been used as objects


Research Development Award - Touching the Past: Investigating Sensory Engagement and Authenticity in the Provision of Touch Experiences in Museums across a Range of Media

between ancient objects and their modern audience. This project and the research cluster that preceded it have between them taken ideas from a range of sources and disciplines, moving from ideas to proof of concept trials and developing a range of installations to deliver touch experiences within a museum setting. The approach is multi-disciplinary and has involved installations developed with museum professionals. The solutions and ideas were tested in the development phase and then formed part of a final public ‘touching the past’ event at Kirkwall Museum during Orkney Science week and at the National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh. These events have sought to generate public interest in the project and to benefit from public reactions to further investigate the ways people value museum experiences.



that can be ‘picked up’ in interactive computer displays to instigate a virtual display of the original findspot or present a narrative account of the context in which the object would originally have been used.

The focus is specifically on the physical sensation of touching an object rather than touch-systems to interface with a computer. The project has at times focussed on the objects with the technology in the background because this is what museum curators generally wanted but we have also moved into engaging the public in how the modern technologies work and drawing them into the research process. Traditional technologies are used alongside new. Novel installations planned by project participants are innovative and use a combination of old and new technologies with theatre tricks. The key to all the installations is to provide sensory cues deploying modern technology while retaining the focus on the authentic object in the case. The relationship between the ‘touch experience’ and the original objects manifested itself in two ways: either the replica was within sight of the original object or directly superimposed on it using lighting tricks, or the real and replica objects were linked with particular places as part of the emotional connections that people forge, thus linking objects and identities. In both locational arrangements there seemed to be interesting reactions from the public. At their heart lie issues of authenticity and our emotional connection with physical objects across time and space. What makes a touch experience in a museum authentic if the visitor is dealing with physical or digital replicas, and how can the physical divide be bridged? The engagement with objects is largely a personal experience, so opinions and comments have been crucial aspects of understanding visitor reactions. The installations have been trialled in public contexts and the project has collected comments from the researchers themselves; from visitors via surveys, observations and discussions; and from museum professionals via discussions. Terms such as ‘visual culture’, ‘sensory engagement’ and ‘sensory worldview’ are ways of thinking about the perceptions of material culture in past societies. They arise from concepts such as phenomenology, which have become part of the current discourse in many humanities subjects. The project considers these issues and relates them to sensory engagement in the museum. Museum professionals and exhibition designers need to make informed decisions about the use of different technologies and replica objects in their displays. No one solution will fit all agendas and visitor group needs, so the study

offers a range of ideas and methods to deliver a ‘touch experience’, some of which are relatively simple. The research provides a range of case studies and explores new ways to interweave traditional and modern technologies. In particular, the specific focus on how to make touch experiences ‘authentic’ and what features increase the authenticity of the experience is a crucial research agenda. Visitors want to engage with the past in ways that offer a deeper appreciation, and museum staff know that maintaining the quality of experience, and its perception as ‘authentic’, are paramount. In addition, museums want to expand the range of artefacts that visitors can see. Providing new ways of experiencing an object as it was during its ancient life will make ‘walk-past’ artefacts more engaging. Some of the installations may also offer commercial opportunities, linking visitor and museum experience via souvenirs. In archaeology and museum studies the role of the object as a focal point for forging emotional connections between past and present and across physical spaces is a strongly emerging theme. The iconic object also connects with issues of identity, which is a firm part of the postmodernist debate on belonging, and of relevance for dispersed and diverse communities. With the need to ensure public relevance and accountability, those who study or present the past have to address the second life of objects in the contemporary world if they are to have relevance to the present. In Orkney, the consideration of linking island identities with ‘their’ objects and the physical display of these across the sea and many miles away is a sensitive point for local communities. The research agenda linking local finds with displays in a distant museum is thus part of a modern discussion on communities at different scales and in different places. The installations that offer ways to bridge this physical divide can provide a stimulus for rethinking this disjunction, making the same heritage items a tangible experience in two separate locations and connecting communities across time and space.

Novel method for museum visitors to apparently reach through display cases with their own hands. The technique uses reflection of a 3D replica object made by laser scanning the original. When visitors touch the replica object (black) a reflection of their hands in the glass case surrounding the original object (white) makes it appear that they are actually touching the original. The approach was invented by Dr Mark Wright at the School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh.


Environment Monitoring in Developing Countries and Remote Assessment of Cultural Materials Through Nano-Scale Weight Monitoring Henoc Agbota*, John Mitchell, Christopher Young, Marianne Odlyha, Matija Strlič

There is currently a lack of long-term data to enable a holistic evaluation of environmental impacts on cultural heritage, especially from developing regions. This is exacerbated by the rapid increase in industrialisation and traffic seen in several regions of the world in the last decade. In developing economies, very few studies have been conducted so far to provide quantitative evidence of the impact of the environment on cultural heritage1.

This presentation reports on the development of such a tool by the Accessible Heritage project. The monitoring system is designed to allow seamless integration of any number of small electronic environmental sensors. Since low-cost sensors for individual pollutants are not yet commercially available, a dosimeter array is used. The array consists of piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances coated with different metals, each differently sensitive to pollutants. Three different thickness levels of copper, iron, tin and nickel have been applied. One of the aims of the research is to investigate whether the different metal corrosion signals measured over a long period of time (a year or more) can be calibrated against environmental parameters such as inorganic pollutants sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and ozone (O3), in addition to relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T). A prototype has been developed that includes a printed circuit board (PCB). The PCB integrates different hardware components of the system. An open-source firmware has been developed to control the different functionalities including sampling, memory and energy management and communication systems. The developed hardware/ firmware prototype can measure temperature and relative humidity and monitor nanometric changes in the weight of different materials. The changes in weight


Postdoctoral Fellowship – ACCESSIBLE HERITAGE - Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System

However, the logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent a challenge for heritage managers partly because of the sheer number of parameters to consider. There is a need for a monitoring system, which can measure multiple environmental parameters remotely while remaining relatively easy to use and affordable2.


are calculated from measured changes in the oscillation frequency of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) by using the Sauerbrey equation3.

Prototype consists of a metal-coated dosimeter array interfacing a microcontroller and a low-power radio module


The measurements can be accessed from an embedded memory card, by connecting the device to a PC or to internet for ‘live’ data collection4. Remote access is provided by a gateway device also on the site. The gateway device receives PQC and T/RH measurements via a low-power wireless system and uploads them to a web server through a GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) connection. The measurements are useful for assessing how the environment can affect materials and serve as an early warning system. The system has been deployed at Apsley House, an English Heritage property in London and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey, a Unesco World Heritage Site in Benin, West Africa. The project additionally involved 25 heritage sites in developing and emerging economies. The goal of this study was to understand the issues surrounding environmental monitoring, and air pollution monitoring in particular, in these regions. The responses show that financial reasons are not the only reason why environmental data is lacking from developing regions. Politics and lack of expertise also play major roles 5.

involving heritage sites in 12 countries in Africa, Middle East, Latin America and Asia and in 6 European countries. Passive sampling PQC array devices, temperature and humidity loggers and diffusion tubes for air pollution have been sent, exposed for a month and returned for analysis. It was recommended that the diffusion tubes be exposed at the expected most polluted outdoor spot at the site. Due to the simplicity of use and the quality of cooperation from the participants, the analysis was successful in all cases and provided useful data. With some exceptions, the results show sub 5 ppb (parts per billion) levels of sulphur dioxide worldwide, nitrogen dioxide levels between 15 ppb and 35 ppb and a high variability in ozone levels, from 3 ppb to over 40 ppb. Indoor concentrations can be estimated from these outdoor values using available tools6. Indoor concentrations of 3.8 ppb, 5.2 ppb and 5.0 ppb respectively for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone have been recommended7. Beyond these recommended levels, air pollution can accelerate corrosion in metal collections and discolorations in paper and photographic materials for example7. The project has had a direct impact on the management practices of case study sites. Thus, the measurements have been used by heritage sites to make management recommendations. These include the installation of a ventilation system, window sealing and relocation of collections. The impact of the project is manifested through the collected environmental data, especially from regions where such data was scarcely available. The data include climate, pollution and corrosion measurements. All these measurements are to be made available to the Archaeology Data Service. The data is already accessible on the project website4. The technical development is being considered for intellectual property protection. Its potential for commercialisation and for industrial collaboration opportunities is also being explored. This should ensure that the prototype can be made available in the long term to heritage institutions worldwide at an affordable cost. The impact of the project has also been maximised by publications and events. This includes journal papers, seminar organisations and presentations, guest lectures and workshops.

References UNESCO (2007). Policy document on the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Properties. UNESCO World Heritage Centre Report Prosek, T. et al. (2010). Survey on air quality control in cultural heritage institutions and development of automated corrosion sensors for real time monitoring, In: IAQ in Museums and Archives: 9th Indoor Air Quality Meeting, 21-23 April 2010, Chalon-sur-Saône, France. Sauerbrey, G. (1959). Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wägung dünner Schichten und zur Mikrowägung. Zeitschrift für Physik 155 (2), pp. 206–222

Prototype inside china display case at Apsley House, English Heritage © Henoc Agbota

The main goal of the project was to study whether the availability of environmental data has an impact on case study site management. Therefore, in addition to data collected from the automatic remote system, an environmental monitoring campaign has been conducted

Agbota, T. et al. (2013). Pollution monitoring at heritage sites in developing and emerging economies. Studies in Conservation 58(2), pp. 129-144 index.htm Tetreault, J. (2003). Airborne pollutants in museums, galleries and archives: risk assessment, control strategies and preservation management. Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute


THE PARNASSUS Project: Ensuring Integrity Preserving Significance. Protecting Cultural Heritage from Flood and Driven Rain Above: Mechanical models results

Interdisciplinary Research Grant – PARNASSUS: Ensuring Integrity, Preserving Significance: Value Based Flood Resilience for Protection of Cultural Heritage from Climate Change Impact

environmental agents in such a long term context? While a wealth of anecdotal evidence is available, a systematic analysis and a reliable approach to quantify such effects at the scale of the building or of an historic city centre has not been developed to date.

The PARNASSUS project, an interdisciplinary research grant funded by the AHRC/EPSRC within Science and Heritage Programme, had as its main outcome the development of an interdisciplinary methodology to quantify the risk posed on historical built heritage by the adverse effects of apparent climate change, with specific relation to floods, wind driven rain and freeze-thaw cycles. The project sees the contribution of conservation engineers (Dr D’Ayala’s research group, formerly at Bath, now at UCL CEGE), archaeologists (Professor Johnson, Dr Sofaer, Dr Earl at University of Southampton), hydrologists and climate modellers (Professor Bates’ research group at University of Bristol Geography Department) and civil engineers (Dr Sebastian’s research group at University of Bristol Civil engineering Department).

The methodology adopted involved extensive on-site monitoring coupled with a site-wide building vulnerability survey; systemic testing, encompassing historic materials’ hygrothermal characterisation, historic fabric response to wind driven rain and flood, building stone deterioration to freeze-thaw cycles; and numerical modelling of flooding and of buildings response.

The initial research question was: If climate is changing, what is the timeframe of relevance when considering environmental effects on historic buildings? We tried to answer this by looking on one hand at historic climate models and future projections and on the other by considering past settlement and construction techniques that can bring about historic evidence of adaptations coinciding with epochal environmental changes, such as the little ice age. If such a line of research can delineate a framework of change supported by past evidence and future projections, can we consistently determine vulnerability and resilience factors for architectural heritage exposed to damaging

An important novel aspect is to have conducted the experimental work on real scale structural elements under a continued realistic state of stress as it would be present in a structural wall or timber frame within an historic building. This has allowed us to study in detail phenomena such as saturation, erosion, decay and cracking at a real scale and to evaluate their effects on the ultimate loadbearing capacity of the historic structures. From the project outset, partners such as Ecclesiastical Insurance and the civil engineering firm Gifford and partners (now Ramboll) were included to steer the research towards end users. Alongside a number of planned publications and conferences PARNASSUS aimed to supply case-studies and data from several sites in areas with a high risk of flooding. The requirement for project field-work to ‘follow the rain’ has resulted in a shifting emphasis for dissemination activities since publications and conference presentation opportunities were dependent on the data collection timescale.


Dina D’Ayala



Management of sites testing and monitoring of the buildings have been revised as a result of PARNASSUS’ findings. By the end of the project some seven sites distributed from Scotland to Devon, had been monitored over at least a 1-year weather cycle. The buildings monitored varied by age (from 11th Century to 18th), status, constituent materials and use. The design of the monitoring system was entirely new, although based on commercially available sensors, so as to be easily replicated by end-users once its ability to capture the desired information has been proven. Two systems of different levels of sophistication have been developed. One is made of self-logging stand-alone sensors, which can be embedded in situations where there is no electricity supply and difficulty of regular recurring inspection. The second system is based on a data logging hub into which several sensors connect, and with the ability of remotely communicating the data to a website, where they can be regularly downloaded and checked by the end user. All data are available at Both systems have been designed with the aim of providing relative humidity and thermal profiles through the thickness of the walls so as to define the hygrothermal dynamic equilibrium that sets within the building fabric due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. An example of the output is provided in Figure 1 together with a schematic of the monitoring system.

Figure 2: Correlation of water level, rainfall and hygrothermal conditions in the wall and outdoors for the fortnight leading to the flooding event of the 2nd May 2012. Photo ©Sam Furlong SWNS.COM.

used as input in a finite element mechanical model of the two exposed buildings, the Abbey Mill and the Mill Bank Cottage. It can be seen from the numerical modelling that substantial damage might be expected to the panelling within the timber frame of the cottage for the worst forecast flood, which potentially might reach a height of 2m above street level. The confidence factors of this projection and of the consequent damage, related to the accuracy of the mechanical model are being quantified in the final semester of the project to provide clear risk assessment indications. While the potential for further impact of these findings, is being pursued, public engagement activities have been predominantly based on excavation campaigns at Bodiam Castle, where over 500 visitors were invited to join archaeologists as they carried out analysis.

Figure 1: Schematics of the monitoring system with typical temperature and relative humidity distribution through the thickness of the wall

The external environmental variables are also continuously monitored on site, via rain and wind-driven rain gauges, anemometers, pressure gauges and water levels. This has allowed evaluation of the performance of the Abbey Mill in Tewkesbury, subjected to flooding during May 2012 (Figure 2). The lessons learned through analysis of the data obtained for this event have been shared with the National Trust and further work is planned to study their archival information and further sites to look in detail at the operations carried out in the immediate aftermath of a flood and also to examine the response of the buildings and the damage caused on site. These findings together with the use of weather models and hydrological models allow us to define future extreme conditions for a specific site and a specific building as shown by the simulation of the expected one-in-100-years-event for Tewkesbury. The output of the hydrological model is

PARNASSUS has proved a highly technical, academically rigorous project, which has generated a number of outcomes geared towards practitioners in science and heritage. However, the potential to disseminate the findings on monitoring flood resilience to policy makers could further enhance the impact of the project. Currently cooperation with BRE Scotland is being sought to develop a document of guidelines for monitoring and testing. The project was initially presented on the Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) website, so has been brought to the attention of national policy advisors. An update of the project outcomes will appear soon. To disseminate findings to the conservation community a one day workshop was organised in May 2013 attended by national and international speakers, with a view to identifying possible future cooperation with European partners and to influence the European research agenda in this field. The role of Dr D’Ayala as advisor to the BSI committee for developing standards for conservation of tangible heritage, and the role of Professor Bates as advisor to the Environmental Agency provide potential opportunities for impact in informing policy and public services.


Smelling Museum Objects: Why? Lorraine Gibson

Top: Disintegrating rubber objects

Interdisciplinary Research Grant – Heritage Smells!

decisions about the acquisition, storage, conservation, display and long-term preservation of items. Moreover, sampling air around the object allows assessment of airquality to ensure the health of those accessing collections.

Book sampling using MS

Being end-users, the project’s co-investigators and partners helped to identify key priority areas and object categories that would benefit most from a non-invasive sampling technology. After discussions with the British Museum, British Library, National Museums of Scotland, National Records of Scotland and English Heritage, project staff from the University of Strathclyde and University College London focussed on analysing smells emitted by plastic objects, paper-based material and objects that may have been treated previously with pesticides. These are discussed in more detail below. Objects containing synthetic, complex and inherently unstable plastics are fast becoming integral parts of heritage collections; reflecting both the growing use of these materials in modern society and an interest in their artistic qualities and interpretation, but their composition and condition are extremely difficult to characterise and assess. Deterioration of thousands of polymer, or polymercontaining objects, is now apparent1,2 and research questions regarding the durability of contemporary art objects must be addressed. A unique approach was taken to tackle this problem, using analytical instruments to measure the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plastic objects. Nine polymer types, found to be most problematic within collections, were studied and characterised using multiple analytical techniques to ensure their unambiguous identity, including cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyvinylchloride and rubber. Samples were collected from resin kits, heritage collections and industry to compare VOCs (or emission profiles) of materials from difference sources. The emission profiles of many of these were characteristic, allowing identification without the need to touch the object. Moreover, by studying emission profile


Many thousands of objects currently in museum collections are unstable and unfortunately break down over time. Preventive conservation is essential to increase longevity of susceptible objects and their continued protection for future generations. Scientific analyses of objects to identify signs of deterioration are used extensively by conservators, but in many studies a small sample must be removed from the object, or the object must be ‘touched’ by the instrument or examiner, before it can be assessed. Since objects give off small molecules that ‘smell’ as they degrade this interdisciplinary research team aimed to ‘smell’ objects, relating the smell to the object’s condition without touching or sampling the object. Would this provide the ultimate scientific sampling approach for heritage science? By merely ‘sniffing’ the air around an object, can questions regarding conservation history, composition, condition or object stability be answered? A non-invasive method to analyse smell could help conservators make informed


changes from new or aged polymer samples, chemical changes occurring within the object as it degraded were identified, clearly demonstrating how room-temperature VOC monitoring can provide valuable information about degradation processes in historic plastic objects or works of modern art within collections, and fulfilling a knowledge gap identified in the 2009 National Heritage Science Strategy.


SPME sampling

Accessing information from books is of prime importance to academic, social, recreational and artistic development. It is therefore important that books remain in conditions that permit their access and potentially unstable books are identified and restored to ensure the continued longevity of information flow. However, paper produced between 1850 and 1950 is more acidic, and as paper stability is strongly dependent on pH,3 this has resulted in books with fragile paper that may not survive past the 22nd century4. Therefore the research group returned to the idea of ‘smell’ as a method of assessing stability. Fifteen books, in a range of conditions, paper and binding types from the well-characterised SurvNIR collection were studied and their emission profiles examined using both a portable mass spectrometer, a new analytical tool not previously used for the analysis of heritage objects, and common laboratory instruments and methods such as solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The suitability of this non-invasive technique for paper stability will be discussed. Preservation of culturally significant objects in natural history and ethnographic collections has involved the use of hazardous chemicals such as pesticides and fungicides. Few articles have been published highlighting the range of chemicals used to treat historical objects. Goldberg5 reviewed records at the Smithsonian Institution, listing several chemical species used as pesticidal treatments, including organochlorines, organophosphates, simple aromatic hydrocarbons and commercial biocidal formulations. Such treatments, although necessary, may prove hazardous to those handling or accessing objects and new analytical methods are required to screen objects and identify potentially hazardous chemicals. Ten

pesticides reflecting a range of chemicals used previously in collections were studied using non-invasive methods of smell determination, to identify pesticides in the vapour phase surrounding a potentially treated object. To create environments containing known pesticides agar plates were spiked with pesticides and contaminated atmospheres were collected onto different adsorbents. Best performance was achieved using Tenax-TA and this adsorbent was used to trap vapour-phase chemicals in both active and passive modes. Following optimisation of analytical methods, materials representing those commonly found in collections were spiked with pesticides and volatilisation into the vapour-phase of the analytes was studied at increased humidity. Mercuric chloride, organophosphates and carbamates were also studied using novel sol-gel optical sensors developed during this research. The newly-developed non-invasive methods were field-tested at museums, archives and heritage sites. Research results highlighting key achievements will be presented. The advantages and limitations of fresh and aged polymer VOC profiles will be compared with conventional spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the usefulness of the newly-developed technique. The use of mass spectrometry to examine books will be explored; can profiles be used to detect books in a fragile state? Case studies will be presented for surveys of natural history collections – what secrets do objects hold? Are they contaminated with pesticides invisible to those accessing or visiting the collection? The use of on-site colorimetric sensors for less volatile pesticide treatments will be also demonstrated. Analogous to the use of pH paper can coloured sol-gels detect potentially harmful substances on an object’s surface? The presentation will also include results from PhD projects undertaken at the Kluge Centre at the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. (G. Mitchell) and at the Museum/University of Arizona (I. Rushworth). Finally, the impact and knowledge exchange of the Heritage Smells project (widely featured in the media) will be discussed, including comments about the novel British Library comedy show ‘Full Frontal Nerdity’, and Zoom-In, the British Museum public dissemination event.

References 1 Then, E. and Oakley, V. (1993). A survey of plastic objects at The Victoria and Albert Museum. V&A Conservation Journal, 06: 11-14. 2 Shashoua, Y. and Ward C. (1995). Plastics: modern resins with ageing problems. In: M.M. Wright and J.H. Townsend (Eds) Proceedings of SSCR 2nd Resins Conference, Resins-Ancient and Modern. Pp 33-37. 3 Zou, X., Uesaka, T. and Gurnagul, N. (1996). Prediction of paper permanence by accelerated aging. I. Kinetic analysis of the aging process. Cellulose 3: 243-267. 4 Roberts, J.C. (1996). The Chemistry of Paper. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry 5 Goldberg, L. (1996). A History of Pest Control Measures in the Anthropology Collections, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. J. Am. Inst. Cons. 35:23-43.


Poster Abstracts



X-ray Spectroscopic Characterisation of Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion Paint Films Elizabeth Willneff, Sven Schroeder and Bronwyn Ormsby Postdoctoral Fellowship – Interpreting the Surface: The Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion Paint Films Artists’ acrylic emulsion paints have remained popular since their beginnings in the mid-1950s. Today acrylic emulsion-based works of art form increasingly significant proportions of modern and contemporary art collections and some of the oldest works are now beginning to require conservation treatment. The impact of wet surface cleaning treatments on the bulk film and surface properties of artists’ acrylic paint films has been the subject of recent research1-3, but important questions remain with respect to the uppermost surface (>10 nm) of these paint films including:

complementary to that obtained by analytical techniques more commonly used such as ATR-FTIR, chromatography, microscopy and visual assessment. Test paint films of the type used in previous research2 from artists’ paint manufacturers Golden, Talens, Winsor and Newton, and Liquitex were prepared. To examine the influence of soiling, a soiling mixture representative of indoor museum soiling was applied to some films2. Typical conservation surface cleaning systems were applied using cotton swab rolls. The cleaning systems covered a range formulation complexity, from pure solvents (water and mineral spirits) via aqueous solutions with chelating agents to novel oil-in-water microemulsions1.

•   The effect of light and surface cleaning on the paint surface. •   The nature and degradation of migrated materials from within the paint film. •   The interaction of soiling with the paint surface and migrated materials.


•   The presence and effect of cleaning system residues.

Answering these questions will contribute to our understanding of the consequences of ageing and surface cleaning treatments for works of art made with these paints. Better cleaning practice will develop from a deeper physical understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the removal of soil and/or migrated materials (e.g. surfactant) from paint films.

Freshly prepared Golden Hansa yellow light paint film and mock ‘painting’ in background. © Elizabeth Willneff

Surface-sensitive X-ray spectroscopies probe the chemistry of the uppermost 10 nm of the paint/air interface and have previously not been used on these materials. This project applies these techniques to characterise contemporary artists’ acrylic paint films to provide information

Paint film with samples removed for analysis. © Elizabeth Willneff

The paint films were initially characterised visually by eye and with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to assess the macroscopic impact of surface treatments, and the molecular fingerprint of these surface treatments over the top few microns of the film surfaces, respectively. To explore the chemistry at the paint/air interface in particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchrotron near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) were applied to provide surface sensitive information on the composition and chemical state of the uppermost 10 nm of the paint surface. Both techniques provide the elemental composition of the sampled area as well as sensitivity to functional groups in the sample components, which can in turn be associated with particular chemicals in the paint formulation (e.g. surfactant, pigment, acrylic binder, extender) and/or cleaning system used. One specific advantage of NEXAFS was the possibility to vary the sampling depth of the signal to distinguish surface from sub-surface information4. Analysis with established non-surface specific methods confirmed general previously reported1,2 trends in terms of relative cleaning efficacy and response of pigment to cleaning treatments. For example, wet cleaning systems


Paint samples in ultra-high vacuum chamber during XPS analysis Š Elizabeth Willneff

However, further insights into the chemistry specific to the crucial paint/air interface were provided by XPS and NEXAFS. This included direct chemical evidence from XPS for the increased exposure of pigment (PY3 azo yellow) after cleaning some films as well as the suggestion that there might be variations in the local chemical environment of the pigment particles as a function of cleaning treatment, paint manufacturer and depth from NEXAFS (described below). By taking advantage of the depth profiling capability of NEXAFS, evidence was obtained for the stratification of chemical species in the near surface region (<10 nm), which was dependent on the paint manufacturer as well as the type of surface treatment. A particularly interesting result is the observation of calcium stratification. This was most noticeable on Talens films which have additional calcium contributions from CaCO3 extender. Whereas calcium spectra from the subsurface region showed little variation in response to soiling and cleaning treatments, those from the uppermost surface varied, with intensities broadly inversely proportional to efficacy of the cleaning treatment. Finally, NEXAFS indicated a possible relationship between sample depth and the chemical environment

In summary, this study improves our understanding of the variations in the chemical composition of the important surface region of acrylic emulsion paint films in response to ageing and surface treatments. The key observations so far indicate potentially increased pigment mobility and calcium stratification on Talens PY3 azo yellow paint films, which are now being explored further in more detail. Particular focus is being given to identifying the stratification of chemical species in the surface of paint films to understand the implications for the mechanical and chemical behaviour of the paint film surface relative to the bulk film. To this end, in addition to XPS and NEXAFS, complementary surface science techniques such as AFM and TOF-SIMS are being explored to provide information on surface morphology (via AFM) and the molecular structure of long-chain hydrocarbon species such as surfactants (via TOF-SIMS). The impact of this research will, in time, lie in contributing to best practice in the conservation and preservation of acrylic emulsion-based works of art and improving our understanding of the fundamental surface science of acrylic paint films.

References 1 M. Keefe et al., JCT CoatingsTech 8, 30 (2011). 2 B. A. Ormsby, M.H. Keefe, A. Phenix, T. Learner, AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints 23, 77 (2010). 3 B. A. Ormsby, T. Learner, Reviews in Conservation 10, 29 (2009). 4 J. Genzer, E. J. Kramer, D. A. Fischer, J Appl Phys 92, 7070 (2002)


with chelating agents or microemulsions were more effective at removing applied soiling than pure water or hydrocarbon solvent. The amount of pigment transferred to swab rolls during cleaning treatments was specific to the pigment type, treatment and the paint manufacturer (specific formulation). In addition, LAS surfactant residues from one microemulsion were identified after cleaning without a clearance step.

surrounding the PY3 azo yellow pigment; which may provide information about the depth of the surface polymer coating and/or response to cleaning treatment, which requires further exploration.


Hearing the Past – The Role of Sound in Digital Heritage Research Damian Murphy and Jude Brereton Research Cluster – Research Cluster – I-HE[AR]2 (I Hear Too) – Improving Heritage Experience through Acoustic Reality and Audio Research

models to form the basis of an audio reconstruction and presentation so that we might place and manipulate any sound within a given space, and listen again to the echoes and resonances that are produced. This work has more generally been explored as part of the AHRC/ESPRC funded I-Hear-Too project. Key research areas considered the use of sound recordings and archives in heritage preservation, their restoration, organisation and access together with what to record now for future preservation; virtual acoustic reality and immersive sound as a means to preserve and render sounds and environments in new forms; the role of sound, sound-art and archival recordings as a means to access, enhance understanding, or experience the diversity of heritage.


I Hear Too: Live audience member listens to Octo: Sotto Voce by David Chapman. © Kippa Matthews 2009

Sound is often considered the poor relation of visual stimuli, yet plays a significant role in conveying information for rapid assimilation by a listener. It is a key component in the multi-modal perception of virtual/augmented reality applications, and can lead to highly evocative, engaging and immersive multimedia experiences. Research in the Department of Electronics AudioLab at the University of York has looked to develop a better understanding and preservation of heritage by considering the acoustic properties of specific sites and landscapes. The audio/ acoustic preservation of these heritage sites is just as important as any other more tangible property, as all such aspects are subject to, and will be affected by, the inherent nature of change in the span of a site’s own particular history. Considering such acoustic characteristics better enables us to develop a more complete understanding of the past, for one thing we can be sure of is that the past was not a silent place.

Cravasse by Craig Vear at the I Hear Too live event at York Minster. © Kippa Matthews 2009

Acoustic measurement captures the characteristic sonic fingerprint of specific sites for preservation and analysis. Computer modelling allows us to imagine, build and interact with these sites in the digital domain. Auralization enables these acoustic measurements or computer

Audience members during Chapter House Semantic Cloud by Louise K. Wilson. © Kippa Matthews 2009

In particular I-Hear-Too Live, and its subsequent, more recent, reincarnations, have provided unique opportunities for the general public to engage with heritage sites in new ways. Through the interpretations and experiences designed by composers, sound artists and musicians the fabric of these sites becomes a canvas upon which sounds are manipulated and presented, resulting in unique and powerful interactions with the past in the present.

The I Hear Too: Live Project Team: Ben Pugh (Tribeca), Production Manager, Jude Brereton (I Hear Too Co-I), Damian Murphy (I Hear Too PI) © Kippa Matthews 2009

I-Hear-Too has helped to highlight the importance of formalising and contextualising audio and acoustics research in digital heritage and is already leading to further work in a number of areas.

Non-invasive Methods for In Situ Assessing and Monitoring of Vulnerability of Rock Art Monuments Elizabeth Bemand Collaborative Research Studentship – Non-Invasive Methods For In Situ Assessing and Monitoring the Vulnerability of Rock Art Monuments

Rock art panel. Chatton Park Northumberland © B Kerr

The aims of the Non-invasive methods for in situ assessing and monitoring of vulnerability of rock art monuments project are: •   To devise a non-invasive method for in-situ monitoring of the microscopic changes in rock art monuments to help assess vulnerability and formulate conservation strategy. •   To understand links between microscopic changes, the environment and long term deterioration •   To demonstrate a novel technique and achieve better measurements to characterise rocks through a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to monitor the surface and subsurface on a microscopic scale

Figure 2. OCT in-situ field test at local historical cemetery

Optical Coherence Tomography is a 3D imaging technique that relies on the detection of light scattered back from the sample. It was designed for non-invasive examination of the interior of the eye and the subsurface structure of biological tissues. OCT data can be analysed to provide quantitative information from imaging of rock micro fabric to investigate grain size distribution. OCT can also be used to monitor the rate of water movement through sandstone. Measuring spatially resolved water absorption with the OCT moves beyond simple characterization to a better understanding of material interaction with its environment and how this will impact its vulnerability.

Figure 3. ’virtual’ cross-section image of sandstone sample


England is renowned for the richness of its archaeological heritage: a tangible and often highly evocative link with our ancient prehistoric past, and a unique source of information that has the potential to transform our understanding of the lives of our ancestors and how they adapted to and changed their environment. Such remains often form significant features in our surroundings, but are also valuable as a resource for research, education, leisure and tourism, and for their influence on the identity and spirit of place. Rock art monuments provide a link to our ancient cultural pasts; they possess seeming permanence but are sensitive to their environment. Rapid changes due to anthropogenic land use and climactic variation will cause damage and decay over time. Knowledge of the characteristics of the host rock is vital to inform decisions to ameliorate the impact of decay processes, delaying the inevitable progression of paedogenesis. Effective diagnosis of present conditions is the first step towards conservation, which can then be followed by intervention or conservation measures. Cultural heritage stone conservation more commonly occurs in the built environment subject to urban conditions rather than erosion in the natural environment. The bulk of stone conservation research has been on structures rather than landforms and needs to be adapted for landforms physically altered by humans rather than structures. It is necessary to move on from micro destructive techniques towards non-destructive testing methods that can be used portably in the open-air locations of artefacts removing the need to remove samples or rely on proxy materials to measure characteristic such as porosity and pore size distribution.



Figure 4. Stack of OCT ‘virtual’ cross-sections as a function of time displayed as a (x,z,time) cube from which depth ‘slices’ (x,time) can be extracted.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has widespread use in many areas of science and technology most familiarly in medicine for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) biomedical purposes. It has also been applied to the analysis of cultural heritage materials such as paintings, paper, wood and walls and can be suitable for the non-destructive analysis of large objects at the open-air location. The technique is capable of providing depth and spatially resolved profiles of porosity and pore size distribution, which are established factors for weathering, and as such is a valuable tool for non-invasive testing of stone vulnerability.

Figure 6. NMR in-situ field test at local historical cemetery; sensor enclosed in Faraday cage to eliminate radio frequency noise. Figure 5. WM sandstone sample: (a) pixel intensity values averaged across the 10mm cross section when dry (solid blue line) and wet (dotted green line), signal intensity values at depth of (b) ~400µm, (c) ~700µm, (d) ~1000µm across the lateral range of the scan over time. The OCT signals are in log scales.

These non-destructive testing methods can be developed for a phenomenological approach, relating empirical observations of weathering phenomena to each other using a suite of measurement techniques with interscale investigation to link visible weathering forms to micro scale rock characteristics. The results from this combination of techniques will enable thorough characterization of the porosity and monitoring of progressive changes due to deterioration processes noninvasively at open-air sites. The conservation of rock art sites in-situ makes an essential contribution to society, education and tourism; preserving an evocative link to our ancient cultural past for future generations.

This project is funded by the AHRC/EPSRC Science & Heritage Programme and English Heritage in a collaborative research studentship award (CDA08/429). The PhD project is supervised by Dr Haida Liang and Dr Martin Bencsik at Nottingham Trent University. The project is supported by Dr Sebastian Payne, Jim Williams and Kate Wilson at English Heritage.

Culture & Trade Through the Prism of Technical Art History – A Study of Chinese Export Paintings Haida Liang Research Development Award – Culture and Trade Through the Prism of Technical Art History – A Study of Chinese Export Paintings The aim of the project is to better understand the painting techniques and materials of Chinese export paintings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (V&A) and Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) collections; develop an effective method of using a range of non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques to examine paper-based works of art and address art history and conservation issues; explore trade and cultural exchanges between China and Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries through insights from technical art history; contribute to the new emerging field of technical art history of East Asian paintings; and demonstrate the usefulness of non-invasive scientific examination for the understanding, enjoyment and preservation of paperbased objects.

The project started with research on curatorial, conservation and science archives as well as a literature search on related art historical and historical work to help select and prioritise paintings to be examined scientifically and to formulate detailed research questions for scientific analysis. Scientific analysis using state-of-theart instruments developed in previous research council funded projects (including funding from the Science & Heritage Programme) has been conducted on the paintings to inform conservation and curatorial research. Specifically, light sensitivities of painting materials are measured with an in-house built microfade spectrometer to inform future display policy and light dosage for scientific imaging. A purpose-built multispectral imaging system is used for spectral imaging of paintings to reveal any “hidden” writings or drawings, as well as measuring the spectral reflectance of the paint for large-scale pigment identification. Raman microscopy and XRF are used to confirm pigment identification at selected points. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging of the paintings gives high resolution images of underdrawing, separating the underdrawing layers from the final sketches.

Preliminary results have shown that many paintings in the RHS’s Reeves collection have detailed sketches under the paint layers using possible graphite and the style of the sketches are European.

© The RHS Lindley Library and Dr Haida Liang (Nottingham Trent University)

The results will help establish provenance of the painting material to inform studies on trade and cultural exchange; investigate temporal evolution of the palette or variation in the palette between workshops and artists; establish firmer dates and provenances for those paintings lacking such information; examine the painting/drawing techniques and their correlation with the origin of the painting material to study the extent of collaboration between Chinese artisans and their European clients; assess the state of conservation of the paintings to inform conservation strategy; assist future dissemination to the general public through exhibitions; establish a network of interdisciplinary researchers in the immediate area of Chinese export paintings and in the wider area of books and manuscripts. The initial workshop held on 4th June 2013 at the RHS will help to shape the arts and humanities perspective through exchanges with art historians, historians, conservators and conservation scientists working on similar collections. A final workshop will be organised with stakeholders and researchers from a variety of disciplines interested not only in Chinese export paintings but also in books, manuscripts and paper-based works of art to disseminate the results and demonstrate to what extent a systematic approach using non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques can address research questions in art history and conservation. A better understanding of the objects will lay the foundations for future exhibitions where scientific images can also feature. This will help disseminate the results of cross-disciplinary research to a wider audience. This research will have wide-ranging impacts from academia (art history, history, cultural studies, conservation, conservation science, optics and imaging science), public


Dr Lucia Burgio analysing a Chinese watercolour with an ArtTAX XRF spectrometer at the V&A



sectors (national collections, museums and heritage management organisations), business/private sector (auction houses, private conservation studios), third sector (charities such as National Trust, RHS) and the general public. The research will be disseminated to audiences through the two workshops as well as international conferences such as the IIC. Chinese export paintings are currently attracting much attention from scholars around the world (from UK, continental Europe, the Americas to South East Asia and China). Since these paintings are scattered around various museums globally, the research will contribute to knowledge both within the UK and internationally. It will benefit art historians studying Chinese export art, historians studying trade and cultural exchange between China and Europe (and later the Americas) in the 18th and 19th centuries, and benefit research in cultural identity and cultural perceptions in 18th and 19th century Europe and China. Since currently China is again a major trading partner of Europe, studies of the historical Europe-China trade will lend itself to a new perspective on contemporary economic issues.


In situ microfade test of light sensitivity of paper and pigments using a microfade spectrometer developed by the Imaging Science for Archaeology & Art Conservation group at Nottingham Trent University

Multispectral imaging of a painting from the Royal Horticultural Society’s Reeves collection (left) using PRISMS developed by the Imaging Science for Archaeology & Art Conservation group at Nottingham Trent University. Colour photo © RHS Lindley Library

This research benefits not only the stakeholders of collections of Chinese export paintings such as museums, libraries and archives and charities within the UK but also around the world. The benefits are not only in technical art history and curatorial studies but also in conservation. Identification of the material will help with conservation decisions and a study of the light sensitivity of the material can inform display policy and the selection of the best environmental conditions for both display and storage. The results of this research will inform the planned future exhibition of the Reeves collection at the Royal Horticultural Society, a V&A exhibition this year on Masterpieces: The Making of Chinese Paintings 900-1900 and potential future exhibitions of Chinese export art at the V&A. The scientific images and analysis results can also feature in some of these exhibitions and therefore introduce the general public to cross-disciplinary research and better understanding of the collections. Exhibitions are also the best way of outreach for science. UNESCO has declared 2015 to be “The International Year of Light”. Results from this research can feature in the outreach activities in support of the year-long event showcasing the collaboration between Science and Heritage.

The results will be disseminated through a variety of outreach activities at the V&A. These activities target different types of audiences and range from gallery talks given to V&A visitors and other activities such as National Science and Engineering Week, to presentations to school children in regions outside London (often from a mixed socio-economic background), to pieces written for the V&A website as well as V&A Facebook entries, and short articles for the V&A Conservation Journal which is sent internationally to other museums/galleries as well as academic institutions and private practitioners with an interest in cultural heritage. Similarly articles are being written for RHS publications such as The Garden and The Plantsman disseminating the results. An abstract based on this project will be submitted to IIC 2014 where the emphasis is on the conservation and curatorial study of East Asian art. This project involves physicists from NTU, conservators, conservation scientists and curators from the V&A conservation and curatorial departments, the RHS and the Heritage Conservation Centre in Singapore. RHS does not have in-house conservation science facilities and this project will enable them to tap into the science facilities at the V&A and the imaging instruments from NTU. This collaboration will facilitate co-production of knowledge, which in tangible terms will result in publications, presentations at conferences and future exhibitions. Through working on this project, research staff will gain transferable skills such as improved communication skills, experience of working across disciplines, organisational skills, experiences in international collaboration and outreach. The V&A Conservation Department routinely accept interns from international conservation science courses. One such intern has been allocated to this project.

Historic Dyes Analysis: Method Development and New Applications in Cultural Heritage Lore Troalen*, Jim Tate and Alison Hulme Collaborative Research Studentship – Historic Dye Analysis: Method Development and New Applications in Cultural Heritage Natural product dyestuffs have been used to colour a wide range of objects, from textiles to tapestries, over thousands of years. They are often applied in combination with a mordant which acts to fix the dye component to the fibre, providing additional light and wash-fastness. The accurate identification of dye source and mordant can be used to provide significant historical background to a piece, assisting with its dating and provenance. It can also be used to inform curatorial decisions regarding the storage and display of objects within collections. But these traditional natural colourants can suffer significant degradation over time due to the combined action of light and atmospheric pollutants; this affects the information obtained if a simple analysis of dyestuff components is undertaken and can render identification of the dye source difficult, if not impossible. In addition, the study of substrates other than wool and silk has received little attention, particularly where these alternate substrates provide challenges in terms of sample size, or the amount of colourant available for extraction. This project therefore focused on the development of new methods for the identification of the dye sources found on very weak or degraded samples, and also on developing efficient

methods for the extraction of alternate substrates such as the quillwork found in ethnographic materials. New methods for the non-destructive identification of mordants were also explored. These new methodologies were then combined with existing techniques to survey leading collections of early English Tapestries from the Burrell Collection (Glasgow Museums) and Bodleian Library (Oxford University) and Native American quillwork from the collection at National Museums Scotland allowing exciting conclusions about trade in the early sixteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries to be drawn and prompting further historical research as detailed below. The use of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) for the analysis of natural product dyestuffs has been pioneered as part of this research, through the analysis of some heavily degraded, late sixteenth-century wool and silk samples from the outstanding collections held at the Burrell Collection (Glasgow) and the Bodleian Library (Oxford). Early English tapestries have been little studied so far and are often referred to as “Sheldon” with the assumption that there was only this one workshop in England in the mid-sixteenth century. This hypothesis is today being reassessed through art historical research and as part of this project, thirteen early English tapestries from the Burrell collection and three key Sheldon tapestry maps from the Bodleian collection were sampled. As a result, more than five hundred samples were investigated by chromatographic analysis. It was demonstrated that up to 10-fold improvements in sensitivity may be achieved using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) as compared to the equivalent High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation, allowing far smaller


Figure 1: Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography method development for the analysis of natural dyes in historical textiles, © L. Troalen.



samples sizes to be taken and/or samples of more fugitive (or more degraded) dyestuffs to be successfully analysed. The use of UPLC allowed the generation of exciting new information about the dyestuffs employed in the preparation of these tapestries and it was possible to characterise several yellow flavonoid sources including weld (Reseda luteola L.), dyer’s greenweed (Genista tinctoria L.) and the light-fugitive dye young fustic (Cotinus Coggygria Scop.). Furthermore, traces of safflower dye (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were found on all the Sheldon tapestries from the Burrell collection. Safflower is well-known to be a fugitive dye and, thus far, its use in Europe prior the eighteenth century has only rarely been recorded. This research strongly suggests that this dye was actually already in use in Europe in the late sixteenth century. This finding is especially relevant to researchers of art history with interests in trade and exchange, and will initiate further research to find information on the type of dyestuffs that London merchants were importing, as well as the materials bought for tapestry manufacture and repair.


Figure 2: Athapaskan fringe for a woman’s dress of tanned caribou skin cut into thongs which are wrapped in alternate pairs with red, blue and white porcupine quills to give a netted effect and strung with white beads (Inv. N°: A.848.13), © National Museums Scotland.

The second research objective of this project was the investigation of non-European ethnographical materials, which have received little systematic study in comparison to historical textiles. The project focused on porcupine quill work, a technique used by the indigenous communities across North America to decorate clothing and basketry. The porcupine quill work collection at National Museums Scotland includes the oldest and most extensive group of nineteenth-century Athapaskan artifacts in the world today. As part of the development of new galleries at NMS, these objects have to be conserved for display and conditions and regimes which will minimise damage have yet to be established. These need to be based on a better understanding of the materials and their behaviour, especially the characterisation of the dye sources and dyeing techniques. One particular interest of the project was the development of a methodology for the non-invasive quantification of metal ion residues on porcupine quill substrates. To this end, a comparative study was made on mordanted reference porcupine quills prepared in-house using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) coupled to Optical Emission Spectrometry (OES) and non-invasive Particle Induced X-Ray Emission analysis (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The use of both PIXE and RBS analysis, allowed the simultaneous quantification of both inorganic components and organic residues. These methods had

never been applied to historical porcupine quills and needed method development.

Figure 3: Binocular micrograph showing a detailed area of an Athapaskan fringe for a woman’s dress made of tanned caribou skin, wrapped with red porcupine quill (NMS Inv. N° A.845.13), scale bar is 1 mm, © L. Troalen.

A unique set of mid-nineteenth century Athapaskan dyed porcupine quill samples and objects from NMS collection was then investigated using this innovative analytical approach with the combination of UPLC analysis and noninvasive PIXE-RBS analysis, allowing the characterisation of both natural dye sources and metallic mordants. This showed the exclusive use of traded “European” dyes, such as American cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) associated with chemical mordants, such copper and tin, to achieve darker or brighter hues. This has not been reported before and has initiated exciting discussions with curatorial colleagues at National Museums Scotland and at the Prince of Wales Conservation Centre in Canada, opening new avenues for future research on porcupine quill work collections.

Figure 4: Investigation of metallic mordants in modern porcupine quill references using an external 3 MeV proton beam of AGLAE accelerator, © L. Troalen.

The Science and Heritage Programme aims to “fund research activities that will deepen understanding and widen participation in research in the field of heritage science”. This project clearly relates closely to these objectives, as it has allowed collaborations between the University of Edinburgh and several museum institutions to be strengthened and enabled important historical questions regarding the provenance of dye sources in prestigious collections to be addressed from a scientific perspective for the first time. It is anticipated that the application of UPLC and related UPLC-MS methods will allow future studies using isotope ratios to pinpoint the provenance of objects and will also allow rapid identification of the photo-degradation products of natural product dyestuffs.

An Evaluation of In situ Preservation Potential and Monitoring Strategies at the Sites of the Sweet Track, and Glastonbury Lake Village, in the Somerset Levels, UK Louise Jones Collaborative Research Studentship: An Evaluation of In Situ Preservation Potential and Monitoring Strategies at the Sites of the Sweet Track, and Glastonbury Lake Village, in the Somerset Levels, UK. In situ preservation is a central strategy for the conservation and management of archaeological sites, and is an important part of government archaeological policies, and heritage organisation guidelines. For example, in situ preservation is referred to in Report 1 of the National Heritage Science Strategy (Williams, 2009), and is designated by Planning Policy Guidance Note 16 (PPG 16) (DOE, 1990:6) as the ‘preferred’ option for archaeological conservation. It cannot, however, be assumed that artefacts or structures are preserved purely because they are in situ beneath the ground surface. It is necessary to both determine the current preservation state of any inorganic and organic remains, and also to monitor a site in order to characterise the nature of the burial environment, and identify any potential threats to preservation.

the AHRC and EPSRC under the Science and Heritage Programme. The research presented here documents the results of the intensive field and laboratory work, as well as in situ monitoring and subsequent data analysis, undertaken between 2008 and 2012, at two internationally important archaeological sites; the Iron Age site Glastonbury Lake Village, and a section of the Sweet Track located within the Shapwick Heath National Nature Reserve (outside the bunded area), in Somerset. Both of these sites are Scheduled Ancient Monuments. The broad aim of the project was to determine through intensive monthly monitoring, and the subsequent analysis, integration and discussion of the data, whether in situ preservation is an appropriate conservation strategy at these sites. Seven different parameters were monitored, including water table depth, groundwater chemistry, redox potential, pH, conductivity, ditch water levels, and soil moisture levels using Time Domain Reflectometry (the latter parameter only at Glastonbury Lake Village).

Installing a Time Domain Reflectometry access tube

The findings of the MARISP project were the catalyst for this independent PhD research project based at the University of Reading. This research was funded by

The monitoring strategy and results for the Sweet Track site were relatively straightforward, in contrast to the more complex monitoring project and datasets at Glastonbury Lake Village. Overall, the research undertaken at each site has, however, been successful. Recording water table levels has proved to be the most valuable monitoring technique at both sites in terms of identifying a clear threat to preservation from the low summer drawdown in the water table. Notably, at Glastonbury Lake Village groundwater levels fell between 21 and 35 cm lower in 2010, than were recorded at the three locations monitored to the south of the site during the MARISP project in 2004. This has put more of the archaeological deposits at risk of oxidation, desiccation and microbial decay. It is, however, important to highlight the findings of the soil moisture analysis. Using this data the depth of the capillary fringe above the water table has tentatively been identified. The depth of the capillary fringe appears to be highly variable, and reflects differences in stratigraphy across Glastonbury


The Monuments at Risk in Somerset’s Peatlands (MARISP) project was established in 2004 because of an awareness of the threats to wetland sites, both nationally, and in Somerset (Brunning et al., 2008). Over 12 months monitoring and small scale excavations were conducted at 13 sites, including Glastonbury Lake Village. Although Glastonbury Lake Village was identified as the best preserved site, a clear threat to preservation was nevertheless identified in terms of the drawdown in the water table during the summer.

Recording soil moisture levels



Lake Village. This may have significant implications in terms of preservation potential above the water table. In this context soil moisture analysis does, however, require considerable further research if it is to achieve its potential within the framework of in situ preservation monitoring. The most important conclusion from this research is that both sites appear to be at risk. Depending on the depth and preservation state of the archaeological deposits at each site, in situ preservation may therefore not necessarily be an appropriate long-term option.


The impact of this research has therefore been twofold; firstly this is in terms of increasing the understanding of the burial environment at each site, highlighting clear threats to preservation, making recommendations for future research and site management, and creating baseline datasets for use with any future monitoring work. The research has been undertaken in close cooperation with the organisations managing these sites; English Heritage, Somerset County Council, Natural England, and Glastonbury Antiquarian Society, and it is anticipated that these findings will be used as a basis for evaluating the direction of future research and site management. Secondly, in terms of the wider context of in situ preservation, it has been possible to make a number of recommendations for the development and focus of future monitoring projects both nationally and internationally. For example, during this research project water table depth, redox potential and pH were judged to be the most important monitoring parameters, and it is recommended that in tandem with comprehensive sediment analyses, these techniques form the central basis of all future monitoring projects. It is important to highlight that the sediment analyses undertaken during the current project have been incredibly valuable in terms of identifying and describing the sediment sequences, and any different depositional environments at each site, as well as Below: water table levels and rainfall

interpreting and increasing understanding the monitoring results. Without this information it would be impossible to accurately interpret the data from the different monitoring parameters. In addition, unless a site is being monitored as part of an initial or rapid site assessment, it is recommended that monitoring work is undertaken by a multidisciplinary team in order to incorporate the analysis of parameters including the current preservation state of artefacts and structures, groundwater chemistry, soil moisture levels, and potentially also microbiology. This is in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the burial environment at a site, including possible spatial and/or temporal variability, as well as any threats to preservation, and therefore effectively evaluate the sustainability of an in situ preservation approach to site management and conservation. In addition, it is crucial that there is a wider debate into the future of in situ preservation as a conservation strategy, both nationally and internationally. As already highlighted, it cannot be assumed that sites are preserved purely because they are located in situ. This raises numerous questions: How many sites require monitoring? Do the resources and funding exist? How will sites be selected for monitoring? Equally, if a site is monitored and then found to be at risk, are the resources and funding available to act on these results? These difficult questions need to be asked, and ultimately addressed.

References Brunning, R., Bronk Ramsey, C., Cameron, N., Cook, G., Davies, P., Gale, R., Groves, C., Hamilton, W. D., Hogan, D., Jones, J., Jones, M., Kenward, H., Kreiser, A., Locatelli, C., Marshall, P., Tinsley, H. and Tyres, I. (2008). Monuments at Risk in Somersetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Peatlands (MARISP) Project. Draft Final Report, 3191 Main, August 2008. Taunton, Somerset County Council Heritage Service. DOE. (1990). Planning Policy Guidance: Archaeology and Planning Note 16. London, Department of the Environment. Williams, J. (2009). The Role of Science in the Management of the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Heritage. National Heritage Science Strategy (NHSS) Report 1.

An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Scientific Study of Tapestry


Philippa Duffus Collaborative Research Studentship – Investigation into Structural Analysis and Associated Conservation Support Strategy in the Display of Large Historic Tapestries and Textiles

Introduction The Science and Heritage programme had a number of different aims, one of which was to promote collaboration and interdisciplinary research. This project successfully combined both of these initiatives in a project to widen our understanding of historical tapestries and their conservation and preservation. Philippa Duffus working on a tapestry © Historic Royal Palaces

Sample manufacture and Ageing study This project had a unique advantage to previous studies in that the resources available from the reference collection at Hampton Court Palace provided historic samples for scientific study alongside “model” tapestry fabric. The Monitoring of Damage to Historic Tapestries (MODHT) project created replica tapestry fabric which was approved by conservators and other professionals in the field and provided the materials resource for simulated ageing studies. These dyed and undyed samples were woven on a mechanical shuttle loom to re-create a tapestry weave and in this current project the “fabric authenticity” has been further improved by increasing the cover factor of the tapestry sample. Again these replica samples have been validated using small reference samples from historical fabric, and previous data generated by the MODHT project. The two primary samples produced were wool-wool (wool weft, wool warp), and wool-silk (silk weft, wool warp) tapestry fabrics. Recent research has highlighted the importance of relative humidity (RH) in the degradation of textile objects. This project aimed to carry out a more extensive ageing study to extend our knowledge and understanding of artificial ageing and attempt to quantify the different types of ageing occurring. Therefore three different types of

Cherub detail on tapestry © Historic Royal Palaces

The study aimed to build on the results and conclusions from previous research projects on wool and silk fibre degradation and extend the work to a full-scale tapestry with the usage of more extensive characterization of fabric properties, simulated artificial ageing of samples and the application of digital modelling to the scale of a full-sized historic tapestry.

Effect of samples ageing under strain


In recent years there has been focused research investigating large-scale decorative textiles, particularly tapestries, and accordingly our understanding of how these textiles deteriorate, and how to monitor this process has improved and continues to evolve. The main aim of this research was to study the mechanical properties of tapestries, and establish the impact of any associated conservation support strategies. As the project developed it became clear that a better understanding of the chemical degradation taking place was vital in order to make a link between the chemical processes of decay and the associated mechanical changes to the object. An integrated research approach was used including weaving of model tapestry materials, an artificial ageing study, tensile testing, proteomic analysis and finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the mechanical and chemical behaviour of tapestry materials.


Results of mechanical testing of historic, artificially aged and new wool samples


artificial ageing were undertaken: photo-ageing, humidity cycling and mechanical ageing (humidity cycling under strain).

historic samples even greater difficulty. Mass spectrometry to analyse the proteins extracted shows how increasing ageing decreases solubility and therefore significant changes in the wool protein structure are taking place.

ESR analysis was used to detect the radicals produced through different ageing processes: both artificial and historical. The results of the artificial ageing analysis by Mechanical testing of tapestry fabric ESR supported the proteomic analysis to identify what To characterise the physical properties of a tapestry, specific changes are taking place in the wool fibre. The samples were tensile tested in both the warp and weft results of the historic analysis by ESR were unexpected but direction. Ultimate tensile strength, extension to failure and highlighted a potential future problem. The major radical stiffness were calculated for both directions. detected in the historic samples matched the calibration As well as un-aged and artificially aged samples, historic sample for soot. This implies that pollution damage is tapestry samples were also tested. These samples were possibly more important than previously thought. Further chosen from the archives at Hampton Court Palace and investigation into this area included a comparison between although the exact provenance of the samples is not “before” and “after” wet-cleaning from two separate known, they do represent the techniques and materials tapestries: one was wet-cleaned at Hampton Court and used in tapestry weaving between the 16th and 18th the other was sent to De Witt in Belgium. centuries in Europe. The results of the mechanical testing showed that although all artificial ageing methods reduced the strength and extensibility of the samples, the historic samples were weaker by a factor of at least 2. This implies that our methods for artificial ageing are not accurate enough and further work needs to be undertaken to improve our techniques for future scientific study.

Chemical analysis of tapestry fabric A proteomic analysis was carried out on virgin, artificial and historic samples, which included gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the protein structures and changes with ageing. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out to ascertain which free radicals could be detected after the different ageing (and historic) methods. After proteomic analysis of all samples, the most significant result was the variation in solubility between sample types. Observations in the reducing and extracting process showed that the virgin wool and light-aged samples were easily solubilised however the relative-humidity samples began to demonstrate difficulty in extraction and the

Conservation survey and Finite Element Analysis A questionnaire of 21 questions was developed to determine the different techniques employed by textile conservators across the world to support large-scale textiles. The results of this study were used to steer the direction of the FEA model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to create a digital model for the structural analysis of hanging tapestries as well as to provide a base for the future critical evaluation of conservation support systems. Preliminary models for both “new” and “historic” tapestries were developed as well as an investigation into the effect of slits and non-homogeneous material structure (wool-silk areas) had on the stress distribution. This project has increased our understanding of the chemical and mechanical degradation of tapestries as well as quantitatively comparing different artificial ageing techniques. The data generated from this research project will go on to provide the basis for further research projects. A website will be generated to enable those within the field to see and use the results within their own practice.

Advancing Heritage Science with ATRFTIR Microspectroscopic Imaging Satoko Tanimoto

materials and their interactions.

Postdoctoral Fellowship â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Advancing Heritage Science with Spectroscopic Imaging

Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-FTIR microspectroscopic imaging, pioneered at Imperial College London, has the potential to overcome these issues and to become an important new tool for routine application in heritage science.1 It can be used directly on cross-sections, and shows great promise for the complex, heterogeneous multi-component microstructures typical of heritage samples. Another great advantage is that existing crosssections can be re-examined, allowing correlation of the results from different types of analysis. Furthermore, fewer samples are needed, an important consideration for precious cultural heritage objects. The biggest advantage of ATR-FTIR microspectroscopic imaging over other infrared techniques is that the high refractive index germanium ATR crystal and the optics of the microscope give data with very high spatial resolution (approximately 3-4 micrometers) 2. Coupling the ATR with a focal plane array detector also permits very rapid data collection. A beam of IR light passes through an IR transparent crystal accessory in contact with the sample. Consequently, compared to reflectance FTIR imaging, already used for some time on cross-sections,3 there is less dependence on reflectivity of the materials, making it easier to obtain good data from organic materials. Also, with reflectance FTIR the greatest achievable spatial resolution is around 10 micrometers, generally not sufficient for samples from cultural heritage objects where features are often smaller in scale.

Characterisation of the materials of cultural heritage collections plays a key role in understanding their production and use, their conservation history, the origin and causes of degradation, and how deterioration has affected their appearance. Although various nondestructive methods of analysis are used directly on artefacts, for the most complex questions we need deeper and more precise information about the materials present and where they are located in the microstructure.

FTIR imaging

At present effective techniques exist for the spatiallyresolved analysis of inorganic materials such as pigments and fillers in cross-sections (e.g. scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Raman spectrometry etc.) but this is not the case for the many organic materials encountered (binders, varnishes etc.). Most of the methods used to characterise organic materials, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are bulk techniques that result in consumption of the sample. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in transmission mode has been used to study both inorganic and organic components of artefacts for many years, but as with GCMS, precise information about the location of materials within the microstructure of an object is lost, giving only a partial view of deterioration processes, condition, original

This high spatial resolution achieved with ATR-FTIR imaging has transformed the appeal of FTIR techniques in this field. The AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme project at Imperial College is exploring its application to cultural heritage samples. The research has focused on samples from a range of paintings and objects from the National Gallery (NG) and British Museum (BM), the heritage partners in this project, to assess its versatility, reliability and wider applicability in the field. By working with real samples, it has been possible to critically review the advantages and limitations of the technique, to determine what types of sample and research questions it can address, and to identify methodological issues that need to be optimised or better understood, such as sample preparation, data processing, and characteristics of this technique that need to be taken into account when interpreting spectra. This paper presents case studies from the project, illustrating the range of applications and advances that it has allowed in the analysis of organic materials in crosssections. ATR-FTIR imaging has shown that the green paint of the face of the Coffin of Hineb (BM) contains a complex mixture of copper compounds in an encaustic (wax-based) medium and that layers on the surface from conservation treatment also include wax, an important consideration in understanding how it might respond to treatment. Gilding


For this reason microsamples from paintings and objects are often prepared as cross-sections. The distribution of materials within the stratigraphy is very revealing. It reflects not only the working practices of the artist/maker, but also changes to original materials that occur over time or from restorations. It helps to differentiate between original materials and later additions, or deterioration products, crucial information to support decisions made during conservation. It is also important in understanding the causes of decay, informing decisions on storage and display.



ATR-FTIR imaging results from Barnaba da Modena’s Pentecost. A cross section from the gilding on the apostle’s purple robe (top left) shows the mordant used as adhesive directly below gold leaf. The ATR-FTIR images shows ultramarine (left) and gum ammoniac (middle). The FTIR spectrum (top right) from the mordant matches a gum ammoniac reference.

different routes at the NG and BM (e.g. catalogues, website, labels, gallery talks etc). It is a field that captures the imagination of the public and has proved in the past to be an effective means of increasing public understanding of science and of attracting new audiences.


References 1 Spring M, Ricci C, Peggie D, Kazarian S (2008) ‘ATR-FTIR imaging for the analysis of organic materials in paint cross sections: case studies on paint samples from the National Gallery, London’. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 392 (1):37-45 2 Kazarian SG, Chan KLA (2010) ‘Micro- and Macro-Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging’. Applied Spectroscoscopy 64 (5):135A-152A; Chan KLA, Kazarian SG (2003) ‘New Opportunities in Micro- and Macro-Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: Spatial Resolution and Sampling Versatility’. Applied Spectroscopy 57 (4):381-389

Left: Barnaba da Modena, Pentecost (NG1437, probably 1377) © The National Gallery, London. Right: detail of one of the apostles showing mordant gilding on the purple cloak © The National Gallery, London

techniques in fifteenth-century Italian paintings (NG) have been studied, identifying an extremely thin gum ammoniac adhesive in samples that it had not been possible to analyse before. Another application is in determining when red lake pigments have been made from dyed wool shearings, through the detection of protein from the textile fibre incorporated into the pigment, a method of manufacture that is characteristic of earlier madder lakes. The information on the materials and techniques of paintings and objects produced during the project not only contributes to their conservation but also benefits curatorial research and interpretation of the collections, feeding into engagement with the public through many

3 Van der Weerd J, Brammer H, Boon JJ, Heeren RMA (2002) ‘Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopic Imaging of an Embedded Paint CrossSection’. Applied Spectroscopy 56 (3):275-283

Sustainable Radiography for Cultural Materials in the 21st Century: Optimising Filmless Capture Techniques Lucy Martin, Andrew S. Wilson, Sonia O’Connor, Robert C. Janaway, David Crombie, Siobhan Watts* Collaborative Research Studentship Sustainable Radiography for Cultural Materials in the 21st Century: Optimising Filmless Capture Techniques This project has addressed the adoption of filmless radiographic techniques in heritage science for sustainable future practice. The project came about in recognition of the fact that this is a pivotal moment for radiography as increased use of filmless capture systems and environmental and economic concerns are threatening the future viability of film-based techniques.


filmless capture techniques employing both analogue and digital image receptors. It has provided a framework for aiding the selection of X-ray facilities and digital capture systems to best suit specific heritage applications, largely based on the collections and working practices of the NML and archaeological material at the University of Bradford. The project has also worked towards the production of standards for filmless capture to ensure high quality, reproducible acquisition and data processing. The adoption of digital filmless radiography is well advanced in certain sectors, such as medical and industrial applications and there are many different hardware and software solutions entering the marketplace. Museums are likely to end up purchasing filmless capture systems from both of these areas but neither medical nor industrial systems are necessarily directly applicable to the field of cultural heritage radiography without appropriate optimisation. There are a variety of reasons for this. For instance, medical radiography is constrained by patient requirements leading to heavy beam filtration, low X-ray-dose and fast acquisition of relatively low resolution images. The image capture and processing software settings are engineered

Figure 1. Radiography providing detailed information on the use of different paints (e.g. lead white), artistic technique and canvas construction (credit Sonia O’Connor/ University of Bradford).

Figure 2. David Crombie using image manipulation to examine a radiograph of a toy from the collections at National Museums Liverpool (credit Sonia O’Connor/ University of Bradford, with permission NML).

Figure 3. Evaluating portable x-ray systems to look at construction details and damage on a 1940s kayak (credit Sonia O’Connor/ University of Bradford).

to clinical working practices for rapid viewing and image interpretation. High definition, industrial radiographic systems are generally better suited to heritage science but other industrial systems can be designed for such specific applications that they lack the versatility needed for the radiography of cultural materials. As the X-ray response of filmless capture systems is not widely understood within heritage science, the project has evaluated the characteristics of the different types of receptors, such as their sensitivity to X-rays of different energy and the dynamic range, contrast and resolution of the captured image. These different filmless detector systems were also assessed to determine which were best suited to particular applications in cultural materials radiography. The quality and optimisation of capture systems was gauged using test subjects, image quality indicators and a selection of cultural objects in a range of materials, including organic materials, metals, and other


Filmless radiography can offer enhanced dynamic range and increased sensitivity compared to film, and open new directions for the investigation of cultural materials. However, not all systems will produce images of a quality suitable for the disparate applications and exacting standards of cultural materials radiography. Filmless capture systems may be optimised for use with X-ray equipment designed for real-time inspection, clinical, industrial, high-definition, micro-focus or threedimensional radiography. In partnership with National Museums Liverpool, this studentship has evaluated a number of currently available


inorganic materials. Bespoke image quality indicators were developed in a range of materials to gauge system sensitivity at different beam energies and to detect potentially misleading artefacts produced by the receptor or image processing software. These filmless capture images were bench marked against high definition film radiographs of the same objects.


Figure 4. The quality of these shell radiographs inspired further work on rotography and the use of stereo pairs to better convey radiographic information for three dimensional objects (credit Lucy Martin/ University of Bradford).

Filmless capture systems were also assessed for their suitability as image receptors for particular X-ray techniques, previously undertaken using film, such as electron transmission, beta-radiography, auto-radiography, gamma-radiography, stereo-radiography and lead screen intensification. In some cases the sensitivity offered by the filmless capture system makes these special techniques redundant. For instance, low energy radiography combined with an unencapsulated computed radiography (CR) image receptor can produce in seconds radiographs of watermarks on paper that can take several hours to produce using beta-radiography. In addition the CR images can have better contrast and definition of detail than the beta-radiographs. The project has addressed a number of intellectual issues concerned with the quality of captured data specifically the use of standard examination tags that pre-select a tissue type in medical filmless radiography, such as ‘cartilage’ or ‘bone’, or an object type or feature such as ‘weld’ in industrial radiography. These tags can determine automatic procedures for data manipulation, streamlining image acquisition and speeding up image interpretation. Image recognition software may be applied to orientate the image and select the features for which the displayed image will be ‘optimised’. Further digital image processing may then be applied to enhance the visibility of the expected features of interest. This pre-processing is of limited use with cultural material as objects are often X-rayed specifically because it is not known what features might be revealed. In addition these tags can lead to inappropriate processing that may obscure important information, particularly where features cannot be readily predicted from external evidence (e.g. corroded metal objects), or produce false information, such as when

edge enhancement produces bright outlines suggesting an abrupt increase in thickness or density when neither is the case. Another concern was the integrity of the image, which relates to image capture for archive without enhancement (authenticated by logged history/appropriate metadata). The project also considered the potential for newly accessible types of information, given that there is the potential to record data previously thought impossible when using film. Filmless capture, particularly digital capture (DR), combined with conventional X-ray systems presents the opportunity to capture successive images of objects whilst they are incrementally rotated. These short sequences (as few as 6 images) can then be animated, the object appearing to rotate almost seamlessly, revealing the relative positions of features in a way otherwise only obtainable through real-time radiography or CT scanning. Ultimately, filmless capture will change the way we use radiography and the image interpretation process. These changes will lead to further changes to radiographic image use ‘at the bench’, with computer monitors replacing light boxes and hand lens and digital capture facilitating image sharing and exploration. Throughout the project, liaison with equipment and software providers has enabled us to explore the potential for customising filmless capture systems for the heritage sector and to assess research developments in radiography. The project offers guidance for best practice for those using and commissioning filmless radiography for cultural heritage applications including modifying X-ray technique, image archiving, security, file formats and metadata.

Figure 5. Low density radiograph of a bird mummy with step wedges as image quality indicators (Sonia O’Connor/ University of Bradford).

Other poster presentations DART – The Dynamics of Seeing Beneath the Soil Dan Boddice (University of Birmingham); Rob Fry (University of Bradford); David Stott (University of Leeds); Anthony Beck (University of Leeds); Doreen Boyd (University of Nottingham); Anthony Cohn (University of Leeds); Chris Gaffney (University of Bradford); Nicole Metje (University of Birmingham); Armin Schmidt (Geodata WIZ Ltd.) and Keith Wilkinson (University of Winchester)

Pre-Corroded Electrical Resistance Sensors for Use in the Conservation of Heritage Iron: Inkjet Printing in their Manufacture James Dracott (University of Manchester)

Nishad Karim (University of Leicester)

A Corner of a Foreign Field: Identifying the Dead from the Great War 1914-1918 Rob Janaway (University of Bradford); Emma Brown (University of Bradford) and Sarah Ashbridge (University of Bradford)

Emission Profiles from Polymeric Materials: Characterised by NonInvasive Methods of Determination Gemma Mitchell (University of Strathclyde)

Development of a Colorimetric Sensor for the Determination of Chemical Hazards in Heritage Institutions Ian Rushworth (University of Strathclyde)

Flood and Wind Driven Rain Impact on Heritage Structures: Laboratory Simulation and Investigation Victoria Stephenson (University College London)


Reconstructing 16th Century Tombs Virtually




Plenary Speaker Profiles


David Willetts

Professor Dana Arnold

Guest Speaker – Day 1

Chair: Culture parallel session – Day 1

David is Minister for Universities and Science. He has been the Member of Parliament for Havant since 1992. He has worked at HM Treasury, the Number 10 Policy Unit, and served as Paymaster General in the last Conservative Government. He is a Governor of the Ditchly Foundation and a member of the Council of the Institute for Fiscal Studies. He has written widely on economics and social policy. His book The Pinch: How the Baby Boomers Took Their Children’s Future – And How They Can Give It Back was published last year. At the Biotechnology Industrial Organisation (BIO) conference in Boston this year, David was given their International Leadership Award for the public official who has made the greatest contribution to the BIO industry over the past year.

Baroness Kay Andrews OBE

Elizabeth (Kay) Andrews OBE, Baroness Andrews of Southover, Chair of English Heritage 2009-2013; Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department for Communities and Local Government May 2005 – May 2009 and Government Whip on Education and Health, 2003-2005. Before being raised to the peerage in 2000, Baroness Andrews was a Fellow of the Science Policy Research Unit at Sussex University (1968 to 1970), Parliamentary Clerk in the House of Commons from 1970 to 1985, and Policy Adviser to Neil Kinnock as Leader of the Opposition from 1985 to 1992. From 1992 until 2002, Baroness Andrews was the Founder and Director of Education Extra, the national charity for out of school learning and activities. She has written books and articles on the history and organisation of science and technology policy, on poverty and social policy, and on education. Baroness Andrews received the OBE in 1998 for her work in education.

Nancy Bell Presentation: The National Heritage Science Forum: Purpose and Vision – Day 2 Nancy Bell is Head of Collection Care for The National Archives. In this role she is charged with developing and implementing preservation programmes for one of the oldest and largest archives in the world. Prior to this she was Head of Research where she developed and implemented an integrated research programme for the National Archives including conservation science research. She is a member of both the AHRC Peer Review College, and the Science and Heritage Programme advisory panel and is deputy chair of the Heritage Science Forum. In recent years Nancy has led key research projects in collaboration with the Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL and the University of Cardiff Biophysics Group.


Panel Discussant: The Public Value of Science and Heritage Research – Day 2

Dana Arnold is Professor of Architectural History and Theory at Middlesex University, UK. She is Guest Professor, International Research Centre for Chinese Cultural Heritage Conservation, Tianjin University, China and Honorary Professor in the Faculty of Architecture at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara where she leads a British Academy funded research project that looks at architectural interaction between diverse cultures in the Middle East. She has written a trilogy of books on London: The Spaces of the Hospital: Spatiality and urban change in London 1680-1820 (2013); Rural Urbanism: London landscapes in the early nineteenth century (2006); and Representing the Metropolis: Architecture, Urban Experience and Social Life in London 1800-1840 (2000). She is also the author of Reading Architectural History (2002), The Georgian Country House and The Georgian Villa, which are both in their third editions. Her recent edited and co-edited volumes include: A Companion to British Art (2012); Art History: Contemporary Perspectives on Method (2010), Biographies and Space (2008) and Rethinking Architectural Historiography (2006). Her current research project, in collaboration with Université Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and Tianjin University, focuses on the architecture, urbanism and heritage of the Chinese city of Tianjin.


She was Principal Investigator for the AHRC and EPSRC supported research cluster, EGOR: environmental guidelines opportunities and risks. Current work includes the application of economic models to the management of cultural heritage. Nancy was born in the USA and studied History at the University of Maryland, graduating with an MA in 1982. She received an award from the Council of Library Resources, USA to study book and paper conservation in the UK where she specialised in the conservation of medieval manuscripts. She worked for 12 years in Oxford, establishing the Oxford Conservation Consortium, a unique co-operative facility to provide conservation and preservation services for Oxford’s collections. Nancy is currently leading a research project Mind the Gap: Rigour and Relevance in Heritage Science Research, which examines the collaborative dynamic between research and practitioner communities.

Dr Philip Campbell Panel Discussant: The Public Value of Science and Heritage Research – Day 2


Dr Philip Campbell is Editorin-Chief of Nature and of the Nature Publishing Group. His areas of responsibility include the editorial content and management of Nature, and assuring the long-term quality of all Nature publications. He is based in London. Philip has a BSc in aeronautical engineering, an MSc in astrophysics and a PhD and postdoctoral research in upper atmospheric physics. Following his research, he became the Physical Sciences Editor of Nature and then, in 1988, the founding editor of Physics World, the international magazine of the UK Institute of Physics. He returned to Nature to take on his current role in 1995. He has worked with the UK government, the European Commission and the US National Institutes of Health on issues relating to science and its impacts in society. For ten years until 2012 he was a trustee of Cancer Research UK. He is a founding trustee of the research funding charity ‘MQ: transforming mental health’. He is an elected Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, has honorary degrees from several universities, and was awarded an Honorary Professorship by the Peking Union Medical College. He is a Life Member of Clare Hall, Cambridge University.

Simon Cane Presentation: Reflections on End-User Needs from Science and Heritage Research – Day 1 Simon Cane MA, ACR, FIIC is Interim Director of Birmingham Museums Trust where he was previously the Head of Operations (Deputy Director). He joined BMAG as Head of Conservation and Collection Care in 2004. He is an Accredited Conservator and a Fellow of the International Institute for Conservation. Simon started his career as a conservation apprentice at Hampshire County Council Museum Service and studied conservation at Lincoln College and Museum Studies at the University of Southampton. His research interests include conservation ethics and principles, communication and public engagement and risk/decision making. He has published several papers in these and related subject areas. He contributed to the development of ‘It’s a material world: caring for the public realm’ published by the public policy think-tank Demos, contributed the chapter, ‘Why do we conserve?’ to the publication ‘Conservation Principles, dilemmas and uncomfortable truths’ and most recently contributed a chapter ‘Iconoclasm as Conservation, Concealment and Subversion’ to the book ‘Striking Images’ (provisional title) that will be published in Autumn 2013 to coincide with the British Iconclasm exhibition at Tate Britain. An active and committed conservation professional, Simon was Chairman of the Board of Trustees for ICON (Institute of Conservation) and led the Task Force on Public Engagement for ICOM-CC the International Council of Museums – Conservation Committee. He sits on the Advisory Panel of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme and is a Trustee of the Collections Trust. Simon has been the strategic lead for key aspects of the Staffordshire Hoard project, including conservation, management and interpretation. He has ensured that the project has remained visible and accessible to a fascinated and engaged public.

Professor May Cassar Presentation: Research and Engagement: the Science and Heritage Programme, 2007-2014 – Day 1  hair, Plenary Session: C The International Picture – Day 2 Concluding address: A Vision for UK Science and Heritage Research – Day 2 May Cassar FIIC FSA FRSA ACR has been the Director of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme since its inception in 2007. She was the Special Adviser to the House of Lords Science and Technology Select Committee Inquiry on Science and Heritage between 2005 and 2006. In 2012, May was the recipient of the Plowden Gold Medal awarded by the Royal Warrant Holders’ Association in recognition of her enduring commitment to improving the professional standing of heritage conservation practice nationally and internationally. In 2010, with others, she was the recipient of the Europa Nostra Grand Prix for Research on the impact of climate change on cultural heritage. May is currently Professor of Sustainable Heritage at UCL and the Director of the UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage at the Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment where she was instrumental in attracting investment for a state-of-the-art Heritage Science Laboratory.

Professor Brian Collins Chair, plenary session: UK Infrastructure for Science and Heritage Research – Day 2

Until March 2012, Professor Collins was Chair of the Engineering and Interdependency Expert Group for Infrastructure UK, then led by Lord James Sassoon, Commercial Secretary in Her Majesty’s Treasury. In 2009, He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. In the 2011 New Year Honours List, he was bestowed by Her Majesty the Queen the Honour of Companion of the Bath (CB).


Dr Fionnuala Costello Chair: Technology Parallel Session – Day 1 Dr Costello has been Programme Manager for the Emerging Technologies and Industries Programme at the UK Technology Strategy Board since 2011. This programme is supporting the commercialisation of a number of disruptive innovations emerging from the science base with the aim that the UK will be poised to lead at least one new billion-pound industry in 10 years’ time. Fionnuala has a first class mechanical engineering degree from University College Dublin and MSc and PhD in materials science from the University of Manchester. Her career has straddled technical and policy domains with roles ranging from steel production with Tata Steel, to policy development in the Enterprise Directorate of the European Commission and business development for the University of Manchester. Since 2004 Fionnuala has worked in research funding, managing the built environment portfolio for the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the buildings portfolio within Technology Strategy Board before moving to her current post.

Professor David Delpy Panel Discussant: The Public Value of Science and Heritage Research – Day 2 Professor Delpy is Chief Executive at the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). He is a world-renowned researcher specialising in the development of techniques for the physiological monitoring of patients and especially the imaging of neonatal brain function. He is one of only a handful of UK researchers to be appointed as a Fellow to the Royal Society, the Royal Academy of Engineering, and the Academy of Medical Sciences. He has worked closely with many companies who have marketed the devices developed by him and his team. Most notably, he collaborated for more than twenty years with Hamamatsu Photonics, who have developed marketleading monitoring and imaging technology based on his work. Prior to becoming EPSRC Chief Executive in 2007, Professor Delpy was Vice-Provost for Research at University College London.


Professor Collins took up the role of Professor of Engineering Policy at University College London on 1st August 2011 and is Head of a new Department at UCL, Science, Engineering, Technology and Public Policy. Prior to his appointment at UCL he was the Chief Scientific Adviser (CSA) for the UK Department for Transport (DfT) from October 2006; CSA for the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) from May 2008; and CSA for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) from March 2009. In his time within BERR UK energy policy was within his remit. He was Professor of Information Systems at Cranfield University from August 2003 until July 2011 and was a member of the Council of Science and Technology working party that published in 2009 the report A National Infrastructure for the 2st Century under the leadership of Sir Mark Walport, now GCSA.

Professor Collins holds a MA in Physics and a DPhil in Astrophysics from the University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Civil Engineers, the Institute of Engineering and Technology, the British Computer Society and the Institute of Physics. He is an Emeritus Visiting Professor at City University London, has a visiting Professorship at Wollongong University, New South Wales, Australia and holds an Honorary Doctorate from Kingston University.


Dr Alberto de Tagle Presentation: ICCROM Consortium for Conservation Science: Global Agenda in the Making – Day 2


Alberto de Tagle is Chief Scientist at the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency (RCE). He studied at the Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany, where he earned a master’s degree in analytical chemistry. He returned to Cuba in 1972 and served for the next 10 years in Havana as head of inorganic instrumental analysis at the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNIC). He earned a Ph.D. in analytical atomic spectroscopy at the TH Merseburg, Germany in 1980. From 1982 until 1990 he directed scientific research in cultural heritage studies and preservation at the National Centre for Conservation, Restoration, and Museology (CENCREM), Havana, Cuba. He lectured as associate professor on colonial architectural decorative paintings at the University of Havana. Since 1991 he has been Lecturer for the course in Advanced Architecture Conservation at the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, University of Pennsylvania. In 1992 he was appointed head of the analytical laboratories at the Winterthur Museum and Gardens in Delaware and adjunct associate professor in the Art Conservation Program at the University of Delaware. From 1995 to 2001 he was Director of the Scientific Program and then Chief Scientist at the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, USA. Since 2002 Alberto has worked at the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage, now RCE, in Amsterdam. Alberto is teaching and Research Fellow at the Art Conservation Program at the University of Amsterdam. He is currently a member of ICCROM’s General Council for a second term. Alberto lectures internationally and participates in scientific advisory committees at several conservation research institutions in Spain, France, Italy and Germany.

Dr Michael Dixon Response to Guest Speaker – Day 1 Dr Michael Dixon read zoology at Imperial College and completed a doctorate at York University, studying host location mechanisms in larval trematodes. From 1980-1999 Michael worked in publishing, for Pitman, Wiley and Thomson, latterly as Group MD. In 1999 he was appointed Director General of the Zoological Society of London, with its two zoos, a research facility (the Institute of Zoology), and a field conservation division. In 2004 Michael became Director of the Natural History Museum. Annual attendance has since increased from three to over five million and the £78 million Darwin Centre opened to widespread acclaim. During 2006/7 Michael served as Chief Scientific Adviser to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport where he now chairs the Science Research Advisory Committee. Michael is a Trustee of the Royal Albert Hall

and academic appointments include the Court of the University of Reading and Imperial College, London, where he also chairs the Research Ethics Committee.

Alex Efimov Presentation: The Value of the Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN to Science and Heritage – Day 2 Mr Alex Efimov was trained as a nuclear physicist at National Nuclear Research University, Moscow, Russia (formerly known as Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute). He worked at the Moscow Institute of Radio Technologies and later held a number of technical and business development posts in Russia and Germany. After graduating with an MBA degree from the Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Alex switched his career to innovation and knowledge transfer. He worked for STFC as a UK Technology Transfer Officer at CERN, and later as a Technology Transfer Manager at Queen Mary University of London. He currently holds a position of a Director of Sensors and Instrumentation at the Electronics Sensors Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network.

John Fidler Presentation: The Future of Cultural Heritage – Day 2 John Fidler is an architect with postgraduate degrees in building conservation and thirty five years of practical experience specializing in the conservation of the historic built environment. He runs an international consultancy practice that advises clients around globe including those at World Heritage Sites at Angkor Wat and Palmyra. From 2007-2011, he was a practice leader with Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger Inc, consulting engineers and scientists with offices across America. A Getty Scholar, Fidler was also Vice President of ICCROM Council and sat on the Conservation Committee of the Getty Foundation. Until 2006, Fidler was the Conservation Director at English Heritage (EH) where he was responsible for technical and scientific research, policy-making, standard-setting, advice, publications, training and outreach. He commissioned SETI-based research; managed the EC-funded Wood Care project; devised the EH Research Strategy 2005-2010, Discovering the Past, Shaping the Future and edited the EH Research Transactions series. Fidler gave evidence to the House of Lords Inquiry into heritage science that stimulated the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme and delivery of the UK National Heritage Science Strategy. His call for an EU-wide research strategy for the historic environment and its sustainable management was published in 2007 by the European Commission in the proceedings of its 2006 Prague conference.

Catherine Hardman Presentation: Big Data: the Archaeology Data Service and Science and Heritage – Day 2 After an early career in the Home Civil Service serving in Whitehall and in Belfast with the Northern Ireland Office, Catherine returned to university to study archaeology. Catherine’s time at the universities of Bradford and York helped hone her interest in heritage management issues and after a time working as part of Cumbria County Council’s Historic Environment section, she joined the Archaeology Data Service (ADS) in 2001. As ADS Deputy Director, Catherine assists the strategic work of the Director and plays a lead role in various areas. Working with both AHRC and other bodies and agencies, Catherine negotiates access to digital data sets and works with potential depositors from across the sector to secure archives. Catherine takes an active role in external liaison, especially with English Heritage and other, non-HE partners and initiates, manages, and delivers a number of externally funded projects.

Robin Higgons Chair: Technology parallel session – Day 2

Dr Gail Lambourne Presentation: European Cultural Heritage and Global Change Strategic Research Agenda – Day 2 Dr Gail Lambourne is a Strategy and Development Manager for the Cultures and Heritage at the Arts and Humanities Research Council. She has worked in the Research Councils for around 15 years, first at the Natural Environment Research Council and then in various roles within the AHRC. Gail has led on a number of initiatives involving the heritage sector during this time, and more recently, has led the AHRC involvement in the Joint Programming Initiative in Cultural Heritage and Global Change (


Professor Nigel Llewellyn Presentation: Overview of Science and Heritage Programme from Advisory Group – Day 1 Professor Nigel Llewellyn was appointed Head of Research at Tate in January 2007 having previously worked for many years as a senior lecturer and professor of Art History at the University of Sussex. From 2003 to 2005 he was a parttime Programme Director for the AHRC Research Centres Scheme. He has curated several successful exhibitions including The Art of Death (V&A, 1991) and more recently Baroque 1620-1800: Style in the Age of Magnificence at the V&A in 2009. Nigel’s research interests include aspects of early modern continental and British art, especially architectural theory, visual mythology, the visual culture of commemoration and the historiography and methodology of art history. He is the recipient of the current research funding grant from the Leverhulme Trust for Art School Educated (2009-13) and has recently completed the AHRC funded project Court, Country, City (2009-12). Nigel is the author of over forty scholarly articles, essays and chapters in the above fields, and of books: Renaissance Bodies (edited with Lucy Gent, 1990), The Art of Death (1991), Funeral Monuments in post-Reformation England (2000), Baroque (2009) and Church Monuments in East Sussex, 1530-1820 (2011).

Dr Fred Mosselmans Presentation: Big Facilities: the Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus – Day 2 Fred Mosselmans obtained a B.A. in Natural Sciences from the University of Cambridge and a Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Southampton under the supervision of Professor John Evans. He has worked since 1994 as a synchrotron staff scientist, initially at the S.R.S., Daresbury Laboratory, and since 2005 as Principal Beamline Scientist at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline at Diamond Light Source. He is one of the U.K.’s experts in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). He has been a co-author on more than 100 refereed scientific publications. His main current research interests are in the application of XAS to environmental systems. He has worked for some years with the University of Kent, where he is a visiting professor, and the Mary Rose Trust on XAS studies helping to develop methods for the treatment of archaeological marine wood.


As a Director of Qi3, Robin is a specialist in international technology management at the highest level, focusing on marketing, sales, and technology translation. His private clients range from large corporations such as Unilever, BAE Systems, and Elekta, through SMEs and Venture Capital Funds, to start-up companies. In the public segment, Robin has undertaken a wide range of technology translation projects and programmes for Research Councils, Universities, UK Space Agency, and the European Space Agency. In previous roles, Robin has extensive experience of marketing, sales and general management in a broad range of global industries.

Trained originally as a biologist, her responsibilities also include the arts and humanities engagement with research around environmental issues.


Professor Ian Owens

Professor Rick Rylance

Presentation: Museum Collections as Research Infrastructure – Day 2

Panel Discussant: The Public Value of Science and Heritage Research – Day 2

Professor Ian Owens has been Director Science at the Natural History Museum, London since October 2011. He joined the Museum from Imperial College London, where he was Head of the Department of Life Sciences. He has previously worked at the Institute of Zoology, London and at the University of Queensland, Australia, and has had extensive involvement with learned societies, governmental and non-governmental agencies. He is an Honorary Research fellow of the Zoological Society of London and sits on the Natural Environment Research Council’s Post-Genomics and Proteomics steering committee. Professor Owens oversees the work of over 300 scientists and who are based at the Museum. He sets the strategic direction of the Museum’s scientific activities. This includes ensuring that the Museum meets its national and international responsibilities and the wider needs of society. He is also responsible for the Museum’s vast scientific collection of 70 million scientific specimens from all parts of the world.

Nick Poole


Chair: Culture parallel session – Day 2 Nick Poole is CEO of the Collections Trust, a UK-based organisation working to open up collections for enjoyment and use by everyone. He is Chair of the Europeana Network, a cross-industry network of the Creative & Cultural Industries, and the DCMS-nominated representative for the UK in the European Commission’s Member States Expert Group on Culture & Technology. Nick’s credentials include a TEDx talk, plus more than 150 lectures and presentations to audiences all over the world. He has secured €19m in new investment in Europe’s museums, galleries and heritage attractions since 2006 and is regularly invited to advise national governments and NGOs on the development of cultural policy. Before joining the Collections Trust, Nick was a Policy Adviser to the Museums & Galleries Commission and held posts in corporate finance. He trained as a portrait painter and holds degrees in Languages and Historical Linguistics.

Professor Rick Rylance is CEO of the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and Chair of the Research Council UK (RCUK) Executive Group. Before taking up the post of AHRC Chief Executive in September 2009, Rick was Head of the School of Arts, Languages and Literatures at the University of Exeter and prior to that he was Dean of Arts and Letters at the then Anglia Polytechnic University in Cambridge. Rick’s own research is in English. He was Chair of the English Sub-panel of the RAE 2008, a founder member of the English Subject Centre’s Advisory Board, a past chair of the Council of College and University English (CCUE) and is currently a member of the Higher Education Committee of the English Association. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) in 1998 and a Founding Fellow of the English Association in 1999. His main research interests are in nineteenth and twentieth-century literature and the intellectual and literary history of those periods. He has a particular interest in the history of psychology and the psychology of the reading process.

Margaret Sharp, Baroness Sharp of Guildford PRESENTATION: Origin and Purpose of the Science and Heritage Programme – DAY 1 Chair, Panel Discussion: The Public Value of Science and Heritage Research – Day 2 Margaret Sharp has been a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords since 1998 and between 2000 and 2009 was a front bench spokesperson on education, science and technology. As a member of the Select Committee on Science and Technology she chaired the inquiry in 2005-6 into Science and Heritage whose recommendations led to the establishment of the AHRC/ EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme and she has chaired its Advisory Board since its inception. She is also President of the National Heritage Science Forum and continues to take an active interest in issues relating to the conservation and sustainability of cultural heritage. A Cambridge educated economist, Margaret’s career spanned both academic and public service culminating with 18 years at the University of Sussex from which she holds an honorary doctorate. She is also an honorary fellow of Birkbeck College and of the City and Guilds Institute.

Marika Spring

Professor Heather Viles

Presentation: CHARISMA: a European Research Infrastructure project for science applied to cultural heritage

Chair: Materials parallel session – Day 2

MARIKA SPRING completed a degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge University, followed by a postgraduate diploma in the conservation of paintings at the Hamilton Kerr Institute in Cambridge. She has worked in the National Gallery Scientific Department since 1992, where she is currently Head of Science. Her principal research specialism is the study of historical painting techniques and materials, particularly pigments, using a range of microanalytical techniques. Her publications range from technical studies of specific schools of painting (particularly the sixteenth century period) to papers on the deterioration of historic pigments, and new emerging instrumental methods for analysis or examination. In the EU-funded CHARISMA project (www., in addition to her responsibility for the National Gallery’s involvement, she is leading a networking work package concerned with best practices in the application of science to the study of cultural heritage objects.


Heather Viles is Professor of Biogeomorphology and Heritage Conservation in the University of Oxford. A physical geographer by training, she runs the Oxford Rock Breakdown Laboratory in the School of Geography and the Environment. She has particular research interests in biological contributions to stone decay and conservation, and the development of non-destructive methods to evaluate and monitor weathering. Funding for this research has recently come from EPSRC, AHRC, English Heritage, Proceq, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and the Leverhulme Trust. She has written or edited 14 books and volumes, and has produced over 140 papers in international refereed journals and books. Heather is currently Chair of the British Society for Geomorphology and Vice-Provost of Worcester College, Oxford.

Barney Sloane Chair: Materials parallel session – Day 1


Barney studied archaeology and ancient history at St Davids, Lampeter. He worked at the Museum of London from 1986 to 1999 as a professional field archaeologist with a particular focus on the medieval period, and has co-authored and managed several major research projects on medieval hospitals and monastic sites in London. He joined the University of Reading in 1999 as a Research Fellow on an AHRB-funded major research project analysing archaeological evidence for medieval funerary practice in Britain. In 2003, he joined English Heritage as research grants programme manager. He is currently Head of Strategic Planning and Management for EH’s Heritage Protection Department and responsible for research grants, intelligence analysis and capacity-building. A particular responsibility is the coordination of the sectorwide National Heritage Protection Plan. He is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and sits on the board of the European Archaeological Council.



List of Projects


Collaborative Research Studentships (PhDs) The Lifetime of Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections University College London1 and The National Archives2

Interventive Conservation of Blackdyed Organic Materials – the Problem of Metal-Polyphenol Complexes University of Manchester1 and the British Museum2


Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Dr Matija Strlič Heritage Partner/Supervisor: Nancy Bell2

Additional Supervisors: Kostas Ntanos2 ; Dr Mark Barrett1 1

Student: Dr Ann Fenech

Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Museum of Modern Art (New York); Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa (Italy) Project website: PhDproject.html Workshop website: http://fenechworkshop.eventbrite. com/ Contact: Dr Ann Fenech –; Dr Matija Strlič – Publications: Fenech, A., Strlič, M., Degano, I. and Cassar, M. (2010). Stability of Chromogenic Colour Prints in Polluted Indoor environments. Polymer Degradation and Stability 95(12): pp 2481-2485

Fenech, A., Strlič, M., Ntanos, K., Bell, N. and Cassar, M. (2011). Lifetime of Chromogenic Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections. Preprints 16th Triennial Conference Lisbon, 19-23, September 2011. ICOM committee for conservation Fenech, A., Strlič, M. and Cassar, M. (2012). The past and the future of chromogenic colour photographs: lifetime modelling using near-infrared spectroscopy & enhancement using hypoxia. Applied Physics A 106: pp 411-417 Fenech, A., Fearn, T. and Strlič, M. (2012). Use of Design of Experiment Principles to develop a dose-response function for colour photographs. Polymer Degradation and Stability 97 (2012) pp 621-625 Fenech, A., Dillon, C. et al. (2013). Modelling the lifetime of colour photographs in archival collections. Studies in Conservation 58(2): pp 107-116 Martins, A., Daffner, L.A., Fenech, A., McGlinchey, Ch. and Strlič, M. (2012). Non Destructive Dating of Fiber Base Gelatin Silver Prints Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 402 pp 1459-1469

Heritage Partner/Supervisor: Dr Marei Hacke2 Additional Supervisors: Dr Muriel Rigout1 ; Dr Vincent Daniels; Pippa Cruickshank 2 Student: Dr Helen Louise Wilson1 Project website: research/research_projects/all_current_projects/ collaborative_doctoral_awards/black-dyed_organic_ materials.aspx Contact: Dr Helen Wilson –; Professor Chris Carr – Publications: Wilson, H., Carr, C., Hacke, M., Cruickshank, P., Daniels, V., Stacey, R. and Rigout, M. (2011). Investigation of non-aqueous remedial treatments for irontannate dyed textiles. ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference, 19-23 September 2011, Lisbon. Lisbon, Portugal, ICOM-CC: 1-9. Wilson, H., Carr, C. and Hacke, M. (2012). Production and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles for use as historic textile substitutes in stabilisation treatment studies. Chemistry Central Journal, 6(44) Wilson, H. (2013). Investigation into non-aqueous remedial conservation treatments for iron-tannate dyed organic materials. The University of Manchester. PhD thesis. [Online]. Accessible at: https://www.escholar.

Investigation into Structural Analysis and Associated Conservation Support Strategy in the Display of Large Historic Tapestries and Textiles University of Manchester1 and Historic Royal Palaces2 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Professor Chris Carr (University of Leeds) Heritage Partners/Supervisors: Dr Constantina VlachouMogire2 ; Kathryn Hallett 2 Additional Supervisor: Dr Prasad Potluri1 Student: Dr Philippa Duffus1 Project webpage:


Fenech, A., Strlič, M., Krajl Cigić, I., Levart, A., Gibson, L.T., de Bruin, G., Ntanos, K., Kolar, J. and Cassar, M. (2010). Volatile Aldehydes in Libraries and Archives. Atmospheric Environment 44(17): pp 2067-2073

Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Professor Chris Carr (University of Leeds)


Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Duffus Contact: Dr Philippa Duffus Philippa Duffus –; Professor Chris Carr – Publications: Duffus, P.H. Margetts, L., Carr, C.M., Potluri, P. and Vlachou-Mogire, C. (2012). Towards Structural Analysis and Evaluation of Conservation Support Systems of Historic Tapestries Using Finite Element Analysis Simulation. In: Yang, Z.J. (Ed) (2012) Proceedings of the 20th UK National conference of the Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering. 26th-28th March 2012. Manchester: University of Manchester. [Online] Available from: http:// structures/ACME2012-Proceedings.pdf Duffus, P. (in prep). The yellowing effects of heat-humidity treatments of wool and silk. Journal of the Textile Institute.

Preparing Historic Collections for Climate Change University of East Anglia1 and English Heritage2 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Professor Peter Brimblecombe1 Heritage Partner/Supervisor: Dr David Thickett 2 Student: Dr Paul Lankester2 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: the National Trust; Historic Royal Palaces Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Lankester Contact: Dr Paul Lankester –; Professor Peter Brimblecombe – Publications:

Non-Invasive Methods For In Situ Assessing and Monitoring the Vulnerability of Rock Art Monuments Nottingham Trent University1 and English Heritage2 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Dr Haida Liang1 Heritage Partner/Supervisor: Dr Sebastian Payne2 Additional Supervisors: Dr Martin Bencsik1 ; Professor Brian Pyatt1 Student: Elizabeth Bemand1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: National Trust; Nottingham City Council Project website: groups_centres/sat/131905.html


Contact: Elizabeth Bemand –; Dr Haida Liang – Publications: Bemand, E., Bencsik, M. and Liang, H. (2011) OCT and NMR for non-invasive in-situ monitoring of the vulnerability of rock art monument. Proceedings of SPIE 8084, 80840H Bemand, E. and Liang H. (2013). Optical Coherence Tomography for vulnerability assessment of sandstones. Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 14, pp. 3387-3393 Bemand, E., Liang, H. and Benscik, M. (In press) Noninvasive methods for in-situ monitoring of the vulnerability of rock art monuments. In: Darvill, T. and Fernandes, A.P.B. (Eds) Open-Air Rock Art Conservation and Management. Under publication by Routledge. ISBN 9780-415-84377-5 Bemand, E., Christian, R.S., Lucian, A., Lange, R. and Liang, H. (in prep). Remote NIR hyperspectral imaging for moisture detection. Brown, D., Bemand, E. and Alder, A. (2012). A Possible Astronomically Aligned Monolith at Gardom’s Edge. SEAC 2012

Brimblecombe, P. and Lankester, P. (2013). Long term changes in climate and insect damage in historic houses, Studies in Conservation, 58, pp. 13-22 Lankester, P. and Brimblecombe, P. (2010). Predicting future indoor climate at Knole, Views 47, pp. 71-73. Lankester, P. and Brimblecombe, P. (2012). The impact of future climate on historic interiors. Science of the Total Environment 417-418C, pp. 248-254. Lankester, P. and Brimblecombe, P. (2012). Future thermohygrometric climate within historic houses. Journal of Cultural Heritage 13: pp. 1–6 Lankester, P., Thickett, D. and Brimblecombe, P. (2012). The impact of climate change on historic interiors and display enclosures. In: Dahlin, E. (Ed) (2012). Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation. Norway, 24-26th September, 2012. Pp. 131139. Lankester, P., Brimblecombe, P. and Thickett, D. (2012). The application of damage functions to future indoor climate predictions. Proceedings of Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties. Munich, Germany, 7-9th November, 2012. Lankester, P. and Thickett, D. (2012). Delivering damage functions in enclosures. Proceedings of Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties. Munich, Germany, 7-9th November, 2012. Thickett, D., Chisholm, R. and Lankester, P. (2012). Development of damage functions for copper, silver and enamels on copper. Proceedings of Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties. Munich, Germany, 7-9th November, 2012. Thickett, D. and Lankester, P. (2012). Critical knowledge gaps in environmental risk assessment and prioritising research, Collections, 8, pp. 281-295

Deterioration and Conservation of Historic Concrete Structures: the National Museum of Flight Military Airfield at East Fortune University of Edinburgh1 and National Museums Scotland2 Principal Investigators/Supervisors: Dr Andrea Hamilton1 (University of Strathclyde – primary supervisor); Professor Christopher Hall1

Heritage Partner/Supervisor: Dr James Tate2 Student: Dr Isobel Griffin1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: National Trust for Scotland; Historic Scotland Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Griffin Contact: Dr Isobel Griffin –; Dr Andrea Hamilton – Publications: Griffin, I.M., Hamilton, A. and Tate, J. (2010). Deterioration of cement-rendered brick masonry buildings: Case study of a World War II airfield in East Lothian, Scotland. In: Válek, J., Groot, C. and Hughes, J.J. (Eds) (2010). 2nd Conference on Historic Mortars – HMC 2010 and RILEM TC 203-RHM final workshop. Rilem. Pp 501-509 Griffin, I. and Tate, J. (2012). Conserving our Wartime Heritage, A Reinforced Concrete Air Raid Shelter in East Lothian, Scotland. Journal of Architectural Conservation, Volume 18, Number 1, March 2012 Griffin, I., Hamilton, A. and Tate, J. (2012). The repair of historic cement renders, with reference to the buildings at a World War II airfield in East Lothian, Scotland. Journal of the Building Limes Forum, Volume 19, pp. 57-65 Griffin, I.M., Hall, C. and Hamilton, A. (2013). Unusual water transport properties of some Scottish shale bricks. Materials and Structures. [Online] Available from: http:// Hamilton, A. and Griffin, I.M. (in prep). Conical cracking in cement render from aggregate expansion.

Historic Dye Analysis: Method Development and New Applications in Cultural Heritage 1

Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Dr Alison Hulme1 Heritage Partners/Supervisors: Dr James Tate2 ; Jane Rowlands3 Additional Supervisor: Professor Hamish McNab1 Student: Lore Troalen1,2 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Bodleian Library, Oxford; Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (LC2RMF) Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Troalen

University of Bradford1 and National Museums Liverpool2 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Dr A. Wilson1 Heritage Partners/Supervisors: David Crombie2 ; Dr Siobhan Watts2 Additional Supervisors: Dr Sonia O’Connor1 ; Rob Janaway1 Student: Lucy Martin1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: the British Museum, Natural History Museum, the Royal Armouries, Museum of London, Cuattro, BCF Technology, Processing Imaging Equipment Services, Carestream Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Martin Contact: Dr Andrew Wilson

An Evaluation of In Situ Preservation Potential and Monitoring Strategies at the Sites of the Sweet Track, and Glastonbury Lake Village, in the Somerset Levels, UK. University of Reading1 and English Heritage2 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Professor Martin Bell1 Heritage Partners/Supervisors: Dr Sebastian Payne2 ; Vanessa Straker2 Additional Supervisors: Professor Matthew Almond1 ; Dr Steve Robinson1 Student: Dr Louise Jones1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Somerset County Council, Natural England and Glastonbury Antiquarian Society Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/Jones Contact: Dr Louise Jones –; Professor Martin Bell Publications:

Contact: Lore Troalen –; Dr Alison Hulme –

Jones, L. (2010). In Situ Preservation Research and Monitoring in the Somerset Levels: an Interim Report. Archaeology in the Severn Estuary 20: 65-79


Jones, L. and Bell, M. (2012). In Situ Preservation of Wetland Heritage: Hydrological and Chemical Change in the Burial Environment of the Somerset Levels, UK. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. 14: 115-125

Troalen, L.G., Peggie, D.A., Phillips, A.S., Barran, P.E. and Hulme, A.N. Historical textile dyeing with Genista tinctoria L.: a comprehensive study by UPLC and MS analysis (submitted) Troalen, L.G. and Hulme, A.N. (in press). Characterisation of dye sources in early English tapestries by liquid chromatography analysis. In Cleland, E. and Karafel, L. (eds), Glasgow Museums: The Burrell Tapestries. Glasgow Museums in association with Unicorn Press


University of Edinburgh , National Museums Scotland2 and Glasgow Museums3

Sustainable Radiography for Cultural Materials in the 21st Century: Optimising Filmless Capture Techniques



Weathering and Decay in Historic Magnesian Limestone: Application of X-ray Techniques to Inform Cathedral Conservation in the 21st Century University of Cardiff1, University of York2 and York Minster3 Principal Investigator/Supervisor: Dr Karen Wilson1 Heritage Partner: York Minster

Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/CRS/RWalker Contact Dr Karen Wilson – Publications: Walker, A.R., Wilson, K., Lee, A.F., Woodford, J., Grassian, V.H., Baltrusaitis, J., Rubasinghege, G., Cibin, G. and Dent, A. (2012). Preservation of York Minster historic limestone by hydrophobic surface coatings. Scientific Reports 2, 880. DOI:10.1038/srep00880

Additional Supervisors: Professor Adam Lee1, Dr Kate Giles2 Student: Rachel Walker1

Science and Heritage Programme Research Clusters An Integrated Approach to the Management, Scientific Study and Conservation of Battlefield Artefact Assemblages University of Bradford Principal Investigator: Mr Rob Janaway Co-Investigator: Dr Andrew Wilson Project Coordinator: Dr Glenn Foard (University of Huddersfield)


Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: University of Leeds; University of Glasgow; English Heritage; University of Oxford; No Man’s Land Archaeology/Defence Estates; Dana Goodburn Brown; Historic Scotland Project website: resource-centre/battlefieldsuk/periodpageview. asp?pageid=844&parentid=199 Contact: Mr Rob Janaway –

BookNET: A Network for the Technological Study of the Book and Manuscript as Artefact University of Oxford1 and the Bodleian Library2 Principal Investigator: Professor Mark Pollard1 Co-Investigators: Richard Ovenden2 ; David Howell2 Project Coordinator: Sarah Neate1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich; Center for the Study of Books and Media, Princeton University; Cardiff University; Art Access and Research Ltd; Victoria & Albert Museum; British Library; University of Manchester; Camberwell College of Arts

A.M. (Eds) (2011). The Technological Study of Books and Manuscripts as Artefacts. Research questions and analytical solutions. BAR International Series 2209. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Cultural Encounters and Explorations: Conservation’s “Catch-22” University College London1 and Royal College of Art2 Principal Investigator: Professor Elizabeth Pye1 Co-Investigators: Dean Sully1 ; Dr Jonathan AshleySmith2 Research Assistant: Hazel Gardiner1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage; UCL Department of Anthropology; Halahan Associates; National Trust; British Library; Bodleian Library; Birmingham Institute of Art and Design; Manchester Museum; Bate Collection, University of Oxford; Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery; Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge; Museum of London; British Museum; Cuming Museum; UCL Museums and Collections; Textile Conservation Centre, University of Southampton; Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; St Albans Museum Service; Rosanna Raymond, Performance Artist; George Nuku, Artist; University of Leicester; Reading Museum; UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies; Imperial College; Museums Association; National Museums of Scotland; Tate; Victoria & Albert Museum. Project website: conservation-c-22 Contact: Professor Elizabeth Pye –; Dean Sully –

Decay of Ancient Stone Monuments

Project website:

Newcastle University

Contact: Professor Mark Pollard –

Principal Investigator: Dr Aron Mazel


Researcher: Dr Myra Giesen

Neate, S., Howell, D., Ovenden, R. and Pollard,

Co-Investigator: Professor David Graham Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Northumberland County Council; University of

Bradford; Queen’s University Belfast; English Heritage Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/Cluster/Mazel Contact: Dr Aron Mazel –

uk/information-management/projects-and-work/ environmental-guidelines-opportunities-risks.htm


Contact: Nancy Bell – Publications:

Publications: Giesen, M.J., Mazel, A.D., Graham, D.W. and Warke, P.A. (2010). The resilience and care of ancient stone monuments in changing environments. In: Amoêda, R., Lira, S. and Pinheiro, C. (eds). Heritage 2010: Heritage and Sustainable Development. Barcelos: Green Lines Institute, pp.515-523 Giesen, M.J., Mazel, A.D., Graham, D.W. and Warke, P.A. (2011). Care and Management of Ancient Stone Monuments during Environmental Change. International Journal of Heritage and Sustainable Development 1(1), pp. 60-71 Giesen, M.J., Ung, A., Warke, P.A., Christgen, B., Mazel, A.D. and Graham, D.W. (in press). Condition assessment and preservation of open-air rock art panels during environmental change. Journal of Cultural Heritage 2013. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S1296207413000666

Publically Available Specification 198:2012 Specification for managing environmental conditions for cultural collections. British Standards Institution.

I-HE[AR]2 (I Hear Too) – Improving Heritage Experience through Acoustic Reality and Audio Research University of York Principal Investigator: Dr Damian Murphy Co-Investigator: Jude Brereton

Ecologies of Modern Heritage: Studying the Cultural and Material Environments of Recent Historical Change

Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: National Railway Museum, York; British Library; Arup Acoustics; Glasgow School of Art Digital Design Studio; University of Huddersfield; York Minster; David Chapman (sound artist); Louise K. Wilson (artist); Craig Vear (sound designer and recordist); Aaron Watson (Monumental); Jon Was (artist); Jane Reck; Institute for Public Understanding of the Past, University of York; Historyworks; Geodesic Arts; Ben Pugh; English Heritage; The Dogrose Trust; Ebor Singers; Ambrose Field (composer)

University of Oxford1 and University of Exeter2

Project website:


Principal Investigator: Dr Dan Hicks

Co-Investigator: Dr Caitlin DeSilvey 2 Research Assistant: Dr Laura McAtackney1

Project website: Contact: Dr Dan Hicks –

EGOR: Environmental Guidelines: Opportunities and Risks The National Archives1, University College London2 and Tate3 Principal Investigator: Nancy Bell1 Co-Investigators: Dr Matija Strlič2 ; Stephen Hackney3 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Collections Trust; National Museum Directors’ Conference; DEMOS; the National Trust; Library of Congress, USA; Canadian Conservation Institute; English Heritage; London Climate Change Agency; Jura Consultants; Jersey Heritage; Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham; British Library; British Museum; Cardiff University Project website:

Modelling, Interpretation and Alternate Representations: Visualization Technology, Heritage Buildings & Coastal Threats Bangor University Principal Investigator: Dr Jonathan Roberts Co-Investigator: Professor Raimund Karl Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: University of Leeds; University of East Anglia; University of Warwick; the National Trust; St Fagans, Natural History Museum, Wales; National Oceanography Centre, Imperial College London; National Library of Wales; The Heritage Council, Ireland; University of Birmingham; English Heritage; Edinburgh Napier University; University of Swansea; University of Cyprus; Cardiff University; University of Kent, University of Illinois, USA; National University of Ireland; Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik in Vienna; Technium CAST; Gwynedd Archaeological Trust; De Montfort University; Denbighshire County Council; Open University; Coleg Menai; King’s College London; Teesside University; Deri Jones & Associates Ltd; Ysgol Friars; University of Brighton; Glamorgan University; RCAHMW Project website: Contact: Dr Jonathan Roberts –


Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: ARCUS, University College London; University of Edinburgh; University of the West of England; University of East Anglia; English Heritage; British Geological Survey; University of Portsmouth; WS Atkins Consultants; London Metropolitan University; Kingston University; University of Bradford; Bletchley Park Trust; Open University; Cardiff University; University of Kent.

Contact: Dr Damian Murphy –


Acoustics and Music of British Prehistory Research Network University of Huddersfield1, University of Sheffield2 and Durham University3 Principal Investigator: Dr Rupert Till1 Co-Investigators: Professor Jian Kang2 ; Professor Chris Scarre3 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: University of Cambridge; University of York; Odeon, Denmark; National Museum Wales; English Heritage; IMIGEA; University of Bournemouth; Arup Acoustics; University of East London; University of Manchester, University College London. Project website: Contact: Dr Rupert Till –

Researching Ivory: Integrating Scientific Analyses, Historical Data, Artefact Studies and Conservation Needs University of York1 and University of Bradford2 Principal Investigator: Dr Paul Lane1


Co-Investigator: Dr Sonia O’Connor 2 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: National Museums Liverpool; Horniman Museum; Victoria & Albert Museum; Pitt Rivers Museum; British Museum; Natural History Museum; National Museums Scotland; National Museum Wales; Customs and Excise Museum, Liverpool; Science Museum; Leeds Museums and Galleries; Hull Museums; York Archaeological Trust; York Museums Trust; Oriental Museum, Durham; Grundy Art Gallery; Archaeology and Anthropology Museum, Cambridge, Quex Museum, Broadstairs; Ken Hawley Collections Trust; National Maritime Museum; Royal Armouries, Leeds; Ashmolean Museum; Newcastle Museum; Collections Trust; TRAFFIC International; Metropolitan Police Wildlife Crime Unit; INCENTIVS; Johannes Guttenberg University, Mainz. Project website: ivory/Home Contact: Dr Paul Lane –

Touching the Untouchable: Increasing Access to Archaeological Artefacts by Virtual Handling University of Exeter1 and University of Glasgow 2 Principal Investigator: Dr Linda Hurcombe1 Co-Investigators: Dr Mark Paterson1 ; Professor Stephen Brewster2 Project Coordinator: Dr Adam Wainwright1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: University of Oxford; Queens University Belfast; Italian Institute of Technology, Genova; National Conservation Centre Liverpool; RNIB; Goldsmiths College; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; TechniTex; National Museums Scotland; Edinburgh College of Art; University of Sussex Project website:

scienceheritage/AboutUs.html Contact: Dr Linda Hurcombe –

Transformation and Resilience of our Landscapes, Archaeology and Built Heritage: Defining Responses to Societal and Environmental Pressures University of the West of Scotland1, Queens University Belfast2 and University of Glasgow3 Principal Investigator: Dr John Hughes1 Co-Investigators: Professor Bernie Smith2 ; Professor Martin Lee3 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Glasgow Caledonian University; Heriot-Watt University; University of the Highlands and Islands – Orkney & Shetland; University of Manchester; Manchester Metropolitan University; Robert Gordon University; University of St Andrew’s; University of Strathclyde; University of Stirling; Orkney Council; City of Edinburgh Council; Edinburgh World Heritage Trust; National Trust; National Trust for Scotland; National Trust Northern Ireland; Historic Scotland; Dept. of Environment Northern Ireland; Royal Commission for the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland; Scottish Stone Liaison Group; Changeworks Edinburgh; British Geological Survey; Northern Ireland Tourist Board; Riach and Hall Architects; Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/Cluster/Hughes Contact: Dr John Hughes –

Understanding Complex Structures: the Conservation, Display and Interpretation of Lace and Natural Objects Nottingham Trent University1 and V&A Museum2 Principal Investigator: Professor Tom Fisher1 Co-Investigators: Dr Haida Liang1 ; Marion Kite2 Project Coordinator: Sabine Hielscher1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Natural History Museum; Nottingham City Museums and Galleries; Ruddington Framework Knitters’ Museum, Nottingham; University of Nottingham Museum; Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum, New York; The National Archives; Ellis Developments Ltd; Cecilia Heffer (lace artist). Project webpage: heritagescience/Research_Projects/projects/Cluster/ Fisher Contact: Professor Tom Fisher –


Science and Heritage Postdoctoral Fellowships ACCESSIBLE HERITAGE – Remote Transcontinental Heritage Support System University College London1 and English Heritage2 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Henoc Agbota1 1

Project Mentor: Dr Matija Strlič

Project Partners: Dr David Thickett 2 ; Christopher Young2 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: London Centre of Nanotechnology; Birkbeck College; Quartztec; University of Bath; Royal Palaces of Abomey Project website: Contact: Dr Henoc Agbota – Publications: Agbota, H., Young, C. and Strlič, M. (2013). Pollution monitoring at heritage sites in developing and emerging economies. Studies in Conservation, 58 (2) pp. 129-144 Agbota, H., Strlič, M., Mitchell, J. and Odlyha, M. (in prep). Remote assessment of cultural materials through nano-scale weight monitoring. Agbota, H., Thickett, D., Odlyha, M. and Strlič, M. (in prep). Assessing the impact of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone on metal corrosion.

From Structural Change to Perceived Damage: Appropriate Environmental Conditions for Parchment The National Archives1 and Cardiff University2 Project Mentor: Nancy Bell1 Project Partners: Professor Tim Wess2 Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/PDF/Gonzales Contact: Nancy Bell – Publications: Gonzalez, L.G. and Bell, N. (2012). PAS 198:2012 Specification for managing environmental conditions for cultural collections. British Standards Institution. (contributor Annex E). Gonzalez, L.G., Hiller, J., Terrill, N.J., Parkinson, J., Thomas, K. and Wess, T.J. (2012). Effects of isopropanol on collagen fibrils in new parchment. Chemistry Central Journal 6:24 Gonzalez, L.G., Bell, N. and Wess, T.J. (2013). The importance of understanding terminology of collagen and gelatine in the study of parchment. Journal of Institute of Conservation 36:2 (in press) Gonzalez, L.G., Wess, T.J., (2013). Parchment, Preservation and Conservation of. In: D.C. Comer and M. Kingsley (eds.) (2013). Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. New York: Springer. Gonzalez, L.G. and Wess, T. (2013). The effects

Gonzalez, L.G. and Wess, T.J. (2013). The effects of hydration on the collagen and gelatine phases within parchment artefacts. Heritage Science Journal 1:14. [Online] Available from: http://www. Gonzalez, L.G., Wade, M., Bell, N., Thomas, K., Wess, T.J., (2013). Using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) to study the molecular conformation of parchment artifacts in different macroscopic states. Appl. Spectrosc. 67(2): pp. 158-62. Khan, I.M., Gonzalez, L.G., Francis, L., Conlan, R.S., Gilbert, S.J., Singhrao, S.K., Burdon, D., Hollander, A.P., Duance, V.C. and Archer, C.W. (2011). Interleukin1ß enhances cartilage-to-cartilage integration. Eur Cell Mater 1:190-201. Možir, A., Gonzalez, L.G., Kralj Cigić, I., Wess, T.J., Rabin, I., Hahn, O. and Strlič, M. (2012) A study of degradation of historic parchment using small-angle X-ray scattering, synchrotron-IR and multivariate data analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 402(4): pp. 1559-66. doi: 10.1007/ s00216-011-5392-6. Pattern, K., Gonzalez, L.G., Kennedy, C., Mills, D., Davis, G. and Wess, T.J. (2013). Is there evidence for change to collagen within parchment samples after exposure to an X-ray dose during high contrast X-ray microtomography? A multitechnique investigation. Heritage Science Journal 2013, 1:22 [Online] Available from: content/1/1/22 Wade, M., Tucker, I., Cunningham, P., Skinner, R., Bell, F., Lyons, T., Pattern, K., Gonzalez, L.G. and Wess, T.J. (2013). The origins of nanostructural variations in differential ethnic hair types. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 35(5): pp. 430-41. Thomas, K., Gonzalez, L.G. and Wess, T. (2011). Investigating the Structural Integrity of Historical Documents using X-ray Diffraction. In: Neate, S., Howell, D., Ovenden, R. and Pollard, A.M. (Eds) (2011). The Technological Study of Books and Manuscripts as Artefacts. Research questions and analytical solutions. BAR International Series 2209. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Change or Damage? Effect of Climate on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties University College London1 and English Heritage2 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Naomi Luxford1 Project Mentor: Dr Matija Strlič1 Project Partners: Dr David Thickett 2 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: National Trust; Albion Conservation; LaVision; English Heritage Project website: sustainableheritage/changeordamage


Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Lee Gonzalez1,2

of hydration on the collagen and gelatine phases within parchment artefacts. Heritage Science Journal 1:14. [Online] Available from: http://www.


Contact: Dr Naomi Luxford – Publications: Luxford, N. and Thickett, D. (2013). Monitoring complex objects in real display environments – how helpful is it? In: J. Ashley Smith, A. Burmester and M. Eibl (eds) Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainities. Pp 257-270. London: Archetype. Luxford, N., Strlič, M. and Thickett, D. (2013). Safe display parameters for veneer and marquetry objects: A review of the available information for wooden collections. Studies in Conservation, 58 (1) pp. 1-12. Luxford, N., Strlič, M. and Thickett, D. (In press). Change or Damage? Using Dissemination to Encourage Public Involvement in Conservation Research. In: E Williams (ed) The Public Face of Conservation. London: Archetype. Luxford, N. (submitted) Defining damage for veneer and marquetry furniture collections. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation

Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues 1


University of Bradford , Horniman Museum , Hull Museums3, Ken Hawley Collection Trust4, Leeds Museums and Galleries5, University of Manchester6 and York Archaeological Trust7 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Sonia O’Connor1 Project Mentor: Professor Carl Heron1 2



Project Partners: Dr Louise Bacon , Robin Diaper , Keith Crawshaw4 , Camilla Nichol5 , Dr Chris. M. Martin6 , Professor John Walker 7. Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders include: Metropolian Police, Gloucester police and the UK Border agency; Manchester Museum; Yorkshire Museum; Museum of North Devon; Wallace Collection; National Museum of Scotland; Royal College of Surgeons Museum; Royal Armouries in Leeds; Samm Fogg; Bohnhams Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/PDF/OConnor Contact: Dr Sonia O’Connor – Publications: O’Connor, S., Edwards, H.G.M. and Ali, E. (2011). An Interim Investigation of the Potential of Vibrational Spectroscopy for the Dating of Cultural Objects in Ivory. ArchéoSciences 35. Pp. 159-165. O’Connor, S. and Edwards, H.G.M. (2012). Archaeological ivories: a challenge for analytical Raman spectroscopy. In H.G.M. Edwards and P. Vandenabeele (eds). (2012). Analytical Archaeometry; selected topics. Cambridge: RSC Publishing. O’Connor, S. and Larkin, N. (2012). Conservation of the Faunal Remains. In W.A. Boismier, C. Gamble and F. Coward (eds). (2012). Neanderthals amongst Mammoths: Excavations at Lynford Quarry, Norfolk. Swindon: English Heritage. O’Connor, S. (2013). Worked bone. In L. Martin, J. Richardson and I. Roberts. (2013). Iron Age and Roman Settlements at Wattle Syke. Leeds, Archaeological Services WYAS (Yorkshire Archaeology 11).

Choyke, A. and O’Connor, S. (eds) (in press). From These Bare Bones: Raw materials and the study of worked osseous materials. Proceedings of the Raw Materials session at the 11th ICAZ Conference, Paris, 2010. Oxford: Oxbow. O’Connor, S. (in press). Exotic materials used in the construction of Iron Age sword handles from South Cave, UK. In: A. Choyke and S. O’Connor (eds). From These Bare Bones: Raw materials and the study of worked osseous materials. Proceedings of the Raw Materials session at the 11th ICAZ Conference, Paris, 2010. Oxford: Oxbow. O’Connor, S. (in press). Identification of Bronze Age pommels and other osseous objects. In A. Woodward, J. Hunter and D. Bukach. Ritual in Early Bronze Age Grave Goods, Oxbow. Greaves, P., Cameron, E. Northover, P. and O’Connor, S. (forthcoming) Royal Forteviot: The recovery, conservation and analysis of a Bronze Age Dagger from a High Status Cist Burial. In, Metal 2013, Preprints of the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Metal Working Group. O’Connor, S. (forthcoming) Identification of Bronze Age pommels and other osseous objects. In A. Woodward, J. Hunter and D. Bukach, Ritual in Early Bronze Age. Demarchi, B., O’Connor, S., Sheridan, A., Penkman, K. and Wilson, J. (in prep) Identification of prehistoric shell beads: insights in human choices gained by multidisciplinary approaches. Greep, S.J., O’Connor, S. and Evans, A. A. (in prep) The ‘Perforated Spoons’ of Roman Britain: A Peculiarly Yorkshire Form. O’Connor, S., Solazzo, C. and Collins, M. (in prep) Advances in identifying archaeological traces of horn and other keratinous hard tissues. Studies in Conservation O’Connor, S. and O’Connor, T. (in prep) Reconsideration of the ‘Mesolithic harpoon’ from Westward Ho!, Devon.

Salts and Synthetic Coatings on Wall Paintings: Characterising Their Transformation, Interaction and Contribution to Deterioration Courtauld Institute of Art1, English Heritage2 and Mehrangarh Museum Trust, Jodphur (India) Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Satish Pandey Project Mentor: Sharon Cather Project website: Research_Projects/projects/PDF/Pandey Contact: Sharon Cather –

Advancing Heritage Science with Spectroscopic Imaging Imperial College London1, the National Gallery2 and the British Museum3 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Satoko Tanimoto1 Project Mentor: Professor Sergei Kazarian1 Project Partners: Marika Spring2 ; Catherine Higgitt 3 Project webpage: Research_Projects/projects/PDF/Tanimoto Contact: Dr Satoko Tanimoto satoko.tanimoto@; Professor Sergei Kazarian Publications: Tanimoto, S., Spring, M., Higgitt, C. and Kazarian, S. (in progress) The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to the analysis of copper-based green pigments in paint cross-sections, hoped to be published in a virtual special issue of Vibrational Spectroscopy devoted for ICAVS-7 (7th International Conference of Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy). Tanimoto, S., Spring, M., Higgitt, C., Peggie, D., Kirby, J. and Kazarian, S. (forthcoming 2013/14) Gum Resin: evidence for its use as a mordant for gilding in European easel paintings

Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings University of Reading1, Institut Lumière Extrême (France)2 and Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France3 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Gillian Walker1 Project Mentor: Dr John Bowen1 Project Partners: Professor Gerard Mourou2 ; Dr Michel Menu3 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Stanford University; QMC Instruments; University of California, Merced; National Physical Laboratory; Department of Archaeology, University of Reading; Department of Archaeology, Bristol University; University of Rochester, New York; Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, France; Latvia Scientific Mission; Peter Martindale Conservation; The Church Buildings Council; The PCC of St Thomas, Salisbury.

Contact: Dr Gillian Walker - g.c.walker@reading.; Dr John Bowen - Publications: Jackson, J.B., Bowen, J.W., Walker, G., Labaune, J., Mourou, G., Menu, M. and Fukunaga, K., (2011). A Survey of Terahertz Applications in Cultural Heritage Conservation Science. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology 1 Pp. 220-231 Jackson, J.B., Labaune, J., Mourou, G., Duling, I.N., Walker, G., Bowen, J. and Menu, M., (2011). Terahertz pulse imaging of stratified architectural materials for cultural heritage studies. In: L. Pezzati, R. Salimbeni (eds.) O3A: Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology III. Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8084, 808409 Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Jackson, J.B., Labaune, J., Mourou, G., Menu, M. and Whitaker, J.F. (2011). Seeing Through Walls: Sub-surface imaging at Çatalhöyük. Çatalhöyük Archive Report. [Online] Available from: http://www.Çatalhöyü downloads/Archive_Report_2010.pdf Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Naftaly, M. and Dudley, R.A. (2011). A simple fluid cell for the study of aqueous solutions using THz time-domain spectroscopy. Measurement Science and Technology, 22, 037003 Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Jackson, J.B., Labaune,


Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Matthews, W., Roychowdury, S., Labaune, J., Mourou, G., Menu, M., Hodder, I. and Jackson, J.B. (2013) Sub-surface terahertz imaging through uneven surfaces: visualizing Neolithic wall paintings in Çatalhöyük. Optics Express. 21(7) 8126-8134 Walker, G.C., Bowen, J., Jackson, J.B., Giavannicci, D., Deslandes, B., Menu, M., Mourou, M. and Detalle, V., (2013). Terahertz analysis of stratified wall plaster at buildings of cultural importance across Europe. In: L. Pezzati, P. Targowski (eds.) SPIE Optical Metrology, O3A: Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology III. Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8790, 879000 Invited paper. Walker, G.C. and Martindale, P. Analytical methods for the analysis of wall paintings. Under review with the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Jackson, J.B., Labaune, J., Mourou, G. and Menu, M. (in prep). Terahertz imaging at Catalhuyok. Journal of Archaeological Science. Walker, G.C., Bowen, J.W., Jackson, J.B., Labaune, J., Mourou, G., Menu M. and Hadjiloucas, S. (in prep). A system-independent method for the characterisation of optical constants in THz time-domain spectroscopy. JOSA-B (Data collected)

Interpreting the Surface: The Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic emulsion Paint Films University of Manchester1, Getty Conservation Institute2 and Tate Britain3 Postdoctoral Fellow: Dr Elizabeth Willneff1 Project Mentor: Professor Sven Schroeder1 Project Partners: Dr Bronwyn Ormsby3 , and Dr Tom Learner2 Project website: Contact: Dr Elizabeth Willneff –; Professor Sven Schroeder – Publications: Willneff, E., Schroeder, S. and Ormsby, B. (in prep). Characterisation of Wet Cleaning Residues on Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films at the Nanometer Scale; Langmuir Willneff, E., Schroeder, S. and Ormsby, B. (in prep). XPS FTIR Study of Wet Cleaning Residues on Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films; e-preservation science Willneff, E.A., Ormsby, B.A., Stevens, J.S., Jaye, C., Fischer, D.A. and Schroeder, S.L.M. (2013). Conservation of Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion Paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR FTIR Studies of Wet Cleaning Methods. Submitted for publication in: Surface and Interface Analysis Special Issue: European Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis – ECASIA’13. Wiley.


Project website: http://www.seeingthroughwalls.

J., Hadjiloucas, S.,. Mourou, G. and Menu, M. (2012). Terahertz Deconvolution. Optics Express 20(25) 27230


Interdisciplinary Research Grants Scheme Boyd, D., Beck, A., Stott, D., Llewellyn, G., Carroll, Q. (2012). The driest spring in 100 years: hyperspectral imaging and spectro-radiometry of vegetation over known archaeological features. Proceedings of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society Conference 2012 ‘Changing how we view the world.’ London: University of Greenwich. [Online] Available from: http://www.scribd. com/doc/119649436/The-driest-spring-in-100-yearshyperspectral-imaging-and-spectro-radiometry-ofvegetation-over-known-archaeological-features

The Detection of Archaeological Residues Using Remote Sensing Techniques (DART) University of Leeds1, University of Winchester2, University of Bradford3, University of Birmingham4 and University of Nottingham5 Principal Investigator: Professor Anthony Cohn1 Project Champion: Dr Anthony Beck1 5


Co-Investigators: Dr Doreen Boyd ; Dr Chris Gaffney ; Dr Nicole Metje4 ; Dr Keith Wilkinson2 PhD Students: Dan Boddice4 ; Rob Fry3 ; Laura Pring4 ; Dave Stott1 Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: Thornhill Estates (Diddington); Royal Agricultural College; GeodataWIZ; University of York; Glasgow University; University of Exeter; British Geological Survey; Anglia Polytechnic University; University of Hull; Stratascan and IfA Geophysics SIG; Air Photo services; RCAHMS; Perth & Kinross Heritage Trust; Scott Wilson; RCAHMW; IDS Ltd; UTZI electronics; English Heritage; Cambridgeshire County Council; Gloucester County Council; Van Walt Ltd; Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan; National Space Centre; Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd; Leica Geosystems; ArchaeoLandscapes; West Lothian Archaeology Group Project website: Contact: Professor Anthony Cohn –


Publications: Beck, A. R. (2010).The DART project: Developing the roadmap for archaeological remote sensing in the 21st century. AARG News (40) [Online] Available from: http:// Beck, A.R. (2010). Archaeological applications of multi/ hyper-spectral data: challenges and potential. In: D. Cowley (Ed), Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage Management. EAC Occasional Paper No. 5. [Online] Available from: Archaeological-applications-of-multi-hyper-spectraldata-%E2%80%93-challenges-and-potential-apaper-presented-to-EAC-March-2010 Beck, A.R. (2012). The Practice of Collaboration. In: D. Cowley and R. Opitz, (Eds), Interpreting archaeological topography – airborne laser scanning, aerial photographs and ground observation. Oxford: Oxbow Books Beck, A. and Neylon, C. (2012). A vision for Open Archaeology, World Archaeology Special Issue ‘Open Archaeology’ 44(4).

Costa, S., Beck, A., Bevan, A. and Ogden, J. (in press). Defining and advocating Open Data in archaeology. Proceedings of CAA 2012 Fry, R., Boddice, D., Stott, D., Beck, A., Gaffney, C., Metje, N. and Schmidt, A. (2012). What A Difference A Year Makes: The Impact of Environmental Dynamics on Multiple Sensor Responses over archaeological features, an example from Cherry Copse, Cirencester. Proceedings of the Near Surface Geophysics Group (NSGG) Recent Work in Archaeological Geophysics Day Meeting. London, England. Fry, R., Gaffney, C., Sparrow, T. and Batt, C. (2011). FlashRes64 Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Archaeological Applications. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection. Izmir, Turkey. Fry, R., Beck, A. and Gaffney, C. (2011). The DART Project: A Major New Investigation into what lies beneath our soils. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection. Izmir, Turkey. Fry, R., Gaffney, C. and Pope-Carter, F. (2012). A Comparison of the FlashRes64 Imaging System and Tigre ERT System. Proceedings of the Near Surface Geophysics Group (NSGG) Recent Work in Archaeological Geophysics Day Meeting. London, England. Fry, R., Stott, D., Boddice, D. and Beck, A. (2012). What a difference a year makes: Preliminary DART datasets from Cherry Copse, Cirencester AARG News (45) Stott, D., Beck, A., Boyd, D., Carroll, Q. and Llewellyn, G. (in press). Multi-temporal benchmarking to aid in archaeological feature detection: the application of continuum removal techniques in the analysis of hyperspectral data. Proceedings of the 2012 EARSeL conference. [Online] Available from: http://www.academia. edu/2375350/Multi-temporal_benchmarking_to_ aid_in_archaeological_feature_detection_the_ application_of_continuum_removal_techniques_in_ the_analysis_of_hyper-spectral_data

PARNASSUS: Ensuring Integrity, Preserving Significance: Value Based Flood Resilience for Protection of Cultural Heritage from Climate Change Impact

Beck, A., Fry, R., Stott, D., Wilkinson, K., Cohn, A., Boddice, D. Boyd, D., Gaffney, C., Harrison, D., Metje, N., Pring, L., Schmidt, A. and Van Walt, V. (in prep) The impact of dynamic processes on contrast formation and the detection of buried archaeology. Antiquity

University College London1, University of Bristol2 and University of Southampton3

Bonsall, J., Fry, R., Gaffney, C., Armit, I., Beck, A. and Gaffney, V. (2013) Assessment of the CMD Mini-Explorer, a New Low-frequency Multi-coil Electromagnetic Device, for Archaeological Investigations, Archaeol. Prospect. doi: 10.1002/arp.1458

Co-Investigators: Professor Paul Bates2 , Dr Wendel Sebastian2 , Professor Matthew Johnson3 , Dr Joanna Sofaer3 , Dr Graeme Earl3 , Dr Enrico Fodde (University of Bath)

Principal Investigator: Dr Dina D’Ayala1

Research Associates: Dr. Yasemin Aktas1 ; Penny Copeland3 and Dr Aykut Erkal PhD Students: Andrew Smith2 ; Victoria Stephenson1

D.C. (2012). The impact of uncertainty in satellite data on the assessment of flood inundation models. Journal of Hydrology, 414-415, pp. 162–173. (10.1016/j. jhydrol.2011.10.040)

Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: Building Research Establishment (BRE), Scotland; National Trust; Historic Scotland; National Trust for Scotland; English Heritage; Eatec Engineering Consultants; Ecclesiastical Insurance; Gifford and Partners, Engineering; ARC Architects; ICOMOS ISCARSAH; ICOMOS ISCEAH; UNESCO; Omni Instruments LTD.; Windmill LTD.

Stephenson, V. and D’Ayala, D. (2012). A novel laboratory procedure to investigate the effect of flooding on historic structures. 2nd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation, October 2012, Oslo. Norway.

Project website:

Zhou, J., Sebastian, W. and D’Ayala, D. (in press). Hartham Bath Stone: Experimental Study of water Ingress/Egress and freeze-thaw behaviour under vertical compression. The stone cycle and the conservation of historic buildings. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology

Contact: Dr Dina D’Ayala – d.d’ Publications: D’Ayala, D. and Erkal, A. (2011). The Role of Environmental Monitoring in Conservation of Cultural Heritage. WCCE-ECCE-TCCE Joint Conference 2 on Seismic Protection of Cultural Heritage. Erkal, A., D’Ayala, D. and Sequeira, L. (in press). Assessment of wind-driven rain impact, related surface erosion and surface strength reduction of historic building materials. Building and Environment. Elsevier. Available online 22 May 2012.

Stephenson, V. and D’Ayala, D. (in press). UK historic building vulnerability assessment and flood risk appraisal: three case studies in England. Environmental Hazards Journal.

Heritage Smells! University of Strathclyde1, the British Museum2, the British Library3; University College London4 Principal Investigator: Dr Lorraine Gibson1

Erkal, A., D’Ayala, D. and Stephenson, V., (in press). Evaluation of environmental impact on historic stone masonry through on-site monitoring appraisal, accepted for publication in the special issue The stone cycle and the conservation of historic buildings for Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology

Co-Investigators: Dr Matija Strlič4 , Dr Catherine Higgit 2 , Dr Barry Knight 3

Freer, J., Beven, K., Neal, J., Schumann, G.J.-P., Hall, J. and Bates, P. (2013). Flood risk and uncertainty. In J. Rougier, R.S.J. Sparks and L. Hill, (eds), Risk and uncertainty assessment for natural hazards, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, pp 190-233.

Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: National Museums Scotland; National Records of Scotland; English Heritage; Owlstone Technology; Library of Congress, USA; Institute of Cultural Heritage Amsterdam; National Gallery of Scotland; Museum of London; The Science Museum, the RAF museum; Natural History Museum

Neal, J.C., Schumann, G., Fewtrell, T., Budimir, M., Bates, P. and Mason, D. (2011). Evaluating a new LISFLOOD-FP formulation using data for the summer 2007 floods in Tewkesbury, UK. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 4 (2), pp. 88-95. (10.1111/j.1753318X.2011.01093.x) Smith, A., Stephenson, V., Bates, P., Freer, J. and D’Ayala, D. (2012). Projecting the Impacts of Future Flooding on High Value Buildings. 8th Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on Natural Disasters, Global Change, and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites. Cusco, Peru, 12 – 16 November 2012. Smith, A., Bates, P. and Freer, J. (2012). Comparing climate model projections of flooding against flood estimation by continuous simulation. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, December 2012. Smith, A., Bates, P., Freer, J. and Wetterhall, F. (2013). Investigating the Application of Climate Models in Flood Projection across the U.K. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9815. [First published online: 7 May 2013]. Available at: doi/10.1002/hyp.9815/abstract;jsessionid=AF726A2D7 D513FD76ED2E5D5A6C4DC6C.d03t02?deniedAccessC ustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false Stephens, E.M., Bates, P.D., Freer, J.E. and Mason,

Research Associate: Dr Katherine Curran4 Research Technician: Mark Underhill4 PhD Students: Gemma Mitchell1 ; Iain Rushworth1

Project website: staff/academic/lorrainegibson/heritagesmells/ Contact: Dr Lorraine Gibson – Publications: Curran, K., Mozir, A., Underhill, M., Gibson, L.T. and Strlič, M. (in press). The Impact of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Degrading Historic Plastic and Rubber Objects and Degrading Plastic Storage Material on Organic Heritage Materials. Polymer Degradation and Stability. Curran, K. and Strlič, M. (in press). Polymers and Volatiles: Using VOC Analysis for Improved Conservation of Plastic and Rubber Objects. Studies in Conservation. Mitchell, G., France, F., Nordon, A., Leung Tang, P. and Gibson, L.T. (2013). Assessment of historical polymers using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy with principal component analysis. Heritage Science Journal [Online]. Available at: http:// Mitchell, G. et al., (in press). VOC profiles from polymeric materials: characterisation by non-invasive methods of determination. Polymer Stability and Degradation


Miles, J., Copeland, P., Stephenson, V., Strutt, K., Erkal, A., D’Ayala, D. and Earl, G. (2013). Parnassus Project: Archaeology and Engineering Collaboration for 3D data collection and analysis. Computer Applications in Archaeology. Perth.



The Next Generation of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Art Conservation – In situ Non-invasive Imaging of Subsurface Microstructure of Objects

Representing Re-Formation: Reconstructing Renaissance Monuments

The Nottingham Trent University1, the National Gallery2 and University of Southampton3

Co-Investigators: Professor George Fraser1 ; Dr Steven Gunn2 ; Dr Ross Parry1 ; Dr Effie Lai-Chong Law1

Principal Investigator: Dr Haida Liang

Project Manager: Dr Jackie Hall1

Co-Investigator: Marika Spring2 ; Professor Andrew Clarkson3

Research Associates: Dr Adair Richards1 ; Dr Nicola Beddall-Hill1 ;

Research Associates: Dr Chi Shing Cheung1 ; Dr Masaki Tokurakawa3

PhD Students: Nishad Karim1 ; Rebecca Constabel1 ; Kirsten Claiden-Yardley 2

Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: English Heritage (David Thickett); Gooch & Housego plc (Andrew Robertson). Research assistant Rebecca Lange1 and PhD student Jae Daniel3 have also contributed to the project.

Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: English Heritage; Yale Center for British Art, Yale University; Norfolk Museums Service; The British Museum.

Project website: groups_centres/sat/111822.html

Principal Investigator: Dr Phillip Lindley1

Project website: Contact: Professor Phillip Lindley –

Contact: Dr Haida Liang –



Constabel, R. (2013). The Duke of Norfolk and French tomb sculpture. In: Lindley, P. (Ed) (2013). Thetford’s Lost Tudor Sculptures. Exhibition Catalogue

Cheung, C.S., Tokurakawa, M., Daniel, J., Clarkson, W.A. and Liang, H. (2013). Long wavelength optical coherence tomography for painted objects. Proc. SPIE (2013) Vol 8790, 87900J Cheung, C.S. and Liang, H. (2013). Ultra-high resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for resolving thin layers in painted works of art. Proc. SPIE (2013) Vol 8790, 87900M Lange, R., Liang, H., Howard, H. and Spooner, J. (2011). Optical coherence tomography and spectral imaging of a wall painting. SPIE Newsroom, August 2011 AHRC/EPSRC SCIENCE & HERITAGE PROGRAMME • SUSTAINING THE IMPACT OF UK SCIENCE AND HERITAGE RESEARCH

University of Leicester1 and University of Oxford2

Lawman, S. and Liang, H. (2011). High precision dynamic multi-interface profilometry with optical coherence tomography. Applied Optics, 50(32) pp. 6039–6048 Liang, H., Lange, R., Howard, H. and Spooner, J. (2011). Non-invasive Investigations of a Wall Painting using Optical Coherence Tomography and Hyperspectral Imaging. Proc. SPIE Vol. 8084, 80840F-1 Liang, H. (2011). Advanced Optical Imaging Methods for Investigating Manuscripts. In: Neate, S., Howell, D., Ovenden, R. and Pollard, A.M. (Eds) (2011). The Technological Study of Books and Manuscripts as Artefacts – Research questions and analytical solutions. Oxford: Archaeopress Liang, H., Sax, M., Saunders, D. and Tite, M., (2012). Optical Coherence Tomography for the non-invasive investigation of the microstructure of ancient Egyptian faience. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, pp. 36833690 Liang, H., Lange, R., Peric, B. and Spring, M., (2013). Optimum spectral window for imaging of art with optical coherence tomography, Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00340-013-5378-5 Manukyan, S., Sauer, H., Roismana, I., Baldwin, K., Fairhurst, D., Liang, H., Venzmer, J. and Tropea, C. (2013). Imaging internal flows in a drying sessile polymer dispersion drop using Spectral Radar Optical Coherence Tomography (SR-OCT). Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 395, pp. 287-293

Ford, L. (2012). A Body in Motion: The Afterlives of the Tomb of Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton. Material Culture Review/Revue de la culture matérielle 74/75 Spring 2012 Hall, J. (in press). Thetford Priory: the Unpublished Documents of the Office of Works. English Heritage Historical Review Hall, J. and Karim, N. (in press). Thetford Priory and the Reformation: Old Archaeology and New Science. In the online Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies Hall, J. (in press). Thetford Priory: Patronage, Burial, Buildings, Dissolution. In: Lindley, P. (Ed) (2013). Thetford’s Lost Tudor Sculptures. Exhibition Catalogue Lindley, P. (2011) ‘Pickpurse Purgatory’, the Dissolution of the Chantries and the Suppression of Intercession for the Dead. Journal of the British Archaeological Association 164 (2011), pp 277-305 Lindley, P. (2012). The Artistic Practice, Protracted Publication and Posthumous Completion of Charles Alfred Stothard’s Monumental Effigies of Great Britain. Antiquaries Journal, 92 (2012) pp 385-426. Lindley, P. (2013). Peter Mathias Van Gelder’s Monument to Mary, third Duchess of Montagu (d. 1775) in St Edmund’s, Warkton, Northamptonshire. Burlington Magazine CLV (2013), pp 220-9. Lindley, P. (Ed) (2013). Thetford’s Lost Tudor Sculptures. Exhibition Catalogue Lindley, P. (2013). The Howard Monuments at Thetford & Framlingham. In: Lindley, P. (Ed) (2013). Thetford’s Lost Tudor Sculptures. Exhibition Catalogue Lindley, P. (2013). Tudor England and the Renaissance in the Visual Arts. In: Lindley, P. (Ed) (2013). Thetford’s Lost Tudor Sculptures. Exhibition Catalogue Lindley, P. (in press). Intention or Accident? Charles Alfred Stothard’s Monumental Effigies of Great Britain. Studies in Medievalism Lindley, P. (in press). Roubiliac’s Monuments for the Duke (d. 1749) and Duchess (d. 1751) of Montagu at Warkton

in Northamptonshire and his role in the design and construction of the new chancel. Walpole Society Lindley, P. (in press). The Sculpture of the British Museum Citole and its Visual Context, (9,000 words) in Robinson, J., Speakman, N. and Buehler-McWilliams, K. (Eds) The British Museum Citole: New Perspectives Parry, R. (2013). The trusted artifice: Reconnecting with the museum’s fictive tradition online. In: Drotner, K. and Schrøder, K.C. (Eds). (2013). Museum Communication and Social Media: The Connected Museum. Oxford: Routledge Richards, A. (2012). The symbiotic academy: on specialisationand interdisciplinarity” Science Progress 95(4) 2012, pp 447-465.

“Collections Demography” On Dynamic Evolution of Populations of Objects University College London1, The National Archives2, University of East Anglia3 Principal Investigator: Dr Matija Strlič1 Co-Investigators: Nancy Bell2 ; Professor Peter Brimblecombe3 ; Dr Kalliopi Fouseki1 ; Dr Jinghao Xue1 ; Dr Joel Taylor1 Research Associates: Dr Catherine Dillon1 ; Dr Carlota Grossi-Sampedro1 ; Dr William Lindsay2 Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: English Heritage; Library of Congress; Nationaal Archief; Manchester Museum; University of Leicester; British Library; Wellcome Collection; The Capitol Museum and Visitor Centre (USA); University of Strathclyde; plus 874 volunteers Project website: sustainableheritage/collectionsdemography.html Contact: Dr Matija Strlič – Dillon, C., Lindsay, W., Taylor, J., Fouseki, K., Bell, N. and Strlič, M. (2013). Collections demography: stakeholders’ views on the lifetime of collections. In: Ashley Smith, J., Burmester, A. and Eibl, M. (Eds) (2013). Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties. Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference, Doerner Institut, 7-9 November 2012. Pp 4558. London: Archetype Strlič, M., Thickett, D., Taylor, J. and Cassar, M. (2013). Damage functions in heritage science. Studies in Conservation 58 (2) pp. 80-87 Strlič, M., Bell, N. and Brimblecombe, P. (Eds) (in prep) Collection Modelling. The Demography of Collections.

Evidence-based Condition-Monitoring Strategy for Preservation of Heritage Iron Cardiff University1 and University of Manchester2 Principal Investigator: Professor David Watkinson1 Co-Investigator: Professor Stuart Lyon2 Research Associate: Dr. Melanie Rimmer1 PhD Student: James Dracott 2


Project website: projectreports/conservationiron/index.html Contact: Professor David Watkinson – Publications: Watkinson, D. (2013). Conservation, corrosion science and evidence-based preservation strategies for metallic heritage artefacts. In: Dillmann, P., Watkinson, D., Angelini, E. and Adriens, A. (2013). Corrosion and Conservation of Heritage Metallic Artefacts. European Corrosion Federation Green Book Series number 65. Cambridge: Woodhead Watkinson, D., Rimmer, M. and Kergourlay, F. (2013). Alkaline desalination techniques for archaeological iron. In: Dillmann, P., Watkinson, D., Angelini, E. and Adriens, A. (2013). Corrosion and Conservation of Heritage Metallic Artefacts. European Corrosion Federation Green Book Series number 65. Cambridge: Woodhead Watkinson, D. and Rimmer, M. (2013). Quantitative research underpins heritage management: Preserving ferrous metals. In: Research Advances for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage International Conference Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage 2-5 October, 2012 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Taylor and Francis Watkinson, D. and Rimmer, M. (2013). Quantifying effectiveness of chloride desalination treatments for archaeological iron using oxygen measurement. In: Hislop, E., Gonzalez, V., Troalen, L. and Wilson, L., (Eds.) Metal 2013 Edinburgh, Scotland. Interim meeting of the international Council of Museums Committee for Conservation Metal Working Group, 16th -20th September 2013. Pp. 95-102, ISBN Print: 978-1-84917-142-7, ISBN Digital: 978-1-84917-132-8 Watkinson, D., Rimmer, R., Kasztovszky, Z., Kis, Z., Maróti, B. and Szentmiklósi, L. (In press) The use of neutron analysis techniques for detecting the concentration and distribution of chloride ions in archaeological iron. Archaeometry Thickett, D., Rimmer, M. and Watkinson, D. (In press). Guidelines for the storage and display of archaeological metals. London: English Heritage.



Project partners, stakeholders and collaborators: Eura Conservation Ltd; English Heritage; ss Great Britain Trust; Mary Rose Trust; Dorothea Restorations Ltd (The Linford Group); Historic Metalwork Conservation Consultancy.


Research Development Awards The following projects were funded solely by AHRC

Mind the Gap: Rigour and Relevance in Heritage Science Research The National Archives1, University College London2, Tate3 and University of Exeter4

Touching the Past: Investigating Sensory Engagement and Authenticity in the Provision of Touch Experiences in Museums across a Range of Media

Principal Investigator: Nancy Bell1

University of Exeter1 and University of Edinburgh2 2

Co-Investigators: Dr Kalliope Fouseki ; Dr Matija Strlič2 ; Dr Pip Laurenson3 ; Professor Andrew Thompson4 Project website: about/mind-the-gap.htm Contact: Nancy Bell –

Nottingham Lace: Capturing and Representing Knowledge in People, Machines and Documents Nottingham Trent University1, Manchester Metropolitan University2 and Victoria & Albert Museum3 Principal Investigator: Professor Tom Fisher1 Co-Investigators: Dr Nick Hayes1 ; Dr Melanie Tebbutt 2 ; Susan Pritchard3 ; Andrew Love1 ; Professor Ian Inkster1 ; Dr Katherine Townsend1 Project partners: Cluny Lace Ilkeston; Julian Ellis, Ellis Developments; Dinah Eastop, The National Archive; Deborah Dean, Nottingham City Museums. AHRC/EPSRC SCIENCE & HERITAGE PROGRAMME • SUSTAINING THE IMPACT OF UK SCIENCE AND HERITAGE RESEARCH

Contact: Professor Tom Fisher –

Materiality, Authenticity and Value in the Historic Environment: a Study of the Effects of Material Transformation and Scientific Intervention University of the West of Scotland1, University of Manchester2 and Durham University3 Principal Investigator: Dr John Hughes1 Co-Investigators: Professor Sian Jones2 ; Dr Thomas Gresham Yarrow 3 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Historic Scotland; National Trust for Scotland and the HEROMAT Consortium (University of Novi Sad; CNR-ISTM Perugia; ZAG Slovenia; NArFU Russian Federation; PZZSK Serbia; IPCHS Slovenia; HGP Serbia; Saning Slovenia; Eura Conservation UK) Project website: Contact: Dr John Hughes –

Principal Investigator: Dr Linda Hurcombe1 Co-Investigator: Dr Mark Wright 2 Contact: Dr Linda Hurcombe –

Culture and Trade Through the Prism of Technical Art History – A Study of Chinese Export Paintings Nottingham Trent University1 and Victoria & Albert Museum2 Principal Investigator: Dr Haida Liang1 Co-Investigators: Dr Lucia Burgio2 Postdoctoral researchers: Dr Kate Bailey2 ; Dr Chi Shing Cheung1 Project partners: Royal Horticultural Society (London); Heritage Conservation Centre (Singapore). Research assistant Andrei Lucian and Erasmus exchange student Romain Le Charles have also contributed to the project. V&A intern, international exchange Master’s student Sonia Bellesia will also contribute to the project. Project website: groups_centres/sat/136747.html Contact: Dr Haida Liang –

Heritage and Science: Working Together in the CARE of Rock Art Newcastle University1 and Queen’s University Belfast2 Principal Investigator: Dr Aron Mazel1 Co-Investigators: Professor David Graham1 ; Dr Patricia Warke2 Researchers: Dr Myra Giesen1 and Peter Lewis1 Project partners, collaborators and stakeholders: Northumberland County Council; English Heritage; University of the West of Scotland, Northumberland National Park Authority Project website: heritagescience/ Contact: Dr Aron Mazel –

Alternative Views on the Lost Heritage of Gwynedd


Bangor University1 and Aberystwyth University2 Principal Investigator: Dr Jonathan Roberts1 Co-Investigators: Professor Raimund Karl1 ; Dr Bernard Tiddeman2 Contact: Dr Jonathan Roberts –

Songs of the Caves: Acoustics and Prehistoric Art in Cantabrian Caves University of Huddersfield1, Durham University2 and University of Salford3 Principal Investigator: Dr Rupert Till1 Co-Investigators: Professor Chris Scarre2 ; Dr Bruno Fazenda3 Contact: Dr Rupert Till –

Visualising Animal Hard Tissues University of Bradford Principal Investigator: Dr Andrew Wilson Co-Investigators: Dr Sonia O’Connor; Mr Rob Janaway; Professor Hassan Ugail Project partners: York Archaeological Trust, Leeds Museums and Hull Museums. Project website: Contact: Dr Andrew Wilson –



Research Councils Funding the Programme Arts and Humanities Research Council

The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funds world-class, independent researchers in a wide range of subjects: ancient history, modern dance, archaeology, digital content, philosophy, English literature, design, the creative and performing arts, and much more. This financial year the AHRC will spend approximately £98m to fund research and postgraduate training in collaboration with a number of partners. The quality and range of research supported by this investment of public funds not only provides social and cultural benefits but also contributes to the economic success of the UK.

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council


The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK’s main agency for funding research in engineering and physical sciences. EPSRC invests around £800m a year in research and postgraduate training, to help the nation handle the next generation of technological change. The areas covered range from information technology to structural engineering, and mathematics to materials science. This research forms the basis for future economic development in the UK and improvements for everyone’s health, lifestyle and culture. EPSRC works alongside other Research Councils with responsibility for other areas of research. The Research Councils work collectively on issues of common concern via research Councils UK.

AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme

The Science and Heritage Programme was launched in 2007. It is an initiative of the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council that together have provided £7.5 million which has been competitively awarded to thirteen research clusters, ten PhD studentships, seven large collaborative research projects, seven Post-Doctoral Fellowships and nine research development awards. This interdisciplinary Programme not only crosses the subject domains of science and heritage, but also Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums and Heritage institutions as well as universities. The Programme is already delivering impact beyond the distribution of grants for research. Other institutions including the Institute of Contemporary British History at King’s College London, the Archaeology Data Service, the Technology Strategy Board, the Science and Technology Facilities Council and Diamond Light Source are collaborating with the Programme to secure its impact. The Programme is itself supporting others in similar endeavours, most notably the establishment of the National Heritage Science Forum, the launch of English Heritage’s Science Strategy and providing career advice to the young heritage scientists emerging from the Programme. For further information please go to You may also contact the Programme Director at

Sustaining the Impact of UK Science and Heritage Research  

Conference publication of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme, containing abstracts from funded projects and biographies of plenar...

Sustaining the Impact of UK Science and Heritage Research  

Conference publication of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme, containing abstracts from funded projects and biographies of plenar...