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THE URBAN VILLAGE Sustainable Architecture


Project title: Sustainable architecture Semester: MSc01 ARC 09 Project period: October - December 2017 Main supervisor: Mads Dines Petersen Supervisor: Mingzhe Liu Numbers of copies: 8 Number of pages: 147 Numbers of appendix: 24

Bjarne Winther _____________________________________________ Helene Johansen

_____________________________________________ Julia-Vanina Hahn

_____________________________________________ Luca Russo _____________________________________________ Sarah Wulff Hansen

_____________________________________________

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The project presented in this report shows how a dense residential complex is drafted by using an integrated design process. Set on a site just outside the centre of Aalborg in the industrial area of HĂĽndvĂŚrkerkvarteret, the housing scheme is designed to reach zero-energy building standard through the integration of passive and active strategies. With a strong focus on creating a sustainable neighbourhood the development provides a range of dwellings and communal spaces that are grouped along a path, recalling the suburban street. Together, this forms an urban village in which the human scale is addressed and where three areas frame calm, active and dynamic recreational settings in which the residents can interact.

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The following report describes the project’s course Sustainable Architecture, from research and analysis through the sketching phase to the finished design. First, the design proposal is presented in order to provide the reader with an understanding of the project. Subsequently, definitions of terms, the site analysis and related research can be found to comprehend the project’s theoretical background. The last section outlines the evolution of the design, including the different stages undertaken and problems encountered in the process. Finally, an analysis of the finished project is provided, highlighting how the design process has influenced the final outcome. Technical calculations and simulation data, as well as further analysis reffered to in the previous sections can be found in the appendix. In-text sources are referenced according to the Harvard system and a complete reference list can be found at the end of the report.

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Table of contents Introduction IDP

6

Site history and future

78

8

Mapping

81

Presentation

11

Sections of surroundings

84

Vision

12

Genius Loci

86

Design criteria

13

Serial vision

88

Story

14

Macro- & microclimate

90

Masterplan

15

Building typologies

94

The urban village

16

User groups

98

Elevations

18

Partial conclusion

100

Sections

24

The suburban street

30

Sketching

103

The three areas

32

Volume study

104

The calm recreational area

34

The initial concept

106

The active recreational area

38

The urban line and the street in between

110

The dynamic recreational area

46

Site

118

ZEB building

54

Access

122

Energy and indoor climate

56

Façade

124

Detail drawings

58

Window analysis

130

Shading

136

Roof

138

Functions in the area

83

Research

61

Case studies

62

Designing a “home”

63

Epilogue

141

Designing for the human scale

64

Conclusion

142

Suburbia

66

Reflection

143

Sustainability

68

ZEB

69

Literature list

144

74

Illustration list

146

Appendix

147

DGNB

Analysis

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Introduction // The project

Aalborg has developed from being an industrial city to being a dense city predominated by dwellings and offices. Recently, the city has taken a focus on students and wishes to become Denmark’s best study city (Aalborg Kommune, 2015). After completing their education, young people wishing to establish a family are drawn towards the suburbs, where they are close to nature, larger dwellings are affordable and where there is a sense of community. Taking this as a point of departure, a mixed-use zero energy housing complex with different types of units has to be designed primarily for families, combining the qualities of suburban living with dense urban living. Given that users are guaranteed both privacy and a safe neighbourhood, the tendency for young couples moving away can be reverted into a wish to remain in the city, where they can still benefit from its infrastructure and facilities. The site is located to the west of the main road Sønderbro, which acts as a node between industry, the residential area of Øgadekvarteret, Sønderbro School, the evolving Eternitten area and Godsbanearealet, which was transformed in recent years. Once site of one of Denmark’s largest eternit factories, Eternitten has been altered from an industrial quarter to a mixed-use area with housing, retail and offices, where the only remnant of the past is the big silo (Aalborg Kommune, 2013). The area has thus undergone a major change in character and function.

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Similarly, there are plans for the Håndværker kvarteret to undergo a similar change and become a mixed-use area with office buildings, housing and green areas down to the river (Aalborg Kommune, 2017). Bordering the site in the south, a stream contrasts the surrounding industry and links the different areas. Although the site is set in a heterogeneous area, it lacks identity and life. Using an integrated design process, the goal is to create at least three different dwelling unit typologies as part of a zero energy and sustainable housing complex, accommodating both for technical and aesthetic aspects. The building percentage must be between 100 and 200 percent and there must be a dwelling with a maximum gross floor area of 115 m2, including access areas. Up to 20 percent of the floor area may contain other functions than dwellings (Lauring, 2017). In order to investigate how the programatic requirements can be combined with our ideas to the project, the following report will provide key definitions, research, analysis, insights to the sketching phase and the final project outcome to ultimately outline the overall design concept and approach.


ill. 1 - Site located south of Aalborg’s centre

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IDP // Integrated Design Process

The method of the integrated design process outlined by Mary-Ann Knudstrup (2004) is used to create a design based on different subjects of knowledge and requires ongoing considerations of architectural, functional and form design, as well as of sustainability, indoor climate and construction aspects from an early stage. As outlined below, these aspects are iteratively considered during all five stages of the project, between which there is an interactive going back and forth. 1. The problem phase is the initial phase, where the issue or idea to be resolved is found. The point of departure is to design a new residential complex with zero energy standard in Håndværkerkvarteret for which in the following process a vision will be drawn up. 2. In the analysis phase different aspects are examined which may affect the building design. Different analyses used include mapping, for example Gordon Cullen’s architectural method outlined in ”The Concise Townscape”, which focuses on the changing atmosphere and spatial experiences from a pedestrian perspective. The analysis is carried out in serial views, combining mapping and images to illustrate the journey and route taken (Farrelly, 2011). Paired with the phenomenological perception methodology, this kind of analysis creates a more thorough understanding of the issues around a site and their perception. Further, investigations are undertaken in the micro and macro climate, site history and future, user profiles, as well as qualities of suburban living. Additionally, research on i.a. definitions regarding sustainability and zero-energy buildings is made. 3. In the sketching phase different ways of sketching are used: Hand sketches, mock-ups, 3D programmes and workshops

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form the understanding of different spatial aspects and their influence on humans’ perception of space and form. This phase is based on the analysis phase, where the conclusions drawn from the analyses affect the design. 4. The synthesis phase collects the different design ideas and merges them with the knowledge on different subjects to ensure a holistic design, which fulfills the vision. 5. The last phase encompasses the presentation, visualisation and communication of the final design proposal through i.a. diagrams, 3D illustrations and technical drawings. In terms of communication method, diagrams are used throughout the report, to support the arguments made and to represent the essential steps from process to design proposal. Ensuring a coherent design, Knudstrup’s method acts as a guideline to structure the design process and group work, since each group member can have a different working method. The complexity of methodology is beneficial in the sense that multiple parameters are considered when making a decision, hence allowing for an argument as to why a choice has been made. On the other hand, there is a risk that these different phases are used as a checklist in which certain analyses are not relevant to the design; therefore hindering a fluid process, in which parameters of the design are investigated iteratively. Generally, it could be suggested that the point of departure should be taken in the sketching phase, supplementing relevant analysis along the way, making it perhaps more integrated and avoiding for ideas to be discarded too early.


ill. 2 - IDP diagram 9


How can we create a dense zero-energy housing scheme, in which suburban qualities are retained and a multi-generational local community can grow?

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PRESENTATION

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The vision is to design a sustainable zero-energy-building complex, in which neighbours across all ages interact with each other, fostering a social network. The proposal should promote dense living across a range of dwelling types to suit different user groups, whilst retaining suburban qualities to provide an attractive residential environment. Through clearly defined paths the design will articulate the transition between private to semi-private and public areas to ensure a balance of retreat spaces for the residents and spaces which invite them to interact with each other as part of a sustainable community.

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Design criteria

Design for user interaction above the ground level.

Provide private outdoor spaces for all medium and large apartments.

Allocate access spaces to be shared by a maximum of 10 dwellings.

Focus on creating an intimate neighbourhood.

Respect the human scale, the surrounding area and existing buildings.

Assign spatial functions to primarily serve the residents.

Integrate passive and active systems in the building design.

Interact with the stream as a recreational space.

Facilitate the interaction between families, elderly and young people.

Articulate private and communal spaces on site clearly.

ill. 3 - Design criteria 13


�When I was a child, I grew up in a calm and tranquil neighbourhood in the suburbs. Here there was room to unfold and play, the meeting place always the same: in the middle of the street. Almost every afternoon was spent with the kids from the neighbourhood, the street inviting to do almost anything: playing ball, roller skating, colouring the asphalt with chalk, bicycling or just meeting up. It was a perfect place for our free time - the only limitation was our imagination. Within the street everyone knew each other. Even though we did not spend hours together, we had some kind of a relationship amongst neighbours. Every time we met at the driveway to our homes we would greet each other. This made me feel safe; knowing that someone was there to look after me, my family and our home. We had a large, green garden, where I loved playing with my siblings. In winter we built snowmen and in the summer time we had water fights, running barefooted over the soft grass. Mom and dad used to tinker in the green house or the flower beds and at the end of the day they would have their afternoon coffee on the terrace, whilst chatting about the events of the day or making plans for the night. Sometimes grandpa or our neighbour would join them. My childhood was full of play and happiness, there was no cause of concern, and my world was centered around my street and all the experiences around it.� (Winther et al, 2017)

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ill. 4 - 1:1000 Masterplan 15


The urban village

The urban village focuses on generating an intergenerational neighbourhood on different scales; a strong community in the middle of the city, where children can grow up safely and residents can meet informally, whilst their privacy is maintained. Approaching the site from Sonderbrø in the east, it neatly fits into the street scape with its traditional multi-storey residential blocks. A gradual transition towards lower building volumes takes place when progressing down Hulmagervej and, when passing between the buildings, a human-scaled building scape with a village-like atmosphere is revealed. Through openings between the buildings glimpses of the stream can be caught when passing by, occasionally opening into larger spaces with more or less urban qualities that serve social activities of the residents. These areas are internally connected by a path that reflects a suburban road and helps to articulate the transition from communal to private spaces. Besides respecting the existing context, the urban village should also act as a catalyst for the future development in HündvÌrkerkvarteret to create a dense low-rise area for families who want to enjoy suburban qualities in close vicinity to the city centre.

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ill. 5 - Building concept 17


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ill. 6 - 1:500 North elevation 19


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ill. 7 - 1:500 South elevation 21


ill. 8 - 1:500 East elevation 22


ill. 9 - 1:500 West elevation 23


A

B

C

A

B

C ill. 10 - Overview diagram of sections

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ill. 11 - 1:200 Section A-A 25


26


ill. 12 -1:200 Section B-B 27


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ill. 13 -1:200 Section C-C 29


The suburban street

A central element from suburbia is the street, which serves to link different areas or neighbourhoods within a suburb and, therefore, has a greater significance than just facilitating traffic. The road becomes a meeting place and the common area that everyone in the neighbourhood shares. It is the central space between houses, where the inhabitants interact and a sense of belonging is created. Said suburban street is interpreted and translated into “the suburban street” in this project that acts as the central element for the urban planning stategy of the site by connecting different zones and buildings. It further relates to all user groups; whether that being a child wanting to play, a young couple walking their dog or an elderly person taking pleasure in observing the life on the street. In this sense it has a social purpose, correlating to the overall vision to facilitate informal meetings, interaction and relations between the residents, as well as unifying three areas with different functions and expressions into one design. The path connects the community spaces in each area, guides through the site and mixes users from all generations. Further, the street emphasizes that all communal spaces can be used by everyone and that there are no exclusive areas for anyone. To emphasize the significance of the suburban street as a central design element and as a landscape element in itself the path is constructed in a colourful material that visually stands out from everything else on site to form a ”red line”, that continues through different atmospheres.

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ill. 14 - The suburban street 31


The three areas

Within three areas of recreation, different functions have been created to appeal to all residents and their different moods. Whilst the calm recreational area stands for relaxation and �putting up ones feet�, play and activities that mainly address families with children are designated to the dynamic recreational area. Both areas merge in the active recreational area, where all generations can meet and participate in cultivating the green space. As a connecting element the street weaves through all areas and gives rise to play as known from the suburbs.

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t rea rec

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n atio cre e r tive Ac

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n atio cre e r ic

nam

ill. 15 - Common spaces 33


The calm recreational area

At this end of the site a more urban setting with a �coffee corner�, adjacent terrace and seating steps towards the stream invites residents to socialise or relax individually. This also provides opportunities, particularly for elderly residents living in the building adjacent to the area, to observe the outside life from either their windows or balconies.

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ill. 16 - Calm recreation area 35


ill. 17 - Small & Medium apartments

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eed

ill. xx - 1:200 Small apartment

ill. xx - 1:200 Medium apartment I

ill. xx - 1:200 Medium apartment II

Small Appartment

Medium Appartment I

Medium Appartment II

Amount 24 appartment

Amount 6 Appartments

Amount 7 Appartments

Gross Area 63 m2

Gross Area 100 m2

Gross Area 100 m2

2 rooms

3 rooms

3 rooms

Young people Young Need peopleNeedNeed Families

Elderly Young people Young people Young people people Families Families

NeedElderly NeedFamilies people Elderly people YoungYoung peoplepeople Elderly Elderly people Elderly people people Families Families Families Families

parking

Car parking Car parking Car parking

Car parking Car parking

rk space

Work space WorkWork spacespace

Work space Work space

essibility

Accessibility Accessibility Accessibility

Accessibility Accessibility

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The active recreational area

Forming the site’s central space, the area hosts allotments and a green house for residents to grow plants, a communal kitchen and an outdoor terrace for preparing meals together, as well a workshop for DIY-related activities. Here, residents of all ages interact casually, whilst landscape elements articulate the transition from the semi-private to the private realm of the individual dwellings. Towards the stream the site opens up, revealing a glimpse of the internal qualities to pedestrians and allowing for pleasant vistas from the urban blocks on the street line towards the stream.

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ill. 21 - Active recreation area 39


Looking towards the south-facing faรงade of the urban block bordering the active recreational area the three-dimensionality of the design becomes apparent. This way, privacy can be maintained whilst allowing for interaction between neighbours across different floors. Further, the configuration of roof-integrated photovoltaics and the chosen bricks can be seen noted.

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ill. 22 - Faรงade towards active recreation area 41


ill. 23 - Medium & Large apartments

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e

Need Families Young people

ill. xx - 1:200 Large apartment I 4 room - m2

ill. xx - 1:200 Large apartment II

Large Appartment I

Large Appartment II

Amount 4

Amount 4

Gross Area 115 m2

Gross Area 115 m2

4 rooms

4 rooms

Need Young people Families

Car parking

Car parking

Work space

Work space

Accessibility

Accessibility

Elderly Young peoplepeopleFamilies Elderly people

Families

Elderly people

Elderly people

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The apartment and interior spaces form the private zone for the inhabitant to which they can retreat, feel relaxed and create a home. Large living room and kitchen areas form the space for social interaction and quality time spent with each other. With a large glazed area to the south, daylight penetrates the room and creates a contrast between the warm wooden floor and the bright concrete wall. The framed view towards the outside extents the room towards a terrace, that creates a transition from the private interior space to the more public outside.

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ill. 26 - Living room in the large apartment 45


The dynamic recreational area

Framed by family dwellings, this area serves kids as a playground, which is structured into smaller fields for different kinds of play. Parents can supervise their children from home or join them outside to sit on the benches and meet other parents. The �street� integrates the smaller playing fields and connects the area with the rest of the site, creating a continuous path for all generations to use.

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ill. 27- Dynamic recreational area 47


ill. 28 - Large & Duplex apartments

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ill. xx - 1:200 Large apartment III

Need Families Young people

ill. xx - 1:200 Duplex apartment I

Large Appartment III

Duplex Appartment I

Amount 4 Appartments

Amount 8 Appartments

Gross Area 115 m2

Gross Area 115 m2

4 rooms

4 rooms

Need Young people Families

Car parking

Car parking

Work space

Work space

Elderly Young peoplepeopleFamilies Elderly people

Families

Elderly people

Elderly people 49


ill. 31 - Duplex apartments

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ung peopleFamilies

ill. xx - 1:200 Duplex apartment II

ill. xx - 1:200 Duplex apartment III

Duplex Appartment II

Duplex Appartment III

Amount 6 Appartments

Amount 9 Appartments

Gross Area 115 m2

Gross Area 136 m2

4 rooms

5 rooms

NeedFamilies

ElderlyNeed people Young people Elderly people Young peopleFamilies

Car parking

Car parking

Work space

Work space

Accessibility

Accessibility

Families

Elderly people

Elderly people

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The location of this apartment is emphasized through blurred borders between inside and outside due to the generous glazing, that extends the room outwards. The small stream runs just outside the window and the view towards it and the private outdoor area gives the internal spaces a quality. Further, the doubleheight space in the dining area adds a spatial generosity to the interior.

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ill. 34 - Living room in the duplex apartments 53


ZEB building // Passive & active strategies

The overall active and passive strategies applied in order to achieve zero-energy standard are examplified in the illustration to the right, showing the active recreational area. In general terms, technical solutions were always chosen with respect to their aesthetical qualities. Overall, the buildings are spaced out so that sun light can enter between them and supply both rows with passive solar heating in the winter, whilst the cantilevering balconies act as a passive shading device to prevent summer overheating. Flats without an overhang are provided with external shading. Through this the south-facing windows can be sized in a generous way and provide good daylight conditions inside the flats. Paired with a thick, airtight building envelope, all flats are based on natural ventilation with only a supplementary share of mechanical ventilation in the heating period. Where possible, the air changes follow through thermal buoyancy or cross-ventilation. In terms of active strategies, solar energy is used for generating electricity through solar cells, mounted on all south-facing roof pitches. These are set to an inclination of 30° in order to balance between efficiency and human scale. This way, energy consumption of dwellings and energy production on the different roofs can balance each other out across the site. As can be seen on the following pages a negative energy consumption result is achieved in Be15, meaning the scheme produces more energy than it consumes.

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30 °

30 °

Thermal buoyancy

External shading

Green roof

Pitch

Building envelope

Natural ventilation

Technical room

Solar PV

Overhang (overheating protection)

ill. 35 - Passive & active strategies 55


Energy & indoor climate

Be15 Energy frame kWh/m2 pr. year District Heating Electricity BR10 53,2 1 2,5 BR15 30,4 0,8 2,5 BR20 20 0,6 1,8 Contributions to energy demand Heating Demand 25,1 El. for building operation 1,2 Excessive in rooms 1,5 primary energy 25,1 x 0,6 + 1,2 x 1,8 + 1,5 = 18,7 with solar PVs -6,4

Medium Apartment // south-north oriented Heat Balance Loss kWh Transmission -4298,6 Ventilation -2486,3 Venting -725,9 Infiltration -1637,7 Gains kWh Heating 3450,2 Equipment 876 Lighting 709 People 2001,6 Solar Radiation 2111,7

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Thermal and Atmospheric Comfort (Living room and Kitchen) Air Change 2,7 h-1 CO2 level 555,8 ppm Hours <20 4 Hours >21 8753 Hours >27 32 Hours >28 12


Energy Demand To determine the energy demand and reach the energy frame for 2020 one of the building volumes is calculated in Be15. The four-storey building block with a mix of medium and large apartments poses a critical situation regarding the energy demand and transmission losses due to the variation in the south faรงade and amount of cantilevers. Through an airtight building envelope and low U-values the energy frame of 2020 is reached with a total amount of 18,7 kWh/ m2 year of primary energy. Furthermore, solar PVs on the southfacing roof pitch produce enough renewable energy to cover the primary energy use, the total energy demand being -6,4 with 200 m2 of solar PVs. Solar PVs The calculation of solar PVs in Be15 is based on the energy demand for heating, cooling, ventilation and domestic hot water. However, the additional appliances are not taken into account when Be15 calculates the amount of squaremetres needed to cover the energy demand. Thus, a calculation is made for the total energy demand including the appliances, showing a result of 332 m2 solar PVs to cover the energy for this particular block [see appendix 157]. In order to estimate the total need of squaremetres for solar PVs a simple calculation is made: 332 m2 are divided by 16 apartments and afterwards multiplied by the total amount of apartments on site to get a final result. The estimated squaremetres for solar PVs are, therefore, 1703 m2.

Indoor Climate The definition of a zero-energy building includes a good indoor environment to ensure comfort for the inhabitants. Through BSim simulations a medium, north-south oriented apartment is tested. The thermal comfort in terms of over- and underheating is verified in the large kitchen and living room with no more than 100 hours above 27 degrees and no more than 25 hours above 28 degrees, as well as only with 4 hours below 20 degrees. The CO2 level of 555,8 ppm proves the atmospheric comfort as it is lower than 850 ppm. The heat balance for the apartment shows the main loss to be transmission loss, which amongst others, is due to the cantilever. Furthermore, heat gains are mainly from heating, people load as well as from solar radiation, illustrating that the people load in buildings with a low U-value envelope affects the heat balance significantly. After iteratively testing window sizes, shading, shadowing and daylight simulations the final BSim simulation demonstrates a good indoor climate in regards to thermal and atmospherical environments in which the user can feel comfortable.

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Wall in background Plywood Rafter Solar PV Asphalt roofing Zinc flushing Insulation - 350 mm Gutter Seam bracket Rafter Ducts for ventilation Gypsum board Cellular concrete - 150 mm Insulation - 260 mm Air gap Brick Mortar

ill. 36 - 1:20 Detail drawing wall & roof 58


Wood flooring Insulation - 60 mm Water collector Insulation - 150 mm Insulation - 225 mm Ducts for ventilation Trapezoidal plates Cellular concrete - 150 mm Anchoring Insulation - 310 mm Air gap Bricks Mortar

ill. 37 - 1:20 Detail drawing Floor & wall 59


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RESEARCH

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Case studies // Nye and Generationernes Hus in Aarhus

ill. 38 - Nye (AART architects, 2017 )

ill. 39 - Generationernes Hus (KPF Arkitekter, 2017)

”Nye” in Aarhus The recent project “Nye” north of Århus focuses on the common outdoor areas between the buildings. The vision was to create a community between the residents of the town, to engage them in local events and to invite them to pursue an active recreation (AART architects, 2017). Outdoor spaces are not separated by private hedges but are kept open to invite residents to interact with each other and kids to play games. This can be translated to the current project, which aims to facilitate a sense of community and neighbourhood by making inhabitants interact with each other in outdoor areas with different functions.

“Generationernes Hus” in Aarhus The focal point of “Generationernes hus” by KPF Architects is to design a mixed-use housing complex in the city where interaction with each other happens across different generations. Different community spaces, such as workshops, ateliers and open spaces, invite for social activities and interaction. Furthermore, the exterior façade and building materials vary to create a human scale architecture, expressing different identities of the building (KPF Arkitekter, 2017). For the current project the objective should be to design a façade with different expressions that contributes towards different experiences when moving into or around the site. Further, community spaces that relate to all generations in a housing complex and increases social interaction should be implemented.

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Designing a “home” // With identity and privacy

When is a dwelling a home, and when is a dwelling just a dwelling? Anthropologist Mark Vacher researched what defines a home: It is where people belong and non-replaceable, whilst a dwelling can physically frame it (Center for Boligforskning, 2005). The home stages the domestic sphere in which one feels private and protected; in which recreation happens independently from the outside world. Creating a home occurs over time as the dweller gives their own touch to the dwelling. For that reason it is important that the architect provides opportunities for people to give their dwelling its own identity and thereby make the building of a home possible. As the inhabitants adjusts to the space, they undergo the process of creating a home (Center for Boligforskning, 2005). Balconies are an individual space where the transition between private and more public spheres occurs; thus providing residents with an opportunity to express their desired identity to the public (Center for Boligforskning, 2005). Furthermore, when designing a dwelling it is important to consider the borderline between private and public, as well as the boundary between

inside and outside. In many modern buildings large glass sections dominate the façade, blurring the transition from inside to outside and creating views both indoors to the outdoors and vice versa. Anthropologist Marie Stender researched on living in ”glass houses” and explains that inhabitants did not feel bashful, however, passers-by had to be responsible in maintaining the privacy (Center for Boligforskning, 2005). Thus, the edge between private and public is not only the physical barrier between inside and outside, but extends further to the outdoors. Therefore, it is important from an architectural standpoint to consider where spatial transitions from private to semi-private and public realms happen to predict the users’ behaviour.

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Designing for the human scale // Jan Gehl

ill. 40 - Visual & physical contact with life on site

Key to Jan Gehl’s theory is the consideration of the human scale when designing for pedestrian-friendly urban environments. Based on extensive studies, he concludes that dwellings located above the fifth floor do not have a connection to the street level and that households with a maximum of two and a half stories above ground have the greatest potential for participating in street life and socialising (Gehl, 2010). Therefore, the aim is to create sufficient density on site without exceeding a height of five floors and to provide at least a part of the family units with direct ground floor access. In terms of dimensioning spaces between buildings, Gehl advises to rather reduce their size as to not ”design spaces too large for too few people” (Gehl, 2010, p.59). Furthermore, he establishes 35 metres as ”the common denominator that allows us to sense and feel” (Gehl, 2010, p.36), 25 metres as a distance from which details and communication intensify and 7 metres as a threshold from which all senses can be used and details fully experienced. Thus, external spaces should adhere to these guidelines and there should be an awareness of the effect of chosen dimensions within the scheme. 64

Another central theme explored in Gehl’s writings is the significance of a well-considered ground floor or ”edge” design on eye-level in making an area attractive, since this is the most active outdoor zone in residential areas. With its front doors, it acts as the transitional zone between public and private spaces, and allows to rest, drink coffee and enjoy the sunshine whilst providing ”the opportunity to follow life on the street” (Gehl, 2010, p. 83). Following the principle of ”man is man’s greatest joy” (Gehl, 2010, p.24), latter aspect is of particular importance for the elderly who have difficulty managing longer walking distances, allowing them to be part of the neighborhood from their windows, balconies and benches. According to Gehl, studies show that seating providing views of other peopl, as well as carefully placed seating in the edge zone where user comfort, warm materials and a pleasant microclimate were taken into account is rather popular. Furthermore, grouping beches into ”talkscapes”, i.e. arranging them at an open angle or around a table, is a successful strategy for fostering social interaction between users. Consequently, particularly in areas which should allow for in-


ill. 41 - Human scale

tergenerational exchange, microclimate, materiality, shape and arrangement of seating have to be thought about. However, the preferences and needs of younger users should also be looked at. Since this group tends to gather by entrances or on corners they can ”sit anywhere and on anything” (Gehl, 2010, p. 143), without paying too much attention to seating quality. All things considered, building and outdoor space layout should facilitate different types of seating to appeal to different age groups. Additionally, play areas for kids should not be limited to playgrounds but play should rather be possible on the street, close to their homes or adults. Due to the site bordering a busy main road, a noise barrier has to be put into place in order to adhere to the upper background noise level of 60 dB stated by Gehl and the 58 dB threshold set out in the building regulations to allow for people to have a normal conversation. In terms of optimising the climate on site, Gehl looks at the layout of old Scandinavian cities, which ”adapted to the low angle of sunlight and almost constant wind” (Gehl, 2010. pp. 171) through clustered, low-rise buildings with slanted roofs

and small streets, gardens and squares with many trees. That way wind speed is reduced and redirected above the buildings whilst allowing the sun to enter between buildings and warm external walls and floors. In summary, a housing scheme planned on the basis of Gehl’s theory should include a sound barrier towards the street to reduce the noise level on site and clustered, low-rise buildings to address the human scale, create plenty of edge spaces for socialising and a pleasant microclimate. Latter should be supported through landscaping and planting to generate enjoyable seating areas for all ages and to articulate play areas for children. As mentioned, these do not solely have to concentrate on designated spaces but rather be part of a wholistic access concept, meaning that a street to connect all spaces can have an interesting potential. Further, well-designed edge spaces will activate the communal realm and generate a safe and favourable space to socialise whilst maintaining a certain privacy for the individual dwelling units. 65


Suburbia // Qualities of suburban living

ill. 42 - Suburbia

People living in the suburbs usually appreciate the attributes found in Figure 42 which are based on psychological, spatial and social preferces. Some of these aspects may seem hard to translate into an urban context; however, if certain criteria can be met, the majority of single family home dwellers would be willing to move into a multi-family home, as a study carried out by Mayer et al. (2013) shows. Of crucial importance are privacy, a good sound-proofing to allow for a tranquil environment and a private outdoor space. Further, there should be no more than six parties living in one buiding, provided that questioned users could either live on the ground or top floor, as well as a flexibility to adapt spaces and sufficient room for storage. As can be seen, these solutions can all be provided by careful architectural planning and hence it is of great importance to us to adress these aspects in our design process.

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tranquil

neighbourhood

slow-moving traffic

private gardens / terraces

Suburban qualities

parking in close proximity

safe environment for kids to play in

pleasant views & vistas

self-expression

ill. 43 - Suburban qualities 67


Sustainbility // Definition

As part of the Brundtland report ”Our common future”, which investigated whether the economic development was compatible with environmental capacities, the term ”sustainability” was first defined in 1987 to be a ”development, that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (UN Environment Commission in Edwards, 2010, p.25). The comission was to rise an awareness of the subject on a global level and facilitated the development of an understanding of social, economical, political and environmental aspects. Although what is known as the Brundtland definition is still of key relevance, the term sustainability has since been used in innumerous contexts and subject to countless further (sub-) definitions. Therefore, if sustainability is to act as a design parametre, it is necessary to establish a project-specific definition and understanding of the word. Overall, sustainability can be devided into 1) Environmental sustainability – impact on nature, resources and climate 2) Social sustainability – impact on human health and well-being 3) Economic sustainability – balance between costs and building quality In order to minimise the built environment’s ”footprint” on topography, fossil fuels and CO2-emission, technical parameters such as measurements and calculations have to be included to plan energy-efficient (here: zero energy) structures with a good indoor climate and a design solution based on the local climate, whilst also considering material properties, their embodied energy and Life Cycle Assessment. Thus, for this project, ”environmental sustainability” in the context of the built environment ”is the creation of buildings which are energy efficient, healthy, comfortable, flexible in use and designed for long life” (Edwards, 2010, p.29). 68

Social sustainability often is the least prioritised aspect of sustainability (Edwards, 2010) due to paying the other two aspects more credit. However, it is crucial if one aims to approach the overall term sustainability in a holistic manner. Therefore, it shall be defined to be ”marked by vitality, solidarity and a common sense of place among [...] residents [, acting] as a backdrop for lasting and meaningful social relations that meet the social needs of present and future generations” (Yiftachel and Hedgcock, 1993, p.140). In addition to providing a high quality of health and life quality in a long lasting community, a socially sustainable concept should also ensure a safe environment where residents are encouraged to embrace an ecological way of living and can adapt to their needs. Economic sustainability “addresses the relationship between human economics and natural ecosystems” (Kibert, 2016, p. 58). In the context of the built environment this means that the construction industry must use renewable resources, reduce waste through reuse and recycling and assess life cycle costs, including construction, maintenance, operational and occupancy costs, as well as end-of-life and non-construction costs (Zhong & Wu, 2015, p.749). Although the LCC-assessed buildings are more expensive on a first-cost basis than traditional buildings, they focus on durability and systems such as renewable technologies, rainwater harvesting and energy-saving lighting will pay back in a short period (Kibert, 2016). Due to the subjects complexity only some aspects will be taken into account for this project, for example when certain materials are selected. Nonetheless, the economic strategy should follow the principle of producing a good design whilst reducing resource consumption and of optimising building performance through efficient technical solutions. All things considered, a holistically sustainable design proposal is aimed for, taking into account all three aspects of sustainability.


ZEB // Zero Energy Building

ill. 44 - Possible renewable energy sources

The general definition of a Zero Energy Building (ZEB) is a building which is designed to have a low energy consumption and the energy demand needed in the building is covered by fossilfree energy sources. The production of renewable energy equals the energy consumed in the building and the combination of energy savings and renewable energy supply makes the building a zero energy building. Production of renewable energies takes place on site, where it is either directly used or stored, or fed into the grid from where it can later be delivered for use (Bejder et al, 2014). Furthermore, a ZEB must provide a good indoor climate to ensure a smooth operation of the building and users to behave as predicted. If this is not the case, users will start working against the uncomfortable climate, resulting in a higher energy consumption than predicted, and thus not reaching the targeted zero energy class. In this project the aim is to design a zero energy building by integrating passive and active strategies into the design, working towards the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal to solely rely on renewable energy sources by 2050 (Bejder et al, 2014). Passive strategies should contribute towards a lower energy demand.

The better their performance, the easier it is to reach zero energy standard; hence, applying passive strategies should be pivotal for the design process. One can further differentiate between three types of zero energy buildings: Nearly ZEB, Net ZEB and Plus ZEB. A nearly zero energy building produces nearly as much energy as consumed, however, the demand is covered by some fossil fuels. The other two types only rely on renewable energy. A net ZEB is connected to one or more energy infrastructures and is an active part of it, as it delivers energy to it and consumes it when needed. A Plus ZEB takes into account the lifecycle of the building, i.a. the energy consumed for producing, operating and demolishing the building when producing renewable energy to cover this. As this project is located in the city, it can be connected to the grid, including the district heating network in order to reach a net zero energy building standard.

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ZEB // Passive strategies

ill. 45 - Passive strategies for summer and winter period

In order to reduce the energy demand of the building, passive strategies have to be implemented in the building design, simultaneously benefiting the indoor climate. A passive strategy does not use any purchased energy but takes advantage of the microclimatic features such as solar thermal energy, sunlight, wind energy and temperature differences. Building Envelope Optimising the building envelope by reducing U-values and making it airtight will contribute towards a lower heating or cooling load and corresponding energy demand, due to a lower transmission loss through the construction and leakages in winter and summer, respectively. This results in a static heat balance (heat loss equals heat gain) with a minimum of heating or cooling required to reach a satisfactory indoor thermal comfort. Windows The glazed part of the building envelope is one of the critical points regarding thermal comfort, as it has the highest U-va70

lue and causes linear thermal transmittance. Energy saving windows are at least triple glazed, the gaps filled by gas to insulate it. Furthermore, differing g-values, meaning the ratio between solar radiation hitting the glazed area and solar radiation entering the interior, have to be considered and balanced with the light transmittance to ensure satisfactory daylight conditions and visual comfort. Passive Solar Shading Passive solar shading such as overhangs can act as a passive solar cooling strategy in the summer period, preventing the solar rays from entering the building interior and, hence, avoiding overheating. During the heating period the sun will have a lower inclination (see fig. 45), allowing the sun to penetrate the glazing and to heat the interior spaces, contributing towards a lower heating demand.


Heat Modulation In order to have a more constant indoor temperature thermal mass can be used on the interior. Solar heat will be stored in a heavy, exposed material over the daytime, to be released slowly in the night, when the surrounding termperature falls. The free heat released is useful in the heating period to contribute towards a lower heating demand. Similarly, in the summer this principle can be reverted to naturally cool a space, hence, heat modulation contributes to maintaining a steady indoor temperature. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation can contribute towards a lower energy demand as it does not use any purchased energy. It is important to integrate natural ventilation in the building design as it only relies on natural forces as wind and thermal buoyancy (stack-effect). Thus, the efficiency of the natural ventilation varies depending on the microclimate on site. Three types can be implemented in the design:

1) Single sided ventilation with openings on only one facade. This is the least efficient type, as the room depth is limited to 2 or 2,5 times of the room height, depending on the amount of openings on the faรงade. 2) Cross ventilation with openings on more than one facade. Therefore, it is more efficient as fresh air can travel through the room. This increases the effective room depth to 5 times of the room height. 3) Stack ventilation is driven by thermal bouyancy, taking fresh air in at the lower level and exhausting it at the top. Although natural ventilation is a good way to lower the energy demand, it should be considered that this type of ventilation will cause heat loss in the winter, resulting in an uncomfortably cold indoor climate or increased heating costs. Therefore, mechanical ventilation and should always be part of a hybrid ventilation system. 71


ZEB // Active strategies

ill. 46 - Photovoltaics

ill. 47 - Solar collectors

Active strategies define the systems in a building which produce renewable energy to cover the energy demand and interact with the grid. There are different types of active strategies, taking advantage of a range of energy sources and producing electricity or heating, respectively. Photovoltaics (PVs) Photovoltaics are a system producing electricity by converting the energy from solar radiation, thus, it’s efficiency relies on the sun and the weather. As electricity is expensive, PVs are a popular source of energy with different types available. Monocrystaline cells being the most efficient panel in terms of size and performance, due to the high quality of silicon used, are also the most expensive. Polycrystaline cells are cheaper but have a lower efficiency and require more squaremetres to produce the same amount of energy as monocrystaline. Thinfilm cells’ performance is not majorly affected by shadow and high temperature, however, the general efficiency is very low and therefore this type requires many squaremetres. 72

ill. 48 - Heat pumps

Solar Collectors Solar collectors produce heat to cover the spatial or domestic hot water heat demands using solar energy and only small amounts of electricity to run pumps and related steering equipment. There are two types of collectors which vary in appearance, influencing the building’s aesthetics and performance: flat solar planes and solar tubes. Latter are filled with vacuumed air, improving the insulation qualities and inreasing the panels’ efficiency. Both photovoltaics and solar collectors must be considered for the design from the beginning as they need a certain inclination and orientation; furthermore, allowing for the exploration of options to aesthetically integrate the systems. Heat Pumps Heat pumps move heat from the outside to the inside. The system takes advantage of the heat energy required or released when a liquid changes stage from liquid to gas or gas to liquid. There are different types of heat pumps available:


CO2 THERMAL COMFORT

VISUAL COMFORT

ATMOSPHERIC COMFORT

ACOUSTIC COMFORT

If activity level 1,2 MET

Daylight Level >2 %

CO2 Level 850 ppm 20% PD

Reverberation Time <0,5 sec

Recommended temp. summer(clo: 0,5): 23-26 winter(clo: 1,0): 20-25

Ventilation rates building emissions: 0,7 l/s m^2 non smokers: 7 l/s pr person

ill. 49 - Energy requriements

Brine-to-water pumps benefit from the heat found in the ground and pose both the most efficient and expensive type to of heat pump, as they either require digging into the ground or a lot of squaremetres. Further, easier installable and space-saving types include air-to-water pumps, which can be used for space heating and domestic hot water, and air-to-air pumps, which can only be used for space heating. In order to reach a zero energy standard as well as a good indoor environment there are some energy requriements that should be fullfilled, as outlined previously. Tools used to contribute towards reaching this goal are, e.g. Be15, Velux visualizer and BSIM. In the further design process the passive and active strategies shall be integrated in a dynamic faรงade expression to vary the perception in or around the building.

PVs, are more stringent in their appearance but can be integrated as part of the roof shape and expression. In order to achieve the goal of a good indoor climate, natural and mechanical ventilation must be integrated into the layout of the various apartments, in this way eliminating contaminated air and further reducing overheating during the summer period. To reduce energy consumption natural ventilation should be used during the summer period and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in the winter months

The passive strategies concern the faรงade layout, i.e. the integration of overhangs or shading, as well as materiality both on the external or internal walls. The active strategies, such as solar 73


DGNB // Sustainability Certification System

Economic Quality 22,5% Environmental Quality 22,5%

Site Quality

Process Quality 10%

Social Quality 22,5% Technical Quality 22,5%

ill. 50 - DGNB categories

The German DGNB (Deutsche Gesellschaft fĂźr Nachhaltiges Bauen) developped a certification system in order to determine whether a building is sustainable which was then adjusted to fit the Danish legislation (DGNB-DK). Compared to renowned certification schemes such as BREEAM and LEED, its focus is broader: 1) DGNB takes into account environmental, as well as economic and social aspects. 2) Based on European Standards, DGNB takes into account future challenges. 3) DGNB rates the building not only according to its construction but also according to its operative performance. Using a point system to assess the building and award the certification, DGNB consists of 40 evaluation criteria, divided into 74

six categories: quality of process, quality of environment, quality of economy, social quality, technical quality and quality of site. Each category is weighed differently; however, the quality of site does not affect the final certification of the building (Green Building Council Denmark, 2017). In this project the DGNB system can contribute towards the design process by acting as a guideline to achieve a more sustainable design, even though the final design proposal might not receive the full certification. The categories and criterias can serve as an inspiration and, this being part of the integrated design process, can contribute to a more holistic, sustainable design.


PRO 1.2 Integrated Design Process

SOC 1.1 Thermal Comfort

ENV 2.1 Life Cycle Assessment

SOC 1.2 Indoor Air Quality

ENV 2.3 Efficient area use

SOC 1.4 Visual Comfort

(LCA) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Primary Energy

(The efficiency of dense buildings in the city)

(Operative temperatures and thermal mass)

(Ventilation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mechanic and natural)

(Daylight factors and views)

ECO 2.1 Flexibility and Adaptability

SOC 1.6 Quality of Outdoor Areas

SITE 1.1 Local Environment

SOC 1.7 Safety and Security

SITE 1.4 Access to Amenities

TEC 1.3 Quality of the Building Envelope

(Space efficiency, flexible floor plans and access spaces)

(Site location conditions)

(Distances and accessibility)

(Quantitative and Qualitative evaluations)

(Subjective perception of safety and protection against assault)

(U-values, materials and windows)

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ANALYSIS

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Site history and future // Håndværkerkvarteret

The development of Håndværkerkvarteret began in the late 1950s when construction started in the area, which was used for green allotments at the time. Part of this formed the errection of Sønderbro school to the east of the site and the westward expansion of Østre Allé to infrastructurally connect the western part of town to the east. This development continued over the next twenty years into the 1970s during which the site and its surroundings were transformed into an area facilitating light industry and artisan companies. Until today there have been no major changes except for adding of more industry (Geodatastyrelsen, 2017). In the years to come the site’s surrounding area will start to transform from light industry into more residential and office spaces, which can, for example, be seen on the plots bordering the site in the south, on which, amongst others, a new office building is being developed. Currently there is not an official masterplan available for the buildings in the area; however, there are plans for extending recreational spaces west to the site, i.e. to open up a new stream leading into the harbour. (Aalborg Kommune, 2017) It can be assumed that the area will eventually undergo similar changes as Godsbanearealet and Eternitten, located near Håndværkerkvarteret along the growth-axis of Aalborg (Aalborg Kommune, 2013). The growth-axis serves the city’s expansion and densification, whilst focusing on improving public transport. Godsbanearealet and Eternitten have been redeveloped from being heavy industry precincts into residential areas. After cleaning the industry buildings and soil to make it suitable for housing, the sites now house dwellings, offices, shops and service facilities.

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ill. 51 - 1:5000 masterplan 79


INFRASTRUCTURE

Roads Small paths

GREEN AREAS

Bus stop Pedestrian path Cycle path Institutional district Mixed-use district

DISTRICTS

(shopping, residential, institutions etc.)

Industry district Recreative area

BUILDINGS

Residential district

ill. 52 - Mapping of the site 80


Mapping // Buildings, districts, green areas, infrastructure

The site is located between Hjulmagervej, Bødkervej and Sønderbro, which connects the centre to the E45 highway from south. Hjulmagervej and Bødkervej are two small roads, but due to the industry, there are a lot of trucks and cars, which is reflected in the noise diagram (see p. 80). The few pedestrian paths show that the area is mainly suited for cars. Nevertheless, the developing route through Godsbanearealet allows for an easy, car-free journey into the city centre. The connection between the path along the stream bordering the site and the Østeråstien makes it an attractive course for pedestrians, connecting the green areas to the residential areas, the institutional and two recreative districts. In the residential area and at the school, there are semi-private green areas only used by the residents, pupils and teachers. The green strip, running parallel to the site, connects the recreational areas of the school to the residential area by cutting through the industrial district. Bus stops are located at several spots near the site, making public transport the preferable choice to cars. All things considered, the site is placed in a diverse area dominated by industry and one only enters when having a purpose. Therefore, it is important for the project to consider what non-industry related functions bring life to the area. The buildings to the east have a seriality, whereas the buildings around the site are more random due to the smaller industrial businesses. Towards the north the silhouette of taller buildings in central Aalborg can be seen with Godsbanearealet separating high-rise buildings from the low industrial district. The mapping analysis contributes towards the understanding of the relations between infrastructure, buildings, districts and green areas.

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ill. 53 - 1:5000 Location of different functions around the site 82


FUNCTIONS IN THE AREA

INSTITUTIONS

SUPERMARKETS

The location of different facilities are visualised in illustration 53 to state which amenities the area already contains and to give an idea of what might be missing. This contributes towards the choice of the additional building programme and user-groups.

In the area different institutions are settled: a state of the art kindergarten close to Karolinelund north to the site and Aagaarden kindergarten to the northwest. Sønderbro school is located across the road to the east. Within Øgadekvarteret a youth centre for after school activities is found. Furthermore VUC and SOSU institute are located close to the city centre towards the north-west.

Supermarkets like Føtex, Netto, Fakta and Rema 1000 surround the building site within an area of a few hundred metres. The access to grocery shops is, therefore, reasonable from this site. Furthermore, a gas station with a small shop is located next to the site for the most needed items in daily life.

PUBLIC RECREATIONAL AREAS

PUBLIC CAR PARKING

SPORT FACILITIES

Three large public parks are situated within a radius of less than one kilometre from the building site: Østerådalen, Karolinelund and Østre Anlæg. From Østerådalen a small stream runs pastthe building site, connecting said recreational area to the site. The local development plan for the area shows a future stream connecting Østerådalen with Karolinelund as well as the city centre.

Two large car parking areas are found near the city centre: One close to the bus terminal, train station, institues and Kennedy Arkaden. Another one is close to the city centre, the police station and Aalborg municipality. Whilst these two car parks house a certain amount of cars near the city centre, the area surrounding the site mainly consists of parallel parking along the roads and private parking areas.

Aalborg City hosts numerous different fitness centres. Just within a radius of a few hundred metres from the site one can find five centres: two Fitness World centres, fitness Olympia, SPH gym and, directly on site, Crossfit North 579, a newly established crossfit centre in Aalborg.

ill. 54 - Functions in the area 83


Sections of surroundings // Heights & materials

C A B

B

A

C

ill. 55 - Section cuts on site to show the surrounding heights and materials

The street front facing the site in the north presents decreasing heights from east to west (section B-B), where the residential building reaches a height of more than 15 metres and the buildings in the industry district just more than 5 metres. The mix of heights provides an opportunity to design a project with varying heights without visually disturbing the area. Furthermore, there is a variety amongst the overall homogeneous industrial materials (bricks, metal, plaster and tile) with bricks dominating the adjacent buildings. Building typologies differ between a classic residential block, flat roofed and pitched roof buildings.

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15 m 10 m 5m 0m

Yellow Bricks

Dark Red Bricks

Metal Cladding

ill. 56 - Section A-A

15 m 10 m 5m 0m

Light Yellow Bricks

Metal Cladding

Tile

ill. 57 - Section B-B

15 m 10 m 5m 0m

Grey Plaster

Red Bricks

ill. 58 - Section C-C ill. 59 - Scale & materials 85


Genius Loci // Spirit of the site

Genius Loci as term means ”spirit or essence of space” (Porter, 2004, p.88) and describes the interpretation and experience of a space. The resurged interest for phenomenology within architecture has made the term Genius Loci popular to be an often used expression in architecture. When entering the building site from Sønderbro one enters an area with light industry, where business seems solely work-related; thus only animating the area in daytime. A feeling of unsafety occurs both during day and night time due to different aspects: Heavy traffic surrounds the site, forming significant boundaries to the area; grafittis on the existing buildings awaken associations with a lack of surveillance through passers-by and disrespect for property of others. When moving further onto the site, one discovers a small stream running straight along the building site, creating a green strip, sheltered by trees, that continues to the west and connects the building site to Østerådalen, where the stream ends. This green strip forms a large contrast to the light industry in the area and contributes towards a more silent and calm feeling away from the busy city life due to the sound and movement of the water. Therefore, the site contains two different atmospheres of which the latter, calming one, is considered worth preserving and enhancing in the design process.

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ill. 60 - Visualization of building site 87


Serial vision // Phenomenological analysis

A phenomonological analysis of an autumn day and how the human senses are adressed contributes towards a deeper understanding of the spirit of the site and the overall experience. The main access to the site is via the two main roads Sønderbro and Østre Allé that connect the area with the city. Therefore, it is visualised how the two routes extend from these main roads to the building site, showing the diversity and changing of the surroundings, as well as spatial and multi-sensory impressions when taking these routes. The Blue Route starts at Østre Allé, where heavy traffic dominates the area with high speed and mechanical noise levels, enhancing the industrial character visbible in the nature of materials businesses. When entering Bødkervej [1], the view opens to a long, straight road, bordered by a fence all the way to the site - a very predictable route with minimal transitions in the spacial experience. The sun warms ones body whilst cold wind whistles down the straight road. After having walked a few minutes through this rather monotonous environment, the corner of the building site appears [3]. From this spot it is visually apparent that there is a transition between two different spatial experiences and the blending of pavement and green vegetation emphasises the intersection of these two. At the corner of the site the small stream reveals itsaelf and the character of the site changes. This place invites to follow the stream along a small, predictably straight trail. [4] When moving down and walking along the stream below the treetops, the noisy surroundings of heavy traffic and industry almost dissapear. This is replaced by the sounds of gurgling water and the wind whispering in the trees, which

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provide protection from its coldness. The smell and almost taste of nature, and the transistion from the road down to a lower level make it contrast the previous experiences. The feeling of a space, where the human senses are stimulated, awaken associations with a relaxing and calming recreational area within the hectic city life just next to the building site. A small bridge connects the pedestrian path with the building site [5]but the back of the petrol station and the existing buildings with patinated materials and grafitti make the area look abandoned and do not invite to cross the stream. Instead, the route continues on the pedestrian path until meeting the main road Sønderbro perpendicularly [6]. This creates a transition between a green area and the pulsating city traffic. When standing on the pavement on Sønderbro, looking towards the building site, the petrol station adjoins to the east, representing a barrier to the building site from this location. The Green Route starts from Sønderbro to the north [1]. Here a multi-storey brick building faces the street, providing shade from the sunlight, and the busy road edges the path to the other side. This contributes to an intimidating spatial experience and a straight forward flow along the building [2]. When reaching the corner, the view opens up towards the building site and provides different directional options. The route towards the building site continues down Hjulmagervej [3], where the space is predictable and the flow emphasised by trees aligning the linear road. To enter the building site from this point, it is necessary to cross the road.


01 // Entering Bødkervej from the busy Østre Allé

02 // Bødkervej towards the site along a large, empty area for new buildings

03 // South-west corner of the site from Bødkervej where a small stream flows past

04 // The stream runs along the edge of the site and trees enclose the path

05 // Bridge connecting the path with the site and petrol station

06 // A contrast between the pedestrian path and a busy main road

02 // Behind the corner the view opens up towards the site

03 // Looking down at Hjulmagervej towards the site on the other side of the road

01 // Walking towards the site from the north-east corner and Sønderbro

01 03

03

04

05

02

06

02 01

ill. 61 - Serial vision routes 89


Macro- & microclimate // Noise, wind, sun, temperatures &

ill. 62 - Noise average during day time at h = 1.5 m

Noise Pollution Day time The main noise source is posed by Sønderbro, but also Østre Allé has a heavy impact on sound levels. This results in heavy pollution levels on the eastern and north-eastern parts of the site during day time and an even distribution across the rest of the site; mainly due to airborne sounds travelling from the two larger roads along Hjulmagervej and Bødkervej. To reach adequate values for indoor climate class B (25 dB; DS 490, 2007) there is a need for noise reduction measures to lower levels from between 70-55 dB to reach 25 dB average indoors across 24 hours.

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precipitation

ill. 63 - Noise average during night time at h = 1.5 m

Noise Pollution Night time During night time the building site is also polluted by noise, mainly from Sønderbro but, compared to day time, with reduced noise levels. The industry area hardly causes any noise pollution at this time of day. Thus, dwellings located at the eastern part of the site will be the most noise troubled across 24 hours, a fact that needs to be taken into account during the design proces and when allocating users to this area.


N

N 20%

330

30

330

10%

300

60

10%

W

E

120

240

150 S

60

5%

5%

210

30

15%

15%

300

20%

W

E

240

120

210 Percentage > 11 m/s 5-11 m/s 0,2 - 5 m/s

ill. 64 - Annual average wind direction and speed

Wind Based on the annual average wind direction in ill. 64 a wind tunnel simulation [see appendix 148] was conducted according to the windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most critical direction (south-west) with an average velocity of 8 m/s. The graphics show that the approved developments south to the site will have a great influence on the wind direction and its velocity up to a height of 25 meters above ground. The western part of the site presents the most constant wind conditions. While the eastern part receives a regular wind flow at a height between 6 and 10 meters, turbulences at a lower and higher level are generated by the newly planned office building. At pedestrian level, there are strong winds blowing in the centre of the site. Therefore, a strategy of vegetations or buildings to act as windbreakers should be integrated to the design.

150 S

Percentage > 11 m/s 5-11 m/s 0,2 - 5 m/s

ill. 65 - Average wind direction and speed within summer period

The average wind direction and speed within the summer period (June - August) are illustrated in a windrose diagram to get an overview of the wind situation when natural ventilation is wanted. In the summer period, during which a focus often lies on overheating prevention, natural ventilation could prove as a key passive strategy to cool down a space; provided that the outdoor temperature is below the internal temperature. Hence, this analysis can be utilised when considering natural ventilation.

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N 330

30

10 ° 20 °

22:19

4:25

30 ° 40 °

300

60

50 ° 60 °

21:00

6:00

70 ° 80 ° W

9:00

18:00

15:00

E

12:00

240

120

210

150 S

ill. 66 - Equinox sun path - 21. june and 21. december

Sun path The sun path illustrates the solar movement on the longest day of the year (21 June) and the shortest day of the year (21 December). In the summer the sun rises in the north-east and sets in the north-west, forming a more circular path than in winter, where it rises in the south-east and sets in the south-west. Therefore, when designing with solar radiation and light, the differences between the winter and summer period should be considered. During the heating period (in Denmark from October to April) the interior spaces can benefit from solar radiation if the building and spatial orientation are considered properly.

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ill. 67 - Middle temperatures in North Jutland 2016

Temperatures The mean temperatures in North Jutland in 2016 ranged from a few degrees minus in January to an average of 15 degrees in June, July and August. Temperatures varied between night and day time during the summer months, facilitating the use of natural cooling at night. To make this efficient, the size of window openings is important; however, protection against burglars has to be provided in all cases. The building envelope has also an impact on temperature fluctuation as it will keep the heat out during the summer, making mechanical cooling unnecessary, and reduce transmission loss in winter. Based on U-value calculations, the desired building envelope thickness and build-up can be found. External temperatures make the creation of attractive outdoor spaces possible which can be used during at least half of the year, as May and September resemble summer temperatures (Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut, 2017).


ill. 68 - Precipitation

Precipitation The average precipitation for 2016 in North Juland is shown in Illustration 68. The highest amount of precipitation occurs during the summer and autumn months. Studies carried out by Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut (2010) show that there will be more episodes in the years to come with extreme precipitation events. Therefore, it is relevant to consider how rainwater is handled. In relation to sustainable buildings, there is the possibility of using rainwater as an element in recreational areas (e.g. watering plants) or to use it, for example, to flush toilets and laundrying. This can be achieved by leading the water from the gutter through a pipe and a filter into a storage tank, which is integrated in the ground and can be hidden, for example. under a raised terrace. Further, external flooring should allow for excess water to seep away. As the site is set next to a stream, it can be used to handle excess water and transport it away from the site.

Based on these weather analysis, the points raised must be considered from the start to both create attractive outdoor spaces and a good indoor climate in terms of optimised solar conditions, daylight, minimised wind and noise and rainwater-handling.

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Building typologies // Spatiality, flow, masses & density

ill. 69 - Point houses

Point Houses This typology allows for an efficient access strategy and for flats to face two directions. When arranging multiple volumes on site, there is the potential for giving each building an individual identity and address. The pedestrian flow around the building will be rather undefined by the building shapes themselves, inviting public use of the spaces and resulting in no external spaces reserved for the residents on site. Furthermore, the rather exposed buildings do not act as a noise barrier and are likely to amplify undesirable wind conditions on street level.

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ill. 70 - Courtyard building

Courtyard Building This typology creates several difficulties for the internal layout, e.g. finding a successful access strategy and solving the four corners layoutwise. The distancing between the respectively facing rows needs careful consideration as to not create any overshadowing or privacy issues. The building complex creates a natural noise barrier and forms a semi-private courtyard only accessable by the users. The orientation of the flats allows for a visual connection between inside and outside of the building. However, the impermeability of the volume results in potentially boring walks for pedestrians along a monotonous façade and a difficult microclimate on the outside.

ill. 71 - Elongated block

Elongated Block This uni-directional typology largely depends on the volumeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dimensioning. Flats can either be arranged along an internal corridor and be directed towards one side (provided the orientation is east-west), or along an external corridor, allowing for through-living and cross ventilation. For the latter, point accesses can be used, reducing the access efficiency but creating more privacy for each dwelling. The building is rather exposed as pedestrians pass it on both sides of the long, potentially homogenous façade with an undesirable microclimate. Outdoor spaces requiere extensive landscaping to retain the privacy of dwellers on the ground floor and to create a gathering space.


ill. 72 - L-shaped building

L-shaped Building This typology requires a good design solution for the corners and can either be accessed from one external corridor or from several cores, which require more space but enhance the privacy for each dwelling. When orienting two L-shapes towards each other an open courtyard can be formed, or, through rotation, two semi-enclosed, semi-public outdoor spaces can be defined. This way two entirely independent and more exposed areas are created, splitting the site and directing the pedestrian flow past the short sides of the buildings through the centre of the site.

ill. 73 - H-shaped building

H-shaped Building This shape is generally not very suitable for living purposes but rather for public functions, as the middle strip would create extremely exposed dwellings and thus could only house community spaces and an efficient access core. If this strip was shortened to account for a smaller spatial programme, overshadowing would become a problem. The nature of the building mass defines two seperate outdoor zones which could be connected through the central volume. As the form encapsulates the spaces on three sides, semi-public areas are created which can be semi-private with the aid of landscaping. Due to the varying orientation of the yards a very different microclimate will occur in each of them.

ill. 74 - Scattered buildings

Scattered Buildings This typology forms a small urban village with building masses spread across the site. A flexible plan layout is possible according to the size and shape of each building, allowing for different building identities. Window orientation and distancing between the volumes has to be considered carefully to maintain privacy. Further, the volumes have a higher floor-surface area ratio and thus require more resources. On the other hand, small outdoor spaces of varying sizes and degrees of privacy emerge between the volumes. The pedestrian flow on site varies in relation to the buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; placement, hosting opportunities for a change of direction. Further, the buildings can act as a wind breaker, if placed accordingly. 95


For further investigation the L-shaped block and scattered building typologies were chosen. Despite for the potentially hard to solve corner in the L, it was also same cornerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential to relate to the urban context, whilst the shape can both act as a noise barrier and still open up towards the rest of the site. Therefore, it allows to be embedded in the scattered building typology and act as part of an urban village. Since suburban qualities should be highlighted, scattered buildings can have different identities and layouts, whilst acting as a wind breaker and managing privacy, as well as pedestrian flows in a self-evident manner. The diagrams show the floor area ratio in combination with different amounts of floors, as to get a feeling for how densely the plot needs to be filled to reach the minimum density ratios of 100%, an average of 150% and a maximum of 200%. Depending on the building footprint this study is to create a picture of how tall the average building mass will be and how much space it will take up from the full building site. For example, if 25 % of the site surface area are covered, the buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; height will be between four and eight floors on average. As can be seen, the best balance of spatial qualities and density can be found in the mix of L-shape and scattered buildings towards the lower end of the density span (between 100 and 150% above ground construction). Thus, this density study is fundamental for the further design process in terms of, for example, light and privacy related issues.

96


100 %

150 %

200 %

ill. 75 - Density on L and scattered building typologies 97


User group // The young, families & the elderly

Housing has a decisive influence on the life and well-being of the individual and family, hence, users assess a dwellingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s qualities according to their specific needs and wishes. Generally, whereas couples wishing to establish a family prefer living in single-family houses in the suburbs, young people and older singles prefer living in flats within the city, in order to benefit from i.a. educational and cultural facilities (Center for Boligforskning, 2005). Since the vision it to create a vibrant and safe residential area in which a multi-generational community interacts with each other it is desirable to create apartments that allow for a mixed-use composition between both young and elderly singles and couples. Nonetheless, the primary user group focus is on families who prefer to live in the city but still want the qualities from the suburb. Through reasoning and group discussion, representational user needs, average activity profiles and sample day schedules for all three groups were drawn up in order to understand when people are at home and which needs have to be catered for in, e.g. the size of the apartment, its location on site and its relation to the surrounding area [appendix 150]. For the schedules and profile an average weekday was chosen as it follows more or less the same routine over the majority of the week, whereas weekend activities vary according to time of year and weather conditions and are thus hard to predict.

98

In terms of location and needs it was found that families require a close proximity to car parking, whilst young and elderly (defined as above 70 years of age) should be located in short walking distance to public transport links. Latter also require accessible dwellings as walking up stairs might become increasingly difficult with age. For young people and families a workspace is required, provided that people can also work from home, and for families a large living space is needed in order to emphasize the social bonds of family life. Regarding daily routines, families and young people are assumed to leave in the morning for work, school or university at approximately 8 am, creating a lively atmosphere around the circulation routes on site. Elderly are expected to leave their flats towards the later morning hours to follow their activities either on site or externally to then return after lunch. Around 4 pm the families and young people return and, depending on the weather, are likely to spend some time outside along with the elderly. Towards dinner time residents will retreat to their dwellings and are prone to spend the rest of the evening in privacy. Therefore, it should be considered to mainly locate young and elderly towards Sønderbro, whilst families and related functions should be based towards the western end of the site in order to ensure a peaceful coexistence and to create smaller bonds between residents based on interests and schedules.


Need Need

Young people Young people

Families Families

Elderly people Elderly people

Car parking Car parking Work space Work space Accessibility Accessibility Flexibility Flexibility Large livingspace Large livingspace Public transport Public transport Needed Partially needed

ill. 76 - User groups and their needs 99


Partial conclusion // Research & analysis

The site is located between the residential Ă&#x2DC;gadekvarteret, the mixed use area Eternitten, the industrial zone and the city center of Aalborg. It has been evaluated through research and site analyses, as well as through studies of typology, user groups and density, to identify possibilities and challenges for the process. The main route connecting Aalborgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s centre to the highway raises the noise level on site, therefore, making the introduction of a noise barrier reasonable. The diversity of the area provides many qualities in terms of shopping facilites, leisure amenities, educational institutions and easy access to infrastructure. Through the phenomenological analysis an understanding of how to enter the site, materiality, scale and surroundings has been gained. The contrast between the industry and the small green area with the stream towards the south is considered to be an asset, as one can create pleasant outdoor areas and views towards it. The challenge is to find a balance between aiming for a high density and retaining suburban qualities and a relation to the human scale. Through investigations into wind and solar conditions an idea about how to create the best conditions for both outside areas and the single apartments could be formed. Each apartment should have optimal daylight conditions, passive solar heat and optimal natural ventilation to help creating a sustainable building complex that highlights the potential of the area.

100


High iterativo typologies

5 stories Access

urban context

Access

Wind barrier

Private or public?

Suburban or urban? Contrast

?

Gas station

views towards stream

?

low activtity

?

ctivtity High a

Scattered / low typologies

?

Noise barrier

Nature context Other functions: common spaces, green houses, workshop, cafe ?

N

ill. 77 - Initial thoughts 101


102


SKETCHING

103


Volume study During the shape finding process a range of models were produced out of which the most relevant were selected to be present in this report. In all four cases the volumes frame the outdoor spaces between them to form more or less semi-public or -private spaces. Further, either the spaces or the buildings themselves can be read to have different identities. 1. Forming three clear elongated blocks, the pitched roofs, differing sizes of the volumes and their shifting creates a dynamic faรงade. Towards the road a more public spaces is created and a clear path can be read to lead between the buildings. The more enclosed space between the buildings towards the left is very large and open, making it hard to create intimate spaces. 2. Grouped into three smaller clusters to form semi-public spaces, the volumes both shape two clear public paths whilst an internal axis links all three spaces, resulting in a more coherent scheme. Towards the road the buildings are higher, whereas lower blocks are placed towards the stream; hence addressing the context accordingly. 3. Following a slightly elongated version of the point houses, the volumes are kept very basic and are configured into two inward-facing but permeable clusters, leaving an undefined space in the centre of the site which would be used by the public. 4. Based on smaller versions of the rather conventional elongated block typology, the roof shape diversifies and defines the volumes of each building. As seen in the arrangement of two L-shaped blocks (p. 97), the site is divided into two areas, with rather large spaces in between and slightly awkward corners through angeling the buidlings towards each other.

104


1.

2.

3.

4.

ill. 78 - Volume study 105


The initial concept

”When complications in the design process ruin your scheme, change - or if necessary, abandon - your parti. But don’t abandon having a parti, and don’t dig in tenaciously in defense of a scheme that no longer works. Create another parti that holistically incorporates all that you know about the building” (Frederick, 2007, p. 26) After comparing the first design proposal to our vision and design criteria and assessing it’s functionality in context we concluded that we had left behind some aspects from our analysis and abandoned one of the initial ideas to form an urban village with intimate spaces. Generally, some assets were found worth keeping, for example, orienting the roofs north-south for solar gain efficiency and structuring the site into three areas, which, however, should be articulated in another way. Facing the urban area and the existing building, the volume was stepped back in order to respect the present building. This strategy, however, created an exposed public area which only hosted serving spaces, such as the car park entrance, with its opening towards the street amplifying sound. Since it was questionable whether people would stay in a northfacing square with no relation to the stream, it was found to be a stronger concept to align the volume to the street and complement the urban context rather than backing away from it. Other reasons for changing the scheme included the loss of human scale through too open and large spaces that were difficult to landscape and an inconsequent handling of the public. Creating a courtyard through very long volumes, both rather associated with the urban evironment, crossed with our vision to form a suburban atmosphere.

106


Solar gain

Outdoor areas respecting existing building

Frame spaces - access routes

Diversify urban building create a system

Sculpt diverse landscape

The building and landscape define the space in between

ill. 79 - Initial concept 107


When looking at the typology configuration, it can be seen that stacking the same type of apartment on top of each other works rather well in terms of keeping floor plan layout consistent. However, there were found to be too few family apartments and inefefficient use of space between the flats in favour of large access and community spaces. In terms of flat layout, the proportions had a potential to be followed up, on the other hand it was found that the second medium flat was too small for families and, thus, to be replaced by a second family apartment typology. Furhter, the experience of entering a dwelling had to be refined, e.g. so that one does not enter straight into the living room.

108


Common/ access space Small dwelling

Medium dwelling

Medium dwelling

Large dwelling

ill. 80 - Initial plans 109


The urban line and the street in between

After concluding the problems described on the previous pages, we decided to review our analysis and studies to then revise the concept on tracing paper through group discussion and decision-making. Central to the resulting spatial organisation is the street, a theme abstracted from the suburbs, alonag which three clusters with associated spaces and different qualities (calm, active and dynamic) are arranged to form an urban village. Through this, the buildings shape the outdoor areas to form semi-private, intimate spaces. The buildings towards the road are purposefully higher and rather impermeable to address the urban context and emphasize the suburban spatial experience when entering the site, with low building blocks placed towards the stream. The tall L-shaped block towards the east acts as a noise barrier, from where building sizes start to decrease and scatter towards the west where the low and small blocks act as wind breakers.

110


urb

D yn am ic

recr e

an l i

ne

atio n Act ive re

crea tion C al

mr ecre

atio n

ill. 81 - Division of site 111


Framed by family dwellings, this area is envisioned to be mainly reserved for kids to play in and their parents to meet whilst watching their children, or to even engage in games with them. Therefore, a dynamic and lively atmosphere shall be created to allow for friendships to form and foster the young generationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social life. Following the concept of a suburban street popular with children to ride their bikes or scooters on, inline skate or paint with chalks, a path forms to take the users across the entire site into different zones of activity.

112


ill. 82 - Montage ”dynamic recreation” 113


The street leads on towards the central space of the site, themed around food, gardening and workshop tasks. As gardening proves to be an activity popular in the suburbs and across all generations, a leisurely and social atmosphere is envisioned in which people interact over a shared interest. Bordering the public realm, this space also opens up to pedestrians walking past along the stream, revealing to them the internal qualities that remain hidden from the street front. An outdoor terrace and kitchen next to the green houses provide a platform for all residents to gather and, for example, to have a BBQ together.

114


ill. 83 - Montage ”active recreation” 115


The street ends in this urban part of the site, where a more tranquil atmosphere is envisioned, in which people can socialise or relax by themselves on benches scattered around the space or on the steps that lead towards the stream. A common space, the â&#x20AC;?coffee cornerâ&#x20AC;?, with its connected outdoor terrace, provides a flexible space for residents to, for example, play cards, have a chat over a coffee or work informally. There is also plenty of opportunities, particularly for elderly residents living in the building adjacent to the area, to observe the life around them - either from their windows or balconies from a distance or by taking an active part in it.

116


ill. 84 - Montage ”calm recreation” 117


Site // Building layout

The diagrams (ill. 85) show the process undergone for positioning and programming the different volumes on site. In the first step three large urban blocks face the street to maintain the urban line and smaller squares form a second, scattered line towards the stream. Two large squares form the community spaces, which open towards the water. Cars enter the site from the west, close to the family dwellings, and pedestrians from the street to the north through two openings that lead into two semi-private outdoor areas, or from the south-west from the path next to the stream. However, the strong shifts between the smaller squares created some shading problems for the terraces. In the second step the squares were therefore enlarged and the buildings towards the west were scattered in order to define the adjacent outdoor space in a more holistic manner, as well as to create a sweeping transition of the volumes towards the stream. Here, the squares towards the stream were then found too dominant and, hence, in the third step were combined with the previous smaller volumes to form a more diverse building scape. The volumetry in the west was further refined to progressively transform from the urban blocks in the east to the suburban ones and a third community space was introduced to structure the outdoor areas further. The dwellings located at the left bottom corner of the site, however, were found to be prone to overheating. Thus, in the last step the small square was pulled forward and some even smaller volumes were introduced to serve as bike shelters, although this idea was later discarded as they resulted in too long walking distances from some dwellings. Furthermore, the large community space in the west was broken up into less dominat squares and the faรงades towards the semi-private areas were diversified in order to create two different expressions.

118


ill. 85 - Building layout 119


Site // Sunlight hours

In order to determine the sunlight hours the positioning of the volumes would allow for, studies were carried out for summer, spring / autumn and winter. The street-facing blocks are raised half a metre in order to prevent overshadowing for the ground floor apartments in the winter period. On the eastern end of the shifted buildings some minor alterations should be made to allow for more sunlight hours on terraces. Further, it can be noted that the overhangs on the urban blocks work for shading as expected. For the winter, when sunlight hours are few, no overshading problems between the buildings can be noted as the only critical corner in the west does not host dwellings on the ground floor. On a further note, the middle volume of the community space in the centre of the site will only function as a terrace, therefore, more light will enter the space behind in winter.

120


ill. 86 - Summer period

ill. 87 - Equinox period

ill. 88 - Winter period

121


Access // Circulation spaces

Access spaces have a great influence on how the circulation is organised in and around buildings. Since the aim is to facilitate informal meeting spaces between neighbours, different hallway and staircase configurations were investigated to see which option allows for only a few people to meet. This is to generate a sense of belonging and knowing one’s neighbours, as can be found in the suburbs, where the hedge is often the dividing line between the homes over which neighbours greet each other (Andersen, 2004). In this process it was discussed whether the access spaces should just serve as these or whether they should fulfill an additional function, for example, to serve as common spaces. However, it was found that this would require a lot of space between the buildings and either result in an inefficient spatial use, if only residents living in the building can use it, or defeat the purpose of ”meeting over the hedge”. Therefore, the desire to create small neighbourhoods and to make people move through the site externally was prioritised over a more economical access solution. Further, it was concluded that common spaces must be placed centrally to be accessible for all dwellers and constantly be in everyone’s field of vision.

122


ill. 89 - Staircase in the corner and access gallery outwards

ill. 90 - Staircase in the corner and access gallery inwards

ill. 91 - Point access shared between two dwellings per level

ill. 92 - neighbourhood

123


Façade // Assessment chart

To investigate the façade of a representative south-facing block, an assessment matrix has been set up with the aim to generate a varied façade that both creates interaction between neighbours and simultaneously allows them to retreat. In order to optimise the feeling of privacy it is desirable to create a distance to the access spaces. Further, the façade must have a positive impact on passive solutions in relation to shading. The evaluation is based on expression, privacy on the terrace, interaction with neighbours, access and shading, where one is the minimum score and five the highest. As a result, façade 1 is selected based on the highest average score, meeting the requirements set best. Whilst providing the opportunity to communicate across floors to ”meet over the hedge” the desire for privacy can be fulfilled as the recess in the façade makes it possible to retreat. The shifts in the façade integrate overhangs for the windows, so that no direct sunlight enters during the summer period. This solution is further developed in relation to the depths of the balconies and the depth of the recesses.

Expression

124

Privacy

Interaction

Access

Shading


1.

5.

2.

6.

3.

4.

7.

8.

ill. 93 - Assessment matrix 125


Façade // Expression

As mentioned, the chosen façade strategy was examined in more detail to determine the expression of the overhangs and balconies and their effect on a pedestrianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception on ground floor level. On this note one can immediately see that a 2 metre overhang looks rather overwhelming, making the exterior wall at the back visually disappear. As the overhang acts as a passive shading strategy a range of BSIM simulations were carried out on a medium-sized flat to see the effect of different shadings and window dimensions on the indoor climate. In all simulations a living room and dining room window were considered, as the rooms are connected to form one space, and results for the four different scenarios were found: 1) No overhang and no shading 2) Overhang without shading 3) Shading without overhang 4) Overhang and shading To sum up, too large a window area will result in not being able to meet the building regulations, but with a reasonable surface area the requirements can even be met with neither overhang nor shading, which is an important factor for the top floor apartments. All things considered, a compromise has to be found between making an aesthetically appealing design and meeting the requirements for indoor climate and daylight. Therefore, the ultimate size for the balconies to protrude outwards was chosen to be 1 metre, which also considerably improves the pedestrian experience.

126


ill. 94 - Balconies overhang 2 m.

ill. 95 - Balconies overhang 1 m.

127


Faรงade // Materiality

As part of a workshop initial thoughts about materiality were made, based on a wide range of references of which only the most relevant are presented here. Before narrowing down the options of materials it was found that the faรงade should reflect the local context, as well as a suburban building appearance, express the same principal material on both faรงade and roof, and be low maintenance. Ultimately, brick and wood were considered to be suited best for use in this residential scheme, based on the criteria above, sustainability and tactility. A small study to compare the effect of material orientation, green roofs or PVs on the aesthetical qualities was then carried out. Whilst a horizontal orientation of the material would visually stretch the building into said direction, a vertical orientation (only considered for wood) would optically stretch the building upwards. Since some volumes consist of five floors it was decided a potentially undesireable effect in terms of the perception of human scale. Furthermore, despite for a pleasant patina, wood would have to be treated in order to resist weathering and pests, which goes against the principle of sustainability, as well as requiring regular maintenancy, which was found impractical on the amount of surface area.

128


ill. 96 - Vertical timber panels

ill. 97 - Horizontal timber panels

ill. 98 - Grey bricks

ill. 99 - Red bricks

1.

2.

3. ill. 100 - Material examination 129


Window analysis // Velux, Bsim & natural ventilation

Daylight analysis BSim analysis

ill. 101 - Selected apartments for analysis 130


In order to find the right window dimensions and their placeme, the balance between thermal-, visual- and atmospheric comfort is tested in the following window analysis. BSim simulations show overheating hours, Velux Visulizer illustrates the daylight factor and the natural ventilation calculation verifies the final solution with sufficient AFR to cover the needed ACR for the appartment. Two appartments are selected: a medium apartment oriented north-south, and a large square duplex also oriented in the same direction. Illustration 101 shows where daylight simulations, as well as BSim simulations were carried out, in order to ensure the indoor environment is comfortable for critical conditions, for instance, the daylight factors in the corner situations as well as BSim simulations of overheating temperatures in the east-west oriented buildings [see appendix 161 & 164].

131


Apartment Type Orientation

Large Duplex North-South

ill. 102 - Large Duplex

ill. 103- Iteration 1

ill. 104 - Iteration 2

ill. 105 - Iteration 3

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 1,5 m Dining: 1 m x 2,5 m x 4 Living: 2,5 m x 2,5 m

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 1,5 m Dining: 1,5 x 2,5 m x 2 Living: 2 m x 2,5 m

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 2,5 m x 2 Dining: 1 m x 2,5 m x 2 Living: 1,5 m x 2,5 m

Overheating The large glazing areas in the duplex to the south create interior overheating even with shading and overhangs - with both heat avoidance solutions the overheating is 44 hours > 28 degrees.

Overheating The four narrow windows in the dining area are assembled in two parts, which reduces the overheating but does not solve it. With both overhang (1 m) and shading (50%) the temperatures are 64 hours >27 degrees and 27 hours >28 degrees.

Overheating The third iteration shows the window solution with acceptable overheating if shading is added: 41 hours >27 degrees and 21 hours >28 degrees. A higher percentage of the glazed areas are now oriented towards north.

Daylight The average daylight factor in the large room is 3,9 % - in the kitchen 2,6 % and in the living room 6,4 %, which is above the recommended factor.

Daylight The daylight factor is reduced with the lower glazing percentage. The average in the room is 2,8 % - in the kitchen 2,1 % and in the living room and dining 3,7 %.

Daylight The more even distribution of the glazing area on the two facades creates an average daylight factor of 2,6 % for the room, however, the kitchen is improved to 3,2 % and the living room is 2,6 %.

132


ill. 106 - Iteration 4

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1,4 m x 1,5 m Dining: 1,5 m x 3 m x 2 Living: 1 m x 2,1 m Overheating This shows the windows on the south are larger in the doubble height room to emphazise the feeling of openness. The simulation shows an acceptable amount of hours if shading is added: 46 >27 degrees and 17 >28 degrees. Daylight The daylight factor is improved from iteration 3 as the average overall in the room is 3,1 %. The kitchen gets a daylight factor of 2,5 % and the livingroom 3,6 %.

ill. 107 - Natural ventilation

Natural Ventilation Windows on opposite faรงades and a room depth that is less than 5 times the room height make cross ventilation possible. To test the window sizes and openings natural ventilation is calculated for a summer day, when natural ventilation is needed the most, with an outdoor temperature of 20 deg., an indoor temperature of 24 deg. and a wind speed of 1 m/s to see if the natural ventilation will be sufficient even on a calm day or night. Needed ACR in the livingroom and kitchen for the duplex: ACR: 1,3 h-1 With openings in the window on the northern faรงade and the door towards the south, natural cross ventilation provides: ACR: 1,9 h-1 With an average windspeed on 6,5 m/s in July from the south-west: ACR: 12,9 h-1

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Apartment Type Orientation

Medium North - South + East - West

ill. 108 - Medium

ill. 109 - Iteration 1

ill. 110 - Iteration 2

ill. 111 - Iteration 3

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 1,5 m Dining: 2,5 m x 2,4 m Living: 2,4 x 2,4 m

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 1,5 m Dining: 1,9 m x 2,4 m Living: 2,1 m x 1,4 m

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1 m x 1,5 m Dining: 1,9 m x 2,2 m Living: 1,9 m x 1,4 m

Overheating With the listed dimensions of the windows the interior is overheated too many hours, however, it is close to be within the acceptable range. 61 hours are >27 degrees, which is acceptable, but 29 hours >28 degrees are 4 hours too many.

Overheating The overheating problem is solved in this solution, where the glazed area to the south and on the cantilever is reduced. Thereby, only 32 hours are >27 degrees and 14 hours >28 degrees without any kind of shading or overhang.

Overheating A further test is carried out with less glazed area (and less transmission loss) to test if the dimensions are still sufficient for the daylight factor. The overheating will be even lower than in iteration 2, and thus not a problem.

Daylight The large glazing areas contribute towards a high daylight level of 4,3 % in the living room, 4,7 % in the dining area and 2,9 % in the kitchen.

Daylight The daylight factor is reduced with the reduction of glazing, however, the percentage is more or less evenly distributed in the room: 2,9 % in the living room, 3,4 % in the dining area and 2,7 % in the kitchen.

134

Daylight The daylight factor in the living room is 3,2 %, in the dining area 2,9 % and in the kitchen 3 %; therefore, all daylight factors above 2% as the required.


ill. 112 - Iteration 4

Dimension of windows Kitchen: 1,2 m x 1,6 m Dining: 1,9 m x 2,2 m Living: 1,9 m x 1,9 m Overheating The small changes in the north for the daylight factor and the window in the living area to a square do not change the overheating a lot. The hours are acceptable: 29 hours >27 degrees and 15 hours >28 degrees. Daylight The daylight results for this iteration show an improvement in the kitchen from 3 % to 3,3 % as well as 3,3 % in the living room. The dining area remains to have a 2,9 % daylight factor.

ill. 113 - Natural ventilation

Natural Ventilation Windows on opposite faรงades and a room depth that is less than 5 times the room height make cross ventilation possible. A calculation is made for natural cross ventilation through the living room and kitchen with a people load of 3 persons. The calculation is, as in the previous one, made with openings in only one window on each faรงade and with a windspeed of 1 m/s to ensure sufficient natural ventilation on a calm day. Needed ACR for olfaction in the room with 3 people: ACR: 1,7 h-1 ACR from natural ventilation, if the windows are opened 15 cm, equalling an opening of respectively 0,15 m2 and 0,29 m2 on a calm day: ACR: 2,16 h-1 With identical openings, but average windspeed for July in Aalborg: ACR: 21,6 h-1

135


Shading

ill. 114 - Venetian blinds

Venetian Blinds This type of shading is rather traditional but can be well integrated in the build-up of the external wall, making it more or less invisible when not in use. The lamellas can be run in a rail system to stabilize the sytem to be useable in higher windspeeds. Since the angle of the lamellas can individually be regulated the system can either be automated or user-regulated.

136

ill. 115 - Roller blinds

Roller blinds With similar properties as Venetian Blinds, this shading is less conventional but requires more maintenance (cleaning), depening on its colour. As the material is rather soft, it is not well suited for higher windspeeds. Depending on the fabricâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s density it can either shut daylight out entirely or be translucent.

ill. 116 - Folding blinds

Folding blinds This type of shading has a very dominant expression on the façade as it protrudes outward when not in use. Due to its constant exposure periodical maintenance is required. The blinds have to be mounted on a sturdy system to withstand external weather conditions (e.g. snow and wind). When not in use views from the top window outwards are somewhat obstructed.


Window analysis - Conclusion The iterations of the window dimensions and placement in the large square duplex apartment resulted in a solution with two large windows to the south in the double height room to emphasize the feeling of a large, open room. Furthermore, the BSim simulations and daylight factors show values that fulfill the requirements. In terms of overheating, the large duplex needs external shading devices, thus, an investigation into different types was done. The folding blinds are very dominant on the faรงade, and as the southern faรงade already varies a lot in expression, the shading solution would have a negative impact an make the it appear staggered. The venetian blinds are less dominat and are integrated in the faรงade design in a way, that make them look like a part of the envelope. As some of the duplexes are oriented towards the windward side, the roller blinds are not suited for these windows. Thus, the venetian blinds with user regulation could work as a solution for external shading. The medium apartment does not need any kind of shading device in terms of solving overheating problems and the window iterations are based more on architectural thoughts which are verified through technical simulations. The final windows for the medium apartment continue forward the square shape from the building concept. In both the medium apartment and large duplex natural ventilation is enough to cover the total need of ACR without opening all windows and with fairly small openings. Thus, the natural ventilation will contribute to the final energy demand for ventilation, as natural ventilation is only relying on the natural forces and does not require purchased energy.

137


Roof // annual radiation

In order to take a final decision on the roof shape a solar analysis of the two variants was carried out. As can be seen, equiping all roofs with a 30° pitch provides a higher efficiency when designing for the use of PVs as part of a zero-energy scheme compared to flat roofs. Latter would require more material and would possibly not generate enough surface area, making it less economically sustainable. Despite for flat roofs allowing a better view towards the stream from the street-facing volumes, a holistic expression of all buildings on site was favoured. Further, this shape lets the design towards the street integrate into the urban context of the surrounding housing blocks and relates to the perception of proportion and suburban associations towards the stream.

138


ill. 117 - Pitched roof

ill. 118 - Flat roof 139


140


EPILOGUE

141


Conclusion Overall, located between Øgadekvarteret, central Aalborg and Eternitten, the site borders an industrial area, a busy traffic artery and a stream. These strongly contrasting surroundings previously gave a rather neglected and inanimate impression to the areal. Using an integrated desing process, including research, analyses and studies, as well as some DGNB criteria as guidelines, the proposal of an ”urban village” defines a new genius loci. This emphasizes a sense of community and a proximity to nature that particularly appeals to families that would otherwise move to the suburbs to find these qualities. In summary, the scheme’s concept is based on a gradual transition from a traditional urban multi-storey street scape to a clustered, low-rise building scape that opens views towards the stream. Henceforth, not only are the human scale addressed and microclimate and noise levels positively influenced but also plenty of spaces for socialising and retreating into privacy are created. The larger communal spaces are arranged between the building clusters along a path, reflecting the suburban street, and provide room for different degrees of recreational activities suited to all age groups: calm, active and dynamic. Besides for inviting users to interact and socialise with each other over their common interests or informally meet on a smaller scale amongst neighbours, giving sufficient privacy to the dwellers is pivotal to the design proposal. This is achieved through what Jan Gehl calls ”edge spaces”, where a transition from the communal to the private realm takes place and through providing all larger dwellings, which will be inhabited by users who seek suburban qualities, with private outdoor spaces. Furthermore, in order to both meet the required density of between 100 and 200 percent and the target of retaining suburban living qualities, the overall above ground density equals 107 %; split between four different types of dwelling units, out of which half are designed for families, and 12% extra-functions that serve the residents.

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As mentioned previously, in order to form smaller bonds between residents based on interests and daily schedules, small and medium-sized dwellings for predominantly young or elderly singles and couples are oriented towards Sønderbro, whereas families are located toward the western end of the site. Thus, whilst the young and elderly users can benefit from good transport infrastructure and a calm recreational are in short walking distance, families have quick access to the car park and a playground. The target to design for a sustainable zero-energy housing complex has been met through the application of passive shading devices, hybrid ventilation, good daylight factors and the use of solar energy for electricity generation, achieving a negative annual energy consumption. Moreover, due to being located in the city, the site is conntected to the grid and district heating network, making the housing scheme a net zero-energy one. All things considered, technical solutions and materials, in this case mainly brick, were chosen with respect to their aesthetical qualities, as well as their impact on environmental and economical sustainability. By applying the strategies mentioned, the scheme meets all design criteria set up to form a dense zero-energy urban village in which suburban qualities are retained and a multi-generational community can grow within a safe neighbourhood. Ultimately, the design introduces residential functions to the industrial Håndværkerkvarteret, acting as a catalyst for the future development of the area to become a mixed-use low-rise area for families who want to enjoy suburban qualities in close vicinity to the city centre.


Reflection As a design process is always somewhat limited by time certain aspects can come a bit short and some ideas cannot be tested. Therefore, this section reflects on some of the features of the design proposal which are found to have a potential that has not fully been explored. The street is a key element to the concept, leading from the dynamic recreational area across the site towards the calm recreational area. Arguably, it is expressed stronger on the playground and gradually becomes less dominant; however, it can also be considered positive to articulate the transition from the more suburban to the urban side. On the other hand, alternative ways for the path to start and end could have been considered, as well as the general composition of the landscape. More trees and greenery could have been added and some water elements could have been introduced. Furthermore, another way to express the roof of the car park ramp could have been found, for example, by making it more sculptural and thus integrating it into the overall outdoor design. The overall volume shapes, including the balconies, are considered to work aesthetically well, to create an identity and to adhere to the design concept and vision. Nonetheless, the different ways to integrate shading devices and photovoltaics in the façade could have been looked into in more depth. On a further note, other approaches to the façade design in general could have been considered, for example, through alternative window configurations.

Creating a well-functioning plan solution is an essential but also rather complex part of a design. Currently, the plans are kept quite traditional and, therefore, it is found that the site could perhaps have been used to try out more inconventional plan configurations that could have correlated with the façade design. In spite of this, the double-height windows in some of the duplexes pose a start into this direction. Of greater importance, however, would be to optimise the plan layouts to become more practical for spatial as well as economical use of space. For the top floor apartments, mainly due to the shifting roof lines, a cold deck roof was chosen to provide a straight-forward and efficient insulation strategy and an uncomplicated running of HVAC pipes. On the other hand the potential of the roof pitches could have been studied further in terms of integrating gallery floors and skylights or creating double-height spaces. Generally, the exploration of the internal phenomenological perception of the flats through materiality and atmosphere came a bit short towards the end of the design process; thus, potentially interesting solutions could not be taken into account. Further, the apartments could be given more unique features as to make them stand out on the market and heighten people’s sense of home and their desire to stay in a place. All things considered, it lies in the nature of architecture that there is not one right solution to a problem but different ones, that make an evaluation and reflection on the process undertaken essential in order to develop further as designers.

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Literature list Aalborg Kommune, 2013. Aalborg - den attraktive storby [online]. Available at: http://www.aalborgkommuneplan.dk/Hovedstruktur/H_019_1 [Accessed 07 November 2017]. Aalborg Kommune, 2017. Åbning af Østeraa [online]. Available at: https://www.aalborg.dk/om-kommunen/byplanlaegning/byudvikling/%C3%A5bning-af-%C3%B8steraa [Accessed 09 November 2017]. Aalborg Kommune, 2015. Uddannelsesbyen Aalborg [pdf] Aalborg Kommune. Available at: https://www.aalborg.dk/media/3440344/ aalborg-kommune-2015-uddannelsesbyen-aalborg.pdf [Accessed 08 November 2017]. Aalborg Universitet, 2017. Semester description MSc01 Architecture fall 2017 [pdf]. Aalborg Universitet. Available at: https://www. moodle.aau.dk/pluginfile.php/1019714/mod_resource/content/5/MSc01%20ARK%20E2017%20semesterbeskrivelse%2006.09.17.pdf [Accessed 08 November 2017]. AART architects, 2017. Nye [online]. Available at: http://aart.dk/da/projekter/nye [Accessed 14 December 2017]. Akademiet for de Tekniske Videnskaber, 2006. Den gode bolig - Hvordan skal vi bo i fremtiden?. [pdf] Boligforskning. Available at: http://boligforskning.dk/sites/default/files/C130-Essaysamling[1].pdf [Accessed 14 December 2017]. Center for Boligforskning, 2005. Den Situationsbestemte Bolig [online]. Available at: http://boligforskning.dk/situationsbestemt-bybolig [Accessed 13 December 2017]. Center for Boligforskning, 2005. Et Hjem Er Noget, Man Gør [online]. Available at: http://boligforskning.dk/et-hjem [Accessed 13 December 2017]. Center for Boligforskning, 2005. Livet I Glashusene [online]. Available at: http://boligforskning.dk/liv-glas [Accessed 13 December 2017]. Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut, 2010. Mere - og mere intens - regn over Danmark [online]. Available at: https://www.dmi.dk/nyheder/arkiv/nyheder-2010/mere-og-mere-intens-regn-over-danmark/ [Accessed 08 November 2017]. Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut, 2017. Vejrarkiv [online]. Available at: https://www.dmi.dk/vejr/arkiver/vejrarkiv/ [Accessed 08 November 2017]. Høje-Taastrup Kommune, 2016. Familier flytter fra byen til forstæderne [online]. Available at: https://www.htk.dk/Service/Nyheder_ Presse/Nyhedsoversigt/Nyheder/2016/Oktober-16/Familie-flytter-fra-Amager-til-Vridsloesemagle.aspx [Accessed 14 December 2017]. KPF Arkitekter, 2017. Generationernes Hus [online]. Available at: http://www.kpf.dk/projekter/generationernes-hus/ [Accessed 14 December 2017].

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Frederick, M. (2007). 101 things I learned in architecture school. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, p. 6. Porter, T. (2004). An illustrated guide to architectural terms Archi Speak. Oxon: Spon Press. Green Building Council Denmark (2017). DGNB System Denmark. Denmark: Green Building Council Denmark, p. 8. Bejder, A., Knudstrup, M-A., Jensen, R. and Katic, I. (2014). Zero Energy Buildings - Design Principles and Built Examples for Detached Houses. Denmark: SBI forlag. Standardiseringsudvalget for akustik. (2007) DS 490 Sound Classification of Dwellings. 2. edition. Copenhagen: Danish Standard Foundation, p. 9. Yiftachel, O., Hedgcock, D., 1993. Urban social sustainability: The planning of an Australian city. Cities, 10(2), p. 140 Lauring, M., 2017. Project Description 2017: Sustainable Architecture (extended version). Aalborg University, unpublished. Available at: https://www.moodle.aau.dk/course/view.php?id=21208 [Accessed 9 November 2017]. Knudstrup, M.-A., 2004. Integrated Design Process in Problem-Based Learning. In: The Aalborg PBL Model: Progress, Diversity and Challenges. Aalborg University Press. Farrelly, L., 2011. Drawing for Urban Design. London: Laurence King Publishing. Winther, B., Johansen, H., Hahn, J.-V., Russo, L. and Hansen, S., 2017. Project Report. unpublished. Gehl, J., 2010. Cities for People. Washington, DC: Island Press. Mayer, A., Gerber, D., Sturm, U., Schwehr, P., 2013. High density housing with the qualities of single-family homes. Detail Green, 2013 (1), pp. 18-23. Edwards, B., 2010. Rough Guide to Sustainability. London: RIBA Publishing. Kibert, C.J., 2016. Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Zhong, Y., Wu, P., 2015. Economic sustainability, environmental sustainability and constructability indicators related to concrete- and steel-projects. Journal of cleaner production, 108(12), pp. 748-756. Geodatastyrelsen, 2017. Historiske baggrundskort. Geodatastyrelsen [online]. Available through: http://gst.dk/matriklen/ [Accessed 15 December 2017]. Andersen, S.R., 2004. Over hĂŚkken [pdf] Copenhagen: Center for Sundhed og Samfund. Available at: http://samf.ku.dk/pkv/faerdige_projektopgaver/107/107_samlet_pdf_til_web.pdf [Accessed 15 December 2017].

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Illustration list

All illustrations without a reference are own production ill. 1 - Site located south of Aalborgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s centre ill. 2 - IDP diagram ill. 3 - Design criteria ill. 4 - 1:1000 Masterplan ill. 5 - Building concept ill. 6 - 1:500 north elevation ill. 7 - 1:500 South elevation ill. 8 - 1:500 east elevation ill. 9 - 1:500 west elevation ill. 10 - Princip diagram of sections ill. 11 - 1:500 west elevation ill. 12 -1:200 Section B-B ill. 13 -1:200 Section C-C ill. 14 - The suburban street ill. 15 - Common spaces ill. 16 - Calm recreation area ill. 17 - Small & Medium apartments ill. 18 - 1:200 Small apartment ill. 19 - 1:200 Medium apartment I ill. 20 - 1:200 Medium apartment II ill. 21 - Active recreation area ill. 22 - Facade in active recreation area ill. 23 - Medium & Large apartments ill. 24 - 1:200 Large apartment I ill. 25 - 1:200 Large apartment II ill. 26 - Livingroom in the large apartment ill. 27- Dynamic recreation area ill. 28 - Large & Duplex apartments ill. 29 - 1:200 Large apartment III ill. 30 - 1:200 Duplex apartment I ill. 31 - Duplex apartments

146

ill. 32 - 1:200 Duplex apartment II ill. 33 - 1:200 Duplex apartment III ill. 34 - Livingroom in the duplex apartments ill. 35 - Passive & active strategies ill. 36 - 1:20 Detail drawing wall & roof ill. 37 - 1:20 Detail drawing Floor & wall ill. 38 - Nye (http://www.nye.dk) ill. 39 - Generationernes hus (http://www.kpf.dk/projekter/generationernes-hus/) ill. 40 - Visuel & physical contact with life on site ill. 41 - Human scale ill. 42 - Suburban ill. 43 - Suburban qualities ill. 44 - Possible renewable energy sources ill. 45 - Passive strategies for summer and winter period ill. 46 - Photovoltaics ill. 47 - Solar collectors ill. 48 - Heat pumps ill. 49 - Energy requirements ill. 50 - DGNB categories ill. 51 - 1:5000 masterplan ill. 52 - Mapping of the site ill. 53 - 1:5000 Location of different functions around the site ill. 54 - Functions in the area ill. 55 - Section cuts on site to show the surrounding heights and materials ill. 56 - Section A-A ill. 57 - Section B-B ill. 58 - Section C-C ill. 59 - Scale & materials ill. 60 - Visualization of building site ill. 61 - Serial vision routes ill. 62 - Noise average during day time at h = 1.5 m


ill. 63 - Noise average during night time at h = 1.5 m ill. 64 - Annual average wind direction and speed ill. 65 - Average wind direction and speed within summer period ill. 66 - Equinox sun path - 21. june and 21. december ill. 67 - Middle temperatures in North Jutland 2016 ill. 68 - Precipitation ill. 69 - Point houses ill. 70 - Courtyard building ill. 71 - Elongated block ill. 72 - L-shaped building ill. 73 - H-shaped building ill. 74 - Scattered buildings ill. 75 - Density on L and scattered building typologies ill. 76 - User groups and their needs ill. 77 - Initial thoughts ill. 78 - Volume study ill. 80 - Initial plans ill. 81 - Division of site ill. 82 - Montage ”dynamic recreation” ill. 83 - Montage ”active recreation” ill. 84 - Montage ”calm recreation” ill. 85 - Building layout ill. 86 - Summer period ill. 87 - Equinox period ill. 88 - winter period ill. 89 - Staircase in the corner and gallery outside ill. 90 - Staircase in the corner and gallery inside ill. 91 - Point gallery in between ill. 92 - Neighborhood ill. 93 - Assessment matrix ill. 94 - Balconies overhang 2 m. ill. 95 - Balconies overhang 1 m.

ill. 96 - Vertical wood (https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/56365432812958372/) ill. 97 - Horizontal wood (https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/389913280232275088/) ill. 98 - Grey bricks (https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/455074737329678840/) ill. 99 - Red bricks (https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/414612709428117177/) ill. 100 - Materials examination ill. 101 - Selected apartments for surveys ill. 102 - Large Duplex ill. 103- Iteration 1 ill. 104 - Iteration 2 ill. 105 - Iteration 3 ill. 106 - Iteration 4 ill. 107 - Natural ventilation ill. 108 - Medium ill. 109 - Iteration 1 ill. 110 - Iteration 2 ill. 111 - Iteration 3 ill. 112 - Iteration 4 ill. 113 - Natural ventilation ill. 114 - Venetian panels (https://www.somfy.co.uk/products/exterior-applications/ external-venetian-blind) ill. 115 - Roller blinds (http://www.cbsolarshading.co.uk/external-roller-blinds) ill. 116 - Folding blinds (http://atelier-ad.blogspot.dk/2012/10/folding-facade-20.html) ill. 117 - Pitched roof ill. 118 - Flat roof

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148


APPENDIX

149


Wind simulations // Velocity & pressure

Wind velocity at a level of 1500 mm (3D)

Wind velocity at a level of 1500 mm (2D)

Wind velocity at a level of 6000 mm (3D)

Wind velocity at a level of 6000 mm (2D)

Wind velocity at a level of 25000 mm (3D)

150


Wind pressure at a level of 6000 mm

Wind pressure at a level of 25000mm

151


Activity level and time schedule

Young people

Elderly people

Families

high activity

high activity

high activity home

away 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h low activity low activity

low activity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

home

away 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h away 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

home

home

away

home

away

away

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

152

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 h


Aerial density

Site surface area: Building footprint:

8225 m2 2944 m2

Total GFA: of which above ground:

10903 m2 8822 m2

Extra functions:

12 %

(FAR = 133 %) (FAR = 107 %)

Dwelling density Total amount of dwellings: of which large / dublex: of which medium: of which small: 24 h

80 34 22 24

(100 %) (43 %) (27 %) (30 %)

Residential density Minimum number of residents: Maximum number of residents:

204 250

h

153


Room programme // apartment type

154


155


Mecanical ventilation

1:100 Large apartment

156

1:200 Section


Ventilation Rates Example of ventilation need calculation - this for kitchen and livingroom in the medium apartment: Area 44,03 m2 Room height 2,5 m Room Volume (Vr) 110,1 m CO2 concentration: max 500 + 350 ppm (EN 15251) C 850 ppm Ci 350 ppm

Air quality (olfaction): values from EN 15251)

Ventilation Efficiency, eop 1 Cu = eop * (C-Ci) + Ci 850 ppm Air pollution source, q 17 l/h / person Capacity 3 people Activity level 1,2 Met q 61,2 l/h Ventilation need for CO2 Vl = q/(Cu-Ci) 122,4 m3/h Air Change Rate N=Vl/Vr 1,112 h-1

Capacity 3 people Airflow pr. person (EN 15251) 7 l/s Airflow for building emission (EN 15251) 0,7 l/s pr. m2 Ventilation need for olfaction Vl = (people*airflowpeople) + (m2*airflowbuilding)51,8 l/s Air Change Rate N = Vl/Vr 1,7 h-1

Values for duplex - living room and kitchen CO2 ventilation need: 0,97 h-1 Olfaction ventilation need: 1,3 h-1 Values for large apartment - example with mechanical ventilation: CO2 pollution (h-1) Olfaction pollution (h-1) Livingroom + kitchen 1,38 1,86 Bathroom 2,43 2,5 Bedroom 1 1,67 2,03 Bedroom 2 (x2) 1,9 2,18 157


Energy demand // Be15 Results

Results from Be15 with passive strategies applied

158

Results from Be15 with active strategies applied


Solar photovoltaics Data needed: A = Area of modules B = Module Efficiency (efficiency of each module) C = Peak Power (the output power when fully solar radiation) D = System Factor (efficiency of the whole system) E = Solar Radiation

B - Module Efficiency Monocrystaline high efficiency: 18% D - System Factor Optimal system with high efficiency inverter: 0,85 E - Radiation kWh/m2 South oriented, 30 degrees inclination: 1152

To achieve a zero energy building, the housing complex must produce as much energy, as it is taking from the grid. The energy demand consists of the energy needed for the total electricity consumption as well as the energy demand for heating, cooling, ventilation and domestic hot water. By calculating the total need it is possible to find the amount of squaremetres needed for Solar PVs for the certain block: The energy demand from class 2020: The total electricity consumption:

18,7 kWh/m2year 22,9 kWh/ m2year

18,7 kWh/m2year/1,8

=

33,3 kWh/m2year

1759,6 m2

=

58594,7 kWh/year

22,9 kWh/m2year

+

33,3 kWh/m2year

(energy need/m2)

x

(m2 of building)

58594,7 kWh/year = C x D x E

=>

C = 58594,7/(0,85 x 1152)

= 59,8 kWpeak

A = (C x 100)/B

=>

A= (59,3 x 100)/18

= 332 m2

(domestic appliances) (energy converted into electricity by the primary energy factor)

needed with module effi ciency of 18 %

159


Natural ventilation

Cross Ventilation The table above illustrates an example of a calculation of natural ventilation in the kitchen and livingroom in the large square duplex. The wind direction is from the southwest, as this is the main direction during july, where overheating could occur and the natural ventilation is needed. The windrose from Aalborg Airport is the reference for windspeeds and percentage, and in this example a windspeed of 6,5 m/s is used. This is the average windspeed from south-west. The openings in north and south are calculated as the area between the window frame in the wall and the frame of the glazing at the lowest point of both. In the south the door opens up vertical, thus the opening is calculated as the area between the frames in the side of the handle. 160

The results shows an AFR of 0,601 m3/s is coming in from the south oriented door, as this is the positive value, and 0,601 m3/s is going out through the north oriented window, as this is the negative value. The cross ventilation moves from south to north: windward to leaward. Furthermore, the table illustrates how the thermal bouyancy affect the AFR in the opposite direction - the positive value is from the north and the negative to the south, as the south opening is slightly higher than the north opening. Therefore, the thermal bouyancy works against the cross ventilation in this situation, but to a lesser extent, thus it does not have a very large impact on the final result.


Indoor climate // BSim Thermal Comfort and overheating for appartment type: Large Duplex

Overheating Large Square Duplex

Overheating Large Square Duplex Shading and Overhang

Shading and Overhang

Shading and no overhang

Shading and no overhang

Overhang without shading

Overhang without shading

No shading or overhang

No shading or overhang Requirement

Requirement 0

20

40

Hours > 28

60

80

100

120

140

0

160

25

50

Hours > 28

Hours > 27

Overheating Large Square Duplex

75

100

125

Hours > 27

Overheating Large Square Duplex Shading and Overhang

Shading and Overhang Shading and no overhang

Shading and no overhang Overhang without shading

Overhang without shading

No shading or overhang

No shading or overhang

Requirement

Requirement 0

25 Hours > 28

50 Hours > 27

75

100

0

25 Hours > 28

50

75

100

125

Hours > 27

161


Indoor climate // BSim Thermal Comfort and overheating for apartment type: Medium

Overheating Medium

Overheating Medium Shading and Overhang

Shading and Overhang Shading and no overhang

Shading and no overhang Overhang without shading

Overhang without shading

No shading or overhang

No shading or overhang

Requirement

Requirement 0

25

50

Hours > 28

75

100

0

125

25 Hours > 28

Hours > 27

50

75

100

75

100

Hours > 27

Overheating Medium

Overheating Medium Shading and Overhang

Shading and Overhang

Shading and no overhang

Shading and no overhang

Overhang without shading

Overhang without shading

No shading or overhang

No shading or overhang Requirement

Requirement 0

25 Hours > 28

162

50 Hours > 27

75

100

0

25 Hours > 28

50 Hours > 27


Indoor climate // BSim Thermal Comfort and Overheating Hours

The medium appartment in the east-west oriented block is simulated for overheating in BSim. The hours above respectively 27 and 28 degrees are within the acceptable amount for residential buildings.

Overheating Medium Shading and Overhang Shading and no overhang Overhang without shading No shading or overhang Requirement 0

25 Hours > 28

50

75

100

Hours > 27

163


Indoor climate // Velux Visualizer

Visual Comfort and Daylight Factors for Large duplex

164


Visual Comfort and Daylight Factors for Medium

165


Visual Comfort and Daylight Factors for critical apartments

Daylight simulation of the ground floor in the north-east corner shows that all rooms has an average daylight factor of 2 % or above.

166

Daylight simulation of a large appartment in the ground floor in the medium and large apartments block.


Indoor climate // BSim Atmospheric Comfort and CO2 level Apartment type: Large Square Duplex Date: 09.08.2002 Situation: Highest temperature

TemperaturesFriday C 9.8.2002 30 29 28 27 26 Temperature in Celcius

25 24 23 22 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12 13

14

15

16 17

18

19

20 21

22

23

24

Hour

CO2 Level

167


Apartment type: Large Square Duplex Date: 13.09.2002 Situation: Highest CO2 level

Temperatures C 13.9.2002 Friday 23.05 23 22.95 22.90 22.85

Temperature in Celcius

22.80 22.75 22.70 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour

CO2 Level

168


Indoor climate // BSim Atmospheric Comfort and CO2 level

Apartment type: Medium Date: 09.08.2002 Situation: Highest temperature

Temperatures C

CO2 Level

169


Apartment type: Medium Date: 11.07.2002 Situation: Highest CO2 level

Temperatures C

CO2 Level

170


Basement & carpark Data needed: 41 carparks 2 handicap Storage for the apartsment in the basement 6 Plant room for the residential area Laundry and drying room

1:1000 basement & carpark

171


Sustainable architecture - the urban village group 9  
Sustainable architecture - the urban village group 9  
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