Heritage Research Defining a New Era in Science
AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellowsâ€™ Symposium
Credits Edited by Debbie Williams and Naomi Luxford Designed by Rory Morrison – lookproject.co.uk Cover Images Clockwise from top right – outer to middle: Freshly prepared Golden Hansa yellow light paint film and mock ‘painting’ in background. © Elizabeth Willneff Using a high resolution digital microscope to explore inlays in the musical instrument collections at the Horniman Museum © Gilberto Martinez Trans-Continental Heritage Support System prototype © Henoc Agbota Measurements being recorded at Çatalhöyük, Turkey Lifting veneer and missing section shown in a 3D height map captured by surface profilometry © TRACEiT, Innowep Public outreach: Lee Gonzalez speaking to school children about parchment analysis at Diamond Light Source open day Marble head from Ephesos (BM1872,0405.121) © Trustees of The British Museum
The Science and Heritage Programme is funded by
Welcome Professor May Cassar On behalf of the seven Post-Doctoral Fellows funded by the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme, it is my great pleasure to welcome you to Heritage Research: Defining a New Era in Science, the Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellowsâ€™ Symposium. This gathering
Director, AHRC/EPSRC is special for a number of reasons. We are witnessing the flowering of the Science and Heritage first generation of independent heritage science researchers dedicated Programme to developing our understanding of heritage science. The spread of
15th November 2012
the subjects in this Symposium, which is being organised by the PostDoctoral Fellows themselves, is testament to the diversity and energy of this domain. This Symposium showcasing the Fellowsâ€™ work is also a unique opportunity to hear first-hand about the planning and execution of ground breaking research funded by this Programme. Thank you for making the time to attend and for lending your support.
About the Science and Heritage Programme
The Science and Heritage Programme was launched in 2007. It is an initiative of the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council that together have provided £8.5 million which has been competitively awarded to thirteen research clusters, ten PhD studentships, seven large collaborative research projects and seven Post-Doctoral Fellowships. This interdisciplinary Programme not only crosses the subject domains of science and heritage science, but also institutional types including heritage institutions as well as universities. The Programme is already delivering impact beyond the distribution of grants for research. Other institutions including the Insititute of Contemporary British History at King’s College London, the Archaeology Data Service, the Technology Strategy Board, the Science and Technology Facilities Council and Diamond Light Source are collaborating with the Programme to secure its legacy. The Programme is itself supporting others in similar endeavours, most notably supporting the establishment of the National Heritage Science Forum. For further information please go to www.heritagescience.ac.uk. You may also contact the Programme Director at email@example.com
Images – top to bottom: Gargoyle, Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris Parchment mounted for a mechanical testing experiment Paint cross section © Trustees of The British Museum Viewing objects under a high resolution digital microscope © Gilberto Martinez
Heritage Research: Defining a New Era in Science Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellows Symposium
A showcase of research organised and presented by the seven Post-Doctoral Fellows funded by the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme. 9.30am
Professor May Cassar, University College London Director of the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme
Session 1: Understanding organic materials
Nature into Art
Session chair and invited speaker Professor Dana Arnold, Middlesex University 10.45am
Interpreting the Surface: Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films Elizabeth Willneff, University of Manchester with Tate
11.45am Material Matters: Identifying the Material of Objects Worked in Animal Hard Tissues Sonia O’Connor, University of Bradford with the Hawley Collection, the Horniman Museum, Hull Museums and Galleries, Leeds Museums and Galleries, York Archaeological Trust and the Henry Moseley X-Ray Imaging Facility, University of Manchester 12.15pm
Understanding how Relative Humidity Affects Parchment Artefacts Lee Gonzalez, The National Archives with Cardiff University
12.45pm Measuring the Collection Response: From Monitoring Objects to Preventive Conservation Recommendations Naomi Luxford, University College London with English Heritage 1.15pm
Session 2: Technologies for cultural heritage
2.15pm Approaches to Analysis: To Sample or not to Sample Session chair and invited speaker Dr David Saunders, The British Museum 2.45pm Advancing Heritage Science with ATR-FTIR Microspectroscopic Imaging Satoko Tanimoto, Imperial College London with The National Gallery and The British Museum 3.15pm
3.45pm Accessible Heritage – Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System Henoc Agbota, University College London with English Heritage and UNESCO 4.15pm Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings Gillian Walker, University of Reading with Institut de la Lumière Extrême and the Laboratories of the Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France. 4.45pm Discussion 5.30pm
Drinks reception at the Grant Museum of Zoology until 7pm
Session 1: Understanding Organic Materials
Nature into Art Professor Dana Arnold The transformation of nature into art forms the basis of archaeological, ethnographic, and fine art collections across the world. Organic materials can be used to make functional objects, such as furniture, bone handles
Professor of Architectural History and Theory Middlesex University
or buildings, convey information in parchment manuscripts or books, or be purely decorative, for example as paintings. Understanding these materials can inform us of the methods used in the production of objects, of their identification, or how to limit their deterioration and so preserve collections for the future. However these artefacts can also tell us about the people who made and owned them, the trade of goods including cultural exchanges, changing styles over history and form a record of collecting by people as well as museums. Beginning with the country house and its collections, my talk explores the social and cultural narratives embedded in the materials and aesthetics of architecture, artefacts and art.
Dana Arnold is Professor of Architectural History and Theory at Middlesex University, UK. She is Guest Professor, International Research Centre for Chinese Cultural Heritage Conservation, Tianjin University, China and Honorary Professor in the Faculty of Architecture at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara where she leads a British Academy funded research project that looks at architectural interaction between diverse cultures. Her monographs include: Rural Urbanism: London Landscapes in the Early Nineteenth Century (2006); Reading Architectural History (2002); Re-presenting the Metropolis: Architecture, Urban Experience and Social Life in London 1800-1840 (2000). She is also the author of the bestselling Art History: A Very Short Introduction (2004), which has been translated into many languages. Her recent edited and co-edited volumes include: Art History: Contemporary Perspectives on Method (2010), Biographies and Space (2007) and Rethinking Architectural Historiography (2006). She was editor of the international journal Art History 1997-2002 and edits two book series New Interventions in Art History and Anthologies in Art History. Her forthcoming book: The Spaces of the Hospital is to be published by Routledge.
Dr Elizabeth Willneff Interpreting the Surface: Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films
Prepared acrylic paint films ©Elizabeth Willneff
Dr Elizabeth Willneff is a Science and Heritage Programme PostDoctoral Research Fellow working at the University of Manchester on a project titled Interpreting the Surface: Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films. Dr Willneff’s scientific career has centred around applications of X-ray spectroscopies (especially XPS and XAS) to problems in interfacial and surface science. Her work in this area
University of Manchester Tate
started during MSc research in heterogeneous catalysis at the Free University Berlin (MSc Chemistry, 2002). This was followed by a PhD
awarded by UMIST, 2005. Dr Willneff combines her background with
Dr Elizabeth Willneff
the expertise of her project collaborators, Prof Sven L. M. Schroeder
School of Chemical
(University of Manchester, Applied Physical Chemistry) and Dr Bronwyn
Ormsby (Tate, Conservation Department) in paintings conservation
and heritage science, to improve our understanding of the fundamental
surface chemistry of artists’ acrylic paint films as well as changes in
University of Manchester
surface chemistry in response to soiling and conservation treatments.
Other research interests include high-throughput analytical techniques,
Manchester, M13 9PL
operando X-ray spectroscopy, and electronic research management
+44 (0) 161 306 4402
Interpreting the Surface: Application of Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Paint Films There is an increasing need for fundamental research informing the conservation and restoration of twentieth-century acrylic paintings. The impact of wet cleaning agents on the bulk film and surface properties of artists’ acrylic paint films has been investigated for approximately 10 years, but information on the crucial uppermost surface (<10 nm) is still scarce. This project explores the analytical value of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a highly surface-sensitive technique that has not previously been applied in this context. Results are compared to those of Attenuated Total-Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), which has much less surface sensitivity but is more routinely available for the characterization of paint surfaces. Both techniques identify the cleaning efficacy of water and petroleum spirits to be inferior to that of formulated cleaning treatments containing surfactant and/or chelating agents. XPS is found to be a more powerful tool than FTIR-ATR for identifying surface residues and effects on pigmentation. By understanding the effect of wet cleaning treatments on the surface of acrylic emulsion paint films, cleaning formulations aimed at the removal of accumulated deposited soiling can be tailored to achieve high removal efficacy while posing minimal risk to the underlying paint films.
Freshly prepared Golden Hansa yellow light paint film and mock ‘painting’ in background. © Elizabeth Willneff
Top: Paint film with samples removed for analysis ÂŠ Elizabeth Willneff Middle: Paint and pigment samples mounted for XPS analysis ÂŠ Elizabeth Willneff
Paint samples in ultra-high vacuum chamber during XPS analysis ÂŠElizabeth Willneff
Dr Sonia Oâ€™Connor FIIC ACR FSA Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues
Dr Sonia O’Connor trained in archaeological conservation at the Institute of Archaeology, University of London and has over 30 years experience as a practitioner in the field. She has held posts at the National Maritime Museum, London, the Department of Archaeology at University College Cardiff and the York Archaeological Trust, and is a Fellow of the International Institute for Conservation and the Society of Antiquaries of London. In 1995 she joined the Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford where she provided a conservation service, undertook teaching and began to develop her research skills in a number of areas of heritage science, including the radiographic investigation of historic and archaeological textiles. In 2003 Sonia received the Nemet Award from the British Institute of Non-destructive Testing for her work in raising standards and promoting the use of
University of Bradford Hawley Collection, the Horniman Museum, Hull Museums and Galleries, Leeds Museums and Galleries, York Archaeological Trust and the Henry Moseley X-Ray Imaging Facility, University of Manchester
X-radiography in the heritage profession and in 2008 she was awarded a PhD at the University of Bradford by submission of her published work on cultural materials radiography. It was at York that Sonia first began to develop her skills in identifying the often heavily worked and decayed materials of archaeological finds made from animal hard tissues, work which has provided the cornerstone for her current Science and Heritage Programme, Post-Doctoral Fellowship project.
Contact details Dr Sonia O’Connor FIIC ACR FSA Archaeological Sciences Institute of Applied Sciences University of Bradford Richmond Road Bradford, BD7 1DP +44 (0)1274 236498 firstname.lastname@example.org www.heritagescience.ac.uk/ Research_Projects/projects/ PDF/OConnor
Left: Reference objects in animal hard tissues, their imitators and substitutes © Sonia O’Connor
Material Matters: Identifying the Material of Objects Worked in Animal Hard Tissues
From earliest times people have used hard skeletal tissues, such as bone, antler, ivory, horn, baleen and tortoiseshell, as raw material to create almost everything from simple tools to subtle and evocative works of art. Working these raw materials can greatly change their appearance and decay processes can render them almost unrecognisable. The correct identification of these materials is, however, fundamental to understanding the cultural significance, preservation needs and authenticity of these objects. Today, animal hard tissues have almost entirely been replaced as raw material for artefacts by metallic alloys and synthetic plastics and conservation concerns have made some unavailable and unacceptable. With the passing of these raw materials, familiarity with their characteristics and properties has been lost, posing a challenge for those who work with historic and prehistoric artefacts, and to the detection of illegally trafficked, CITES protected materials. The project Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues aims to refine and develop identification protocols through the collation, evaluation and validation of visual criteria and analytical techniques. This paper will outline the scope of the project and report the latest developments, illustrated with a diverse range of examples including objects from archaeological, ethnographic, social history and fine art collections.
Top: Detail of a tortoiseshell comb © Sonia O’Connor Bottom: Using a high resolution digital microscope to explore inlays in the musical instrument collections at the Horniman Museum © Gilberto Martinez
Ankole cattle ©Terry O’Connor
A section of mammoth ivory tusk ©Sonia O’Connor
Dr Lee Gonzalez MRSC MSB From Structural Change to Perceived Damage: Appropriate Environmental Conditions for Parchment
Parchment sample mounted for X-ray diffraction experiment
Lee obtained his PhD in structural biophysics in 2009 from Cardiff University. His project focused upon analysing the degradation of historical parchments. Since then Lee has worked as a Post-Doctoral
The National Archives
researcher on the Apocalypto project, which aims to read rolled parchment documents using micro-X-ray tomography. In 2010, Lee was awarded a Science and Heritage Programme Fellowship, which is jointly based at The National Archives and Cardiff University. He has extensive experience of using X-ray Diffraction, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and mechanical testing to understand hierarchical biological materials. Lee is also a member of the RSC Analytical Methods Committee and is Chairman of the Science and Heritage sub-committee.
Cardiff University Contact details Dr Lee Gonzalez School of Optometry and Vision Science Cardiff University Maindy Road Cardiff, CF24 4LU +44 (0) 2920870204 GonzalezLG@cf.ac.uk
Public outreach: Lee speaking to school children about parchment analysis at Diamond Light Source open day
www.heritagescience.ac.uk/ Research_Projects/projects/ PDF/Gonzalez
Understanding how Relative Humidity Affects Parchment Artefacts
The major structural components of parchment are collagen and its denatured form, gelatine. Microfocus X-ray diffraction experiments have revealed that the collagen and gelatine components of parchment exist in distinct phases, where the gelatine phase tends to be found on the surface of the parchment. Structurally, parchment can be considered as a collagen core interfaced with a gelatine exterior. As a composite material, the relative proportions of collagen and gelatine will affect the mechanical properties of a parchment; this is because of the structural differences between the component materials. Over the relative humidity range of 5-95%, the % water content of collagen and gelatine are found to be different; gelatine typically has a lower % water content than collagen at the same relative humidity. Therefore, a key element to understand is the relationship between the structural components as a function of relative humidity. This presentation will discuss the structure of parchment, how the shear stress across the interface between the collagen and gelatine components changes with relative humidity and the role of relative humidity in the denaturation of collagen. This presentation will also comment on the difficulties of translating research and the impact of this research project.
Parchment sample mounted for X-ray diffraction experiment
Top: Parchment mounted for a mechanical testing experiment Bottom: X-ray diffraction image and Fourier TransformInfrared Spectrum of collagen found in parchment
Dr Naomi Luxford Change or Damage? Effect of Climate on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties
Lifting veneers highlighted by raking light ÂŠ Naomi Luxford
Naomi Luxford is currently a post-doctoral research fellow in the UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, funded by the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme and is working on the three year project, Change or Damage? Effect of Climate on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties, with project partners English Heritage. She completed a PhD in 2009 at the Textile Conservation Centre, University of Southampton in collaboration with English Heritage, funded by AHRC. Entitled Reducing the Risk of Open Display: Optimising the Preventive Conservation of Historic Silks, this studied the effect of environmental conditions on silk to understand its deterioration in historic houses. She graduated from the RCA/V&A Conservation MA programme in 2006 having specialised in Conservation Science in the Care of Historic Interiors with English Heritage. She has also undertaken internships at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and Conservation Centre, National Museums Liverpool. Prior to entering conservation she obtained an MSci in Chemistry from the University of Bristol.
University College London English Heritage Contact details Dr Naomi Luxford Centre for Sustainable Heritage Bartlett School of Graduate Studies University College London Central House 14 Upper Woburn Place London, WC1H 0NN +44 (0)20 3108 9019 email@example.com www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/ graduate/csh/research/ changeordamage
Lifting veneer edge captured by digital image correlation and StrainMaster © LaVision
Research exhibition at Kenwood House, English Heritage ©Debbie Williams
Measuring the Collection Response: from Monitoring Objects to Preventive Conservation Recommendations When displaying mixed material collections in historic houses, decisions on the most appropriate environmental display conditions are often a compromise based on the most sensitive or vulnerable objects in each room. Veneer and marquetry furniture is often highlighted as being especially vulnerable to fluctuations in humidity but stable display environments can be difficult to achieve in historic houses which lack air conditioning. In order to select the best environment for the display of veneer and marquetry collections and understand the risks associated with it greater knowledge of how these collections react was required. Although accelerated ageing of replicas is commonly used to determine the response of materials within collections, veneer and marquetry furniture is complex and difficult to replicate. For this reason monitoring of the collection, both in storage and on display, has been undertaken to determine how it responds to the current environment. Kenwood House, an English Heritage property in North London provided the case study site. From the monitoring results, preventive conservation recommendations can be made and collections management improved. The presentation will discuss the results of monitoring the veneer and marquetry collection and how these have been applied to make preventive conservation recommendations.
Top: Acoustic emission sensor with weight placed over to maintain contact with object ÂŠ Naomi Luxford Bottom: Acoustic emission equipment on floral commode at Kenwood House, English Heritage ÂŠ Naomi Luxford
Top: Portable near-infrared spectroscopy being used on the Carlton Desk at Kenwood House, English Heritage © Naomi Luxford
Splits in veneer causing buckling of the surface layer ©Naomi Luxford
Bottom: Lifting veneer and missing section shown in a 3D height map captured by surface profilometry © TRACEiT, Innowep
Session 2: Technologies for Cultural Heritage
Approaches to Analysis: To Sample or not to Sample Dr David Saunders Over recent decades there have been significant advances in the methods and instrumentation used both in non-invasive examination and analysis of objects and for the investigation of samples taken from objects;
Keeper of Conservation two of the Post-Doctoral projects presented at this Symposium will present and Scientific Research recent findings in these areas. Non-invasive techniques have developed Department that can make detailed analysis of very specific points on a surface, The British Museum
survey large areas rapidly, penetrate deeper into the structure of an object or detect and map many more types of material. At the same time, more sophisticated analytical protocols and instruments allow more information to be obtained from smaller samples and offer the possibility of mapping distribution within those samples. Both approaches also benefit from the steady accumulation of reference data that underpin the interpretation of the results from objects. This contribution explores, through a series of case studies from the laboratory at The British Museum, approaches to non-invasive or samplebased analysis of objects and the way in which these are targeted to answering particular questions about the history of objects or their future care. It also looks at the development of examination protocols that make use of a series of analytical methods, some of which require sampling. Finally, consideration is given to the information gained from analysis with respect to the potential or actual micro-damage that might be caused by the method.
David Saunders is Keeper of Conservation and Scientific Research at The British Museum. After obtaining a DPhil in Chemistry and a period of PostDoctoral research, he joined The National Gallery in London before taking up his current post at The British Museum in 2005. His research interests include the deterioration of museum collections and the effect of display and storage environments on objects. He has developed and applied non-invasive analytical techniques for the study of artefacts, principally based on imaging technologies. He is a Fellow of IIC, was editor of Studies in Conservation and serves on a number of conservation advisory boards.
Dr Satoko Tanimoto Advancing Heritage Science with Spectroscopic Imaging
Marble head from Ephesos (BM1872,0405.121) ÂŠ Trustees of The British Museum
Satoko has been working at Imperial College London as the AHRC/ ESPRC Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellow since October 2010. She previously completed a 3-year Mellon Fellowship at the Department of Conservation and Scientific Research, British Museum, where she worked on a number of projects, using a range of analytical techniques, including the technical study of a large set of Italian Renaissance drawings that were included in the exhibition, Fra Angelico to Leonardo: Italian Renaissance Drawings, which took
Imperial College London The British Museum and The National Gallery
place from April to July 2010. This was a collaborative project with the
Gabinetto Disegno e Stampe degli Uffizi.
Dr Satoko Tanimoto
Satoko has a first degree from the Kobe Pharmaceutical University
Imperial College London
(Chemistry and Pharmacy/Pharmacology) in Japan and a MSc in
South Kensington Campus
Environmental Sciences and Management from the University of San
London, SW7 2AZ
Francisco. She also spent a year as an intern at the Getty Conservation
+44 (0)20 7589 5111
Institute, before completing her PhD research at the Institute of
Archaeology, University College London. During her PhD, Satoko also spent several extended periods working in the Science Section at the Victoria and Albert Museum, as a tutor in the Conservation Department at the City and Guilds Art School and with the Courtauld Institute of Art on wall paintings in Ahhichatragarh Fort/Nagaur Fort, India.
Micro ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging equipment attached with microscope at Imperial College London
www.heritagescience.ac.uk/ Research_Projects/projects/ PDF/Tanimoto
Advancing Heritage Science with ATR-FTIR Microspectroscopic Imaging
Characterisation of the materials of cultural heritage collections is vital in understanding how they were made and used, their conservation history, origin and mechanisms of material decay, and how deterioration has affected their appearance. Conventional FTIR microscopy is of proven value in this field, but as samples typically need to be in the form of tiny powdered scrapings, precise information about location of materials within the microstructure of an object is lost. Analysis of samples prepared as cross-sections is useful since the distribution of materials within the layer structure reflects the working practices of the artist/maker and helps to differentiate between original and later materials, as well as deterioration products. Reflectance FTIR imaging has been used for this purpose but the spatial resolution is generally not sufficient. The higher spatial resolution achieved with ATR-FTIR imaging has transformed the appeal of FTIR techniques for this type of sample, and has the potential to become routine for the simultaneous characterization of organic and inorganic materials directly on crosssections. The AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme project at Imperial College is exploring its application to cultural heritage samples and developing aspects of the methodology. The talk will illustrate this work through examples from paintings and objects in The National Gallery and The British Museum, the heritage partners in this project.
Top: Detail of the coffin of Hineb (EA6693) ÂŠ Trustees of The British Museum Bottom: The coffin of Hineb (EA6693) ÂŠ Trustees of The British Museum
ATR-FTIR imaging results from Campin’s Portrait of a Man © The National Gallery, London (right): a cross-section from the red hat shows large red lake particles and analysed area is highlighted by the black square (top left). The ATR-FTIR image shows protein (amide II) distribution (middle). The FTIR spectrum (bottom left) from the lake shows both amide I and amide II bands
Below left: Barnaba da Modena, Pentecost (NG1437, probably 1377) © The National Gallery, London Below right: Detail of one of the apostles showing mordant gilding on the purple cloak © The National Gallery, London
1030-926 cm -1
1647-1582 cm -1
ATR-FTIR imaging results from Barnaba da Modena’s Pentecost. A cross section from the gilding on the apostle’s purple robe (top left) shows the mordant used as adhesive directly below gold leaf. The ATR-FTIR images shows ultramarine (left) and gum ammoniac (middle). The FTIR spectrum (top right) from the mordant matches a gum ammoniac reference.
Dr Henoc Agbota Accessible Heritage: Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System
Prototype inside china display case at Apsley House, English Heritage ÂŠ Henoc Agbota
Dr Agbota joined the University College London Centre for Sustainable Heritage as a Research Fellow in June 2010 to work on the AHRC/ EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellowship project Accessible Heritage - Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System. His research interests include the development and application of information technologies to heritage preservation and environment protection. He believes that these issues will only be
University College London English Heritage and UNESCO
properly tackled if research outcomes are engineered towards the greatest accessibility.
He graduated from Lancaster University with a PhD in Computing in
Dr Henoc Agbota
2009. His thesis was an empirical study of the effect of increasing
Centre for Sustainable
concurrent communications on the performance of low-power
embedded networks. Prior to his PhD, he obtained a Diplôme
Bartlett School of
d’Ingénieur in Communication Systems from the Ecole Polytechnique
Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. His diploma work was
University College London
undertaken at the National Institute of Standards and Technology
in Maryland, USA. He was an intern at the former Intel Research
14 Upper Woburn Place
Cambridge and at different institutions such as Linkoping University
London, WC1H 0NN
(Sweden), New Re Geneva (Switzerland) and Bank of Africa (Benin).
+44 (0)20 3108 9001
He grew up and attended primary and secondary schools in Cotonou,
Republic of Benin.
www.ucl.ac.uk/ accessible-heritage The prototype includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor
Accessible Heritage: Remote Trans-Continental Heritage Support System There is a lack of long-term data for helping evaluate the impact of air pollution on cultural heritage, especially from developing regions. The imminence of the environmental threat is exacerbated by the rapid increase in industrialisation and automobile traffic seen in several parts of the world in the last decade. In regions with developing economies, very few studies have been conducted so far to provide quantitative evidence of the impact of pollution on heritage. The Accessible Heritage project is developing a new environment monitoring system which measures temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. The measurements can be remotely accessed from the project website. The technology is built around a dosimeter array of metal-coated piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances. Extensive in-field calibration aims at testing the usability and maximising the lifetime. Ultimately, the main goal of the project is to study whether and how the collected environmental data has an impact on case study site management policies. The research has involved over 21 international heritage sites notably via an online questionnaire on pollution monitoring. Among the issues being discussed are awareness for pollution monitoring, international collaboration and data management, as well as data access and ownership.
Top: Crystals are coated with metals sensitive to outdoor pollutants Bottom: Prototype consists of a metalcoated dosimeter array interfacing a micro-controller and a low-power radio module
Prototype monitoring traffic-generated pollutants at Apsley House, English Heritage ÂŠ Henoc Agbota
The flexible design uses a number of interchangeable crystals allowing for different pollutants to be measured
Gillian Walker Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europeâ€™s Hidden Mural Paintings
Picometrix terahertz receiver and detector
Gillian Walker graduated from Magdalen College, Oxford University in 2000 with an MPhys, majoring in Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics. She moved to the University of Leeds where she completed
University of Reading
her PhD in the department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine in 2004, pioneering the use of pulsed terahertz imaging as a modality to non-invasively detect skin cancer. She continued this work as a postgraduate at The University of Reading, focusing on understanding system design to minimize system imposed artifacts and quantify images. Following the award of an AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellowship in 2010, Gillian has begun to
Institut de la Lumière Extrême and the Laboratories of the Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France
focus on the uses of pulse terahertz imaging for the investigative
analysis of cultural heritage, particularly the task of imaging obscured
Dr Gillian Walker
mural paintings. She has been lucky enough to work in Chartres
School of Systems
Cathedral, Çatalhöyük, Turkey and Creswell Caves in Derbyshire, UK.
Engineering, Room 129
In 2012 Gillian was invited to be a founding member of a sub-committee
University of Reading
focusing on science and heritage research in the UK at the Royal
Society of Chemistry. Gillian has over 25 academic publications and
hopes that this grant heralds a new exciting era, pioneering the use of
Berkshire, RG6 6AY
terahertz imaging in archaeological sites globally.
+44 (0) 118 378 8220 firstname.lastname@example.org www.seeingthroughwalls. reading.ac.uk/
Left: On site at Çatalhöyük, Turkey
Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s Hidden Mural Paintings
In many areas of cultural heritage mural paintings have been revised or obscured during their history: from prehistoric rock art covered with flow rock to church wall paintings in Riga obscured during the Russian occupation of 1941. Terahertz imaging uses ultrashort pulses (a millionth of a millionth of a second in duration) of radiation to image obscured mural paintings, by analysing reflections from paint or structural layers within an optically opaque wall structure. The technique is also capable of analysing thin material layers and is being developed as a tool for imaging the reverse side of obscured paper or papyrus. Signal processing techniques to enhance this application are presented and then adapted to the problem of identifying the location of paint layers in plaster. The potential of terahertz imaging as a technique to visualise obscured mural paintings is explored and demonstrated using data recorded in Chartres Cathedral, France; Çatalhöyük, Turkey; Creswell Caves, Derbyshire; and the Riga Doma, Latvia. These results demonstrate novel signal processing techniques to overcome site-specific problems encountered at each location.
Top: An excavated sample of Roman wall painting from Silchester Bottom: Wall painting at Chartre Cathedral, thirty meters up
Scanning for pre-historic rock art in Creswell Caves, Derbyshire
Section of wall paintings from Çatalhöyük, Turkey
Measurements being recorded at Çatalhöyük, Turkey
Science and Heritage Programme Post-Doctoral Fellowship Awards Accessible Heritage: Remote Trans-Continental
Advancing Heritage Science
Heritage Support System
with Spectroscopic Imaging
Dr Henoc Agbota, University College London with
Dr Satoko Tanimoto, Imperial College London with
English Heritage and UNESCO
The British Museum and The National Gallery
Amount Awarded: £241,433.00
Amount Awarded: £269,978.00
From Structural Change to Perceived Damage:
Seeing Through Walls: Discovering Europe’s
Appropriate Environmental Conditions for
Hidden Mural Paintings
Dr Gillian Walker
Dr Lee Gonzalez
University of Reading with Institut de la
The National Archives with Cardiff University
Lumière Extrême and the Laboratories of the
Amount awarded: £234,438.00
Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France
Change or Damage? Effect of Climate
Amount awarded: £281,055.00
on Decorative Furniture Surfaces in Historic Properties
Interpreting the Surface: The Application of
Dr Naomi Luxford
Surface Science to Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion
University College London with English Heritage
Amount Awarded: £235,531.00
Dr Elizabeth Willneff University of Manchester with Tate
Cultural Objects Worked in Skeletal Hard Tissues Dr Sonia O’Connor University of Bradford with Hawley Collection, the Horniman Museum, Hull Museums and Galleries, Leeds Museums and Galleries, York Archaeological Trust and the Henry Moseley X-Ray Imaging Facility, University of Manchester Amount Awarded: £244,324.00
Amount Awarded: £274,584.00
About the Research Councils AHRC The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) supports world-class research that furthers our understanding of human culture and creativity. With an annual budget of ÂŁ100 million, the AHRC funds research on a very wide range of subjects, from traditional humanities such as history, English, linguistics, French and other modern languages, philosophy and classics, area and interdisciplinary studies to creative and performing arts such as drama, dance, music, art and design. Research into these subjects helps us to interpret our experiences, probe our identities, interrogate our cultural assumptions and understand our historical, social, economic and political context. It adds to the economic success of the UK, through its contributions to the knowledge economy and innovation agenda. The research we fund can lead to improvements in social and intellectual capital, community identity, learning skills, technological evolution and the quality of life of the nation. Established in April 2005, the AHRC evolved from the Arts and Humanities Research Board, which was founded in 1998.
EPSRC The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council is a corporate body with executive responsibilities established under the Science and Technology Act 1965 and by Royal Charter. We are a non-departmental public body principally funded through the Science Budget by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS). We support research into engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, materials science, information and communications technologies. The research we fund ranges from fundamental science to solving problems in manufacturing, healthcare, energy, the environment and climate change. We are the main UK government agency for funding research and training in engineering and the physical sciences. We are one of seven research councils funded by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. The research we fund affects every aspect of our lives, from energy and the environment, though health, crime prevention, transport, construction and leisure time, to communications, nanotechnology and fundamental science.