Introduction Developed by Australian physical Therapists Contemporary movement science theory & research
Relevant to OT Emphasize of daily activities Provides task oriented strategy for improving motor control
Remediation of motor behavior through contemporary approaches Influenced by Contemporary skill acquisition theory Motor development theories Emphasize Motor performance using functional task Consider factors Other than CNS damage that may affect performance Include (to improve task
performance components Modification of environment
Stress the practice that fits the nature of the task Reject assumptions of reflex hierarchical model of
motor control Traditional developmental theories
MRP – cognitive motor learning theory
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Dynamical systems model of motor control Contemporary theories in movement control Distributed control or dynamical systems ECOLOGICAL THEORY
Regulatory conditions in the environment
POSTURAL ADJUSTMENTS Closed loop versus open loop system Response versus anticipatory Both task and context specific
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES Prevention of abnormal muscle shortening
Appropriate postural adjustment in bed, when sitting Maintain muscle length through variety of motor task
Prevention of fixation patterns Sense of postural security Kinematics of UE & LE movements Prevention of compensations caused by weakness Change the position of the task Teach which are inefficient compensations – AVOID Teach to consciously eliminate muscle activity Provide manual guidance to direct
ANALYSIS OF NORMAL MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONAL TASK MOTOR LEARNING Nature of practice Neurodevlopmental sequence of intervention
LEARNED USE OF THE COMPENSATORY STRATEGY REPEATED PRACTICE OF THE COMPENSATORY STRATEGY COMPENSATORY MOVEMENT STRATEGY
ATTEMPT TO MOVE • Obstacles to efficient movement • Diminished soft tissue extensibility • Impaired balance • Postural insecurity & resultant fixation patterns • Specific muscle weakness
INTERVENTION 1. 2.
5. 6. 7.
Upper limb function Orofacial function Sitting up over the side of the bed Balanced sitting Standing up & sitting down Balanced standing walking
EVALUATION 1. 2. 3.
Any missing components Incorrect timing of components within a movement pattern The absence of specific muscle activity Presence of any excessive or inappropriate muscle activity Compensatory motor behavior
EVALUATION Analysis of performance of each of seven categories of
daily activities Published normative description of author Normal kinesiology – kinetics & kinematics Studies done with subjects with hemiplegia
Model of the action
Gravitational torque values
TREATMENT ď‚— Five strategies of teaching 1.
Verbal instruction Visual demonstration Manual guidance Accurate timely FB about quality of performance Consistency of practice facilitates development of skill in task performance
EVALUATION & TREATMENT OF SELECTED FUNCTIONAL ACTVITIES Balanced sitting Common signs of balance impairments
Use of wide BOS Tendency to hold breath & maintain stiff body posture Strategy of shuffling feet Use protective support by UE Tendency to lean forward or backward
EVALUATION & TREATMENT OF SELECTED FUNCTIONAL ACTVITIES Standing up & sitting down Balanced standing Take steps prematurely To move proximal
Upper limb function Impaired scapular movement Impaired control over deltoid muscle Excessive & unnecessary elbow F, shoulder IR, forearm Pronation
The four steps of motor relearning program 1.
Analysis of task 1. 2. 3.
Observation Comparison Analysis
Practice of missing components 1.
Explanation â€“ identification of goal Instruction Practice + verbal & visual FB + manual guidance
Practice of task 1.
Explanation â€“ identification of goal
Instruction Practice + verbal & visual FB + manual guidance Reevaluation Encourage flexibility
Transference of training 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Opportunity to practice in context Consistency of practice Organization of self monitored practice Structured learning environment Involvement of relatives & staff
Common problems in hand Difficulty maintaining wrist extension while attempting
grasp Difficulty extending & flexing MP joints Difficulty abducting & opposing the thumb for grasp and release Tendency to flex the wrist &/ or extend the extend the fingers and thumb excessively when attempting to release objects Tendency to pronate the forearm excessively while grasping objects Inability to maintain grasp while moving the arm Difficulty cupping the hand