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EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin

RESTORATION IN PERU A BRIEF ACCOUNT

Héctor Abarca Torres Lublin, 2010


GEOGRAPHY

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RESTORATION IN PERU HISTORICAL REVIEW

A BRIEF ACCOUNT

The biggest thing after the creation of the world (..) is the discovering of the Indies, and they call them New World; and, not that wrong, it is new because it was found again, and is vast and almost as big as the old… It also can be called new because all their things are so much different than ours Francisco Lopez de Gomara, General History of the Indies, Zaragoza, 1552

EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin


THE PRE-INKA NEW LAWS CIVILIZATIONS

7,000 b.C. 1. Chavin Temple, Chavin Culture (X a IV b. C.), Ancash 2. Kuelap Temple, Chachapoyas Culture (900-1470), Amazonas 3 & 4. House Model Pottery Artwork, Chimu Culture (1100-1470), 5. Chanchan Citade, Chimu Culture 6. Mud Relief in Chanchan Citadel, Chimu Culture


THE THENEW INKAS LAWS

XIII - XVI c. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Machu Picchu, Cuzco Coricancha (Temple of the Sun), Cuzco City Capac Nam (The Inka Road) Choquekirao, Cuzco Puruchuco, Lima


THE THENEW INKAS LAWS

XIII - XVI c. 1. Fortress of Saqsaywaman, Cuzco 2. Fortress of Ollantaytambo, Sacred Valley of Cuzco 3. Temple of Pachacamac, Lima 4. Palace of the Inca Hayna Capac, Cuzco City 5. The Stone of the 12 angles, Cuzco City Center 6. Temple of Viracocha, Raqchi, Cuzco,


THE CONQUEST OF PERU

1. General Archive of Indies, Juan de Mijares, 1584-98, Seville 2. The Conquest of Peru, Our Lady of Mercy Church, Cuzco 3. The New Laws, 1542 4. St. James Indian Slayer, Cuzco School of Painting 5. Chapel of House of Trade of Indies The Virgin of the Navigators, Alejo Fernandez, 1531–36, Seville


THE SPANISH NEW LAWS GOLDEN AGE

1. The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, El Greco, Toledo 2. Seville, Alonso Sanchez Coello. 3. Phillip II of Spain, Alonso Sanchez Coello, 1557 4. Saint Dominic of Guzman, Juan Martinez Montanez,1606 Museum of Fine Arts of Seville 5. Life is a Dream, Caldron de la Barca


THE BLACK LEGEND

1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Potosi. In Search of the Light and freedom, Oswaldo Guayasamin, Quito Theodore de Bry, Regionum Indicarum per Hispanos quodam Devastatarum Verissima, Frankfurt , 1598 Auto de Fe (Detail), Francisco Ricci (1683) King Charles II attend auto de fe from a balcony in Madrid's Plaza Mayor on 30 June 1680 The Encounter, Museum of the City of Quito Spain builds castles in the air, Britain makes commerce her care, 1740) in the War of Jenkins' Ear. Vernon 1740 A native parishioner is beaten to death for defending unmarried Andean women and maidens from the lascivious priest


THE NEW LAWS

1. Commemorative canvas of the request to the Inka Don Carlos II King of Spain to allow the Inka nobility into the Holy Office of Inquisition, Lima 2. Union of the Imperial Inca offspring with the Loyola and Borja House, Cuzco School, 1718, 3. Inca Yupanki with the Coat or Arms of Carlos V, Archive on Indies, Seville 4. Succession of the inkas or Kings of Peru, Cathedral of Lima 5. The irascible parish priest raises the sword against a Spanish soldier, New Chronicle and Good Government, Guaman Poma De Ayala, 1615, Copenhaguen


THE TRANSCULTURIZATION NEW LAWS

We cannot strip out the Indians their language, it is better, and more reasonable, that us to learn theirs

1. Procession of the Corpus of Christi in St. Anne (Detail), Diego Quispe Tito, c. 1680, Cuzco 2. Confessionary for priest of Indians, Lima 1585 3. Trilingual Catechism for the instructions of the Indians for the Provincial Council of Lima of 1553, Lima 1554 4. Lexicon of the Quechua Language, Valladolid 1580 5. Vocabulary of the Aymara Language, Juli 1612 6. Art and Vocabulary of the Guarani Language, Madrid, 1640 7. Catechism of the Guarani Language, 1540 8. The priest's Quechua sermon brings to sleep parishioners, Chronicle and Good Government, Guaman Poma de Ayala, 1615,Copenhaguen


THE TRANSCULTURIZATION NEW LAWS

1. St. Toribio of Mogrovejo, 2nd. Bishop of Lima, Church of the Blessed Sacrament, Madrid 2. Apparition of the Virgin Mary to the Inka in the Siege of Cuzo, 1570, 3. Town in the Andes 3. Last Supper with Guinea pig and Chicha wine, 4. Percentage of Native Population in the Americas


THE VICEROYALTY NEW LAWS OF PERU


RESTORATION IN PERU BUILT HERITAGE

A BRIEF ACCOUNT

(Pizarro) does not conquered us but the men of the Inca Empire who are our cooper-skinned ancestors. We descend form the winners and the losers, but we are neither winners nor losers. We are the result of that encounter. We can be Indegenists o Hispanists. The Peruanism unites, heals; the Indigenism and Hispanism badly understood divides, tears us apart. Our obligation is to integrate not disintegrate us Jose Antonio del Busto

EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin


ARCHITECTURE

1. Monastery of St. Catherine, Arequipa 2. Sevilian tiles of the Cloister of the Monastery of St. Dominic, Lima 3. Monastery of St. Dominic over the Temple of the Sun, Cuzco 4. Cupola of the Jesuit Church, Arequipa 5. Cathedral of Lima 6. Monastery of St. Francis of Assisi, Lima


ARCHITECTURE

1. Conde de Superunda St., Lima 2. Mudejar cupola at the Monastery of St. Francis of Assisi, Lima 3. House in Trujillo 4. Torre Tagle Palace, Lima 5. St. James Apostle Church, Lampa, Puno 6. Faรงade detail of the St. Augustine Church, Lima


RURAL HERITAGE

1. Church of Maras, Cuzco 2. Church of St. John the Baptist over the Temple of the Sun, Vilcashuaman, Ayacucho 3. Church of St. Christopher, Rapaz, Lima 4. Church of St. Anthony, Lanchas, Lima 5. Church in Cuzco


STATE OF THE BUILT HERITAGE

1. House in Francisco Pizarro St.,, Lima 2. Church of the St. Cross, Juli 3. Jesuit Church after the 2007 Earthquake, Pisco 4. Church of Our Lady of Rosary, Yauca, Ica 5. Shopping Center above Palace of Inca Pachacutec, Cuzco 6. Church Hermitage of Barranco, Lima 6. St. Joseph Church, Nazca 3. Birth House of St. Martin of Porres, Callao St, Lima


RESTORATION IN PERU BACKGROUND & LEGAL FRAMEWORK

A BRIEF ACCOUNT

EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin


THE LEGAL NEWFRAMEWORK LAWS

THE CULTURAL HERITAGE

POLITICAL CONSTITUTION “property has to be used in harmony with the social interest and it can be Confiscated only for reasons of public only need and use“

CIVIL CODE “land property is subject to the requirements and limitations of the respective dispositions“

ORGANIC LAW OF MUNICIPALITIES “in topics related to land use, housing and collective safety, the city halls are entitled among other actions, to regulate new construction and alterations, demolish buildings, promote the health and safety of urban and overcrowded areas, renew non-habitable urban areas, preserve heritage buildings and sites listed as historical and artistic heritage, control the progressive clearing of unsafe areas subject to hazard and destruction in detriment of its occupants“


TIMELINE

Venice Charter, 1964

Victor Pimentel, Peruvian architect Invited as a signee

The Deliberant Board of Lima, 1964

First Inventory of Built Heritage in Lima

National Institute of Culture, 1972

Conservation gets institutionalism Adaptation to International theories

The Council of Lima, 1980 Patronato de Lima

Ford Foundation , 1984

Private institution promoting education campaigns to foster the benefits of the conservation

Comprehensive Inventory of Built Heritage of Lima from Antiquity to Modern Movement


TIMELINE

UNESCO, World Heritage Sites

Workshop School of Lima

Chan Chan, 1986 Chavin, 1985 Sacred City of Caral, 2009 Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca, 1994

Cultural (Archeological) Sites

City of Cusco, 1983 Historic centre of Lima, 1988 Historic centre of Arequipa, 2000

Cultural (Historical) sites

Huascaran National Park, 1985 Manu National Park, 1987 Rio Abiseo National Park, 1990

Natural Sites

Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, 1983

Mixed Sites

Escuela Taller de Lima

Vocational Schools throughout Peru to learn traditional trades

New Wonder of the Modern World

Macchu Pichu

Ministry of Culture, 2010


THE LEGAL NEWFRAMEWORK LAWS

Ley General del Patrimonio Cultural de la Nación. no. 24047 General law of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation It is understood as cultural good part of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation to every expression of the human task –material or immaterial- that by its importance, value and paleontological, archaeological, architectural, historical, artistic, military, social, anthropological or intellectual meaning.

Cultural Asset

• • • • • • •

100,000 sites, counting only the archeological 1.8 millions of foreign visitors (2006), 80% are cultural tourists. Foreign tourists are only 28% of the sector Constant annual growth of 16% since 1993 Tourism is an industry of US$ 1,545,000,000 (2006). Second source of hard currency Employs 13% of the workforce


THE WORLD NEWHERITAGE LAWS SITES

No specific legislation exists besides the Convention of the World Heritage Sites and the documents for the own management

Peruvian World Heritage Sites

Every human activity carried out within should follow the parameters defined by its respective Master Plan, Plan of Management, or Plan of Public Use aimed to preserve the Exceptional Universal Value of the place, as well as its authenticity and integrity.

UNESCOS’s Convention for the Protection of cultural and Natural Heritage has character of National Law

Issuance of Management Documentation National Institute of Natural Resources

Ministry of Culture

Cultural Heritage

Mixed Cultural & Natural Heritage

Natural Heritage


THE MONUMENT NEW LAWS

1.

Monument Monumento

Every built structure that has a cultural, historical, and social value. It goes from the isolated architectonic creation to the urban or rural site. This comprehend not only great creations but also humble work, that with the time, have acquired a cultural meaning. By its architectonic, historic, artistic, technological, scientific, symbolic, Traditional value have to be preserved, totally or partially

4.983 monuments listed in the Colonial & Republican (Historical) Built Cultural Heritage List

2. Monumental Zone Zona Monumental

Sectors or neighborhoods of the city whose physiognomy should be conserved because:

•Possess an overall environmental urban value. •Possess historical-artistic value. •Has a substantial number of monuments and/or monumental urban areas.

60 monuments areas have been recognized throughout the country


THE MONUMENTS NEW LAWS

3. Monumental Urban Environments Ambientes Urbano Monumentales

Urban spaces (plazas, small squares, streets, etc.) whose physiognomy and elements have an overall urban value, they should be conserved total or partially

386 monumental urban environments have been recognized throughout the country

4. Property of Monumental Value Inmueble de valor monumental

Buildings that according to the Building Code posses architectonic and artistic value but are not necessarily listed as Built Heritage

The degree of protection is given to every project individually. Free assessment is given to Owner when related to small works and to Architects to speed up the Building Permit process


THE LEGAL NEWFRAMEWORK LAWS Ley General de amparo al Patrimonio de la Nación. no. 24047 General law for the protection of the National Heritage

Public Institutions & Municipalities

Technical Office Municipalities

Official list of buildings under municipal protection presented before the Ministry of Culture

Ministry of Culture Heritage Inventory and Cadastre Office

By-Laws and protocols for : •protective actions, •conservation, •administration, •control, •revalorization and •development of historical/monumental centers and sites

Develop an Action plan for: rehabilitation : •Recuperation •retrofitting •un-hovelling •improve habitability, health and safety, and •structural upgrade

To avoid: •empirical, irregular and clandestine interventions to the structures and architectonic elements •Increase of precarity

Designation is record in Property Deeds The Office of Heritage Control reviews all the projects Only PROLIMA issues Building Permits


LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Ley General de amparo al Patrimonio de la Naci贸n. no. 24047 General law for the protection of the National Heritage

works can be done cooperatively under owner/tenant agreements supervised by the municipality

city can cover the costs at owners/tenet expense

owners obligations to do improvements

building permit fees are exempted Tenants can set associations to make possible the future transfer of property taking into account that the current conditions of decay do not allow the process of subdivision and strata until its final rehabilitation Buildings are not subject to legal actions for eviction due to inhabitability


CULTURAL MANAGEMENT The Getty Institute World Monument Fund Catholic University Sedes Sapietiae Archbishopric of Lima

Foreign Universities

Catholic University Sedes Sapietiae

Other Donors

Steering Committee

Funding

Cultural Asset Political support

Local Dioceses

Technical support

Ministry of Culture Heritage Board

Local Municipality we invite the Mayor to the Opening ceremony in exchange of speeding up permits and condoning fees


RESTORATION IN PERU UNDERTAKEN PROJECTS

A BRIEF ACCOUNT

EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin


SUCCESSFUL STORIES

CASSINELLI BALCONY, Late XIX c.


SUCCESSFUL STORIES

ST. PETER OF CARABAYLLO, 1571


SUCCESSFUL STORIES ST. PETER OF CARABAYLLO, 1571


SUCCESSFUL STORIES

Choral Ensemble Lima Triumphante

ST. LIBERATA CHURCH, 1716


RESTORATION IN PERU THE SITE

A BRIEF ACCOUNT

EUROPEAN MASTER OR DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR OF BUILDING 2009-2010 Specialization Stage – Polytechnic University of Lublin


THE LIMA, NEW 1748 LAWS

Proprietorship Archbishopric of Lima Welfare Society of Lima University of St. Mark

Rimac District or Under the Bridge


LIMA, THE NEW WORLD LAWS HERITAGE SITE

VICEROYAL LAYOUT, XVI-XIX c. NEW ROAD DESIGN OVER EXISTING XIX, XX c. OPENING OF STREETS (CHANGE OF THE ORIGINA SCHEME), XX c. WIDENING OF STREETS, XX c. AREA DESIGNATED AS WORLD HERITAGE


THE THENEW RIMAC LAWS

THE VALLEY OF LIMA


THE ANALISYS NEW LAWS LOST OF NATIONAL HEIRLOOM

DECAY OF TANGIBLE CULTURAL ASSESTS OF THE RIMAC DISTRICT

LOST OF UNESCO SUPPORT

THE CULTURAL ASSESTS OF THE RIMAC DISTRICT ARE UNDER THE RISK TO BE LOST

THE NEIGHBOURS DO NOT RECOGNISE THEIR CULTURAL CAPITAL

BUILDINGS IN RISK OF COLLAPSE

ARTWORK ENDANGERED

CAOTHIC GROWTH

LOW BENEFITS FROM TOURISM

LACK OF PROMOTION NOBODY LOVES WHAT THEY DON’T KNOW

NO NETWORK OF TOURISTIC SERVICES

DRUGDEALING / THIEVES

ILLICIT TRAFFIC OF ART

NOT WELL CARED AND DISPLAYED

NOT CONSERVATION PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN

NOT DESIGNATED NATIONAL HERITAGE

LACK OF SECURITY

WEAK NATIONAL CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

LACK OF PRIVATE INVESTMENT

BUREOCRACY IN BUILDING PERMIT FLOW

NOT ECONOMIC BENEFICTS

NOT PROTECTED BY-LAW

LACK OF LOCAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

UNCLEAR CULTURAL POLICY

NO POWER OF DECISION

LOW BUDGET


THE THENEW RIMAC, LAWS 2010

Restoration in Peru. A brief account  

Built heritage conservation management system in Peru

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