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Forty Eighth Edition CELEBRATING




EXPANSION & BOOSTING DIVERSIFICATION BERTH CAPACITY How ports around the world are staying hot

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A new STS crane for ultra-large container vessels

TERMINAL SELECTION How to attract the world’s biggest shipping line

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Introduction The year is drawing to a close and what better opportunity to look back and take stock. Port trade has picked up considerably over the course of 2010, particularly during the first half of the year, when container throughput increased by an average of 20% among the world’s major ports. However, if world trade fulfils the projected 9% increase by the end of this year, ports will still be operating below 2008 performance levels. But as Gichiri Ndua, MD of the Kenya Ports Authority and President of the IAPH, recently observed: “If projected trade growth of 6.3% for 2011 is realized, the volume of world trade will literally have bounced back to pre-recession levels.” So how can we go about achieving this extra 6.3% in 2011? Mr Ndua suggests the enlargement of container handling capacity but, more broadly, the answer lies in identifying those key areas where assets can be stretched, processes streamlined and waste reduced. At the Port of Salalah, Oman, cargo volumes grew by 11% in 2009, while cargo growth fell by 15% globally. I interviewed Peter Ford, CEO of the Port, back in October – which you can read on the back page (page 80). Salalah has been using new software and statistical analysis methodology like Technical Asset Management (TAM) and Lean Six Sigma, to constantly monitor how equipment give the best return, and how the Port can continue to grow. And if it works for Salalah, the outlook could also be good for your facility! You may have noticed that in our last edition (no. 47) we debuted the journal’s new design and logo, and we’ve just launched our new-look website. We’ve kept all the old features that have made our website so popular in the past – the constant News updates, our Events Guide, and our Journal Archive with downloadable articles from all our past editions. The PTI Equipment Directory is a new addition to the website, where you can browse company and product profiles from all sectors of the industry – which should help make procurement of equipment and services a cinch. You can even add a 150-word profile of your company to the Directory for free! Finally, this year marks another milestone – Port Technology International is now 15 years old! As publications go, 15 years is quite an achievement, and we have a long history within the industry that we’re incredibly proud of. Thinking of it another way, 15 years is hardly any time at all – we’re still a teenager! That is to say we still have potential to achieve and goals to attain. I can tell you that we’re going to be doing lots of exciting new things in 2011 – so watch this space. I shall close by thanking our authors, advertisers and partners in publishing – including our new corporate supporter APM Terminals. Thank you all so much for contributing your articles and valuable advice – I hope you enjoy the finished product. Thanks, too, to you the reader for supporting us over the years – and here’s to many, many more years of Port Technology International, online and in print!

Holly Birkett Editor

Visit our new-look website at

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Published by: Maritime Information Services Ltd Trans-World House, 100 City Road London EC1Y 2BP Tel: +44 (0)207 871 0123 Fax: +44 (0)207 871 0101 E-mail: Web site: The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright, full details of which are available from the Publisher. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise – without prior permission of the copyright owner.

Publisher: Bernard Henry Managing Director: David Owen Editor: Holly Birkett Production Manager: Tina Davidian Design: Andy Crisp, Stuart Wright Publication & Sales Manager: Michael Stewart Senior Account Manager: Gary Kakoullis Online Sales Manager: Rachel Elton Distribution and Print organised by: Head to Head Limited Front cover: Dry bulk operations at the Port of Barcelona. Picture courtesy of HITT-Klein Systems. Forty Eighth Edition, Winter 2010 ISSN: 1358 1759 While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this book, the Publisher will accept no responsibility for any errors or ommissions, or for any loss or damage, consequential or otherwise, suffered as a result of any material here published. The opinions expressed in the enclosed editorial are the sole responsibility of the authors and organisations concerned and not those of the Publishers. Neither Maritime Information Services Ltd nor its Agents accept liability in whole or in part howsoever arising for the contents of the editorial published herein.

02/12/2010 17:08:15

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Our Partners in Publishing  he International Association of T Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) The International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA), established in 1957, gathers together marine aids to navigation authorities, manufacturers and consultants from all parts of the world and offers them the opportunity to compare their experiences and achievements. IALA encourages its members to work together in a common effort to harmonise aids to navigation worldwide and to ensure that the movement of vessels is safe, expeditious and cost effective.

The International Maritime Pilots Association The International Maritime Pilots Association is a forum for the exchange of information. Its main objective is to provide a representative voice for pilots in international maritime forums, particularly at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), an agency of the United Nations, and the International Maritime Law-Making body. Consultative status at the IMO was formally granted in November 1973, and since that time IMPA delegates have played a very active role in the work of the organisation.

 he International Association of T Airport and Seaport Police (IAASP)

The International Association of Airport and Seaport Police (IAASP) is a worldwide, non-governmental and non-profit association dedicated to mutual co-operation in setting the highest standards of safety, security and law enforcement regarding the transportation of persons and property through air and seaports, across boundaries and other terminals. It was recognised in the late 1960s that there was an urgent need for police and other law enforcement agencies to develop a faster means of exchanging information and intelligence internationally. In 1969 the IAASP, the oldest and largest international police association of its kind, was formed, bringing together representatives of police, other enforcement agencies and the transportation industry in the movement of passengers and cargo at airports and seaports around the world. For the first time, a professional approach to policing airports and seaports was possible worldwide.

The International Cargo Security Council (ICSC)

The International Cargo Security Council (ICSC) is a professional association of cargo transportation and security professionals from the entire spectrum of cargo security: air, truck/rail, maritime, and intermodal. The ICSC has four objectives: To improve cargo transportation security through voluntary government and industry efforts; to serve as a central clearinghouse for the collection and distribution of information relating to trends, techniques, and efforts to prevent cargo-related crimes; to provide a platform to address transportation industry matters relating to security of cargo; and to assist and support voluntary and self-help initiatives by government, transportation centres, and industry cargo security interests to develop effective efforts and programmes to combat cargo loss.

The World Customs Organization (WCO) As the only intergovernmental organization with a unique Customs focus, the World Customs Organization (WCO), with its headquarters in Brussels, was established in 1952. It currently has 169 members across the globe, at all stages of economic development, who collectively process approximately 98% of world trade. The WCO is particularly noted for its work in areas covering the security and facilitation of the trade supply chain; the development of global Customs standards, the simplification and harmonization of Customs procedures, trade facilitation, risk management, integrity promotion, valuation, origin, the Harmonized System goods nomenclature, and sustainable Customs capacity building initiatives. Being the global centre of Customs expertise, the WCO provides an ideal forum for Customs administrations and their stakeholders to exchange experiences, and share best practices on a range of international Customs and trade issues.

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AIM is the global trade association for automatic identification and mobility technologies. AIM members are providers and users systems that capture, manage and integrate accurate data into larger information systems. As a not-for-profit industry organization, AIM’s mission is to stimulate the understanding and use of the technology by providing timely, unbiased and commercial-free information. • •

International Harbour Masters Association (IHMA)

The objectives of the International Harbour Masters Association (IHMA) are to promote safe and efficient marine operations in port waters and to represent the professional standing, interests and views of harbour masters internationally, regionally and nationally.

25/11/2010 12:08:58

The Coasts, Oceans, Ports and Rivers Institute (COPRI)

The Coasts, Oceans, Ports and Rivers Institute (COPRI) was founded in 2000, as one of the American Society of Civil Engineers’ (ASCE) seven technical institutes. COPRI works to advance and disseminate scientific and engineering knowledge to its diverse membership, which is engaged in sustainable development and the protection of coasts, oceans, ports, waterways, rivers and wetlands. COPRI works to enhance communication and co-operation among our more than 3,000 members, both domestic and abroad, and the industry as a whole by advancing our members’ careers, stimulating technological advancement and improving professional practice. With 16 technical committees, COPRI provides members with the opportunity to change the face of the industry, from actively developing policy change to developing standards and technically sound programs such as conferences and workshops. COPRI’s committees are comprised of all members of the profession including: engineers, academicians, planners, elected and appointed officials and more.


Members of CEDA are drawn from Europe, Africa and the Middle East. The Western Dredging Association (WEDA), serving the Americas, and the Eastern Dredging Association (EADA), serving the Asian and Pacific region, are autonomous sister associations which share the aims of CEDA. The three sister associations from the World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA). CEDA who are the Central Dredging Association promote the exchange of knowledge in all fields concerned with dredging. They enhance contacts between the various groups from which members are drawn and between the dredging fraternity and the rest of the world, enhancing understanding of dredging works from both theoretical and practical viewpoints. They also co-operate with other international organisations to safeguard the interests of the dredging profession.

The International Association  of Dredging Companies (IADC) The International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC), headquartered in The Hague, is a trade organisation with more than 50 main and associated members in the private dredging sector, all of which operate sizeable fleets and are active in the world market. IADC companies have been involved with every major international dredging project of the last century. Their objectives are to advance fair trade practices and standard contracts to establish sound environmental practices, and to publish and encourage the publication of information about technological advances in the dredging industry. IADC works to

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attract worldwide recognition for the dredging industry in general and to increase the public’s awareness of the significant contributions of dredging towards economic growth and prosperity.

The International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH)

The International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) is a worldwide association of port authorities whose principle objective is to develop and foster good relations and co-operation by promoting greater efficiency of all ports and harbours through the exchange of information about new techniques and technology, relating to port development, organisation, administration and management. Promoting co-operation among ship owners, shipping lines and other parties, the IAPH have been granted consultative status as a Non-Governmental Organisation from the following United Nations Agencies: International Maritime Organisation (IMO), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Customs Organisation (WCO).

The Ports and Terminals Group (PTG) The Ports and Terminals Group (PTG), based in London, is the UK’s leading ports trade association. PTG’s mission is to help facilitate its members’ entry into, or growth of their businesses in, overseas markets; and in doing so assist port organisations and governmental authorities worldwide to undertake port development and expansion on a buildoperate-transfer or similar basis.

ICHCA International ICHCA International represents cargo-handling interests in the international field and is the only one to do so. It was founded in 1952 and for many years was run as an Association. The acronym stands for International Cargo Handling Coordination Association but in 2002 it became incorporated and took the name ICHCA International Ltd. Its role is to speak for cargo-handling interests at an international level and to consult, inform and advise its members accordingly. It has a worldwide membership and is a recognised Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) with ILO, IMO, ISO and UNCTAD. It also liaises closely with other international bodies such as IAPH. It works through a number of panels and groupings and publishes a bi-monthly electronic newsletter, an annual publication “Cargo World” and many authoritative advice and guidance documents.

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Contents 2 Introduction 4&5 Partners in Publishing 8

Global Terminal Operators

23 Canadian ports: opportunities and challenges in the age of expansion Dr. Michael C. Ircha, Senior Advisor, Association of Canadian Port Authorities, Ottawa, Canada

9 A home-grown innovation for a highly productive future Ross Clarke, Head of New Terminals Design & Development, & Angelo de Jong, Technical Manager; APM Terminals, The Hague, The Netherlands

27 27 Eemshaven: expansion and diversification Leendert Bourgonjen, Project Manager, & Bart van der Kolk, Sustainability Coordinator, Groningen Seaports, Delfzijl, Netherlands

9 12

Port Focus

13 Foresight and future-proofing: how to attract the world’s biggest shipping line Maersk Line, Copenhagen, Denmark, speaks with Port Technology International 16 Port Planning, Design and Construction featuring Environment 17 Sokhna: Egypt’s 21st Century third generation port on the Red Sea Ashraf Ghazy, Senior Translator, GM Publications & Translations Dept., Damietta Port Authority, Damietta, Egypt

17 6 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

30 Safe disposal of underwater mines using air bubble barriers Dr. Edgar Schmidtke, German Navy, & Hydrotechnik Lübeck GmbH, Lübeck, Germany 34 Water injection dredging – monitoring leads to effective planning ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd. (ABPmer), Southampton, UK 36

Mooring and Berthing

38 Larger LNG carriers, larger risks? Jos T.M. van Doorn, MARIN, Wageningen, The Netherlands


Contents 41


42 Great communication is crucial for optimized port management Henk Kuipers, Klein Systems Group Ltd., Burnaby, Canada


Dry Bulk & Specialist Cargo Handling

62 Modeling the mine-to-port supply chain Alan Sagan, Consultant, & Dr. Harry King, Manager – Simulation Modeling Group; Ausenco Sandwell, Vancouver, Canada 66 Laying the foundations in cement handling at the Port of Houston River Consulting, Columbus, OH, USA

42 45 Developing a new Dock Information System Samir Dhar, Research Technician, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA


50 Container Handling featuring Terminal Logistics


51 Efficient use of energy in container cranes Fredrik Johanson, General Manager Marketing and Sales, ABB AB Crane Systems, Västerås, Sweden

71 All hands on deck at the Port of Cork Captain Pat Murphy, Port Facility Security Officer, Port of Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland 75

Customs and Security

Liquid, Chemical and Gas Handling

76 56 56 Tried and tested: the ultimate operator experience Ruukki, Helsinki, Finland 58 Refurbishing terminal tractors, boosting productivity H. Önder Türker, Portunus Port Spares & Services, Istanbul, Turkey

76 Integrated terminal automation technology – the future of storage terminals Richard Thompson, Europe, Middle East and Africa Regional General Manager, Honeywell Field Solutions, Bracknell, UK 80 The Last Word Interview with Peter Ford, CEO of the Port of Salalah, Oman

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


global terminal operators Supported by:

8 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

global terminal operators

A home-grown innovation for a highly productive future APM Terminals has designed and developed its own STS crane to eliminate constraints of current designs Ross Clarke, Head of New Terminals Design & Development, & Angelo de Jong, Technical Asset Manager APMT Europe Region, The Hague, The Netherlands

Increasingly large ships require a quantum leap in terminal productivity Every year the world container ship fleet comprises more and more ultra-large container vessels. Only five short years ago, the number of ships in the world with more than 10,000 TEU capacity was zero; today there are 73, and by 2012 the number will have more than doubled to 180. Time is money for these large ships, and consistently higher berth productivity through increased crane intensity and greater planning flexibility offers potential to reduce port time for these large ships by up to 50 percent. In many container terminals today, throughput capacity is limited by berth capacity. Provided there is sufficient yard capacity, increasing berth capacity through greater crane productivity or crane intensity enables greater annual terminal throughput. In late 2006, a cross-functional team of APM Terminals staff were brought together for an innovation brainstorming session, to find ways in which APM Terminals could deliver a quantum leap improvement in service delivery to its customers.

Dozens of ideas were generated, nothing was off-limits, and some of the ideas really pushed the boundaries of conventional thinking. Magnetic levitation may hold some promise in the future, but perhaps a bit more development is needed before it can be practical for terminal operations. However, after some filtering of the ideas to focus on a concept that would deliver maximum customer benefit, one idea in particular stood out as having potential to deliver a quantum leap in service, and stood a reasonable chance of being ‘do-able’.

Today’s constraints are tomorrow’s opportunities Angelo de Jong, a young engineer working in APM Terminals’ Innovation Department, had come up with an idea to eliminate the physical constraint imposed by the width of today’s STS cranes, which makes it impossible for two cranes to simultaneously handle containers on adjacent 40-foot bays of a ship. This can be seen very clearly in Figure 1. This problem

Figure 1. APM Terminals engineers aimed to design the cranes to be able to work on adjacent 40-foot bays on ships.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


global terminal operators

Figure 2. Computer simulations show that Fastnet can double berth productivity for call sizes of 3,000 moves or greater.

imposes a real physical limit on the maximum berth productivity that can be achieved with today’s STS cranes. The inability of conventional STS cranes to work on adjacent bays has to be taken into account by ship planners when planning loading and discharge sequences to avoid crane clashes. These clashes can occur even with very good planning if one crane works significantly faster or slower than another, or if a crane encounters an unexpected problem. For several months after the Innovation workshop, a small team of APM Terminals engineering and operations experts developed the idea of an STS crane design where cranes ran along an elevated rail, enabling crane operations in adjacent bays, into an increasingly feasible concept. In its early stages, the new crane structure was quite a bit heavier than existing STS cranes. This was a limitation, as the heavy structure meant the new crane design would only be suitable for placement on brand new, very strong, and therefore expensive quay walls. Designing a way for the elevated crane modules to travel past the support pillars was one of many critical features of the design, and a lot of ways that don’t work were discovered on the way to finding optimum designs that we now know will work. By mid-2008, the crane project had been extensively developed almost exclusively by internal resources, and it was showing a lot of promise. Considering the impact of perfecting the crane design, a project with significant funding was approved late in 2008 to enable further detailed development of the design, using leading industry crane and engineering consultants. Of course, late 2008 was a time of great financial turmoil. The global financial crisis resulted in every activity in our business coming under rigorous scrutiny. APM Terminals, however, is committed to driving innovation in the industry, and that requires a longterm focus – our management made the tough decision to stick with the crane development project in spite of the difficult financial situation. 10 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

A new crane concept – Fastnet During the course of the project, now known as ‘Fastnet’, Angelo led a team of engineering experts to further enhance the internally developed design, prove that it would work, and that it could be built. In total 5,500 internal man hours, and more than 16,000 external man hours were devoted to reducing the weight of the crane structure, verifying structural requirements, designing control systems, ensuring the Fastnet operation would be safe and carrying out commercial analyses. Over 500 engineering drawings were produced and are now held on file. Through clever design, the weight of the structure was significantly reduced to the point where the wharf loadings are now no higher than those imposed by conventional STS cranes. This development means that it is now feasible to retro-fit the new crane design on to any relatively modern container terminal wharf. Detailed computer simulations of terminal operations were carried out, to ensure that currently available yard handling and horizontal transport systems could cope with the vastly increased rate of production possible with the new crane system. Patented in 44 countries, Fastnet is a revolutionary development in STS crane design. Fastnet eliminates the productivity limitation imposed by the width of today’s container cranes. The Fastnet crane eliminates this constraint by mounting the individual cranes on an elevated girder, supported by massive, movable pillars. The automated moveable pillars are controlled by a sophisticated management system, which will ensure that the individual cranes can always reach all of the bays on the ship. Extensive computer simulations have shown that for call sizes of 3,000 moves or greater, Fastnet can consistently double berth productivity from today’s average of around 130 moves per hour to more than 270 moves per hour. Simulations have also shown that it is capable of delivering average berth productivity of 450 moves per hour. The individual crane modules are quite similar to the topsides of conventional STS cranes but, of course, without the wide

global terminal operators

portal support frames. The 13.5-meter wide cranes are suspended under a massive elevated girder raised 50 meters above the wharf. The girder is supported by moveable pillars, which travel along a double waterside rail to spread the weight of the structure. A clever adaptation of technology used in bridge construction is used to distribute the loads equally across all of the wheels. The 55-meter rail gauge provides ample room for the large numbers of horizontal transport units needed to keep up with productivity of more than 400 moves per hour. Fixed supports for the elevated land-side rail facilitate easy access for traffic to and from the yard, and maintain an efficient flow under the cranes (multi-loop traffic flow) by eliminating the ‘tunnel’ effect, which occurs when a large number of conventional cranes are working close together. Such a massive structure presents challenges in construction; hence the feasibility and logistics of constructing Fastnet were also investigated during the course of the project. We’re satisfied that it can be built, and will operate as envisaged. Fastnet is also scalable; while the support structures are obviously required from the first day of operation, we’ve established a process for adding cranes to the structure as needed in subsequent years. Our studies show that Fastnet will generate the greatest overall supply chain benefits when implemented in terminals with frequent, high volume ship exchanges. Implementing Fastnet at

terminals where the services calling have long sea voyages before or after the Fastnet call maximizes the opportunity to reduce ships’ service speeds, thus creating opportunities to lower costs and reduce CO2 emissions. Maximum supply chain benefits will be generated when Fastnet is implemented in several terminals servicing the same string. Aggregated time savings generated at several Fastnet terminals might enable a reduction in the number of ships required to operate a service – generating major cost benefits. A Fastnet berth, with its associated automated yard, represents a major capital investment. Our extensive commercial analyses of several potential locations for Fastnet berths show that the extremely high berth productivity possible can generate cost benefits for lines – but it’s clear that such an significant investment needs to be well utilized in order to be commercially viable for a terminal operator. So where are we likely to see Fastnet? Well, ultimately that depends on our customers. Fastnet is a solution that can double the current level of berth productivity for large ships. In the right locations, Fastnet presents an opportunity to dramatically reduce the time large container ships spend in port. If our customers demand the sort of productivity that Fastnet can deliver, then APM Terminals has an extensively researched concept for the future, which is much more than just an idea.

About the authors and company


Ross Clarke holds the position of

the R&D section of the global headquarters where

Tom Boyd

APM Terminals Head of Design &

he worked on FastNet and many other innovative

Director, External Communications

Operations for New Terminals. He

solutions. He is now responsible for improving

APM Terminals

is responsible for overseeing the

technical performance of container handling

operational design and specification

equipment in the terminals in the European region.

developments. He is also responsible for identifying and developing new and innovative operational concepts for implementation in APM Terminals’ new terminal developments.

Tel: +31 70 304 2181 Email:

of all of APM Terminals’ new port and terminal APM Terminals operates a global terminal network


of 50 terminals with 22,000 employees in 34 countries that provide the port infrastructure essential to international transportation and global economic

Angelo de Jong has a background

growth. The liner shipping industry, served by APM

in Naval Architecture and joined

Terminals and other operators, carries US$4.6 trillion

APM Terminals as a Crane Engineer

worth of international trade – approximately one third

in 2005. After a management trainee

of the total value of global commerce.

program, he worked for two years in

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



“The shipping industry is cyclical in nature, and supply chain partners (including shippers, lines and terminals) need to increase cooperation in order to plan for the future and avoid costly bottlenecks.” Foresight and future-proofing: How to attract the world’s biggest shipping line, page 13. 12 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Foresight and future-proofing: how to attract the world’s biggest shipping line Leading container line Maersk Line gives a perspective on the port industry, and an insight into their terminal selection process Maersk Line, Copenhagen, Denmark, speaks with Port Technology International Maersk Line is the liner shipping arm of the A.P. Moller – Maersk Group, and is the world’s leading shipping company. The Maersk Line fleet comprises of 500 vessels while the total container fleet totals over 3,200,000 TEU. Maersk Line is, of course, a customer that any ambitious Port Authority or terminal operator would love to have calling at their facility – so who better to tell us about the key factors that influence their terminal selection process than the Line itself? Port Technology International recently had the opportunity to sit down with Tommy Nilsson, head of Maersk Line’s Global Terminal Strategy, to discuss the current state of the shipping and port industries, and how ports can offer the best possible service to shipping lines.


Can you provide our readers with a bit of background information on Maersk Line’s business model and strategy?

Maersk Line has a vision of creating value for our customers through providing an end-to-end product that is unmatched in reliability, and at a competitive cost. The ability to deliver this to our customers is what drives our requirement setting towards terminals, i.e.: • Ensuring the most competitive cost proposition in the market • Strong focus on reliability and performance levels • Sustainability (i.e. an environmental focus).



 hen deciding on new shipping routes, what are the factors W that shipping lines consider when deciding which ports to call at, particularly when there are several options?


There are two levels of decisions to be made by carriers:

1. Choice on port level: Adding a port call to a rotation needs to serve the requirements of our customers and make economic sense for a shipping line. It is a commercial decision based on a combination of factors such as size and growth outlook of cargo volumes; the network cost of servicing a port, and available inland/feeder connectivity. Furthermore, the availability of warehouses, as well as the customs regime, plays an increasingly important role in the attractiveness of ports. 2. Choic e on terminal level: In ports where there are several terminals, the decision gets a more operational nature. Maersk Line is looking for the best overall value proposition including factors such as: • Terminal efficiency (productivity, reliability of operation, etc.) • Nautical accessibility • Competitiveness of cost levels • Environmental and safety record • Innovations.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l




What would be on your ‘wish list’ of services offered by ports? And what services or factors make a port attractive to a shipping line?

The wish list for ports depends on our requirements. Apart from obvious items such as locations and nautical accessibility, the following service offerings are what generally attract Maersk Line: • Differentiated product, i.e. superior performance in terms of productivity. • T he supply chain approach – such as ensur ing smooth connections for feeder or barge operators, as well as road and rail links into the hinterland. • Unmatched reliability - joint efficiency drives to eliminate efficiencies from the processes. • Flexibility – i.e. ability to adapt to changing Line requirements on the basis of available capacity and berthing windows.



 hat is the order of importance or priority of the following port W factors: security and safety standards, environmental regulations, intermodal connections, handling equipment, and so on?

The handling equipment of a terminal needs to fulfil the standards to deliver a reliable operation at high productivity, without constraints related to our vessels deployed. In a transhipment-heavy terminal, land-side connections may be of a lower priority while this obviously is critical for a gateway terminal. Maersk Line has very high standards when it comes to sustainability and items such as security, safety and environmental standards are a very fundamental requirement for a terminal to do business with Maersk Line.


14 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


I n what areas can ports improve in order to provide better service? Are there any reoccurring inefficiencies that you routinely come across that you would like to see improved?

Overall, Maersk Line sees a lot of opportunities for the terminal industry to improve productivity levels, particularly based on the increasing call-sizes. Typically we have seen cost levels going up, while service levels have remained stable. Improved service levels should be facilitated by innovation and supply chain cooperation. Furthermore, Maersk Line believes that ports should encourage more competition on port services such as terminal handling and towage, to make sure cost levels stay competitive.



What other factors would make a shipping line change routes?

Shipping lines serve the demand of shippers, and global cargo flow patterns are dynamic. The growth of cargo flows trigger adjustments to vessel sizes, changing the economics of serving certain markets. Additionally, shipping lines need to manage their network on the basis of available terminal capacity, ability to accommodate vessels, and so on.



How important is it to Maersk Line for ports and terminals to be equipped with the latest state-of-the art equipment?

Naturally, it is a basic requirement for terminals to have sufficient cranes of the required specifications to serve the vessels deployed. It is a major inefficiency for a shipping line to have inadequate cranes, and this often is a disqualifier. Maersk Line does not set specific requirements for terminal equipments, but expects



ML will continue to put environment on the agenda in our discussions with ports and terminals, and we encourage initiatives such as adjusted tariffs for green shipping lines.


 ooking to the future, in what direction do you see shipping L lines heading in terms of size, service demands, and so on – and what impact will his have on ports?

For the foreseeable future, shipping will continue to be the main mode of international transportation of goods, and it is our expectation that the shipping industry will continue to see a scale increase. Ports and terminals will need to increase efficiency considerably in order to satisfy lines’ demand for growth and shippers’ demands for efficiency in their supply chain.



 o you envision a drastic change in the way shipping lines and D ports will be operated in the future as the economy changes, global trade fluctuates, environmental factors become more important and security implications become more critical?

Environmental sustainability will become an increasingly important factor in most business decisions. Efficiency has to increase throughout the supply chain in order to keep up with increasing vessel sizes. The shipping industry is cyclical in nature, and supply chain partners (including shippers, lines and terminals) need to increase cooperation in order to plan for the future and avoid costly bottlenecks.



the terminal operator to deliver on the Service Level Agreement in terms of performance, available capacity and reliability.


 o you feel that initiatives such as reduced port fees for green D vessels will encourage shipping lines to become greener? Do you view ports’ environmental sustainability as necessary for the future survival of the industry?

Sustainability is a cornerstone of Maersk Line’s strategy and we have the ambition to be frontrunners in the shipping industry on improving our environmental performance. From a supply chain perspective, improving the ports and terminals’ sustainability performance is a must. It also makes sense business-wise because it will be a prerequisite for being able to compete going forward. It is critical that ports align and agree on how to measure at least the basic parameters in their environmental performance, for example, CO2 emissions; so that the shipping lines, being their customers, have transparency on who is performing well and who is not, and so that ultimately the shippers and consignees know the environmental footprint of the product they are buying.


ABOUT THE company

When building bigger ships, do you take into account the facilities that are already available on your routes, or do you have an expectation that ports will expand in order to accommodate to keep or win your business?

There certainly is a level of coordination, but we expect ter minals to be proactive in ter ms of development capabilities and keep up with trade developments. Those terminals that have foresight and develop future-proof facilities will have the most compelling value proposition to shipping lines. In certain markets, shipping lines are forced to deploy purposebuilt vessels to cater for constraints a.o. related to draft. We expect terminals to drive the dialogue with Port Authorities to ensure bottlenecks are resolved.



Overall, what is the single most import factor in the portshipper relationship?

There is no one key to success, since that varies with location; but the common denominator is that we take a partnership approach and maintain constant dialogue on opportunities. Transparency on mutual expectations, being on required commercial terms, performance or volume growth is critical to success. Lastly, it is important to understand each other’s business model and establish a strategic fit for long-term cooperation.



In addition to its fleet of over 500 vessels, managing a fleet of 3.2 million TEUs

For questions please contact Tommy Nilsson

worldwide, Maersk Line has around 16,900 employees, and employs around

Maersk Line (Corporate HQ)

7,600 seafarers. The Line is represented in 325 offices around the world, in over

Esplanaden 50

125 countries.

1098 Copenhagen K Denmark Tel: +45 3363 3363 Fax: +45 3363 4108

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


PORT PLANNING, design and construction Featuring environment

“Merely focusing on port and terminal improvements as a gateway strategy may not be the most effective approach to connecting trade corridors to the global marketplace. A more comprehensive model is needed to also address congested highways and intermodal rail systems.� Canadian ports: opportunities and challenges in the age of expansion, page 23. 16 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Sokhna: Egypt’s 21st Century third generation port on the Red Sea Named after the Arabic word for ‘hot’, Sokhna Port’s diverse portfolio of commodities and constant development means the port is living up to its name Ashraf Ghazy, Senior Translator, GM Publications & Translations Dept., Damietta Port Authority, Damietta, Egypt

Economic background To meet growing demands of the domestic economy, and to replenish the projected requirements of Asian economies to move more and more goods to Western markets, an urgent need to enhance Egypt’s ports capacity and provide efficient and diversified services (particularly transshipments) came about. The UNCTAD estimated that global seaborne cargo traffic will increase annually, since 80 percent of the world’s 6 billion tons of cargo was moved by maritime shipping. Trade relations with Asian countries, including Japan, account for 37 per cent of the total volume of seaborne global exports. Asia-Europe routes have recorded a 20 percent annual growth rate since the turn of the millennium, thanks to the flourishing trade between the two regions. According to the IMF, the Middle East already has shown one of the world’s strongest trade growth rates, averaging 4.5 percent a year.

History Hailed as a backdoor to avoid funding constraints that are usually concomitant to infrastructure projects, the Government of Egypt believed that a BOT model was the most viable option for financing the new port at Sokhna to satisfy the requirements highlighted above. However, while infrastructure works were being carried out, the Egyptian Ministry of Transport announced

an international tender for the Port early in September 2009 to operate under a BOT system. International bidders were invited to operate and manage the facility and build necessary superstructure. The Sokhna Port Development Company (SPDC), an operating company of the Amiral Group, won the renewable 25-year BOT concession agreement. To improve efficiency, add capacity, streamline procedures and reduce costs, Egypt passed legislation in January 1998 to allow the privatization of the maritime sector, affording private companies the chance to operate ports and perform as maritime agencies. Sokhna was to become the first fully privately operated and automated port in Egypt.

Port modernization vanguard SPDC was set up in 2000 with permissible investment of EGP 10 million. It won the port’s first basin terminals management concession for 25 years ending in August 26th, 2025. SPDC principally aims to replace the traditional port model, which has been tied up to conventional stevedoring operations for many years, by the modernized model of diversified productive activities related to global logistic investments. Key outcomes include enhanced export, more work chances (over 1700 in 2006); sophisticated technology (in 2006 inspection and control systems turned out EGP 26 million, while customs generated EGP 7.1 billion), and value-added services. Table 1: Basic statistics of Sokhna Port



Total space (km2)

Strategically located to serve one of the world’s busiest commercial shipping lanes, Sokhna Port is already capitalizing on Egypt’s location at the global crossroads of East and West


Land Space (km )


Water Surface (km2)


Maximum Port Width (km2)


Entrance Channel (m)

Length Width Depth Diameter




17-18 650


Max. Actual (2009)

Cargo (million tons)



Containers (million TEUs)











Length (m)



Depth (m)



Warehousing & Storing (m2) 11140

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Nine years later, SPDC won the right in January 2008 to construct an extension to the existing CT, at a space of 640,000m2 totaling 1,300 m in length. The company agreed to bear costs of dredging the turning basin, constructing further berths and providing utility labor. One month later, in an official ceremony in February 2008, DP World bought 90 percent of SPDC controlling stakes against US$670 million to manage and operate the first basin in Sokhna Port.

Sokhna Port profile The port is a state-of-the-art maritime facility, seamlessly integrating cutting-edge technology with the latest management and security skills. Built within the Suez Special Economic Zone (SSEZ), Sokhna is poised to develop into a major commercial and industrial hub in Egypt. In 1999, the Egyptian government decided to establish this deepwater port on the Red Sea, 40km from the southern entrance of The Suez Canal and 140 km southeast of Cairo. Represented by Ports of The Red Sea Author ity, the Government took bank loans worth of EGP 1 billion to establish the Sokhna Port, at an annual premium of EGP 120 million. Current port facilities comprise of: • Container terminal • General cargo/Ro-Ro terminal • Bulk terminal • Livestock terminal • Logistics Center, featuring highly competitive logistic cost of manufactured products compared to other regional ports • Internationally certified inspection laboratories • Ship fuelling. Technology in use at the Port consists of: • M odern Post-Panamax ship-to-shore container gantry and stacking cranes • Fully computerized Terminal Handling and Planning System

• Fully automated vessel, shipping, customs and port processes, integrated into Sokhna Port’s state-of-the-art IT systems • Sophisticated computer database system that contains complete up-to-date information on ships’ bay plans, stacking positions, delivery and dispatch data • Customs at Sokhna uses an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system to ensure speedy and uninterrupted ship and cargo processing. • To effectively communicate with brokers and consignees, SMS allows prompt messaging of cargo arrival and inspection times together, with a quick documentation process.

One-stop shop Internationally accredited laboratories are located at the port. The laboratories act as one-stop-shop for verifying maximum cost efficiency and speed of handling, as well as safety and quality of imported and exported food products and primary produce. This procedure ensures speedy and efficient cargo clearance, as samples need not to be sent off-site for testing. Additionally, this ‘One-Stop-Shop’ offers a good package of services including: • Documents and files reception and routing • One-step data entry and document scanning (for Customs & GOEIC) • Customer-operated enquiry stations, ‘kiosks’ • On-line transaction status display, ‘plasma monitors’ • Two-way, online Port-customer communication via SMS • One-on-one discussions via video conferencing • Invoices and clearances delivery.

Environment and safety Every reasonable effort is made to ascertain that the Port area meets the highest regional and international regulations and standards for environmental protection. To this end, Sokhna Port has formed a special environmental unit within its management team to develop and monitor environmentally friendly port operations.

DP World-Sokhna is perfectly postioned to handle cargo flows of up to several million tons and 750,000 TEU containers per year into and out of Egypt and the wider Middle East region.

18 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


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Table 2: Cargo traffic in Sokhna Port, January-April 2010, in 1000 tons excluding empty containers

Type of Commodity











General cargo









Dry bulk


Liquid bulk










Special cargo


Transit cargo





Sokhna totals









Egypt’s grand total









Sokhna percentage









Table 3: Cargo traffic in Sokhna Port 2007-2009 in 1000 tons, excluding empty containers

Type of Commodity









General cargo







Dry bulk







Liquid bulk










Special cargo



Transit cargo







Sokhna totals







Egypt’s grand total







Sokhna percentage







Further more, all Port employees attend environmental awareness programmes, where they receive practical training and tips on how to respond effectively and promptly to emergencies. The Port Authority has also purchased the latest technological equipment and individual safety uniforms to guarantee maximum safety to its employees.

commercial shipping lanes, the Port and Logistic Center have already begun to capitalize on Egypt’s location at the global crossroads between the East and West, and the expected rebound of maritime trade in the foreseeable future. In 2005, the Port attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), worth over US$2 billion, from countries such as Australia, Holland and Austria, thus becoming one of Egypt’s key FDI earners. Forecasts indicate that Sokhna-generated FDI could reach $15.7 billion in 2030. The Port is expected to offer more than 40,000 jobs and inject $6.4 billion annually into the Egyptian economy.

A paradigm for economic development Sokhna Port and Logistics Centre is a public-private business model. Strategically located to serve one of the world’s busiest

Table 4: Ship traffic in Sokhna Port 2007-Q1, 2010

Type of Vessel

07 08 09

Q1 2010 January February March


General cargo








Dry bulk








Liquid bulk




























Sokhna totals








Egypt’s grand total














Sokhna percentage (%) 1.7

20 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Table 5: Container traffic at Sokhna 2007-Q1 2010, in TEUs (excluding empty containers.)

Type of Commodity




Jan 2010




Local TEUs








Transit TEUs








Sokhna totals








Egypt's grand total








Sokhna percentage








2009/2010 Investment plan According to the general master plan of the Port, an international tender was launched in September 2009 to invite bidders to submit their offers for building, operating and transferring a liquid bulk terminal on an area up to 250,000m2, with a 240-meter long and 17-meter deep berth, together with the construction of the second berth in the third dock of El Sokhna Port.

DP World DPW is a famed global port operator possessing massive investments in 47 percent of global ports. It runs 48 terminals worldwide, and 13 further marine establishments are underway in 31 countries. The company functions according to carefully planned priorities informed by regional shipping trends, demand volumes and available capacity in every port independently. In 2007 DPW’s aggregate TEU throughput reached 43 million (an 18 percent increase on 2006). With the close of June this year, DPW net revenues reached $188 million, down from $287 million for the same period the prior year. Cash liquidity is in the region of $3 billion and the company keeps the tradition of injecting $1 million annually, as monetary reserve. Noteworthy, DPW-Sokhna capital is $50 million, distributed in one million stakes with a nominal value of $50 each. Additionally, and because of a streak of successful achievements throughout 2009, DPW was excluded from the restructuring scheme its mother company is embarking on.

DPW Sokhna DPW Sokhna is Egypt’s fir st deep-sea por t. It can accommodate large container vessels of over 8,000 TEUs, and bulk carriers of up to 150,000 DWT. DP World initiated its investments in the Egyptian market in February 2008, when it acquired a 90 percent controlling stake in SPDC for $670

million. The remaining 10 percent shares remain with Amiral Holdings Limited. According to the concession, DP World Sokhna should pump $1.3 billion worth investments over three years to establish: • 1,300m long berth with capacity of 2 million TEUs per year. • Liquid bulk terminal, with 400,000m2 storage capacity. • General cargo terminal with an 800m long berth. In June this year, DPW Sokhna decided to pump EGP 500 million to develop First Basin, dedicated to container handling. Fifty percent of the amount will come through self-financing and other 50 percent from a bank loan from International Commercial Bank (ICB). The development scheme, which entails the purchase of further handling equipment and yard extension, is scheduled to cover 12 months and aims to lift handling capacity from 650,000 TEUs to 1.1 million TEUs per annum. The Company is connected to the hinterland road network via one single large entrance area. Throughout the Port area, a network of main roads has been constructed and all utilities, including water, electricity, telecommunications and IT networks are well established. In the near future, DPW-Sokhna should be starting the second basin with handling capacity of 1.5 million TEUs. Tentatively, investments are around $650 million. Together the two basins will bring the overall handling capacity of the terminal to 2.6 million TEUs annually. Currently, the company is studying a final agreement with the Egyptian Ministry of Transport to operate the third basin, which will be dedicated to liquid bulk and petroleum products. The company’s investments are expected to hit $2.2 billion over the coming three years. In January to September 2009, DPW-Sokhna attained $14.8 million in net revenues against $17 million for the same period the previous year. All expansions are proceeding as planned.

Soaring demand for Port services

Facilities to accommodate large container vessels of over 8,000 TEUs and bulk carriers up to 150,000 DWT are available.

DP World Sokhna experienced unexpected huge volumes in the last five months (January to May 2010), recording a 60 percent increase in import cargo and an 88 percent increase in export volumes, compared with the same period last year. Most recently, congestion occur red at the container terminal and customers were disappointed as available space on board was unable to meet dispatch requirement. The company tackled the situation swiftly: the 130 percent uptick in operation capacity, reflecting a higher demand on port services, was powerful enough to prompt DPW Sokhna to bring in further equipment for container handling, stacking and inspecting, to offset the temporary delay in transit container release. This year, container handling rates increased by 25 percent compared to the previous year. This June, Businessmen Societies filed complaints with Transport Minister that 41,000 containers are still waiting for release at Sokhna – because inward flow is higher than outward release potential. P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



volumes; with some 4 million TEUs, more than 10 million tons of agri-bulk, nearly 10 million tons of other dry bulk cargoes, 30 million tons of liquid bulk cargoes and 1 million tons of general cargo passing through the port annually. Handling these volumes, however, will necessitate over 8,000 ship calls a year, together with the construction of extra 12km of berths minimum. Alone, Port-related rail traffic is expected to reach 100 trains a day.

Key projects

The expected flows of containerized goods, the procedural advantages and the most advanced IT systems afford Sokhna a competitive edge.

However, on their part, Customs Authority officials stressed that non-conformity in some B/Ls was behind the delay, and necessitated a 100 percent inspection of containers, which was naturally time-consuming. The officials went on to say that it was agreed with DPW-Sokhna to carry out a pre-withdrawal of inward containers, based on the so-called 10 percent risk inspection scheme, in order to help consignees collect their containers quickly. Railway officials also unveiled plans to provide a daily railway service between Sokhna and Alexandria to transport 60 containers instead of the 120 units currently carried out twice per week. DPW anticipated a 20 percent drop in Sokhna work volumes in 2010 from 2009 figures. But in reality, the forecast proved untrue as activity geared up by 58 percent in January to February alone, complicating the situation further.

• The Egyptian-Chinese Company was supposed to develop an area of 20 million m2 with joint Egyptian-Chinese investments. • The Saudi Arabia Sugar Refinery is the first of its kind in the world. With production capacity of 750,000 tons per annum, the SAVOLA Group’s new project, which started by end of 2008, basically targets COMESA and Red Sea Countries. • A nother equally significant project was the $550 million magnesium smelter, a joint venture to turn out magnesium alloys for export and domestic use.

Wind energy

Future prospects (2020)

Sokhna Area was the site for a brand new wind turbines and wind farm project. The Egyptian Elsewedy Wind Energy Group (SWEG), a division of Elsewedy Cables, in a joint venture with the German SIEG (Schaaf Industries Corporation), decided to start the project, which is just 8km away from Sokhna Port. Latest world technology is in use and the cost is around Euro 120 million. The location will make it easy to export fifty per cent of production to Europe and Africa, while other fifty per cent will go to domestic marketplace. Annual production is 300 towers to be doubled in five years. Towers production commenced during Q3 2009. The J.V. ultimately aims to turn out wind energy at 12 percent of overall electrical power by 2020. SWEG purchased 30 percent of Spanish company M Torres Olvega’s wind farm for $40 million (EGP 297 million) and is at present negotiating terms of agreement with a further German partner. As the wheel of development is gaining momentum albeit amid global fluctuations, Sokhna Port looks set to score hotter performance than ever.

In addition to expanding its facilities, DPW-Sokhna aims to attract further industries to the Port. By 2020, DP World-Sokhna plans to develop into an administrative and management nodalcenter, acting as a hub for product transport chains. Big hopes are pinned on Sokhna Port. By 2020, the Egyptian Government envisages an increase of 90 million tons in cargo

While the information contained in the article is authenticated and based on real facts and reliable resources, they reflect purely personal perspective of the author based on his experience and study and by no means represents DPA attitude. In writing this article the author works independently from DPA.

about the author


Ashraf Ghazy holds a Master Degree on International Transport & Logistics,

Ashraf Ghazy

from the International Transport & Logistics Institute, Arab Academy, Alexandria,

• Senior Translator, General Manager, Publications and Translations Department

Egypt. After 15 years in port-related activities, he is a senior translator, GM of the

• Supervisor, Decision Support Department, Information Center

Publications and Translations Department, at the Damietta Port Authority. Besides

• Internal Auditor

his main job, he supervises Decision Support Systems (DSS) in The Port Authority

Damietta Port Authority (DPA), POB 13 Damietta, 34511, Egypt

and heads an internal quality auditing team to help Damietta Port Authority to

Tel: +20 057 – 290958 (work)

qualify for ISO and OHSAS Certificates during forthcoming months.


22 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Mobile: 0161604877


Canadian ports: opportunities and challenges in the age of expansion Dr. Michael C. Ircha, Senior Advisor, Association of Canadian Port Authorities, Ottawa, Canada In 2005, a forecast of container trade growth found that global containerisation should almost double in the coming decade, with container throughput in North America expected to increase by 75 per cent. Much of the anticipated growth comes from increased trade with China and other Asian nations. Container ports can be seen as gateways that connect continental trade corridors with the global marketplace. This article will outline international trade trends and the opportunities and challenges facing North American ports. The development of gateways and trade corridors is also considered, along with the impact of container trade growth on ports. As a result of the earlier Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US and the subsequent North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that included Mexico, Canada’s international trade has shifted north-south. This trend has led to numerous trade corridor promotion organisations across the country. Trade corridors involve products, services and information flowing through communities in geographic patterns.

Gateways for trade corridors During the past decade, governments have paid considerable attention to trade corridors, seeking to provide public investment to facilitate trade. Most proposed north-south trade corridors link US Interstate Highways with their Canadian counterparts. However, other than some improvements in selected border crossings, little has been achieved. In recent years, trade has become increasingly global. Trade corridor proponents have come to see ports as gateways connecting proposed corridors to the global marketplace. In the Canadian context, the first gateway is the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative focused on the lower British Columbia mainland, Prince Rupert and the ports’ hinterlands. The AsiaPacific Gateway Initiative received C$591 million in federal funding to supplement provincial, municipal and private support to develop and enhance essential transportation infrastructure. The Initiative’s aim is to reduce congestion and ease the flow of goods through the ports of Vancouver and Prince Rupert. The Halifax Gateway Council was established in 2004. Its objective is to tap into the growing container trade with Asia being diverted through the Suez to the east coast due to congestion concerns in west coast ports. Last year, Melford International Terminal Inc. purchased a large tract of Nova Scotia land, valued at C$5 million, for its planned container terminal at the Strait of Canso, as part of a broader Atlantic Gateway initiative. Sydney, Nova Scotia, has joined the queue, seeking container terminals for its port. Meanwhile, Halifax and Saint John continue to seek additional container throughput for their existing under-used container terminals. However, merely focusing on ports and terminal improvements as a gateway strategy may not be the most effective approach. A more comprehensive model is needed to also address congested highways and intermodal rail systems.

that global containerisation should almost double in the coming decade with container throughput in North America expected to increase by 75 per cent. Much of the anticipated growth comes from increased trade with China and other Asian nations. Although a significant proportion of this throughput will go through west coast ports, growth is expected in Asian traffic to and from the east coast via the Suez Canal. In 2004, some 22 per cent of Asia-US traffic moved through east coast ports, with this trade growing at almost twice the rate of the west coast due to congestion delays. Added port constraints on the west coast include environmental restrictions and increasing intermodal rail rates. These will probably encourage a further shift to eastcoast ports. Optimistic container growth forecasts now need to be tempered by the US economic recession. In recent months, US west coast ports have noted a decline in container throughput due to problems in the US housing market and the associated loss in consumer confidence. In recent years, containerisation growth has caused congestion and ship delays in west coast ports. In Vancouver, delays led the two Canadian rail operators CN and CP to take the unprecedented step of co-operating by sharing regional rail lines to move containers more efficiently. In the US, major investments have been made to improve intermodal movements through congested urban areas, such as the Alameda Corridor in Los Angeles/Long Beach. In 2006, MergeGlobal Forecasting found that Los Angeles and Long Beach were operating at almost full capacity (at 88 per cent and 91 per cent respectively). Thus without significant future expansions, these ports will be unable to handle anticipated container throughput growth. Other US west coast ports are also reaching capacity. Much of the container trade growth comes from the rapid emergence of China as a major manufacturing and trading nation. The trans-Pacific pendulum trade from Asia to the west coast is booming. The alternative pendulum route from Asia via the Suez Canal to the east coast is experiencing moderate trade growth. It is this alternative route from India, Asia and China that is driving the development of proposed major container terminals in the Atlantic Gateway initiative.

Container trade Container traffic continues to grow worldwide. A 2005 forecast of container trade growth by Ocean Shipping Consultants found

Alameda Intermodal Corridor.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Panama Canal development

However, the Suez opportunity may be short-lived due to the current expansion of the Panama Canal. The new canal locks are designed to serve the larger mega-size 12,000 TEU container ships. As suggested by C Dupin, the threat to Canada’s east coast ports is that ‘the new canal will allow more cargo to be carried on big ships from the Far East to ports along the US East and Gulf Coasts. That could help ease congestion on the US West Coast and still allow carriers and shippers to reap the benefits of the economies of scale big ships provide.’ Southern US ports are already gearing up to serve additional container ships using the enlarged Panama Canal. Larger container ships

Over the years, container ships have continued to increase in size as shipping companies have sought economies of scale in a highly competitive market. As container ships get larger, there are limits to the ports they can serve due to physical constraints of water depth, channel widths and size of turning basins, as well as the lift capacity of the ports’ cargo handling equipment and their productivity. The trend for larger container ships continues. Post-Panamax vessels (those too large to fit the current Panama Canal) handling more than 6,000 TEU are now commonplace in major trade routes serving Asia. Recent orders for new container ships reflect significant size increases. In August 2007, COSCO announced their order for eight 13,100 TEU vessels for delivery in 2011, with Zim Line soon following with an announcement of their order for eight 12,600 TEU ships for 2012. Currently, the largest container ship afloat is the Emma Maersk, the first of a series of eight ‘PS-class’ ships. At nearly 400 metres long, 56 metres wide and with a draft of 15.5 metres, the Emma Maersk

can carry 14,800 TEU, although Maersk Lines rates her as an 11,000 TEU vessel. With a 56-metre beam, she is too wide for even the enlarged Panama Canal. As larger ships become more common, there are industry concerns that economies of scale may not be available unless ports improve their container handling productivity to turn these mega-size container ships around fast. In addition, some shipping lines fear that projected new build capacity will outstrip container traffic growth. A key question is which container ports can handle such megasized ships? An earlier study by G de Monie suggested that a global fleet of 15,000 TEU vessels would probably need only four hub ports to serve them – South-East Asia (most likely Singapore or Malaysia), Mediterranean and North America’s east and west coasts. Feeder vessels and intermodal systems would distribute containers to and from these four hub ports. The study went further to propose the construction of an offshore island on the US east coast as a major hub port. In response to the proposed offshore island facility, another study suggested there are sufficient suitable deep-water ports in Canada to readily serve North American container requirements. These ports include Vancouver Fraser and Prince Rupert on the west coast, and Halifax, Saint John, the Strait of Canso area, Sydney and Sept Îles on the east coast. In today’s increasingly security conscious world, the use of non-urban, more isolated container transshipment ports may become tomorrow’s norm. Locating such hub ports outside urban areas would allow for container inspections in more secure and less populated areas. Hence, Canada’s more remote deep-water ports may well serve North America’s need for new container hub ports. Thus the future may see more major container

Emma Maersk.

24 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Vancouver Fraser Deltaport Container Terminal.

ports on both coasts providing security in non-urban, more isolated locations and offering port diversity to shipping lines to ensure delivery reliability. These trends offer significant opportunities for Canadian ports. Impact on ports

Some of the key elements affecting most container ports include port congestion, security, urban development, environmental concerns and sustainability. These are all factors that can impede port expansion. To address its throughput congestion problems, Vancouver Fraser is developing a third container berth and seeking a private partner to build a second container terminal at Deltaport. These new facilities will increase the port’s annual container throughput to more than 4 million TEU by 2012. In 2007, Prince Rupert opened a new 500,000 TEU container terminal. This container terminal contributes needed capacity for the growing transPacific trade in its unique isolated, non-urban setting. A major trend impacting port facilities is public demand for waterfront access for non-marine activities. In ports around the world, politicians, municipal officials and citizen groups seek to convert port lands to urban-oriented uses such as waterfront condominiums, walking trails, cafés and boutique shopping areas. Initially proponents of such developments welcome busy marine terminals and an active harbour area. But then they may tire of the ongoing noise (particularly at night), dust, air emissions from port equipment and ships, light spillage from the terminal, truck and rail traffic and other detrimental aspects of cargo-handling operations. In turn, this leads to pressure to constrain commercial

Attributes of container hubs

A successful container hub port reflects several key features. In the past, a major attribute was having a significant volume of captive traffic in nearby major metropolitan areas. However, as discussed, today’s security concerns may mean future hub ports are located in more remote areas. Other key attributes of container hubs include: • Being located close to main shipping routes and feeder ports • Being accessible to mega-sized container ships • Offering appropriate infra- and super-structure including good intermodal linkages and appropriate container lift equipment • Having a reputation for continued high productivity • Competitive rates and tariffs, and • Being reliable and free from labour strife. North American ports need to be able to meet most of these key attributes to achieve hub port status. For example, the 2005 truckers’ strike in Vancouver and the truckers’ one-day walkout in Los Angeles and Long Beach did not convey a sense of port reliability to the world’s major shipping lines.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



activities by limiting hours of operation, reorienting dockside lighting, and restricting truck traffic. In the extreme, terminals are forced to shut down and move their operations to other, more remote locations. This phenomenon can be seen in Sydney, Australia, where over the years many port operations have been curtailed and relocated to nearby Botany Bay. To accommodate public access demands, many ports are incorporating sustainability as a key goal. Sustainability is defined by the American Association of Port Authorities as ‘balancing the financial, social and environmental needs … and integrating that balance into day-to-day business activities’. Sustainability reflects the ports’ recognition that their role goes beyond marine cargo handling to being good corporate citizens focusing on ‘people, planet and profits’.

Elements for success The growth of the global economy has been underpinned by the lower freight rates and reliability generated by containerisation. Competition has led to ever-larger ships seeking economies of scale. NAFTA has led to an interest in north-south trade corridors. As corridor discussions have matured, it has become evident that ports on or near these major trade corridors play a key role as gateways connecting North American markets to the global economy. The focus on trade corridors and gateways has evolved into considering a fully integrated intermodal transport system as a comprehensive logistics chain. There are opportunities for Canadian ports to serve as container hubs on both coasts. Ongoing congestion and capacity constraints in major US ports could lead to developing remote Canadian alternatives. Other Canadian ports can serve the growing continental container trade with terminal expansions at Vancouver Fraser, Prince Rupert, Halifax, Saint John and proposed container terminals in the Strait of Canso, Sydney and Sept Îles.

There are several key elements required for a port’s success in the container trade. The first is geographic location. Ports seeking to grow to hub status must be located on or near the main shipping routes and connected to trade corridors. Few shipping lines can afford to divert their ships to serve isolated ports, unless these ports act as the terminus of the pendulum trade between Asia and North America. Secondly, ports seeking to serve mega-sized container ships must be accessible to them. This means having water depths of more than 15 metres, along with appropriate turning basins and navigation channels. Thirdly, container hubs must maintain a reputation for continued high productivity in terms of ship and truck/ rail turnaround time. Such productivity implies having spare capacity in terms of container yard storage and lifting equipment, including ship-to-shore gantry cranes and terminal equipment along with a stable and reliable labour force working round the clock. Productivity also implies port flexibility – the ability to rapidly adopt new and changing technology to maintain high throughput levels. Flexibility also means dealing with land-side pressures aimed at constraining terminal operations and converting underused port lands to alternative uses. Dealing with the community and environmental consequences of a major container terminal requires tact, diplomacy and compromises from port officials as part of an overall sustainability strategy. Fourthly, container hubs need efficient intermodal linkages (road, rail and short sea shipping) to ensure containers are moved through the terminal quickly to their final inland destinations. Finally, these key elements must be achieved economically such that the rates and tariffs charged for container moves through the port remain competitive. Achieving these key elements is not an easy task, but they are essential if container ports wish to remain key players in the continued development of the world economy.

About the author about the organisation


Dr. Michael C Ircha is a former

The Association of Canadian Port Authorities

Association of Canadian Port Authorities

University of New Brunswick

was founded in 1958 and groups together ports

85 Albert Street, Suite 1502

professor and currently senior advisor

and harbours and related marine interests into one

Ottawa ON K1P 6A4

to ACPA and adjunct research

national association. Canada Port Authorities handle


professor at Carleton University

more than C$142 billion worth of cargo annually.

in Ottawa. He is an expert on port management,

The ACPA is the pre-eminent association for the

Tel: +1 (613) 232 2036

providing graduate courses at the International

advocacy and advancement of the Canadian Port

Fax: +1 (613) 232 9554

Maritime Organization’s World Maritime University

Industry. ACPA members contribute greatly to the


in Malmö, Sweden and at the Shanghai Maritime

local, regional and national economy of Canada.



26 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Eemshaven: expansion and diversification The Port of Eemshaven is leading the way in competitive yet sustainable development Leendert Bourgonjen, Project Manager, & Bart van der Kolk, Sustainability Coordinator, Groningen Seaports, Delfzijl, The Netherlands The Port of Eemshaven is located in the northeast of the Netherlands, and has undergone extremely rapid development since 2002. This seaport and the seaport in Delfzijl are both managed by Groningen Seaports. In 2002, Groningen Seaports decided proactively to create a wharf facility at Julianahaven. This investment decision heralded a turbulent period of growth. Holland Malt, a consortium of beer brewer Bavaria and Agrifirm, decided to establish its business here during construction of the wharf, which was followed each year by more new companies. Large companies such as Norned (an alliance between TenneT and Stattnett), Theo Pouw, Google, Nuon and RWE have expressed an interest and also decided to establish themselves at Eemshaven.

Origin and location Eemshaven is situated about 20 kilometers to the north of Delfzijl, and was developed at the end of the 1960s for large-scale activities in the oil refinery and petrochemicals industries. The seaport was opened by Queen Juliana in 1973, but an oil crisis followed the very same year and the planned industries failed to materialize. Europe’s biggest gas-fired power station did arrive, however; and in 1975 a start was made with the construction of a 600-metre trade wharf, behind which a number of storage and transshipment companies established themselves. But no more large clients were destined to arrive at the Port until the beginning of this century. Eemshaven has a direct connection to the open sea and is currently accessible to vessels with a maximum draught of 12 meters. Once various dredging projects have been completed by Groningen Seaports in the seaport, and by Rijkswaterstaat (the Directorate General for Public Works and Water Management) in the approaches, Eemshaven will be accessible to vessels with a maximum draught of 14 meters.

Western side of the seaport The western side of the seaport has three harbor basins. Beatrixhaven is located on the northern side. Queen Beatrix officially opened the first phase of this seaport in 2008, with a 350-meter wharf on the southern side. In 2010, this seaport was extended with a 350meter harbor basin and wharf. The seaport is intended for short-sea shipping for cargo flows with Northern Europe. The construction of the wharves and the dredging were carried out separately and successively, which made it possible to build the wharves on land. The engineering for a further enlargement of the harbor to a maximum of 1200 meters is approaching completion. Julianahaven is situated to the south of Beatrixhaven. This 1200meter seaport has a depth varying from NAP -15 meters to NAP -17 meters. The seaport has both northern and southern wharves. In 2008, the northern wharf was doubled when a 350-meter wharf was built. The final phase of the northern wharf (over 350 meters) is currently under construction. For the construction of the final two phases and the wharves in Beatrixhaven, Groningen Seaports has opted for a building method in which the front of the wharf is constructed using prefabricated concrete. The arrival of Vopak Olie at Eemshaven will necessitate the construction of a jetty on the western side of the seaport.

3D plan of the Energypark at the Eemshaven in 2014.

A design has already been completed in anticipation of Vopak Olie’s expected decision, which means that the construction of this 420-meter jetty can commence in 2011. Since vessels with a length of 280 meters and a beam of 45 meters will be mooring on the northern side of this jetty, the existing RoRo jetty, with a maximum bearing capacity of 300 tons and a width of 18 meters between the collision protectors, will need to be relocated. During this relocation, it will also be established whether the bearing capacity and the width can be increased so that even more vessels can make use of this facility in the future. Finally, Emmahaven is situated to the south of Julianahaven. All of Eemshaven’s ports are named after our royal dynasty. A 30-year-old wharf in this port was revitalized in 2009. A floating jetty for inland shipping and fishing vessels is currently being replaced here. A new floating service jetty is being built for the pilot service and the sounding vessels.

Eastern side of the seaport On the eastern side of the seaport there is currently just one harbor basin: Wilhelminahaven. This harbor basis has a length of 700 meters and a maximum depth of NAP -17 meters. A public unloading dock for inland shipping and small coasters is located on the southern side. There is also currently a large building site on the eastern side of the seaport. As well as the construction of the power stations of Nuon (1200 MW) and RWE (1600 MW), Groningen Seaports is working on extending Wilhelminahaven by about 600 meters. A deep-sea wharf of 1250 meters is also being built with a trough depth of NAP -18 meters. All of this is scheduled for completion at the end of 2011 so that the first coal vessels can be received. A complicating factor is that the cooling water inlets for both Nuon and RWE are being built on the northern and southern wharves respectively. In addition to the establishment of these two power companies, a lot of energy is already being generated at Eemshaven. As well as Electrabel (2400 MW) and Norned (900 MW), there are 88 wind turbines at Eemshaven, each with a maximum output of 3 MW. The presence of this energy production forms the basis for the establishment of the data hotel for TCN Eemsdelta, which is used principally by Google. The landing terminal of a transatlantic fiber optic cable is also located at Eemshaven. P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Plan of the Eemshaven with description of each area.

28 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Aerial view of the 50-hectare nature conservation area for birds along the Wadden region of Emmapolder.

Eemsmond Energie (Advanced Power and Siemens Project Ventures) is planning to build another 1200 MW power station, and TenneT has plans to facilitate more international exchange in addition to the existing cable between Norway and the Netherlands. Finally, various offshore wind parks are being built in the North Sea, which makes Eemshaven an attractive location both for the building phase and the landing of the cable. All in all, there are plenty of reasons to describe Eemshaven as an energy seaport.

Sustainability Groningen Seaports is aware that its seaport developments are taking place alongside an internationally significant area of natural beauty: the Wadden Sea. In recent years, this awareness has led to

practical alliances with nature and environment organizations for the layout and management of the seaport. In the summer of 2010 RWE, NUON, Groningen Seaports and nature and environment organizations agreed in a letter of intent to continuing work on the sustainability of Eemshaven and the surrounding region. Developments at the seaport oblige Groningen Seaports, RWE and Nuon, under environmental legislation, to put compensatory measures in place. One aspect of this is the ecological verge on the eastern side of Eemshaven. In Emmapolder, a 50-hectare wet nature reserve has been created as compensation for birds along the Wadden region. Fishing rights have been bought up in the Dollard, and a monitoring plan has been set up to observe the effects of the pile-driving on seals. Since 2010, Groningen Seaports has opted to set sustainability requirements in its tenders that go beyond the statutory provisions. In practical terms, this means that as well as the functional and technical requirements set by Groningen Seaports for the construction of seaport facilities, there are also requirements governing energy efficiency and the recycling of materials, and also for working with local apprentices and job-seekers. The work being carried out at the seaport has major implications for earth moving in the seaport. Groningen Seaports has decided to keep the earth moving under its own management to ensure that projects can be combined, which saves a lot of work when moving earth. Enquiries

about the authors and organisation Leendert Bourgonjen is Project Manager of the developments in the Eemshaven. Bart van der Kolk is responsible for the coordination of sustainability of Groningen Seaports. Groningen Seaports offers a complete package of services, from logistical services to venerable locations

for business establishment related to industry, service, and trade in and around the ports. The organization invests up-front in port facilities and infrastructure to meet customer demand, while leaving plenty of quays and sites available for rapid establishment.

Groningen Seaports Handelskade Oost 1, 9970 PA Delfzijl The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 596 640 400 Email:

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Safe disposal of underwater mines using air bubble barriers Air bubble barriers can be used to dampen shockwaves from underwater blasts, for sound mitigation, and can help protect sea mammals Dr. Edgar Schmidtke, German Navy, & Hydrotechnik Lübeck GmbH, Lübeck, Germany Hydrotechnik Lübeck has a long construction record for different applications of air in water, and has participated in all offshore sound mitigation tests carried out in German waters. What follows is an abstract of the report of the test done in winter 2010 with 300kg mines.

Introduction Controlled underwater explosions were used to clear mines from the Second World War still present in the Baltic Sea. These explosions create shockwaves of considerable amplitude. In order to protect the environment of the Baltic, and to ensure that porpoises in particular suffer as little harm as possible from these shockwaves, investigations are being carried out into the use of air bubble barriers for the damping of shockwaves.

Experiments The measurements carried out in February 2010 took place about four kilometers off the coast of Heidkate, near Kiel,

Germany. This involved placing a special nozzle pipe at a water depth of 12m, following a 70-meter-radius semicircle. Compressors operating on a floating platform supplied the nozzle pipe with air. The air escaped from the nozzles to create the barrier of bubbles. Pressure sensors and hydrophones were placed on the inside of the semicircular blast pipe (45m from the site of the explosion, position P1), and onboard the measuring vessel (105m from the site of the explosion, position P3) at different depths (2m to 10m). This allowed measurement of both the full force of the explosions and of the explosions as damped by the air bubble barrier. Divers from the KRD (bomb disposal service) planted in the middle of the semicircle, for each measurement operation, an individual Type-C anchored naval mine with an explosive charge of 300kg of ‘gun cotton 39’. Once the barrier of air bubbles had accumulated, the mine was detonated. The pressure readings are shown in Figure 1. The zero timepoints for individual readings have been deliberately merged to make the graph easier to read. The curve for Mine 5 indicates,

Figure 1. Pressure readings from test performed at position P1, 45m from the point of the explosion, at a depth of 4m.

30 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

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Figure 2. The signals recorded at position P3, 105m from the point of the explosion, at a depth of 3m.

shortly after the peak reading, the expected failure of the sensors due to the explosion. The three measurement readings shown were taken at position P1, at a distance of 45m from the point of the explosion and at a depth of 4m. Peak pressures of between 7.4MPa and 9.4MPa were recorded for all three explosions, taken at all depths. The margin of deviation thus lies within the source level at 2dB and, in the centre, about 2dB above the bibliographical reference readings. The signals at position P3, at a distance of 105m from the point of the explosion are shown in Figure 2. The shockwave from a detonation remains only in the case of Mine 4. In the other two cases, with the fully formed bubble barrier, the peak has almost disappeared. The zero time-point was likewise deliberately selected here for ease of representation.

naval mines, each loaded with an explosive charge of 300kg of gun cotton. It was possible, with a fully formed bubble barrier, to damp pressure peaks by 16dB to 19 dB, and even a partially formed bubble barrier was able to damp a pressure peak by 6dB. In a spectral sense, and at frequencies of higher than 500Hz, it was possible to reckon with damping of at least 5dB from the fully formed barrier in comparison to its partially formed counterpart, with a drop in the equivalent continuous sound level – in these cases, of 7dB to 8dB. The shock-damping effect of an air bubble barrier was successfully demonstrated in this experiment, including for shockwaves emanating from the underwater activation of large explosive charges.


These tests were performed as part of a joint project between the federal state of Schleswig Holstein, the German Navy and Hydrotechnik Lübeck GmbH (WTD 71, Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics.) The full paper can be found at

The investigation concerned the damping by an air bubble barrier of pressure signals from the explosion of three old anchored about the company


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32 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

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Water injection dredging – monitoring leads to effective planning ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd. (ABPmer), Southampton, UK

Water Injection Dredging (WID) can provide a cost effective means of clearing unwanted sediment from docks, harbours and marinas, and can be particularly effective where complicated berth infrastructure or pontoons make conventional dredging difficult. In addition, WID is considered to be beneficial to sediment management as it can retain sediment within the local system. Much debate has surrounded the fate of material mobilised by WID methods, including the relative contribution to suspended material at the immediate dredge location, wider increases in background sediment load and the dispersive ability and fate of the dredge plume. ABPmer, a recognised provider of capital and maintenance dredge support services, recently carried out the consultation, marine licensing, project planning and monitoring in support of WID operations in Portsmouth Harbour. To carry out the dredge on behalf of marina operators within Portsmouth Harbour, consent was required from the Queen’s Harbour Master (QHM) Portsmouth as Harbour Authority. As a condition of local Harbour Act consent, QHM required sediment quality sampling followed by pre and post dredge monitoring to understand the likely fate of WID material, and to ensure the mobilised sediment was not contaminated. The WID operation was conducted by Van Oord, using specialist dredge plant designed to operate in small marinas and confined dock areas.

Licensing changes Currently, under the present licensing regime of Food and Environment Protection Act (FEPA) and Coast Protection Act (CPA), the act of dredging is not licensable. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 has introduced definitions for dredging, describing this as ‘including use of any device to move any material (whether or not suspended in water) from one part of the sea or sea bed to another’. Defra has recently consulted on new secondary legislation for England to be brought in under the Act, which will introduce a new ‘Marine Licence’ to replace a number of existing consenting regimes that apply to dredging including FEPA (environment protection) and CPA (navigational safety). Under the secondary legislation, any form of dredging within the UK will be licensable. It is anticipated that this secondary legislation will include dredging methods such as WID within the wider consenting regime. Exemptions to the Marine Licence have been written into the Marine and Coastal Access Act allowing Harbour Authorities to licence their own dredging activities where local powers exist under Harbour Acts. This change in licensing regime will present new challenges to the industry, not least in managing project timescales to accommodate previously unlicensed activities.

WID sediment monitoring ABPmer operates a near-shore survey team that undertakes hydrographic and field investigations in support of maintenance dredging. The company’s equipment pool includes an extensive range of instrumentation for bathymetric surveying, 2D and 3D 34 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

The sediment was closely monitored to understand the likely fate of WID material.


Suspended sediments at the oil fuel jetty.

flow monitoring, water levels, multi-parameter water recording and grab sampling. ABPmer’s monitoring uses a pre-defined set of analysis techniques to compare the pre, post and dredge conditions within the water column, at numerous fixed locations on the seabed. These results, combined with a continuous fixed station monitoring site and dual-frequency echo sounder tracking of sediment plumes, has allowed observation of the movement of dredge material within the harbour and surrounding area, which can now be used to plan future dredge campaigns. The interaction between the sediment plume, which acts like a near-bed high density ‘cloud’, and the surrounding physical environment has been the principal monitoring consideration during the research. Successive years of monitoring have confirmed that the density plume retains most of the mobilised material, which stays relatively close to the seabed, creating virtually no turbidity higher in the water column. The WID operation was planned to operate on the ebb tide commencing at high water. In advance of the marina dredge, a sediment flow channel was cut from each marina to the main fairway to convey material into the outgoing harbour tidal flow. Transects of the main fairway were monitored by dual-frequency echo sounder to confirm that material moved out with the tide. The monitoring work confirmed the quantity of material mobilised, and provided the Harbour Authority with confidence that the material did not enter deep berth pockets up-estuary of the dredge site, nor did it enter enclosed harbour areas where other harbour users had expressed concerns over the potential for increased sedimentation. The monitoring has allowed the design of the dredge to best use the natural tidal flow state and bathymetry of the harbour entrance to encourage material mobilised by WID methods about the company

The Water Injection Dredging operation was performed by Van Oord, using specialist dredge plant designed to operate in small marinas and confined dock areas.

out of the harbour and into the wider Solent. The results of the monitoring have highlighted that elevated sediment levels can be detected within the immediate vicinity of the marina dredge sites during the dredge operation. However, sediment concentrations reduce to background levels within a short distance from the dredge operation. Monty Smedley, Senior Marine Scientist at ABPmer said, “The monitoring exercise showed that the movement of vessels, tidal range and weather conditions play a significant role in raising background suspended sediment loads over the whole harbour. It was found that natural variability contributes significantly to sediment concentration, to levels that compare to that of the dredge operation. The research concluded that with careful predredge planning, WID operations can be designed and carried out to control the flow of material and maximise the use of the natural environment to aid dispersal.” Enquiries

ABPmer is a leading UK marine environmental consultancy creating sustainable

Monty Smedley

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ABPmer Environmental Research Ltd.

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P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Mooring and berthing

“In the last few years, the size of the largest LNG carriers has increased dramatically. With the increase in vessel size, the question is whether the risks associated with LNG carriers maneuvering in confined waters also increase.� Larger LNG carriers, larger risks?, page 38. 36 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Sail into your port ...

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mooring and berthing

Larger LNG carriers, larger risks? Using sophisticated real-time simulation software and QRA, ports and terminals finally have answers Jos T.M. van Doorn, MARIN, Wageningen, The Netherlands In the last few years the size of the largest LNG carriers has increased dramatically, as illustrated in Figure 1. With the increase in vessel size, the question is whether the risks associated with LNG carriers maneuvering in confined water also increase. To gain greater insight into those risks, recent studies executed for several new and existing LNG terminals throughout the world include a combination of quantitative risk assessment and real-time simulations. In general, these studies are executed for the largest LNG carriers sailing worldwide.

Quantitative risk assessment A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) can be divided in two steps. In the first step the frequencies of accidents are determined. Accidents are divided in collisions, grounding, foundering, fire, and so on. In the second step the consequences of the accidents are determined. The most critical situations for the LNG carriers are grounding and the risk of collision with other vessels during maneuvers or while loading and unloading at the terminal. Probabilities of such accidents involving an LNG carrier are calculated with the ‘Safety Model for Shipping and Offshore in the North Sea’ (the SAMSON model). Though the model was developed originally for the Dutch Ministry of Transport for the North Sea, the model is generic and can be used for any area. This model has been developed over a period of 25 years. During this period, many studies have been executed for the

Dutch Ministry of Transport, the European Commission and for various commercial projects. Risk calculation with SAMSON consists of two steps. First the traffic flows in the area are defined. Nowadays we prefer to use Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, as stored by coastal or port authorities for this purpose. However, for a completely new port or terminal this data might not be available. In this case, it is possible to build up the traffic from available traffic data. Secondly, the probability on accidents is computed. In the SAMSON model, the traffic is composed from 36 ship types and eight ship size classes. For each ship class the probability on grounding and collision is computed. To bridge the step from collision to ship damage, MARIN has developed the MARCOL tool, ‘the maritime collision model of MARIN’. With this model, the penetration probability of the LNG tanks is determined. MARCOL solves this problem analytically. The model is capable of determining the penetration probability of the cargo tanks of one single scenario within seconds. Therefore it is possible to model millions of collision scenarios. The model describes the primary damage mechanism for typical structural components like shell plating and transverse webs. The simplified analytical models have inherent limitations but are very suitable for Safety Assessment Studies. Presently the program can deal with different types of ships like container

Figure 1. Changing capacity (m3) of large LNG tankers since 1965.

38 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

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mooring and berthing

Screenshot showing the safe transit of an LNG carrier into Port.

A ship bow penetrating a cargo tank, demonstrated using the MARCOL analysis tool.

vessels, car carriers and inland vessels. It has been validated against available full-scale collision experiments. With the MARCOL model, a matrix is computed using the probability of a hole in the cargo tank for the various types of collisions. Analyzing the results can give insight in which mitigating measures can be effective in reducing the probability on damaging the cargo tank. This result is further used for the risk evaluation.

Real-time simulations In the risk evaluation, the flow of traffic in to and out of the port is the basis for the analyses. Real-time simulations make it possible to look into the safety aspects of ship handling in more detail. With the results of the risk evaluation in hand, we can look at the most risky parts of the maneuver and define mitigating about the company

measures to reduce these risks. To assure that the outcome of the simulations are realistic, the modeling of the ship’s behavior and the environmental conditions are extremely important. The real-time simulations can be divided into a number of batches. The focus of the first batch is on normal entries and departures under average and extreme environmental conditions. Simulations are executed to verify the channel dimensions and weather windows. The next batch will include one or more man-operated tugs. The combination of an LNG carrier assisted by tugs controlled by captains has huge added value. Operations become much more realistic; the limitations of tug operations, and the sensitivity for communication and possible errors all become clear. This is also the ideal set-up to study emergencies during transit. These emergencies can result from mechanical failures, human error or unexpected weather changes. It is the aim of the simulations to keep the carrier sufficiently under control, and prevent groundings that damage the ship’s hull. Measures to reduce these risks include: • Better bridge team performance • Effective use of tugs • Electronic chart systems (Portable Pilot Units) • Information regarding the local environmental conditions during the transit • Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) • Training of all personnel involved. The simulations can prove that specific measures are effective. As the QRA shows, these simulations will reduce risks. The combination of QRA and real-time simulations will give the answer to the question: Larger carriers, larger risks? MARIN has provided the answer to this question to various ports and terminals all over the world. Enquiries

For more than 75 years MARIN has been a reliable, independent and innovative

Jos T.M. van Doorn

service provider. The company has expanded the boundaries of maritime

MARIN’s Nautical Centre MSCN

understanding with hydrodynamic research. MARIN has a dual mission: providing

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6700 AA Wageningen

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40 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

vtMIs & aids to navigation

“The growth in maritime commerce, and the resulting growth of ports to meet increasing demand, has led to a situation where the accuracy of information on dock facilities declines significantly over time after data have been collected and reported.� Developing a new Dock Information System, page 45. P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Great communication is crucial for optimized port management Overly complicated communication systems can be more of a hindrance than a help to ports – the answer is simple but effective Henk Kuipers, Klein Systems Group Ltd., Burnaby, Canada Ports are in a high stakes information game where great communication improves a port’s attractiveness. Great communication allows the port to provide effective and efficient service to their customers and stakeholders. Ports have an abundance of information needs and demands that, if taken care of, can result in optimal operational processes. An electronic service bus, which exchanges information electronically and securely within the port and the port community, allows ports to achieve efficient and effective communication.

Complex communication needs and demands Adhering to processes is difficult in any environment, but it is crucial for ports. Streamlining the high level of communication required is a challenge. Many parties are involved in port operations, such as pilots, tugs, linesmen, waste collectors, agents, customs and safety authorities. To keep so many parties well informed and working together is a serious challenge. It is common practice in many ports to exchange information by phone calls, by fax or by mail. If port operators need

additional information they will pick up the phone to get that information. Much of this information is not readily accessible and available for sharing with interested parties. This limits the efficiency available to a port and frustrates stakeholders. In addition, the Port Authority may find out at the end of the day or week that the available information on a ship’s stay or the reasons for decisions taken is incomplete. This may result in avoidable errors in billing, penalties, operations; discussions on bills sent to customers or incomplete information provided to other parties, ports or safety authorities in the region. Utilizing an information service bus can eliminate the redundancy and solve these communication challenges.

Multiple data sources reduce accuracy of communication With the volume of information exchanged with a port and the port community, many ports find themselves contending with multiple data sources. Having multiple sources for the

Sharing information between various third parties such as agents, pilots, customs and safety inspectors can be problematic unless an effective system is in place.

42 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Soft ware solutions to meet the challenging needs of Maritime Ports and Vessel Tr affic ORGANIZATIONS Klein Systems Group Ltd. has over 25 years of experience in delivering enterprise-wide software applications for maritime organizations – Ports, Pilots, Tugs, Vessel Traffic, Coastal Surveillance, and Maritime Community Systems. For more information, visit our website at:

An HITT nv Company.

File: Klein_PTI_FullPageAd

Date: May 6 2010 – Time: 9:02 PM

Trim: 210mm x 297mm – Text: 194mm x 281mm Bleed: 216mm x 303mm

Client: Klein Systems Group

Colour: 4C

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Job: 4C Magazine Ad: Port Technology International Magazine

Annotation: Image is repro quality.




same information is a risk. How do the sources match? Do they match? Which source is used by the partners and why? What is the consequence of choosing a specific source, especially in communication with partners that may have chosen another source? Take, for instance, the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) of a vessel. ETAs differ from source to source. Depending on the source, such as an agent, captain, pilot or port authority, it may refer to different locations: a pilot station, the port entrance, locks or at berth. Not only does ETA mean different things to different users, the actual precision and preciseness of the ETA is also dependant on the receiving and sending sources. An ETA that is updated every minute may be a nuisance to processes like inspections, where a long-term forecast is needed, but crucial for other stakeholders. Knowing the reliability of the source of information and understanding the audience is a challenge, which can also be solved by integrating information and sharing technology as part of a port’s infrastructure.

Poor communication is costly and causes irritation The consequences of using the wrong source with outdated or low-quality data can be very costly. A pilot leaving the station to meet the vessel at the rendezvous point has to be sure that the vessel will be there and not several hours later or not at all. If the information is not in sync, this causes irritation between involved parties and wastes pilot and berth capacity. Disturbed processes like these prevent the port from achieving excellence in services to their customers. Without good communication, ports may also struggle to provide mandatory information to third parties such as ship arrival, departure and dangerous goods on board.

A port service bus optimizes communication The optimal solution in a high-stakes communication environment is to bring all available information together, assess the information right away, combine the other information available, adjust the information as needed, and distribute the

information for the various needs within the port arena. The technical solution to share information in a reliable and relevant way is an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). Most ports share a number of similar services with third parties such as agents, pilots, customs and safety inspectors. This knowledge, gained over 25 years in close co-operation with customers and end users, is used by Klein Systems Group Ltd. to define a port-specific ESB: the Klein Service Bus. The Klein Service Bus supports the communication needed for each party within the port community. Each party is able to communicate with others in their own language. Pilots talk about boarding time, tugs about meeting time, stevedores about arrival times at berth, etc. The port service bus takes care of the necessary translations and ensures that the exchange fits with the partner’s processes. Next to that, the port service bus is able to determine which third parties need to be informed automatically if specific information has changed. Business rules are used to validate the information in the port service bus. Also of importance is the fact that the Klein Service Bus for ports provides security of information from third party to third party. Partners can only work with the information relevant to them and are shielded from business-sensitive information of others.

Good communication makes ports attractive Ports using a port service bus can provide a highly efficient and effective service to their customers and partners. Although ports share many services, the specific implementation of these services differs considerably between ports. It is therefore important to use a highly configurable and flexible solution that can be tailored to all specific ports. Ports using a port service bus also see an increase in port capacity, servicing more vessels and cargo with the same infrastructure and available space. Additionally, workload is lowered, as conflicts and friction in communication and cooperation are minimized. Optimally managed information results in an optimized operation. These efficiency improvements have a big positive effect on the attractiveness of a port, and are very much appreciated by all the stakeholders of the port.

about the author ABOUT THE company


Henk Kuipers is Director of Marketing and Sales

Klein Systems Group Ltd. is an international

Klein Systems Group Ltd.

for Klein Systems Group Ltd. in Europe. Henk has

software and services company specializing in

4400 Dominion St., Suite 360

over 25 years experience in vessel traffic information

the automation of business operating processes.

Burnaby BC V5G 4G2

systems. He has a BSc in Electronic Engineering and

Klein has over 25 years of experience in delivering


an MSc in Business Science. Henk has been involved

enterprise-wide software applications for maritime

in the planning and realization of a number of the

ports, vessel traffic and coastal surveillance

Tel: +1 (604) 689 7117

largest VTS systems in world, such as Rotterdam.

organizations, pilotage organizations; tug operators

Fax: +1 (604) 689 7119

and maritime community systems. This experience


with processes within and around a port is used


to create port management solutions, in close co-operation with customers and end-users.

44 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Developing a new Dock Information System The USACE has developed & implemented a new process for collecting data on NPIs Samir Dhar, Research Technician, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA This paper descr ibes the design, development, and early implementation efforts for a new computerized system to collect, organize, and transfer data pertaining to piers, wharves, docks and terminals (i.e. Navigational Point of Interest – NPI) in support of maritime transportation. This data has been collected and managed for over 80 years in the Corps’ Port Series Reports. As the demand for more timely, detailed and accurate information relating to port facilities has grown in the past decade, the Corps has in turn revised its approach to data collection using a new, more dynamic and continuous system in the Master Docks Plus database. A web-based application that uses a three-tier architecture was developed to perform functions such as: 1) search for a dock, 2) view dock information, 3) update dock information, 4) edit dock information, 5) save dock information, 6) transfer updated information to USACE, and 7) automatically receive regular updates from the USACE. This system was tested to evaluate the functionality of the application and also to gather users’ input to fine-tune the web application.

Introduction & background The system described herein was developed in response to a recent initiative undertaken by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to update the methodology used to assemble and maintain timely and accurate data for the nation’s dock facilities. According to the Navigation Data Center (NDC), current methods for data collection use a combination of personal site inspection by qualified engineering personnel, direct interviews with terminal operators, and detailed reviews of port facility plans, charts, maps, aerial photography, directories, and other media [1]. While current methods yield highly accurate and detailed information at the time of collection, they also require a significant expenditure of the NDC’s time and resources. The process also takes several years to complete a single cycle of the total US inventory of dock facilities and their attributes. The growth in maritime commerce, and the resulting growth of ports to meet increasing demand, has led to a situation where the accuracy of information on dock facilities declines significantly over time after data have been collected and reported. This information must be as current as possible if it is to be of significant use in transportation decision-making [1]. As a result, the Corps contracted with the University of Toledo’s Geog raphic Infor mation Science and Applied Geographics (GISAG) Center to work toward developing a new process for collecting dock facility data that minimizes the need for site visits, reduces the time spent during a site visit, and assures more continuous data input into the Master Docks Plus (MDP) database. This effort also included a pilot program to collect data locally in the Toledo region, using the newly developed protocols in the area formerly known as Port Series 44.

Specifically, this project involves exploring a number of approaches to data collection that include geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data acquisition, direct webbased data entry, and new ways for contacting and working with terminal operators in the data acquisition process. This paper’s focus is mainly on the web entry approach, where individual dock and terminal operators are given the opportunity to enter the data directly into the registry themselves without any intermediaries and with limited need for site visits by Corps personnel. The data collection/testing phase of this project emphasized this direct data entry approach by dock and terminal operators. A significant portion of the project efforts dealt with the design of the data collection subsystem, as pre-collection activity is one of the most crucial steps in developing any data collection process [3, 4]. Furthermore, the design stage was devoted to developing a process utilizing current technology to minimize time and effort and to ensure that the data gathered are accurate and current [4]. The resulting system was a browser-based web application acting as an interface for collecting data (i.e., collecting new data or updating existing data). It also includes an exclusive interface to notify and pass the collected data to the USACE at the Navigation Data Center (NDC). All data collected are stored and managed at the Toledo site. Changes are transferred to the USACE NDC for acknowledgement and verification before the Master Docks Plus database is updated (see Figure 1). In addition, any updates made from sources other than the Toledo site to the NDC can be transferred back and incorporated to the maritime database residing at Toledo’s end. The website can then display filtered information presenting non-sensitive information to the general public regarding dock facilities; it also displays detailed information of a specific dock based on search criteria (e.g., state, city, commodity, etc.). This web-based dock information system (DIS) application is an easy-to-use, secure, and efficient tool for the USACE to keep track of all the NPI (Navigation Points of Interest) and

Figure 1. The dock update process.

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the periodic changes occurring in the dock information. The outcome of this pilot project, if proven to be successful, can be expanded to encompass all docks in the US. This prototype system is currently limited to implementation and testing in the Great Lakes region.

Methodology The development of this data collection system is geared toward devising a distributed system that is scalable, feasible, and sustainable. This section outlines the development process of the DIS system that uses a traditional life-cycle approach to identify, model, and document the data requirements. It also describes the application of a simple three-tired client-server type architecture that is a successful and popular approach to web application development [5]. Futthermore, it describes the web interfaces that use current web technology (Web 2.0), thereby providing flexibility in design, developing a rich user interface, and supporting different programming tools. Added to this system is the use of an ASP.Net framework to access and represent data in a secured fashion. Finally, the data are stored and managed using MS SQL Server, which resides on a data server hosted and managed by the University of Toledo. Five key processes are further discussed in the following sections regarding the design of the system. These include: • Systems Life-cycle model • Three-Tier architecture • Web Development tool • The Maritime Database • Development of the Web Interface. Life-Cycle

In the development of a web application, the understanding of the business logic is vital, but so too is the planning of the associated technical activity [6]. Figure 2 illustrates the life-cycle model used for the development of this application. The process of identifying Web Application Requirements is focused on the users and defines the nature of the information exchanged. Since this web application is designed for universal access, a process of identifying users’ requirements and the nature of their interaction with the database must be established. Two different types of users were identified, one being the general user who will have read-only access to the data. The other user type is the dock owners/operators who will have both read-only access to all the dock data and write access to their own dock facility data after valid authentication. In the Application Design & Development, the structural view of the application is mapped to the data repository. The visual design, which is of great importance in any web application, is planned into a set of content-independent visual specifications.

Figure 2. Web application life-cycle.

46 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

The navigational views are arranged into sets of access elements in the data repository. Prototyping & Testing involves a simplified but complete version of the web application for users to have hands-on experience with the system. Feedback, comments, and suggestions are the key outcomes expected from users during this stage. Members of the project team maintain a log in their interactions with users (i.e., the dock owners and operators) to monitor the effectiveness of the system. In addition, system developers monitor for minor bugs and problems with the system and make the necessary repairs. This stage of the process was completed locally at the Port of Toledo. Finally, Implementation & Maintenance enables the project team to replace the current version of the database with the most recent data obtained from the USACE Master Docks Plus database. From the Toledo end, data that are sent to the USACE NDC are used to update the Master Docks Plus database after the acknowledgement and verification process. In return, the USACE will periodically send the entire contents of the MDP database to Toledo for storage in the Great Lakes Maritime Research Information Clearinghouse (GLMRIC). Architecture

This web application uses the three-tier system architecture (see Figure 3), where all three layers operate independently on different parts of an interconnected system. By using the threetier architecture, the application logic is removed from the user tier and is executed on a web application tier. This module is situated between the user interface and the data storage system. The architecture enables the development of client-server applications and also helps to integrate various web tools and protocols for better performance and security [5]. The three-tier application framework (see Figure 4) is comprised of one or more users in the User Tier, the web application in the Web Application Tier, and the data in the Database Tier. The user tier consists of the user-side application logic and web graphic user interface (GUI) components along with several processes such as ‘search dock’, ‘view dock information’, ‘update dock information’, ‘edit dock information’ and ‘save dock information.’ The web application tier consists of the server side application logic, the database connectivity object, the data store object, and several data manipulation processes such as data retrieval, data view, data update, data edit, data save, the ‘notify USACE’ process, and the acknowledge/verify process. The database tier consists of several components that include an SQL interpreter, query evaluator, data access, and libraries to communicate with the DBMS. As shown in the schematic in Figure 4, users are connected to the web application server to exchange both process calls and data, while the web application is connected to the database

Figure 3. Three-Tier Architecture.


This web application provides primitives for the execution of asynchronous requests as well as updating page structure and content. Since this application consists of a single page, all of the elements on that page are updated in response to callbacks activated asynchronously by the user or by a server message. The Maritime DB Database.

Figure 4. Three-tier application framework.

server in order to exchange database-related calls. The data are maintained in the form of data objects within the user and application tiers. The application tier also maintains a set of objects containing data for the users. As the application tier takes data from the format that is specific to the database server, it transforms them into the format that is specific to the data objects (and vice versa). The user tier is comprised of processes expected to perform one or more functions, such as 1) search for a dock, 2) view dock information, 3) update dock information, 4) edit dock information, and 5) save dock information. Any executed process will trigger sets of functions and procedures to be executed at the web server level or the data server level. Web development tools

Visual Web Developer Express Edition was the primary tool used in construction of the web interface using the Web 2.0 standards – standards that are now becoming mainstream [7]. This Integrated Development Environment (IDE) offered by Microsoft, Inc. supports the ASP.NET framework along with C#, JavaScript, CSS style, and AJAX-enabled applications in the development processes since it provides less waiting and more control for the user [8]. This web application is hosted on two servers, a Windows IIS web server and an MS SQL Database server, which is administered by the University of Toledo’s IT department.

The database management system (DBMS) residing at and administered by The University of Toledo has an MS SQL server managing the Maritime DB database, and is currently in operation. The Maritime DB database is the exact replica of the Master Docks Plus database used by the USACE to store the NPI information. The Entity Relationship model (ERM) (see Figure 5) shows the conceptual data model of the Maritime DB Database. In total, 11 main tables are used to store relevant information about the dock, as shown below: • USACE_NAVIGATION_UNIT • USACE_SERVICE • USACE ADDRESS • USACE_OPERATOR_OWNER • USACE_COMMODITY • USACE_WATERWAY_LOCATION • USACE_LAND_TRANSPORTATION • USACE_CONTACT • USACE_PHYSICAL_LAYOUT • SERVICE MASTER • USACE_NAVIGATION_UNIT_ALIAS The attribute NAV_UNIT_GUID is the common identifier in the entire Maritime DB to identify a dock’s information. The UNLOC_GUID attribute also serves as a unique identifier. Web interface

The web interface (see Figure 5) for this application was designed with the three basic designing constructs in mind, namely, usability, aesthetics, and functionality [9]. Users’ technical capabilities were also considered when designing the interface.

Figure 5. The web application interface.

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Easy step-by-step methods were devised to perform any task, and wherever possible, they were devised to give users the option to reduce the amount of typing while they are editing or updating their dock information. Every ASP.NET web control was assigned tool tips explaining the purpose of that control or any data attribute. Multi-view panels are used to show grouping of web controls and content. Views inside Multi-view panels were used and users can toggle between them. Users can interact with only one view at a time, thus providing a compartmentalized view of the entire data structure. Since HTTP is a stateless protocol, session variables are used to hold the user’s navigation status as they navigate through the web page during the update or edit processes. A detailed users’ guide is also published in PDF format and is made available to every user to further assist them while using the web application. Dock update process

This is a new process developed with the objective of maintaining current and accurate data. The process described here uses current technology to provide users with easy access to data sources where they can update their information. This updated information is then made available to the USACE in an automated fashion to minimize human error. The data transfer from the UT’s Maritime DB to the USACE’s Master Docks Plus database is not only acknowledged but also checked and verified by the USACE personnel before updating their Master Docks Plus database, so as to avoid any transfer of bad or erroneous data. This process also ensures that any bad data transferred to the USACE will not reside in UT’s Maritime DB. The new process also checks for repeated updates made by a dock owner/operator on a specific dock. When the process finds repeated updates, the most recent update is tagged to the previous update not verified by the USACE; this reduces the number of updates that the USACE has to verify. The process also aids in synchronizing both the Master Docks Plus database and the Maritime DB in real time, not only by transferring updated or new information to the USACE, but by also acquiring updated and new information from the USACE. The dock update process is divided into four sub-processes, and include: a) User Edit/Update information process b) USACE notification process c) USACE acknowledge and verification process d) Data Turn-Around process.

Figure 6. The docks page.

48 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Users require an Internet connection to access the website ( The ‘Docks’ tab of the website displays information about all the docks present around the Great Lakes region. Separate individual user names and passwords are made available for each dock facility. This feature allows the users to edit or insert information for their particular facility only. Upon authorization, users can review their information and make changes to it. The information displayed on the ‘DOCK’ page is categorized into Profile, Corporate, Functions, Features, Snaps, and My Account (Figure 6). The Profile tab has general information about the dock facility such as the dock name, address, purpose, port association, and so on. The Corporate tab contains details about owners and operators and their relevant contact information. The Functions tab contains the commodity and service details for a particular dock. The Features tab displays the physical characteristics of the dock facility, while Snaps contains aerial pictures of the NPI and also allows the user to upload more pictures or to remove unwanted pictures. On the My Account tab, the user can edit their password information; however, this feature can only be accessed after a user logs into the system. Once the user has edited/updated their dock information, a notification is sent out to USACE (five different personnel), an alert in the form of an email that contains the GUID information of the dock facility that was edited or updated and the web URL ( to view the changes made. The USACE has exclusive access to this web page. Repeated updates to a single NPI that are made by users prior to the verification of earlier updates by USACE personnel can be tagged to the earlier update, and are then shown as one update. This minimizes the number of updates that are made to a single dock facility, thereby reducing the workload of the USACE personnel. The edited information is color-coded to enable the USACE personnel to easily identify any changes made. At this point, the USACE personnel can furnish recognition of the dock update by clicking the ‘Acknowledge’ button, which in turn alerts the system to send a series of email alerts announcing that this update has been acknowledged by USACE personnel. If the dock update contains new information – such as a new operator, commodity, or service, SQL queries are displayed in a pop-up box along with an email to USACE personnel containing these queries in addition to the other email alerts. These queries can be copied off the pop-up box or from the email and pasted in Oracle SQL for execution. When executed, these queries provide a unique ID for the new information, which in turn enable USACE personnel to capture the unique ID for the new information and feed it back to the Maritime DB in the verification process to update the Maritime DB. This step provides a quick and convenient turnaround for the update of information. Once the data have been acknowledged, USACE personnel have the option to ‘Update data before verification’ or ‘Accept updates.’ If USACE personnel find the data to be incorrect, they have the option to rectify the updated data. If the USACE finds that the data are correct, they can accept the data ‘as-is’, and update the record with no further changes. This series of alerts in the form of emails are then sent out along with the changes in data in the form of SQL queries, which in turn are used by the USACE to update their Master Docks Plus database. In addition, the data is also updated in the Maritime DB if the USACE personnel make changes to any information in the dock update during this verification process. In addition, any update made to the Master Docks Plus database by personnel from USACE regional offices, the US Coast Guard, US Customs, or any related agency can be made available to UT’s Maritime DB via a text file sent periodically via FTP. The text file contains SQL queries that are automatically read and executed, ensuring that the updates made to the Master Docks Plus database


by USACE personnel are reflected in the UT’s maritime DB, thereby synchronizing both the databases. As mentioned earlier, this new dock update process, which is in the form of a web application, needs to be tested further on a larger geographical region to evaluate its performance and also to gather a wider population of users’ input.

Data acquisition with GIS and remote sensing methods Finally, the project team explored new approaches for data acquisition using alternative tools such as GIS and remote sensing techniques, digital imagery, and photo overlays. The initial objective in adapting these techniques to the project were focused on refining dock locations in lat/lon coordinates, to identify and measure dock and slip dimensions, to identify dock and terminal equipment, and to establish highway and rail connections to each dock facility. Digital orthophotos of port facilities were obtained from various sources (e.g., Google Maps, Bing), and georectified to lat/lon within ESRI’s ArcGIS software. These images were then overlayed with rail and highway network shapefiles to align landside transportation facilities with the dock locations. Dock lat/lon locations were easily obtained and revised dock points were added to the MD+ database. Landside transportation connections were also readily obtainable. In contrast, slip dimensions and dock dimensions were not as easily obtainable for new docks or reconstructed docks, due to a lack of availability of current images. The project team therefore recommends this technique for refining dock locations and for identifying highway and rail connections, but recommends additional study that requires site visits and interviews with owner/operators for measuring the dimensions of dock and slip dimensions, and for identifying the cargo-handling equipment at the dock facility. Otherwise, these latter data items are best obtained through the web portal.

Conclusion The principal focus of this project was to develop and test a new process for data collection using an automated system for the Corps Master Docks Plus database. The overall idea of the new process is to collect data and transfer it to the Corps so that they can update their Master Docks Plus database. This process also incorporates a turn-around data transfer, where updates made at the Corps’ Master Docks Plus database will be made available to UT’s Maritime DB at their site. The data collection system described here was developed to minimize the Corps’ time and resources needed to collect data on these facilities. A three-tier application architecture was used in developing the data collection system which consists of a user tier, a web application tier, and database tier. This web application uses Web 2.0 (a second-generation web standard), ASP.Net, and AJAX to translate the data collection process. All three layers operate independently on different parts of an interconnected system. By using the three-tier architecture, the application logic is removed

from the user tier and is executed on a web application tier. Users are connected to the web application server to exchange both process calls and data, and the web application in turn is connected to the database server in order to exchange databaserelated calls. The data are maintained in the form of data objects within the user and application tiers. The application tier also maintains a set of objects containing data for the users, and plays the role of taking data from the format specific to the database server and transforming them into the format of data objects, and vice versa. As the system was initially tested by USACE personnel, it was refined and improved in response to user comments and observations. USACE responded favorably to the functionality and appearance of the data entry page. Overall, the web-based application performed smoothly, with minimal problems. In some cases, however, the application was found to run quite slowly, most likely due to a slow Internet connection, heavy Internet traffic, or a firewall on the users’ side.


 S Army Corps of Engineers, Navigation Data Center, 1. U 2007. Scope of Work Statement for Project: Develop New Process for Collecting Information on Piers, Wharves, Docks and Facilities, November, 2007. 2. Dhar, S., K. Kantharaj, and P.S. Lindquist, Dock Information System, Great Lakes Maritime Research Information Clearinghouse. Geographic Information Science and Applied Geographics Center, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toledo. Accessed 10, 2010. 3. Topp, N.W., and B. Pawloski. 2002. Online Data Collection, Journal of Science Education and Technology 11(2): 173-178. 4. A tanda, R., L. Podrasky-Mattia, and A. Benton. 2005. Developing a data collection system, Evaluation and Program Planning, 28(3): 335-339. 5. Aarsten,A., D. Brugali, and G. Menga. 1996. Patterns for ThreeTier Client/Sever Aplications, Proc. of PLop’96. 6. Isakowitz, T., E. Stohr, and P. Balasubramanian. 1995. RMM: A methodology for the Design of Structured Hypermedia Applications, Communications of the ACM 38(8): 34-43. 7. Murugesan, S. 2007. Understanding Web 2.0, IT Professional 9(4): 34-41. 8. S mith, K. 2006. Simplifying Ajax-style Web development, Computer 39(5): 98-101. 9.Vertelney, L., M. Arent, and H. Lieber man. 1994. Two Disciplines in Search of an Interface. Reflections on a Design Problem, Laurel 45-55.

about the author ABOUT THE organisation


Samir Dhar is a Research Technician at the

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has

Samir Dhar

Univeristy of Toledo. He holds a PhD in Spatially

approximately 34,000 dedicated civilians and soldiers

The University of Toledo

Integrated Social Science, and an MA in Geography

delivering engineering services to customers in more

Tel: +1 (419) 530 4716

& Planning. His academic work focuses on

than 90 countries worldwide. With environmental


developing geospatial information systems (GIS) for

sustainability as a guiding principle, its disciplined

freight transportation. He has recently worked on

Corps team works to strengthen the USA’s

the Federal-Industry Logistics Standardization (FILS)

security by building and maintaining the country’s

project, and the Federal Initiative for Navigation Data

infrastructure and providing military facilities where

Enhancement (FINDE).

its service members train, work and live.

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container Handling

featuring terminal logistics Section sponsored by:

50 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Efficient use of energy in container cranes Fredrik Johanson, General Manager Marketing and Sales, ABB AB Crane Systems, Västerås, Sweden

Introduction Fully electric operation of cranes at container terminals is the most environmentally friendly means of operation compared to other power sources (read fossil fuels). Making that statement today is not especially provocative, and for some years now in our industry we have seen a trend for electrifying machines that have traditionally been diesel-powered, such as RTGs. Many suppliers are now offering solutions for electrification using, for example, cable reels or conductive wires to connect machines to terminals’ electrical power grids. So far so good. But how is the electrical energy used, which can be supplied to the cranes via cables in a nearly unlimited amount?

Drive systems If cranes are connected to a terminal’s electrical grid, energy can be generated onboard the cranes and fed back to the supply grid. This energy can then be used either by the neighboring cranes or other power consumers on the grid. In this way, the amount of energy taken from the point where the local power utility supplies electrical energy to the terminal is reduced, thus further lowering energy costs compared to when electrical power is generated onboard the cranes with diesel generators. Modern electrical drive systems are of the four-quadrant type, which means that they can feed energy back to the supplying grid.

Feedback occurs when there is a pulling load, and in crane applications this is mainly when a load is lowered. Naturally, not all energy can be recovered. This is both due to mechanical losses in gearboxes, ropes and sheaves; as well as to losses in the electrical system, such as in motors and frequency converters, even if losses in the electrical system are quite low, just a few percent. About 75-80 percent of the energy released when a load is lowered is fed back to the grid.

Ship-to-shore cranes The majority of all ship-to-shore cranes in the world are connected to a terminal supply grid, and in principle, all new cranes are equipped for AC operation with some form of fourquadrant supply to the drive system. The conditions for saving energy are thus already fulfilled. All that remains now is to find other potential energy consumers for which energy can be saved. To accomplish this, we utilize a number of measurements made on relatively large and modern ship-to-shore cranes. Based on these measurements, Table 1 was prepared. Total auxiliary power amounts to about 60kW. Note that air conditioning is not included in the summary. Depending on power dissipation in the electrical room, the size and the required temperature in the cabin, as well as the ambient temperature,

Ship-to-Shore crane with dual hoist.

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Table 1: Measured auxiliary power consumption



AC motor cooling fans


Spreader pump


Flood lights


Walkway lights


Table 2: Methods of reducing auxiliary power


Possible improvement

AC motor cooling fans Temperature and/or speed controlled Spreader pump

For new cranes specify electric spreader

Flood lights Sectionalize and switch off when not needed Walkway lights

Switch off automatically after certain time

energy consumption due to air conditioning can be substantial. To rectify this, the drive system configuration must be changed to, for example, water-cooled type. This, however, is beyond the scope of this article. Energy consumption per move was measured to totally 6kWh, and with 30 moves per hour the auxiliary energy consumption is 2kWh per move. We can now see that energy consumption attributable to auxiliary equipment amounts to approximately 25 percent of the energy consumption for work that contributes to production. Because this crane is naturally equipped with a four-quadrant drive system, energy is fed back to the grid when a load is lowered.

Table 2 shows a few examples of simple measures that reduce energy consumption. Even a minor change to auxiliary consumption has an impact. This is due to energy being continuously consumed and not actually performing any work. Halving energy consumption for floodlights, for example, produces a 25 percent reduction of the contribution to energy consumption from auxiliary equipment. Ship-to-shore automation also contributes to reducing energy consumption. This is primarily accomplished by cranes making more moves per hour for all operators, but also by never lifting a load higher than necessary. Although energy is recovered when the load is lowered again, it only amounts to 75-80 percent because of the degree of efficiency of the mechanical and electrical systems. There are savings to be made with automation.

Automatic stacking cranes Automatic Stacking Cranes (ASCs) are energy-efficient by definition since they are electrified. ABB has made energy and power measurements on ASCs with cantilevers, and studied a number of conceivable alternatives for saving energy in these applications as well. ASCs are supplied with electrical energy from terminal grids and roll on steel wheels with low friction. The cranes’ drive systems feed back energy when loads are lowered. Moreover, the need for floodlights and other lighting is minimal due to work being conducted without operators. In principle, the cranes do not need any lighting at all. Under these conditions, it is important to look at how the cranes work, both independently and in interaction with one another.

Unsynchronized movements The greatest saving is in being able to operate several cranes simultaneously and in doing so, evening out their consumption of

ASCs in operation.

52 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Can we increase your berth productivity? Absolutely.

ABB Crane Systems offers an extensive range of automation solutions for STS cranes. They all serve the purpose of improving your production and increase your overall productivity. We use our own developed standardized automation solutions implemented by means of fast responding drive systems, excellent accuracy and easy to use operator controls.

ABB AB Crane Systems Tel. +46 21 32 50 00 Fax. +46 21 34 02 90 E-mail: Internet:


Figure 1. Rate of recovered energy depending on the number of independently connected cranes.

energy. In other words, when energy is generated at one location, it can be used by another crane in the same supply grid. Our studies shows that even with just ten cranes operating at the same time, an optimum situation is attained in which energy is being simultaneously generated and consumed with savings of about 30 percent. Once the ASCs are installed, this should work on its own with little interaction from users or operators. Moreover, neither planning from the Terminal Operating System (TOS) nor the movements or operations of any cranes are affected. At a busy terminal, it should almost always be possible to utilize recovered energy.

Synchronized movements With synchronized movements, additional energy can be saved amounting to approximately 5 percent with the same amount ABOUT THE company

of cranes as in the example above. Depending on the debiting principles of the local power utility, it may be necessary to immediately utilize the recovered energy. If the movements are coordinated between the cranes, recovered energy can usually be used while at the same time, reducing peak power demand. A reduction of peak power demand saves money in installed power because smaller transformers, substations and lighter cables can be used to supply the cranes with electrical energy. Less installed power means lower CAPEX and subsequently lower OPEX as well. The rationale concerning synchronized movements for saving energy and power can also be applied to automated ship-to-shore cranes. Although there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution, it is obvious that automation has potential and that automation will be utilized even more in the future. Saving energy and using it responsibly must be considered regardless of the type of industry or operation. Enquiries

ABB is a leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and

Fredrik Johanson, General Manager Marketing and Sales

industry customers to improve performance while lowering environmental impact.

ABB AB, Crane Systems

The ABB Group of companies operates in more than 100 countries and employs

SE - 721 59

about 117,000 people.

Västerås Sweden Email: Web:

54 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Tried and tested: the ultimate operator experience The smart design of operator cabins means improved functionality for the end-user, and efficient manufacture Ruukki, Helsinki, Finland

Designed for the ultimate operator experience Each working environment is different, with special requirements and conditions, and end-users with different needs. This is why Ruukki uses virtual 3D modeling to make a systematic analysis of ergonomics during the design phase of each cabin project. The end-result is a high-class cabin environment that delivers excellent end-user experience and enhanced operator commitment. The right design and material solutions not only impact greatly on total cabin cost, but also on operator experience. The cabin is a key factor affecting operator safety, comfort and productivity. It also plays an integral part in the operator’s motivation and capability to safely carry out precise, faultless work. Ruukki utilizes concept design combined with virtual reality models throughout the design and prototyping stages of all operator cabins. Ruukki’s strong cabin production expertise – supported by its own centre of excellence in R&D – enables the company to develop the best possible cabins at optimized total product cost, in cooperation with its customers. Smart design leads to functionality for the end-user and efficiency in manufacturing.

Realistic 3D human visualization is used in a virtual reality laboratory to analyze working positions, usability and visibility from the cabin.

Virtual modeling puts you in the operator’s seat A cabin is a human-machine interface and therefore an essential component of any mobile machine. The location of the control devices and the usage of space have a great affect on operator satisfaction, safety and productivity. Ruukki employs realistic 3D human visualization in a virtual reality laboratory to analyze working positions, usability and visibility from the cabin. User experience studies are other tools used to ensure good ergonomics and safety. Virtual modeling marks a step towards machine operatorcentric design. Customers and end-users can take part in designing cabins for mobile machines from the very start. The customer is able to see whether a cabin is taking shape as required, and also whether there are any shortcomings. This ensures the ultimate working environment for the cabin operator. Any technical failings are detected during the test stage. New generations of cabins are designed virtually and increasingly in a modular process. Instead of individual cabins, Ruukki provides customers with total cabin solutions ready for installation. Modular design enables variations to be built based on configurations sold to specific end-customers. This provides greater flexibility, and shorter lead times compared to making modifications and tailored structures. When developing new generations of cabin, Ruukki not only engineers the product, but also plans the order-to-delivery process, including sourcing, manufacturing, assembly, testing and logistics.

The cabin is the operator’s office The operator cabin of an RTG crane is a good example of a cabin requiring careful design. Not only is the cabin made of glass and steel, it is also located at a height of 20 meters and exposed to extreme weather conditions. The cabin of an RTG crane is like an office, with an array of electronic equipment, including screens showing where the containers are located. Visibility is an extremely important factor, not least from the ergonomics and safety aspects. Working high up, a harbor crane operator has to constantly 56 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

The cabins are delivered to the customer’s production process fully assembled, tested and ready-to-install.

look down at the containers when moving them. At Ruukki, ergonomics is an integrated feature of cabin design. Joysticks must be within easy reach to enable an operator to control the crane’s functions. This in turn minimizes the risk of accidents.

From design to delivery Ruukki manufactures fully assembled operator cabins for mobile machines used in goods and container handling, mining, forestry and construction. All the customer needs to do is to install the finished cabin on the vehicle. Ruukki does the rest. And all Ruukki’s cabins are designed for ultimate operator experience. ABOUT THE company Rautaruukki supplies metal-based components, systems and integrated systems to the construction and engineering industries. The company has a wide selection of metal products and services. Rautaruukki has operations in 27 countries and employs 11,800 people. Net sales in 2009 totaled €2 billion. The Corporation uses the marketing name Ruukki.

Enquiries Email:


Quit manufacturing cabins. Start installing them. We supply cabins for a range of heavy mobile machines and take care of everything from customised design to direct delivery to your final assembly line. With thoroughly tested, fully fitted and optimally equipped cabins ready for installation we simplify your production and increase your operational efficiency. The rest is up to you. It’s that simple.


Refurbishing terminal tractors, boosting productivity Portunus Port Spares & Services were recently contracted to refurbish terminal tractors at DP World Aden Port H. Ă–nder TĂźrker, Portunus Port Spares & Services, Istanbul, Turkey

Staying competitive When DP World Aden Port decided to upgrade and refurbish their tractor fleet, they selected Portunus Port Spares and Service from Turkey for the job. The aim of the upgrade was to ensure that the terminal was well equipped to service larger vessels, and that trailered cargo was handled efficiently. By doing so, they would increase their handling capacity, and meet the needs and demands placed by these vessels. Many terminal operators have seen the impact the larger vessels place on terminal equipment, and hence it is critical to have a fleet that is capable of operating in a tough time-sensitive environment. Raising the capability through performance and reliability of the terminal yard equipment can sometimes mean having the advantage over the neighboring competition.

The project at DP World Aden Port The procedure involved taking 15 tractors back to the Portunus workshop in Turkey. Once the prime movers were dismantled into their components, all wiring and pneumatic hoses were removed, and hydraulic and fuel oil completely drained.

Fifteen tractors were taken from DP World Port Aden for refurbishment at the Portunus workshop, Turkey.

Virtually all components of the terminal tractors were closely examined, and underwent maintenance or replacement.

58 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


The tractor cabins underwent extensive maintenance, and where necessary their roofs and glass were replaced.

They were then inspected to ensure thorough analysis and assessment of the full extent of the work required. This was to establish what was worn out or damaged. The other aspect was to determine whether the mainframe or structure had sufficient structural integrity to accommodate the necessary changes, and have years of good service life. Work began and repairs were performed on the following: • Mudguards, mudguards holders and damages to bumpers • Battery and battery holder brackets • Cracks and dents on fuel tanks • Platforms, ladders and cabin door locks • Exhaust pipes.

The company replaced the wheel hub and universal joint bearings; as well as the hub, steering gearbox, cabin glass and door rubber seals, O rings, planetary cover O rings, king pin bushings and DPT spindle knuckles. Accelerator cable and deteriorated wires or cable were replaced with appropriately sized wires in the electrical system, and secured in position with cable-ties and clamps. The engine’s rubber mountings and bolts were changed, as well as the unusable axle bolt; flexible plate, leaf spring, pin, bushings, steering linkage and ball-joint. Air hoses in the pneumatic system, filter element and damaged fittings were all repaired or replaced too. The Allison Transmission and Cummins 6BTA Engine were both completely overhauled. Brake linings were changed where there was excessive wear. Brake chambers, and differential and brakes assembly were reconditioned, as were the quick-release, drain and treadle valves; the driver seat cushion, the propeller shaft, radiator and complete air-conditioning system. Water, oil and hydraulic hoses and hose clips were all replaced, as were the secondary water tank and radiator pressure caps. Fuses, relays, switches, lamps, faulty gauges, faulty horns, cabin roofs and interior heat insulation were all checked and replaced as necessary. Finally, engineers checked the tires, replaced wheel bolts and nuts, checked the condition of rims and the exhaust silencer, cabin, spotlights and air tanks. Upon completion, Portunus engineers went on to carry a function test on the operating system to ensure all was in working order. These tractors are now equipped with enough power to handle these demanding handling applications. Terminal operators can

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Tractor shuttles to and from the crane or yard require timely pick-up and drop-offs, and any falling out of sequence deteriorates productivity. Assuring high machine uptime begins with having with having fully functional, high quality systems and components that can be easily replaced or retrofitted and quickly repaired. This leads lower total cost of ownership.

Maximizing yard efficiency

The finished product – a refurbished tractor ready for its return to the Port.

take advantage of these modifications and upgrades, as they enable the use of the latest technologies to improve machine performance and reliability. This helps to increase the availability of spare parts, making them easily serviceable. Other notable benefits are savings in fuel consumption, and the reduction of emissions from the exhaust. This increases equipment availability, ensuring maximum uptime, minimum downtime and shor t mean-time-to-repair – boosting productivity.

Minimizing the total cost of ownership For a growing terminal, one of the foremost factors and a critical element in the operation of these tractors is safety. It helps terminal operators comply with local and international operational safety regulations, and evaluate safety risks in. In order to achieve that, all systems and components must be fully functional to provide an acceptable level of operational safety for the machine, the driver, other workers and the terminal environment. When all tractors are in unison, providing unifor m performance, terminal operators also benefit from an economical low-maintenance fleet, which goes some way towards helping improve their profit margins in these slow economic times.

Tractor-trailer systems allow the transportation of a larger number of containers, therefore more terminal and port operators are considering this system as a way to increase terminal yard efficiency. Current cargo volumes and revenues mean that terminal operators need to look for new ways to provide the same level of services with less labor and equipment costs. Many terminals opt to use tractor-trailers for inter-yard operations, especially over long distances. However, recently a number of container terminal operators have also begun implementing trailers for the short distance ship to stacks transportation in high-density terminals. Tractor-trailer systems operating between ship and container stacks or yards, and between different container yards act as buffers, reducing processing time at the wharfs, therefore increasing efficiency in ship-to-stacks/yard transportation. After transporting a trailer set to the destination exchange area, the tractor disconnects from one set and connects to one that is ready to be moved back. This consistency should continue without distraction, and so one of the prime objectives was to focus on the drivers and their requirements. Often tractors must wait for the crane and do not leave while the crane is handling the container. The aim was for significant comfort for the drivers. Refurbishment and upgrades can range from one component, a section of or the whole tractor. The condition of the tractor determines which of these is performed, as well as the needs of the users (customers), type of terminal, and the available cost or budget. This reduces ship turnaround times and demurrage costs by providing a reliable level of productivity, and meets the increased demand the terminal will undergo in the not too distant future.

A wide range of benefits Whichever decision is made, like DP World Aden Port, it will result in increased efficiency and productivity for both the terminal operator and its customers. There are a myriad of benefits in this from power and fuel efficiency; smoother operations, decreased wear, better driver comfort, minimum vibration, greater stability, responsive handling and improved speeds, less noise and emissions as well as improved life-cycle cost. An overall improvement in productivity maybe necessary to remain competitive, and sometimes it make all the difference.

ABOUT THE author about the company


H. Önder Türker has over eight

Portunus Port Spares & Services was established

Portunus Port Spares & Services (Head Office)

years of experience in ports and

in 1992 to meet the machine and service

Sinan Ercan Sokak Pasa Korusu Konaklari No:18

port machinery. He is Sales Manager

requirements of ports and container companies.

B2 Blok 34736, Kadikoy – Kazasker

of Portunus Ports Spares & Services

The company aims to be the undisputed spare parts


Co. He has worked on hundreds of

and service solutions supplier in port equipment and


container handling equipment projects in Turkey,

related services, for customers located all over Turkey

Tel: +90 (216) 571 90 90

and sold spare parts to over 40 countries. He is a

and the Eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea and

Fax: +90 (216) 373 97 15

Mechanical Engineer with a Masters in Business

Middle Eastern regions.


Administration, specializing in Global Management and Marketing, and is currently studying for a


doctorate in Logistics and Supply Chain studies.

60 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

dry bulk & specialist cargo handling

“Moving away from a buffered operation to a just-intime delivery system allows increased exports for a given amount of storage space. Such an operation can also result in a more cost-effective use of the terminal.� Modeling the mine-to-port supply chain, page 62. P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Modeling the mine-to-port supply chain Integrated simulation modeling yields reliable results, even with complex scenarios Alan Sagan, Consultant, & Dr. Harry King, Manager – Simulation Modeling Group; Ausenco Sandwell, Vancouver, Canada Over the last decade demand on the world’s ports has significantly increased, especially for both coal and iron ore export terminals. In an attempt to maximize exports, many port operations have transitioned to a just-in-time delivery operation. Historically, coal and iron ore terminals have been designed with a considerable buffer between product reception and shipment. That is, product was delivered to ports significantly before ships arrived. This buffering function was intended to disconnect the operation of the delivery system (often rail) from the shiploading operation. However, such an operation requires a significant amount of storage space, typically 5 to 10 percent of annual export volume. Today, many terminals are constrained in land use and can no longer expand their storage space to match increasing demands. Moving away from a buffered operation to a just-in-time delivery system allows increased exports for a given amount of storage space. Such an operation can also result in a more costeffective use of the terminal. However, the close integration required between the rail system and the marine terminal creates significant challenges for the operators, and complications in capacity and bottleneck analysis.

Analysis of complex systems For expediency, and to keep costs acceptable, analysis has traditionally been performed on the terminal and the rail systems independently, which is appropriate for systems where the terminal and the rail system are buffered by a large stockpile. In a just-in-time system, the rail network and the terminal are much more tightly connected, and performing separate analyses carries significant pitfalls. The overall capacity of a tightly linked supply chain with minimal buffer is not necessarily equal to the capacity of the weakest part of the chain. Delays in one area will propagate through the chain. Trains can be delayed, product remains undelivered, ships will queue for lack of product, demurrage will increase and target shipments will be missed. Track maintenance will have impacts on shiploading; ships arriving late will cause the stockyard to fill up. These issues create a need to account for variability throughout the entire system. Not only is there a danger that system delays will not be accounted for, but with separate models for the terminal and rail portions of the system there is the danger that the model for each sub-system might use unrealistic assumptions about the behavior of the other sub-system, leading to an over-estimate of the performance of the entire system. An integrated mine-to-port simulation model minimizes these dangers. Recent advances in modeling technology, along with the everincreasing computing power available, have made such models feasible. Ausenco Sandwell recently demonstrated this by expanding a simulation model of the Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal (DBCT) to include the rest of the Goonyella Coal Chain†.

The Goonyella coal chain DBCT, located in the state of Queensland, Australia, is a component of the larger Goonyella Coal Chain that consists of 18 mines, two marine terminals, a shared fleet of train consists, and over 800km of rail. The system, shown in Figure 1, exported 62 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Figure 1. Modeled Goonyella rail system.

more than 80 million tonnes of coal with over 70 types of coal products each year for the last four years, servicing about 1,000 ships per year. DBCT is a common-user terminal that operates on a justin-time basis, with a relatively low amount of static storage – approximately 2.5 percent of its annual export volume. Product delivery to the terminal is driven by the expected ship arrival date. Stockpile space is allocated to each parcel of the ship to maximize the shiploading rate and to avoid reclaimer conflicts. Trains are scheduled daily. All of this occurs on a just-in-time basis to minimize the time that product is in the terminal.

Simulating the Goonyella coal chain In the past, Ausenco Sandwell created a model of the Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal for DBCT Management and focused only on the marine terminal, relying on reasonable assumptions about the interaction of the terminal and the Queensland rail network. The Goonyella Coal Chain model was created from the existing model of DBCT, to which all the details of the rail network and mines were added. The model also included a simplified version of the Hay Point Services Coal Terminal, located next to DBCT, which shares the use of the rail network and train consists with DBCT. Figure 2 shows an overview of the port section of the model. The entire system was modeled to a high level of detail, with approximately 700 permanent entities such as rail signal blocks (258), stockpiles (132), conveyors (39), trains (32), etc.

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The completed Goonyella Coal Chain Simulation Model was used to test different stockpile management systems, including remnant management and zonal management. These stockpiling systems had an impact on the shiploading and on the train operations, which shows the value of an entire coal chain model. Yard conflicts due to stockyard management and train operations created delays in shiploading. Similarly, constraining trains to unload into certain sections of the yard created delays in trains. These are two areas that would not have been accurately captured in separate models.

Cost-effective planning with confidence Ausenco Sandwell now incorporates the associated rail system in the majority of port simulation models they create. These models are used to analyze the capacity of the entire system, incorporating any interactions between the rail network and the marine terminal. Integrated models allow planners to avoid using ‘rules of thumb’ and instead quantify the impacts of storage space, number of products, equipment utilization, and congestion on the overall system capacity. In turn, this can allow users to avoid the expensive and unnecessary capital expenditures required to satisfy these out-of-date rules of thumb. The use of an integrated simulation model of the entire supply chain allows for a high level of confidence in the results, even with the complicated logistics of a just-in-time operation.

Figure 2. Modeled port of Hay Point.

† Ausenco Sandwell would like to thank DBCT Management for permission to use their project as an example in this article.



Alan Sagan is a consultant with Ausenco

and assessment of marine terminals and marine

Ausenco Sandwell

Sandwell, specializing in the optimization of bulk

transportation systems. He has a PhD in Theoretical

855 Homer Street

handling systems. He has simulated all of the major

Physics from the University of Texas at Austin.

Vancouver, BC V6B 2W2

iron ore and coal export terminals throughout

Ausenco provides leading-edge engineering


the Australian states of Western Australia and

and project management services in the resources

Queensland, having advised many of the leading

and energy sectors. Ausenco Sandwell, part of

Australian resource companies. He has a Bachelor

Ausenco’s Process Infrastructure business line,

of Applied Science in Engineering Physics from the

operates worldwide in the marine, bulk handling,

University of British Columbia.

mining infrastructure, energy and industrial sectors.

Dr. Harry King is the Manager of Ausenco Sandwell’s

From mines to pipelines, ports, bulk terminals,

Simulation Modeling Group and is an engineer/scientist

control systems and public infrastructure, we deliver

with over 25 years of experience in the planning

ingenious solutions to optimize our clients’ resources.

64 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Tel: +1 (604) 684 9311 Email: Web:

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Chutes for loading any dry bulk material into tanker trucks, open trucks, rail wagons, ships and for stock piling. Loading chutes both with and without integrated filter. Full ATEX-approval.

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Laying the foundations in cement handling at the Port of Houston An overview of the engineering, procurement, and construction management solutions implemented at the Port’s new cement facility River Consulting, Columbus, OH, USA

Cutting-edge cement facility design The expansive Houston Cement Company Port of Houston cement terminal is an impressive facility designed to import and distribute 1.5 million metric tons of cement per year. It features six 186-foot tall concrete silos, and the largest capacity cement ship unloader operating in the United States at the time it began operating in 2006. Houston Cement is a partnership between Ash Grove Cement Company, Alamo Cement Company and Texas Lehigh. River Consulting provided study phase services, as well as preliminary and final design, including civil, structural, mechanical and electrical systems for the greenfield facility. Silo design and automation, including programming and commissioning was also part of River Consulting’s scope, with construction performed by Continental Construction Co., Inc. The Houston Cement import facility’s fully automated systems provide an effective state-of-the-art process for cement unloading and loading at the terminal. Cement is delivered via Handyclass ships at the 645-foot dock, and moved through a rail-mounted Siwertell ship unloader with an operating capacity of 1,500mtph. The cement is then distributed to the six-pack of silos via a 1,900tph inbound conveyor belt system, bucket elevator and air slide system. Three truck loadout lanes, sharing two silos each, are located beneath the silos and are equipped with automated weighing and loading systems. By implementing an advanced control algorithm, truck loading times are optimized while maintaining a highprecision fill weight. Once the driver has positioned their truck under the loading spout, the systems control the material flow using real-time monitoring and variable gate positioning. This system is capable of delivering best-in-class performance for both filling rate and accuracy. The complete process takes about five minutes from the time the truck pulls onto the scale until the bill of lading is printed. Once loading is complete, the bill of lading is automatically printed in the loadout bay for the driver to retrieve. This calculated process provides customers with a fast, clean and efficient experience with the driver only having to exit the truck once. Additionally, the cement inventory information is automatically collected and transmitted to the on-site office, allowing for real-time monitoring for successful supply chain management.

Experience provides for optimal facility design The consultants at River Consulting worked in conjunction with Continental Construction and the engineers at Ash Grove Cement Company to develop a facility layout to meet the owner’s receiving and shipping requirements. The client originally considered utilizing dome storage for the facility, but after further examination, the project team identified silo storage as the more optimal solution for operation in the long run. By leaning on vast experience in the cement industry, River Consulting was able 66 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

An aerial view of the Houston Cement facility.

to provide a customized concept to meet the client’s operational needs and their financial budget. The final design featured 100,000 tons of storage and three lanes of automated truck loadout with loading rates of 500tph, all designed to enable the client to reach operational goals while minimizing unnecessary costs. Tim Harvey, P.E., Director – Material Storage and Handling Systems and Project Manager for the River Consulting team, played a key role in the facility design. Harvey contributed unique experience in silo design, having engineered hundreds of silos for cement, coal and other commodities. “We looked at ways to improve efficiencies through construction,” he states. “For this project, concrete silos were the best option because of the reduced energy consumption for the facility and reduced handling time for truck loadout.” Harvey and the project team delivered the unique project on time and on budget. Organizing and executing the slipform construction of the silos was a major project challenge. River Consulting provided construction supervision with the silos advancing upward at an average rate of approximately 12 inches per hour, and continuous around-the-clock construction of the silos allowed for completion in only 10 days. Another project challenge included the need to design a unique hopper bottom support structure to accommodate the massive hoppers designed in conjunction with the silos. While most hopper design involves utilizing scaffolding to construct hoppers within silos, the new design included utilizing internal support columns and precast concrete slabs developed outside of the silos. This design enabled the structure to accommodate the 65-foot tall hoppers and support the weight of the material


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A truck enters the loading zone at the Houston Cement Terminal.

flowing through them. The hopper bottom supports were pertinent to optimize the structure needed to support the 16,666mt of material contained within each silo. The external construction of hoppers and supports prevented extensive time and cost associated with building scaffolding to reach the highest points of the hopper bottom, nearly 50 feet above the ground. The hoppers, supporting columns and precast concrete support slabs were lowered into each silo by crane and secured into position. This allowed for faster installation time and reduced cost associated with labor. The silo portion of construction resulted in completion of the reinforced concrete shell for the six-pack of silos and the installation of the externally constructed hoppers and support structures.

Recent upgrades and improvements Since the completion of the Houston Cement facility in September 2006, River Consulting continues to partner with the terminal to optimize the design, operation and maintainability of the facility. This provides for additions and upgrades to keep the facility at the forefront of material throughput, and allows facility managers to stay up-to-date with the terminal’s new technology. River Consulting’s electrical team has added enhanced diagnostics and troubleshooting features to the control system to help the operators isolate faults, and restore operation more quickly after an upset condition. They have also implemented real-time bear ing temperature monitor ing for cr itical components. The temperature monitoring data permits advanced detection of failure and supports the preventative maintenance program to minimize unplanned shutdowns. “Having fully designed the greenfield facility gives us firsthand knowledge of the equipment and systems. In addition, our continued open communication with Houston Cement has

One of the 65-foot tall hoppers at the new terminal, built to withstand the 16,666mt of material it contains.

enabled our electrical team to provide hot swappable backup control components and spare PAC and DeviceNet cards preloaded with programming on an as-needed basis,” commented electrical team leader, Matt Caldwell. “This allows us to quickly provide electrical and control system support to Houston Cement without their need for extensively trained on-site support staff. By providing minor tweaks to their programming we are able to minimize their downtime and keep the facility operating at peak performance,” remarked Caldwell.

ABOUT THE company


River Consulting, a leading mid-major A/E to global

The firm’s experience spans 30 years and 57

River Consulting LLC

energy, food, process and industrial clients, delivers

countries. River Consulting is recognized nationally by

3000 Corporate Exchange Drive, Suite 400

multidiscipline engineering and project management

Engineering News-Record as a Top 500 design firm

Columbus, Ohio 43231

solutions for challenges of every size, including major

and by ZweigWhite as one of the fastest growing A/E


capital investments as well as facility and process

firm in the U.S. and Canada.

Tel: +1 (614) 890 3456

expansions. The company combines the capability

Fax: +1 (614) 890 1883

of a full-service firm with the responsiveness


and flexibility of a specialty engineering practice.


68 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

USA 11 (8pages)



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20/10/2010 17:16

customs & Security

“The main challenge was the lack of connectivity between disparate security systems and a need to make functions operate on a more integrated level, which could potentially impact on the security team’s ability to monitor all areas efficiently.” All hands on deck at the Port of Cork, page 71. 70 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Customs and Security

All hands on deck at the Port of Cork Captain Pat Murphy, Port Facility Security Officer, Port of Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland

The Port of Cork The Port of Cork is a key seaport in the south of Ireland, offering all six shipping modes: lift-on lift-off, roll-on roll-off, liquid bulk, dry bulk, break bulk and cruise. Over 3,000 ships and on average 10 million tonnes of cargo pass though the port each year, making it one of the busiest ports in Ireland. Due to its favorable location on the south coast and its modern deepwater facilities, the Port is ideally positioned for European trading, as well as direct deep-sea services.

The need for an integrated security system Responsible for the ownership and management of five facilities in Cork harbor, the second largest natural harbor in the world, the Port of Cork operates dedicated terminals for cruise ships, passenger ferries, dry bulk, containers and general cargo storage. Additional facilities include a 100-meter yacht marina in Cork city; a commercial fishing pier in Crosshaven, and several other smaller facilities catering for the leisure industry. These facilities are situated in various parts of the harbor, sometimes up to 15 kilometers apart, and the sheer size of the operation created a real challenge for the security team in terms of monitoring and securing the entire facility. For the Port of Cork security team, the main challenge was the lack of connectivity between disparate security systems and a need to make functions such as CCTV, access control, remote monitoring and intruder alarms ‘talk’ to one another, and operate on a more integrated level. This lack of integration was potentially impacting on the ability of the security team to monitor all areas efficiently, potentially threatening the overall security of the Port.

Meeting international standards of port security Aside from the size of the facility, Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO), Captain Pat Murphy also faced additional challenges from increased volumes of traffic coming into the Port. With this additional traffic came a greater responsibility to protect both the Port itself and also cargo arriving into Cork from theft or smuggling activity. Given the heightened risk of terrorism, Captain Murphy and his team also required technologies that could provide greater intelligence than its current security systems could provide. Additionally, as PFSO, Murphy has responsibility for ensuring the Port of Cork Company fulfils the requirements of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code and EU Directive 2005/65 on delivering Port security. The Department of Transport’s approved Port Facility Security Plans (PFSP) are set out to enhance the security of ships as well as the protection of port facilities through appropriate measures. These PFSPs have various levels, ranging from normal day-to-day security operations to the heightened level associated with an imminent security threat. Having the right technology in place to meet these requirements is instrumental in allowing the Port to be classified as an approved gateway port. This means the Port of Cork can provide a direct outward route for the movement of cargo and passengers to the USA, which is crucial to the economic development for the Port, Cork City and hinterland. Taking all these aspects into consideration, as well as the everchanging and demanding cargo industry, the Port was encouraged to review its security back in 2005. The Port of Cork Company

Cork Harbor is the world’s second largest natural harbor, which means excellent deepwater facilities for large vessels.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


Customs and Security

The Port site’s sheer size necessitated a fully integrated security system, made up of complementary technologies and services.

prepared tender documents outlining its security requirements and, after reviewing submissions from several leading companies, the organization selected global security company ADT Fire & Security to meet these objectives.

The benefits of a networked access control system and CCTV ADT’s successful solution consisted of a networked access control system and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system across the Port, complemented by the use of Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) and passive infrared beams in certain key areas. The entire system needed to be user-friendly and capable of retaining CCTV images for up to 30 days, as well as retain the ability to access confidential information indefinitely. This requirement was stipulated by the Port of Cork not only for operational needs, but also for auditing by National and EU Commission Auditors and by U.S. Homeland Security Personnel. One of the key criteria was that ADT’s installation and commissioning of the new system would have the minimum disruption to daily activities across all Port facilities. This system also had to provide security cover for the Port operations building in Cobh, from which all ship traffic movements are managed, as well as the Port of Cork Company head office in Cork City, almost 20 kilometers away. Crime prevention was one of the key drivers behind the implementation, and ADT placed choosing the right access control system at the heart of its solution. The installed system delivered advanced access control using CEM Etherpox intelligent card readers, and ID badges can be controlled centrally. The Port of Cork Company issues photo ID access cards and ‘permits’ as and when necessary to its employees and to personnel engaged in Port-related activities, such as shipping agents, stevedores and marine surveyors. This ensures that only authorized personnel can access pre-defined areas on-site, but also that the Port has a degree of flexibility to change access rights as needs arise. For additional levels of protection within the dry bulk terminal and the ferry terminal, card readers were installed on the vehicle control barriers, and ANPR used in these areas to verify all vehicles coming in and out of the Port. This ANPR technology has proved to be a very useful and versatile tool to track and record vehicles entering and leaving the various Port facilities. The ANPR systems can be pre-programmed to raise an alarm 72 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

should a specific unauthorized vehicle enter or leave a site. With the heightened threat of terrorism and illegal activity, any systems which can provide the security team with additional resources to alert staff to suspicious activity or behavior is a useful contribution. ADT is responsible for the maintenance and continuous update of the entire security system, and have enhanced the radio links to secure Ethernet links in order to transmit information digitally. This has, in turn, created a Local Area Network (LAN) for all data sent from the remote sites, and is centrally managed from the workstations in two control rooms. Any alarm events occurring from the intruder systems or any alarms from the access control system report to the same PC through this LAN. The operator viewing this PC in the control room also monitors the CCTV, so they can instantly view the alarm, identify its cause and respond quickly. This means the Port’s incident response follows a consistent procedure, with the same operators in the control rooms monitoring the whole Port, instead of different people working across five separate terminals.

Remote access to CCTV feeds Another crucial aspect of the organization’s security strategy is that all relevant supervisors and managers have remote online access to the CCTV feeds from their laptops, so they can also

The Cobh cruise terminal at the Port of Cork.

Customs and Security

The container terminal at the Port.

monitor any situation from anywhere in the world. Having the facility to verify the status of the system remotely, through IP-technology and the integrated network, provides senior personnel with an additional layer of reassurance that the Port is safe and secure. The benefit of not having to be in one location to access the security systems provides senior staff with flexibility and fluid management of the systems 24/7. ADT is also responsible for the annual maintenance contract for all of the Port’s electronic security equipment. An electronic fault reporting system is in place whereby the duty security personnel in a central security monitoring office generate a fault report to be sent to the PFSO and to the ADT Service Department for immediate action. Once a technician has rectified the fault, the report is closed and filed for future reference and audit purposes. Having an expert organization manage this entire process allows Port staff to focus on maintaining optimum levels of safety and security, rather than the ongoing maintenance of the system. One additional key factor for the Port is that the new security systems installed are flexible, and staff can make changes for the good of the business, as and when required. All software

and equipment is upgradeable and fully compatible to the point where ADT can seamlessly add the latest version of the equipment into the existing solution without disrupting day-today activities.

The future of security technology at the Port of Cork The Port is now looking ahead and planning to upgrade various sections of the security system to the latest technologies, ensuring it can maintain the safety and security of the Port of Cork. In particular, advances in megapixel CCTV technology and thermal imaging cameras could greatly enhance security systems and increase protection against terrorist and criminal activity. ADT has excellent local knowledge of Cork and the business in general, which keeps them one step ahead and very much in line with our objectives for the Port. The company’s network of experts ‘on the ground’ will continue to provide the Port with ongoing support and assistance to ensure its security systems continue to be effective into the future, and that the Port of Cork remains a leader in on-land and harbor-based maritime security.

about the author and organisation


Captain Pat Murphy, Master

111 full time employees in addition to 12 pilots.

Port of Cork Company

Mariner, has 23 years experience as

There are four main distinct port facilities in Cork:

Custom House Street

ship Captain, including 10 years on

the City Quays, Tivoli Industrial Estate, Ringaskiddy


highly sophisticated and technically

Deepwater Berth and Cobh Cruise Terminal. The


advanced dynamically positioned

Port of Cork is one of only two Irish ports handling

Loc8/GPS Code: WCR-65-M76

heavy-lift and pipe-lay vessels. He has spent six

all six shipping modes such as RoRo, LoLo, liquid

Tel: +353 21 4273125

years as Port Facility Security Officer at the Port of

bulk, dry bulk, break bulk and cruise. Cork Harbor

Fax: +353 21 4276484

Cork specializing in preparing and maintaining ISPS

boasts the title of the world’s second largest


Code and EU Directive 2005/65 Port Facility Security

natural harbor, which means excellent deepwater


Plans; ensuring that all security system hardware and

facilities for both small and large shipping lines. As

You Tube Channel:

software are fully functional, and providing training

Ireland’s premier gateway for exports of goods, the

for Port security staff.

value of exports was estimated at approximately

The Port of Cork is situated on the south coast

€18 billion, and imports were valued at

of Ireland. The Port of Cork Company employs

approximately €7 billion.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


PORT TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL HAS A NEW HOME ONLINE ANNOUNCING THE NEW PTI WEBSITE Now with a user-friendly and easily navigable format, the new Port Technology International website is just as much of an invaluable information source as our print journal. We’ve kept all the most popular sections of our old website – such as our constantly updated News section, tracking industry developments as they happen; our Events Guide; and our Journal Archive, where you can browse every one of our editions from the past 15 years. Our new PTI Equipment Directory now features in-depth profiles of companies, products and services on the market – a valuable resource for all your specifying and procurement needs, for all areas of port operation.

So whether you’re comparing product specifications during the equipment procurement process, researching port development projects, or simply want to keep up with dayto-day industry news – log on to

Liquid, chemical & Gas Handling

“Recent estimates show that terminal facilities across Europe and the Middle East are currently an average of 15 years behind the wider process industry in terms of adopting new technology, but trends show that this gap will shrink by half over the next decade.� Integrated terminal automation technology – the future of storage terminals, page 76. P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l



Integrated terminal automation technology – the future of storage terminals Richard Thompson, Europe, Middle East and Africa Regional General Manager, Honeywell Field Solutions, Bracknell, UK

The story so far The humble storage terminal has long been an essential part of many organizations operating out of ports around the world. However, many view these facilities as a ‘non-strategic’ element of the business, perceived more as a warehouse to store finished product, and not as a potential profit centre. While perhaps not unexpected, this view consequently means many sites have remained bereft of significant capital investment for many years, resulting in an overwhelming number of facilities running on technology and equipment that is, in many cases, long past its best. But in recent years a series of emerging trends and a focus on the upstream business has started to change this industry view, causing an increasing number of organizations to begin to look at their facilities as potential untapped resources. Three of these key trends are as follows: • A growing number of industry examples where investment in terminal automation has produced rapid returns on investment, whilst significantly boosting on-site efficiency. • The increasing need (often driven by legislation) to improve on-site safety, following a number of widely publicized explosions, leaks and security breaches at terminals around the world. • The arrival of ambitious new independent players in the market, who are using terminal automation as a unique selling point in their service offerings to gain a competitive advantage. Recent estimates show that terminal facilities across Europe and the Middle East are currently an average of 15 years behind the wider process industry in terms of adopting new technology, but trends show that this gap will shrink by half over the next decade, largely due to the aforementioned factors. While likely to still remain behind the industry curve, at least for the time being, this narrowing of the gap as a result of consolidation, aggression of newcomers to the market and the consequent increase in competition, will certainly have a significant positive impact on many terminals in the region over time.

The advantages of terminal automation Port storage terminals are becoming more strategic than ever before, and a modest investment in these facilities can lead to a real competitive edge in today’s market. The implementation of terminal automation technology is one of the easiest and most cost effective ways in which to boost efficiency on-site, and the fact that many terminals in EMEA currently have little or no automation in place makes it relatively easy for organizations to bring their automation up to 'process industry' standards. Two areas that have been identified as key focus points for terminal automation are: 1. Terminal efficiency – Focusing primarily on accuracy, availability and intelligence of field devices, while upgrades to the terminal control system interface and algorithms can also make an immediate and significant impact on terminal efficiency. 2. Terminal safety/security – Focusing on alarms, overfill prevention interlocks and reconciliation, all of which play a major role in mitigating risks and safeguarding against major incidents, and help bring facilities in line with industry regulations. 76 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

Honeywell Enraf’s FlexLine Wireless Radar Gauges can capture a wide array of tank measurements, greatly reducing the time pressures on on-site engineers.

Investment in either or both of these can provide a fast return on investment, whilst optimizing the performance of the facility. This article will look at a number of sub-divisions within each one, where it is recommended the focus should lie.

Terminal efficiency The more efficient a terminal is, the more of an asset it can become to an organization. Below are three key areas in which terminal automation can be used to boost efficiency: field devices, Human Machine Interface (HMI), and cabling. Field devices

Tank gauging is essential for the accurate assessment of tank contents and tank inventory control, but field devices often tend to be one of the last items on the list of possible upgrades, and are consequently the most susceptible to obsolescence. On a typical storage site it wouldn’t be unusual to still find float and tape mechanical tank gauges, 30 or more years old, and first generation servo gauges that are well past their best. There are also many outdated radar gauges, which can still be found in the field (some of the earlier versions were, in effect, marine gauges adapted to fit a land tank.) Replacing these devices with new wireless technology can make an immediate impact to the efficiency of terminals, by improving operator awareness and eliminating the need for time consuming manual data collection. There are many new products available today, such as the FlexLine Wireless Radar Gauge from Honeywell Enraf, which can capture a wide array of tank measurements and transmit them wirelessly to control rooms via a wireless network. This greatly reduces the time pressures on on-site engineers, and allows them to devote more time to other areas of responsibility. Human Machine Interface (HMI)

The variety of HMIs found operating in modern-day terminal control rooms are often outdated, slow and fragmented. It is not uncommon to see PCs still offering HMI based on the Microsoft DOS platform, which is now nearly 20 years old.


Fortunately there were no fatalities in this instance, largely due to the incident occurring in the early hours of a Sunday morning when few staff were on site. However, the 24-hour nature of many port facilities means the potential consequences of any safety breaches could be much more severe, as shown by the Puerto Rico and Rajastan accidents in late 2009. With this in mind, it is logical that terminals should receive at the very least an equal level of investment in safety systems that one finds elsewhere in the process industries. As identified earlier, three key areas where terminal automation can be applied to boost safety are alarms, overfill prevention interlocks, and reconciliation. Alarming

With the aid of integrated automation technology, port storage terminals are becoming more strategic than ever before.

These legacy HMI systems can be replaced with a single centralized terminal automation system, bringing them up to modern standards standard. These systems also include servicelevel agreements to ensure updates and ongoing enhancements are all covered, future proofing the facility for many years to come. As many of the HMI systems are not only used for control, but also for inventory management, API compliance is important. Risk of commercial disputes for the transactions is reduced, and standardized procedures help to harmonize global operations. Custody Transfer compliance is a must for most systems in use in Europe as most operations need to be Weights & Measures approved, as the inventory data is used for tax and duty purposes. Cabling

One of the major challenges faced by terminal managers today is cabling. Although maybe not an obvious ‘technology’, it is nonetheless critical for the safe and efficient operation of a terminal but is often a point of failure. This issue can again be addressed through the adoption of wireless technology. The installation of a wireless network can eliminate the need for cabling, whilst also optimizing plant productivity and reliability, improving safety and security, and ensuring regulatory compliance. While some may not choose wireless technology as an alternative to overfill prevention and protection, it’s ideal for tank gauging communication. This also keeps tank gauging and overfill protection systems electrically and physically separated. Once a wireless network is in place, other devices can also be quickly and easily added whenever required, again without the need for additional expenditure on cabling. A good example is the addition of equipment health sensors to monitor aspects such as vibration measurement on pumps and motors, valve position sensors, closed-circuit TV, and rim fire detection (roof tilting detection, floating roof monitoring).

Terminal safety and security The importance of maintaining high safety and security standards at storage terminals was brought into stark contrast after the Buncefield explosion completely destroyed the fifth largest oil-products storage depot in the UK, in December 2005. about the company

After the recent disasters mentioned above, it is clear that a stateof-the art safety and alarm system is a must. Most European terminals have made impressive progress recently and are now evaluating their safety risks and their alarming systems – still, as most involved professionals can confirm, the expertise required for the necessary assessments and corrective actions is still maturing. It is good to see that many manufacturers are now also actively involved in IEC61508 and 61511, but at the same time we all have to be watchful that SIL and SIS are properly used and applied, and are not becoming a cheap promotional tool. Overfill prevention interlocks

After the Buncefield incident, a major investigation was carried out by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which resulted in the Buncefield recommendation report: a 45-page document containing 25 recommendations on how to design and operate fuel storage sites. Within this report, overfill prevention interlocks, next to a series of necessary procedures, are clearly indentified as critical for any safety and environment conscious company. Today, when evaluating an organization’s existing terminal automation system or planning a new one, there is no doubt that safety interlocks with a proper SIL assessment and full, third-party SILcertified components should be clearly listed in the key requirements.

Cyber security Security is not only needed around the perimeter for physical access, but also for the whole computer network. Although risk of terrorism, vandals and other illegal perpetrators cannot be ignored, the modern day threat of computer network hacking is growing to become of equal, if not greater concern in some cases. State-of-the-art firewalls and properly trained IT personnel are key to reducing the risk of attack from hackers, but the education of all site personnel is also crucial in order to prevent accidental virus entry via innocuous implements such as commonly used USB memory sticks.

Conclusion This article has examined the growing importance of storage terminals throughout the world and highlighted how strategic investment in these facilities can act as a key differentiator in an increasingly competitive market place. Furthermore, the adoption of terminal automation technology in a number of key identified areas can not only optimize performance, but also boost on-site safety and security, as well as provide a rapid return on investment. Enquiries

Richard Thompson is the Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) Regional

Honeywell Enraf

General Manager for Honeywell Field Solutions based in Bracknell, UK. His main

Delftechpark 39, 2628 XJ Delft

responsibility is to drive the growth of the Honeywell Field Solutions portfolio

P.O. Box 812, 2600 AV Delft

in EMEA. Previously, he was Managing Director of the UK Enraf operation,

The Netherlands

successfully implementing the global sales and services strategy. He joined


Honeywell in 2007 with the acquisition of Enraf.

P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l


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ABB AB Crane Systems ................................................................................................................................................. 53 American Chemical Technologies, Inc. ........................................................................................................................... 33 BRUKS Group ............................................................................................................................................................... 67 Cimbria Bulk Equipment A.S. ........................................................................................................................................ 65 Geodynamics LLC ......................................................................................................................................................... 19 HITT Klein Systems Group ........................................................................................................................................... 43 Hydrotechnik Lübeck GmbH . ....................................................................................................................................... 31 JW Fisher MFG Inc. ....................................................................................................................................................... 29 Liebherr Container Cranes Ltd. .................................................................................................................................... IBC Linde Heavy Truck Division Ltd. ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Mampaey Offshore Industries B.V. ................................................................................................................................ 39 MARIN ......................................................................................................................................................................... 37 PilePro ......................................................................................................................................................................... IFC Ruukki ........................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Società Italiana Gomma (S.I.G.) S.p.A. .......................................................................................................................... 67 Coaltrans USA ............................................................................................................................................................... 69 Terex® Fuchs .................................................................................................................................................................. 63 TMEIC GE .................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Van Oord ................................................................................................................................................................... OBC Zebra Enterprise Solutions ............................................................................................................................................. 55

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When you’re already you have a far better chance of getting

” BIGGER Peter Ford, CEO of the Port of Salalah, Oman, talks to PTI about defying the economic downturn

“The Port of Salalah is a little bit different from other ports because we’re a publicprivate partnership, and we’re kind of the Port Authority as well. We operate the whole port – we operate the tugs, the general cargo, there’s also some real estate. APM Terminals has the management contract to operate the entire facility, so APMT is 30 percent shareholder and the manager at the same time. “Oman has 3 million people, so it’s not a huge market. Salalah is 1000km away from the major consumer market of Muscat, so we don’t really service Muscat, at least not directly. Ninety-eight percent of all container volume is transshipment, then on the general cargo side all import-exports are local. “We’re not really servicing a market other than Salalah on the container side or on the general cargo side. There is a desire – and actually we’ve started some recent tests – to observe the northern Yemeni market. There’s about 8 million people who live 50km away from Salalah in Yemen, and with a decent road, we could come to an agreement with the Al-Mazunah Free Zone on the border and the Omani Customs to get bonded cargo from the Port to the Al-Mazunah Free Zone, and then into Yemen. And so we feel that that market could develop a significant amount of desire to come to Salalah for serving the Yemeni market. “When you’re already big, you have a far better chance of getting bigger – you have the networks already, you have the connections, but frequently the first question that a shipping line will ask you is ‘Do you have these connections?’ unless they have their own feeder network. “We’ve actually closed the tender at the general cargo terminal just recently, and we’re about to break ground within the next couple of months on a US$150 million investment that will add 1.2km worth of quay and additional facilities to handle methanol and some other cargoes. So we expect to be able to increase our capacity to almost 40 million metric tons per annum. “Then we have the container terminal expansion that’s ready to go for when we need the capacity. We have commitments from both the Government and ourselves to spend the money – around 80 P o rt T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n at i o n a l

PT Q&A_sw_v1.indd 22

$500-600 million – to add another 4 million TEUs of capacity. “At the end of the day, we buy equipment to meet the needs of the customer, first and foremost – and that’s today’s needs as well as those which we believe may be important in the future. And Salalah has vision, because people from way back in 1997 [when the Port opened] saw the need for a transshipment hub very close to shipping lanes, outside the Gulf of Aden, and developed for the customer needs that they thought were going to be there. And it became very successful – now we do close to 4 million TEUs a year, and that’s going from zero thirteen years ago. “We have a major focus on two things: one of those is Lean Six Sigma – which is the methodology for continual improvement, reduction of waste, streamlining processes, and reduction of variation. And then a focus on TAM – technical asset management – using data to really stretch the assets we have today, to focus more on managing the assets of the future, rather than repairing equipment. I think as a group we should really be identifying how that asset and how that piece of equipment can deliver the best return. “The three major growth areas that I see for Salalah are: 1) serving Yemen, 2) distribution and value-add services in the Free Zone; and the final one is on the general cargo side, strictly the minerals and aggregates and construction materials for the southern Omani oil wells. Right now, they tend to go in through the northern side of Oman, but I believe we can foster that a little bit more. “The Port – I don’t want to say it was immune [to the economic downturn] – but in a global downturn of 15 percent negative cargo growth, we grew by 11 percent. This year we’ll grow by another 11 percent, so we have been incredibly successful, I think, in surviving. And even in right-sizing the fleets and equipment, and sweating the assets further so that we can continue to deliver good results for our shareholders – and, of course, some of our workers are shareholders, we’re publically traded on the stock exchange in Oman, so everybody who owns a share in the Port of Salalah benefits when we do better.”

To read the interview in full, visit

02/12/2010 14:27:38

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Port Technology Edition 48  

Edition fourty eitgh of Port Technology International