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Commemorating Anzac & Armistice Day

Group 6: Denise Wong/ Erin Fitzpatrick/ Andrea Legere/ Lucia Cha


Cover Page: Kiwi soldier estabilishes a home from home in western front. 2005 pg11 ANZAC Memories. Donovan. Above: 1st Anzac Corps moving along the treelined Ypres road during the battle of polygon wood, Passchendaele. 2005 pg30 ANZAC Memories. Donovan.

Our research is organised as a time-line report in order to understand the campaign and landscape through the journey of every step, sight and emotion that soldiers have captured and recorded during this bloody warfare.


Contents Section 1: Anzac and Gallipoli Timeline

Page

Section 3: War Memorials

a. World War One

4

a. History of Memorials

38

b. NZ Expeditionary Force

4

b. Typology Memorials

42

c. Six Weeks on Board

6

d. Training in the Desert

6

e. The Landing

10

f. Armistice

16

g. Acensing to Chunuk Bair

20

h. Summary of the Last Months in Gallipoli

24

i. Evacuation of Gallipoli

26

j. Significance of Gallipoli

26

Section 2: Flora, Founa, Hydrology and Geology a. Landscape Overview

28

Section 4: Design Concept a. Concept Statement

48

Section 5: Conclusion a. Conclusion

52


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

World War One

1914 - 1918

Why the war started & how New Zealand got involved June 28 1914: Franz Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo.”This was the immediate cause of the Great War though serious trouble had been brewing for some time”. (Trueman, 2000-2012)

SEASON:

AUTUMN

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

13-21 C O

CONDITION:

WARM AND HUMD

NZ Expeditionary force

New Zealanders celebrated in the streets; they were ‘happily at war’.

August 4 1914: By Britain declaring war against Germany, because the Germans had invaded Belgium, official World War One has officially begun. France and Russian supported Britain whilst Austria supported Germany. Italy did not get involved until later in the war. (Trueman, 2000-2012)

August 5 1914

General: “Well Corps Sergeant Bassett. Who the hell let you into the army?”

New Zealand entering the war

Sgt Bassett: ‘No one especially sir. First time they failed me on chest measurement, second time too, third time lucky the doctor was drunk and the measuring type was lost.” (BradleyDale, 1992)

June (Late) 1914: The rumblings of war in Europe reached New Zealand. Throughout the nation there was widespread enthusiasm for New Zealand’s preparedness for war and her willingness to contribute to any fighting. August 1914: New Zealand expeditionary force was well prepared, which was lead by Major General Sir Alexander Godley from England. August 5 1914(3pm): The Governor of New Zealand, Lord Liverpool, along with the Prime Minister Sir William Marsey and Opposition Leader Sir Joseph Ward informed the people of New Zealand that “War has broken out with Germany”. New Zealanders celebrated in the streets; they were HAPPILY AT WAR.

September 1914: New Zealand was ready for the war. •

82% of the New Zealand troops had previous military experience or training. The Defence Act of 1909 had established a system of compulsory military training.

Anzacs were the first army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary force that was formed in Egypt.

The Anzacs were the only all volunteer army in World War I.

By mid 1914 New Zealand troops were better organised than Australian troops

October 16 1914: The convoy of ten transport ships finally left New Zealand shores. “The Cramped conditions restricted opportunities for training and drill, so the first days at the sea were passed on deck smoking and playing cards in the sun”. Figure 1: Franz Ferdinand. (http:// www.shmoop.com/wwi/photo-franzferdinand.html)

Figure 2: King George V (http://www. gjenvick.com

Figure 3: Mehmet VI (http://ottomanempire.info/end.htm)

4

Top: Figure 4: Marching off to war, Queen st Auckland. pg1 ANZAC Memories. Donovan. 2005 Bottom: Figure 5: Leaving for war. pg2 ANZAC Memories. Donovan. 2005


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

WINTER

Six Weeks on Board •

While in training, the New Zealanders had been fed the best food the country could supply, but the ship’s food was different. Big breakfasts and lunches but light dinners .

They had their drill and physical training to perform.

The officers were doing their best to harden the men. Their beer was stopped,cigarette smoking was prohibited.

SEASON:

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

17-27 C O

CONDITION:

MILD WITH SOME RAIN

6

Training in the Desert

The Convoy Finally berthed at

December 3 1914

Alexandria, Egypt

After six weeks cooped up at sea the men were looking forward to disembarking, but they were disappointed that Egypt, and not England, was their destination.

“It was now obvious they wouldn’t be home for Christmas”

Anzac Cove, Gallipoli 25th April 1915

(Stowers, 2005, pg22).

Cairo, Egypt January 1915

Alexandria, Egypt 3rd December 1914

Left: Figure 7: NZ training in Egypt. pg9 ANZAC Memories. Donovan. 2005

December 3 1914 (6am): The convoy finally berthed at Alexandria, Egypt.

Brisbane, Australia

New Zealand 16th October 1914 Figure 6: Route of the journey the ANAZCs have travelled. http://maps.google.co.nz

Godly issued a special order to the men explain the late change plans. “Owing to unfortunate circumstances it has been decided the NZ Expeditionary forces shall do its training in Egypt before proceeding to the front instead of England, as had been originally intended (Stowers, 2005, pg22).

The training has been hardened. Also due to the extreme danger and risk of receiving sexual transmitted diseases by having connection with the local women and medical supplies were available at camp for preventative measures and protection of the men.(Stowers, 2005, pg23).

The troops were bored and missed Christmas with their families. They were expecting the war to finish by Christmas. “No-one envisaged the horror of trench warfare”. (Trueman, 2000-2012)

April 1915: The spread of venereal disease had hospitalised 445 New Zealand soldiers


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

SEASON:

SPRING

“Gallipoli was a Bastard of a Place”

(A. White 2002)

“Gallipoli was a bastard place. I never understood what we were fighting for. All I could think of was that I never wanted to go back to the bloody place.” (Alber White, aged 100, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 May 2002)

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

12 C O

CONDITION:

MILD CLIMATE

8

April 25 1915

March 18 1915 (11.30am): British and France warships began a grand assault against Turkish inner forts and batteries. March 26 1915: ‘Warrimoo’ A Maori contingent of 14 officers and 425 other ranks arrived with the 3rd Reinforcements at Alexandria abord. April 12 1915: At Zeitoun, the New Zealand destined for Gallipoli (awake in the early morning) April 21 1915: Speech by Sir Ian Hamilton

Figure 9: Sir Ian Hamilton. (StowersR, 2005, pg29)

Figure 8: Wellington Troops on Alexandria wharf. (R.Stowers. 2005, pg30)

“Soldier of France and King: Before us lies an adventure unprecedented in modern war. Together with our comrades of the fleet we are about to force a landing upon an open beach in face of positions, which have been vaunted by our enemies as impregnable. The landing will be made good by the help of God and the Navy; the position will be stormed, and the war brought one step nearer to a glorious close. ‘Remember’ said Lord Kitchener, when bidding adieu to your commander, ‘Remember, once you set upon the Gallipoli

Peninsular, you must fight the thing through finish. ‘The whole world will be watching your progress. Lets prove ourselves worthy of the great feat of arms entrusted to us. Ian Hamilton, General.”


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

The Landing

April 25 1915

Of the ANZACs at Ari Burnu (Anzac Cove)

SEASON:

SPRING

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

12 C O

CONDITION:

MILD CLIMATE

“Looking down at the bottom of the sea, you could see a carpet of dead men, who had been shot getting out of the boat.” (Winter, 1994, para 20) “Silent forms lay scattered on the beach everywhere.”

(King, 2003, pg 27)

Figure 10: The Landing. (flyvetnet.com/myPictures/war/Armistice/GoinglittleinAtGallipoli01A.jpg) April 25 1915: Over 12,000 Anzacs landed on the shore of Ari Burnu (now known as Anzac Cove) on the morning of the 25th April 1915, more than a mile north of the planned landing point. (King, 2003, pg 24)

Figure 12: The New Zealanders on beach. (King 2003, pg36)

Once on the beach the soldiers found a tough terrain of “rocky, steep jagged hillsides covered with [low] shrubs, boulders and Turkish machine gun pits.”

“Some [men] did not even know what country they were attacking… nor who they would be shooting at.” (King, 2003, pg 24) The order was issued and the Australians rose to the challenge, jumping into the water and storming the beach, under heavy enemy fire. (King, 2003, pg 25) The Australians had been expecting a 2700 metre front; instead they were confined in 600-800 metres. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg19)

(Dixon, 2000, para 4)

The cliffs shot up abruptly to about 121 metres from the beach. (King, 2003, pg 32). Figure 11: Tow. (Cornek Toker,2004, pg17)

Figure 13: The environment. (www.anzacsite.gov.nz/5environment/images.html)

10


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

SEASON:

SPRING

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

12 C O

CONDITION:

MILD CLIMATE

12

“The attack was chaos as the men pushed through tangled ravines and spurs.” (25 April 1915 – The Gallipoli Campaign, 2011, para 4)

The fight for Anzac Cove was as much with the landscape as it was with the Turks.

By 5.45am Turkish reinforcements were on the march, joined by Mustafa Kemal’s men at 8 am. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg 24)

(Shadbolt, 1984)

Figure 15: Turks. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg44v) As the Australians progressed, British forces had begun the attack on Cape Helles.

Co-ordinated attacks on several fronts were needed to seize the peninsular. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg 20)

Figure 16: fallen soldiers. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg35)

Figure 14: Tow. (Young,R, 2012, Remebering Gallipoli, Auckland museum)

“The wounded and killed were lying about in all directions. I should say a thousand or more of them. The noise was terrific,” The New Zealanders started landing around 9 am.

Units were divided and “there were no two men in the same battalion together” as they pushed forward through the rough landscape. (Steel, 1999, pg 111)

explains Hartley Palmer in Maurice Shadbolt’s book Voices of Gallipoli, 1988.

“The sea at the waters edge was red with blood.”

(King, 2003, pg 25)

“Most soldiers who landed on 25 April 1915 had never been in battle; volunteering and excited to be included.” (King, 2003, pg 32)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

SEASON:

SPRING

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

12 C O

CONDITION:

MILD CLIMATE

14

The shooting had slowed since the first Australians’ landing and it was almost calm as the New Zealand soldiers “advanced in the cold of the morning, through thick undergrowth, heavy with dew and fragrant with the perfume of wildflowers. Birds were singing in the bushes and the sun was bright overhead.” (Winter, 1944, para 34) The Anzacs had very few options; digging in was their only choice. (Early Battle – The Gallipoli Campaign, 2011, para 2)

Right: Figure 19: Highlighted Map. (http:// www.pap-to-pass.org/Gallipoli.htm).

Figure 17: Trenchs. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg61)

“The digging of defensive cover while under fire became such a priority during Gallipoli that by the end of the campaign the Anzac Corps became known simply as ‘The Diggers’.” (Dixon, 2000, para 8) “The butchery on both sides was gruesome [but] by noon we were all dug in”. (King, 2003, pg 31) Evacuation was considered but rejected.

The Turks suffered too. “We started to see the effects of battle on our side too. As minutes passed, fighting became more intense and horrendous” says twenty year old Ahmet Mucip, a Turkish lieutenant. (Cornek & Toker, 2004, pg 29)

Although the Anzacs put up a very strong fight, the Turks retaliated with constant counter attacks throughout the afternoon and evening. So by the end of the day this resulted in the Anzacs only occupying about one square kilometre of land. (King, 2003, pg 26) Figure 18: Landing plan. (http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/bgrnd.html)

“Thus ended the worst day I have ever witnessed.” In the words of Pte. James Suggett-Hogan of the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Battalion. (King, 2003, pg 32)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

Armistice

May 24 1915

The Soul of Man is Immortal and Imperishable. (Plato, Anzac Memories)

SEASON:

SPRING

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

16 C O

CONDITION:

RAINY AND MUDDY

16

Quote: “Both sides had learned a lot about their enemy; they were close at hand. Some had even shaken hands. A new respect grew especailly among the Anzacs for Jacko as he became called, Johnny Turk. He got a nickname and he became that bloke on the other side who you had to kill, who was trying to kill you. But he was someone you had to respect as well.” (Ornek & Toker, 2004, pg 57)

On the 20th of May under the order of Turkish General Mustafa Kemal, later known as Ataturk, a soldier from the Turkish army was sent across enemy lines to propose a day without fighting to bury the dead. An agreement was made and on May 24th from 7:30am-4:30pm both sides worked to bury the large number of fallen soldiers, some which had been dead for over a month. During this day there was an odd calmness on the battlefield and both sides were able to see each other as human beings, not a faceless enemy. The Anzacs buried their dead on their half of no-man’s-land, while the Turks did the same on their half with men from both sides exchanging cigarettes. (King, 2003. Pg 75) When the time of the truce ended both sides returned to their trenches and the fighting commenced the following day, but a new respect and familiarity had been formed between the two sides.

Figure 21: Burial on Armistice day. (http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WaiNewZ-c10-2.html)

Figure 20: Turk soldier with the white flag (http://www.nzetc.org/tm/ scholarly/tei-WaiNewZ-c10-2.html)

Quote: “The Turkish captain with me said: ‘At this spectacle even the most gentle must feel savage, and the most savage must weep.’ I talked to the Turks one of whom pointed to the graves ‘That’s politics’ he said . Then he pointed to the dead bodies and said: ‘ That’s diplomacy. God pity all of us poor soldiers.’” Aubrey Herbert, British Intelligence officer serving with the Anzacs. He supervised the armistice with his Turkish counterparts. (Ornek & Toker, 2004, pg 55)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE Ataturk became well respected for proposing the armistice, both among his coleagues and enemies, as Armistice was a day of compassion within the bloody masacre that was Gallipoli.

SEASON:

SPRING

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

16 C O

CONDITION:

RAINY AND MUDDY

18

New Zealanders take over Courtney’s and Quinn’s: June 1 1915

Monuments commemorating this day exist in both Wellington New Zealand,and in Gallipoli Turkey.

“Those heroes who shed their blood and lost their lives, you are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side in this country of ours. You, the mothers who sent their sons from far away countries wipe away your tears, your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land they become our sons as well.”

Figure 23: Looking from Table Top towards the sea. (Stowers, 2005 pg100)

Figure 24: The rear slopes to Countney’s Post. (Stowers, 2005, pg109)

Russell Weir; (Tolerton, In the shadow of war p. 202)

New Zealanders were constantly threatened by Turkish snipers overlooking Monash Gully. The photographer could not risk raising his head too far.(Stowers, 2005, pg117)

Above: Figure 22: Mustafal Kemal Ataturk ( http://www.anzacsite.gov. au/2visiting/touranzac11.html) Right: Figure 23: The NZ national memorial and Ataturk Memorial. (http://envoyinthemed.blogspot. co.nz/2011/09/gallipoli.html)

Above: Figure 25: Behind the Quinn’s Post. (Stowers, 2005, pg117) Left: Figure 26: Looking down from Courtney’s Post. (Stowers, 2005, pg128)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

SEASON:

SUMMER

Ascending to Chunuk Bair

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

22-24 C O

CONDITION:

HOT AND SUNNY

20

August 1915

The Nek – Baby 700 – Battleship Hill – Gunner’s Hill – The Pinnacle - Turks Hump –Chunuk Bair

From The Nek, the plan is to advance into Baby 700 and secure Mortar Ridge. To do this, they had to overcome the Turkish snipers positioned along Dead Man’s Ridge.

It had already been a week since that ill fated first landing on Anzac Cove, one mile (1.6km) north of where they were supposed to land. Instead of gentle slopes and easily accessible gullies, the terrain ahead of those who were not killed was a tangle of steep ravines, gullies, razorback ridges and bluffs. The only blessing in disguise was its closer proximity to Chunuk Bair. Situated between two knolls, this half mile long beach (800m) looks inland toward a steep scrub covered slope which ran to the skyline about 300 feet (91m) high.

By now, the battle ground is littered with the stench of dead and injured soldiers from both sides. It was hard to keep up with morale in the midst of black bodies which were horrible to look at, swelled up stretching out the clothing and fell to pieces when touched.

Figure 27: Similar terrain encountered by the New Zealanders on the night of 6-7 August. (Stowers, 2005, pg142)

A couple of gullies split the hillside, each with a narrow winding gutter about six feet (1.8m) deep and wide at its base. The entire landscape of slopes and gutters were covered in low arbutus-type scrub. Figure 26: Final front line. (King, 2003, pgxii)

The weather was hot with a bit of a breeze. Major White was not too preoccupied by grim warfare to record that he saw a blackbird and heard him singing gaily, and pretty wildflowers scattered in the landscape.


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

New Zealanders ascended further north to take over Courtney’s Post and then Quinn’s Post which was the most important. Losing this post to the Turks would give them a vantage point from which they can fire on Shrapnel and Monash Gullies. A successful memorial is one which evokes emotions of involvement somehow in the history of that war which has taken so many lives. It involves us directly or indirectly whether we New Zealanders, Turkish or not. Being able to go to a memorial site and understand as a human being and citizen of our Earth, the impact of human sacrifices in war and the ability of different human races to work together and respect each other.

SEASON:

SUMMER

22-24 C O

CONDITION:

HOT AND SUNNY

22

May 29 1915: Following the death of Major Quinn when he was shot as he was assessing if it was safe for his troops to advance into this exposed crest, the Canterbury Infantry Battalion was ordered to defend Quinn’s Post.. Two days later June 1 1915: The New Zealand Infantry Brigade took over Quinn’s and Courtney’s Post. The following week saw more casualties ad the New Zealanders advanced further to take over Pope’s Hill. Reinforcements for the New Zealand Infantry arrived on Anzac on June 8, bringing the four battalions there closer to full strength. June 29 1915: We had gained control of Russell’s Top, even successfully defended a fierce offensive attack from the Turks planned by Mustafa Kemal. August 7 1915: An attempt to snatch Hill 971 and Chunuk Bair from the Turks started soon after daybreak so that the coast would be clear for the Light Horse to mount their diversionary action at the Nek August 9 1915: It was a short lived victory as the Anzacs only got to hold on to Chunuk Bair for a day before being driven back down by the Turks

Figure 29: The Battle of Chunuk Bair, 8-9 August. (Stowers, 2005, pg170)

Figure 30: View from lower slopes of Chunuk Bair looking along Rhododendron Spur with the northern slopes of Battleship Hill on left (Stowers, 2005, pg169)

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

Figure 31: Troops resting in trench. (king, 2003, pg232, 235)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

Summary of the Last Months in Gallipoli September

Following the brief and costly capture and loss of Chunuck bair, the Allied troops at Galliopli could only hope to hold a defensive against the Turkish troops. Both sides began to show signs of exhaustion from the brutal battles that occurred earlier in the campaign. Their were no major gains of losses made by either side, both sides held their lines.

SEASON:

AUTUMN

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

20-22 C O

CONDITION:

WARM AND HUMD

“By October, the Campaign at Gallipoi had ground to a halt. The Anzacs were not advancing nor were they retreating. They were in limbo-like the Turks on the other side of the no-man’s-land between the trenches. In fact the frontline soldiers had more in common with their enemy than they did with their superior officers back in comfortable quarters back at the beach, or their generals out at sea on ships, or the politicians directing the attack from London. So, although it was against orders, the soldiers from opposing trenches began to get together swapping friendly notes, cigarettes, biscuits and bully beef.” (King, 2003. pg 188)

24

Figure 34: General Monro (www.19141918.net/PIX/monro.jpg)

Disease was a mounting problem that effected both sides and many men were unable to fight.

November The soldiers of both sides endured brutal weather during this month, downpours flooded trenches and men drowned. The cold and damp conditions caused illness to spread across the camps.The need for an evacuation was confirmed by the harshness of the weather conditions which would only continue to worsen as the winter months set in, The addition of a new more accurate weapon to the Turkish artillery prepetuated the hopelessness of the situation. ( King, 2003. pg 216) The request for evacuation now only needed to be confirmed by Lord Kitchener who arrived in November to examine the conditions. This was the next step before the British government would authorise the evacuation. (King, 2003. pg 216)

Figure 32: Anzac Troops waiting. ( www.nzhistory.net.nz/files/images. stories/galll-010.jpg)

Figure 33: System Dug outs at Anzac Beach. (King, 2003, pg196)

October General Hamilton was replaced and in his place came General Monro unlike General Hamilton, who did not want to evacuate the troops, General Monro quickly saw that to stay would only mean more loss of men and that capturing Gallipoli was unattainable. In late October General Monro proposed an evacuation of the troops from Gallipoli. Figure 35: winter storm. ( Ornek and Toker, 2004, pg108)


CLIMATE OF:

ANZAC AND GALLIPOLI TIME LINE

Evacuation of Gallipoli

Throughout December the troops were evacuated from Gallipoli.

December 1-20 1915

SEASON:

WINTER

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE:

2-4 C O

CONDITION:

WINDY AND COLD

26

Significance of Gallipoli Throughout December the troops were evacuated from Gallipoli.

While the was no real militaristic gain for either side during the campaign, the brutal battles and sacrifice of the Anzacs and the the Turkish soldiers gained them a place on the world scale. New Zealand, Australia and Turkey all gained status as their own country following the war. Although Gallipoli was a terrible event in which many men were lost their lives, it is an important moment in history that contributes to identity of each country.

“The Gallipoli campaign was the ‘baptism with fire’ for the young countries of the Australians and the New Zealanders. Their courage and tenacity inspired their nations and created an Anzac Legend which is still part of their national identity today” (Ornek & Toker, 2004, pg 111)

Figure 36: winter storm. (Ornek and Toker, 2004, pg108)

“Gallipoli made Mustafa Kemal. After the Ottoman surrender, he lead the Turks against the occupying forces and won back his country’s independence. He then established a secular government and became its first president. To the world he became known as Ataturk.” (Ornek & Toker, 2004, pg 113)

“ Remarkably, the Anzacs evacuated Gallipoli so skillfully, they turned retreat into a victory. They got the 80,000 soldiers off the beaches with no losses.” (King, 2003. pg 239)

On December 20th all the troops had safely departed from Gallipoli and the campaign ended.

“ I am ashamed of leaving so many of my pals behind. We all came here together, full of hope and in the furtherance of that hope may have died. Their hopes and their bones are scattered in this desolate waste we are about to desert.....Those of us who survive will be tormented by this fiasco even though it was no fault of ours. We fought well and suffered dreadfully. We could not do more but in the end we deserted them.” (Ornek & Toker, 2004, pg 110)

Figure 37: A Canterbury Riffleman salutes the remains of New Zealanders brfore their burial on Chunuk Bair in 1918. (Stowers, 2005, pg258)


28

FLORA, FAUNA, HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY

Landscape Overview The Physical Context of the Gallipoli Peninsular

A relatively small piece of land with historical significance lies to the west of mainland Turkey separated by an important body of water, The Dardanelles to the south, the Marmara Sea to the north and the Bosphorus, a small channel which divides Istanbul to the far north of this peninsula. Together they form an important body of water to the east of the Gallipoli Peninsula which affect sea currents, wind patterns, marine ecology, migration of birds, biodiversity and cultural migration routes from which evolved the human ecology and cultural history of this country.

Further up Kirectepe Sulva Point

Sea level fluctuations have left behind stream terraces along the valleys. Most noticeable are those at elevations which are between 8m to 35m. Geological formations on the Peninsula include basement rocks on the north and metamorphic rocks to the west of Sakuy. To the south of the northeast-southewest fault line passing through Yolagzi village is a gently south dipping almost flat terrain which is part dislocated by vertical faults. Next to the small faults, local dips can be as high as 75 degrees. In comparison to the north of this faultline, the topography is much more folded with steep dipping beds and vertical fault planes . This fault line puts the Peninsula within the first degree seismicity zone under the Turkish seismic classification system.

Sulva Point

There is no important groundwater deposits even though the geologic formations composes of rock types high in porosity and permeability. They have tried boreholes to over 100m deep with no successful discovery of good water sources for irrigation. Hydrologically, the whole of the peninsula ‘s water needs are met by willow wells between 3m and 11m with water levels between 2m and 4m. There are only two water sources which have an important flow rate in this Peninsula. One of these is north of the Ocakh village which yields 5 litres per second and supplies water to Gelibolu town. The other one is a water spring near the Galata village which has a flow rate of 10 litres per second. There are other water sources in the Peninsula which yielcd between 0.1 litres per second to 0.5 litres per second. The streams in the Peninsula drain either into the Gulf of Saros or the Dardanelles. As a general rule The Gallipoli peninsula has been lacking in a clear initiative to restore and protect its special natural areas which has unique sea and land features.

Salt Lake

Russell’s Top

Maquis areas which have been afforested or converted into agricultural land , sandy beaches occupied by private holiday homes, lack of monitoring and control in the use of pesticides and insecticides, indiscriminate hunting and fishing have seen a decrease in the health of the marine and land ecosystems on this peninsula. As such, it is imperative that the protected natural area identity of the peninsula should be a peace issue with marine and land ecology issues elaborating the themes of peace. Figure 38: Simple Geography map. (Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg3)


30

FLORA, FAUNA, HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY Transect 1 Kirectepe (NTH)

Salt Lake

Hill 971 + Chunuk Bair

Anzac Cove

Figure 40: Landscape Photos/ Trench map. (Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg145/ 86)


FLORA, FAUNA, HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY

32

Transect 2

Figure 39: Landscape Photos. (Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg145)


34

FLORA, FAUNA, HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY Environmental Issues of Gallipoli

Natural Environment

The vegetation and flora on this Peninsula have similar characteristics of the Mediterranean floristic Region. Some of the plant species found here include Pinus brutia, Olea europea var, oleasteer, Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera and Arbutus andrache In 1924 Turril identified 472 species belonging to 71 families and Leguminosae (representated by 68 species) on the Peninsula. He suggested these six categories of vegetation: 1. high maquis – oak (Quercus trojana), eastern strawberry tree (Arbutus andachne), pine (Pinus spp) cotoneaster (Cotoneaster salicifolia), myrtle (Myrtus communis) 2. low maquis – Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera), cistus (Cistus salvilfolius), dork thyme (Coridothymus capitatus), milkwetch (Astragallus trojanus), prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus), tree heath (Erica arborea), Thymelaea spp, Jerusalem thorn (Paliurus aculeatus) and velani oak (Quercus aegilops) 3. Rich herb vegetation and grasslands – vegetation along the streams and creeas consis of trees of Salix spp and Platanus spp, climbing plants such as Rubus, Periploca Clematis, Althaea, Convolvulus spp 4. salty march vegetation – around the Salt Lake, Limonium, Goniolimon, Centaurium spp, Frankenia, Polygonum maritimum and characteristical marsh herbs and weeds 5. sand dune vegetation – on the sand dunes between the shore and the Lake in Suvla, characteristics plants are weeds, various Eryngium spp, Gancratium spp and Marsdenia erecta. Vegetation on the shore side is a mixture of various shrubs such as Quercus Coccifera, Capparis, Paliurus spp, Astragalus spp, unidentified herbs and Compositae 6. shore vegetation – consisting mainly of peebles, plants observed are Eryngium spp, Mathiola spp, Salicorna spp, Cacile spp

Figure 41: Plants that can be found in Gallipoli Penisula. (Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg148)


36

FLORA, FAUNA, HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY

The fauna includes four big game bird species, more than 45 fish species and 14 sea shells. The diverse bird life reflects on the major habitats on this Peninsula. These include warblers, wheatears, larks, waterfowls, Yelkouan Shearwater, white storks, pelicans and raptors. Amphibians are scarce and found only at wet areas and include different species of toads. The Salt Lake on the Peninsula was once an estuary type of ecosystems with its outlet being the Aegean sea. Sand dune ecosystems and beaches are highly disturbed during summer because of the heavy traffic from people coming to these holiday houses on the coast. There are numerous valleys which are both wet and dry, each reflecting a sensitive ecosystem and of historical significance being battlefields and past battle zones.

The Turkish government does not have a clear or adequately coordinated program for the conservation of the natural environment . Environmental blunders have been commonplace with fish farming companies allowed to operate in the lagoonal Salt Lake which is an ecologically sensitive area, holiday houses built on agricultural land and on beaches. All of these have impacted on the maquis and forests disappearing, marine and land ecological systems disturbed impacting on the flora and fauna in the area.

Streams and Water Shed Areas

The resilience of this landscape has been shown through a disturbance from a series of forest fires in 1994, and between 1980 to 1990. The dry summer months with strong winds exacerbate fire risks on this Peninsula. The 1994 fire destroyed 4,049 ha of forest in and around the Anzac area. According to the Forestry Management Plan prepared after the fire, 674 ha of the total 4,049 ha were maquis mixed with pine and oak trees with the rest being forests of a high quality.

Figure 40: Bird, insect and marin species that are found in Gallipoli Peninsular/Hydrology Map/ Marine species. (Middle East Tchnical University, 1997, 2005, pg174/ 10/ 149)


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WAR MEMORIALS

War Memorials History of War Memorials

War memorials have been erected by humans to remember the event and provides a place for people to pay tribute to those who were injured or died for their country or cause. Historically, as a result of the devastation and loss of life after the First World War, memorials dedicated to those who lost their lives were built all over the world. Prior to that in Napoleon’s day, war memorials were built mainly to commemorate victories. A good example is the famous Arc de Triomphe in Paris which remains a tourist attraction and a significant monument in the city next to The Louvre and Champ Elysees.

Massive monuments constructed as a result of the First World War remain a popular destination for decendents of those who fought in the war and tourists. The Menin Gate at Ypres and the Thiepval memorial on the Somme, Liberty Memorial in Kansas City and the Cenotaph in London which relates to the Empire in general are some significant World War I memorials. Pacifist war memorials which relate to war and peace to commemorate the glorious dead sprung up after World War I in France. They provoked anger amongst veterans and the military. The most famous is at Gentioux-Pigerolles in Creuse where a list of names of the fallen on a column next to the inscription “Maudite soit la guerre” (cursed be war) evoked such a lot of emotions that it was not officially inaugurated until 1990 and soldiers were ordered to turn their heads as they walk past this memorial. Controversial anti-war memorials or land art sculptures also followed on from a global sentiment toward peace and portrayal of the senselessness of war. The Field of Figures created by Alois Wuensche-Mitterecker as an anti-war memorial is one such example. The following pictures were taken during a guided tour as visitors approach the valley of the Franconian Jurassic Mountains, Germany.

World War II and later wars such as the Korean War and Vietnam War have led the way to extensions and redesign to historically connect with older world wars. Then came the newer contemporary designs of memorials such as that in New York to commemorate the innocent victims of the September 11 terrorist attack on The Twin Towers.

Figure 41: Champs Elysees. (http://belongtrip.blogspot.co.nz/2012/01/france-travel-insurance-arc-de-triomphe.html)

Figure 42: The Cenotaph in Whitehall, London. (http:// Figure 43 The Liberty Memorial, National Figure 44: The Gentioux-Pigerolles in Creuse. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_memorial) World War I memorial of the USA in (http://images.inmagine.com/400nwm/iris/ Kansas City, Missouri. (http://en.wikipedia. photononstop-055/ptg01489699.jpg) org/wiki/War_memorial)


40

WAR MEMORIALS The Figurenfeld near Eichstaett, Germany The sculptures embedded in a small valley of the Franconian Jurassic Mountains (Fraenkische Alb) constitute an early example of “land art.” They were created by Alois Wuensche-Mitterecker as an anti-war memorial. (Information and images are referenced by http://www.art-in-society.de/)

Approaching the valley... 
Parts of two sculptures are already visible while most of the Figurenfeld is embedded in the hollow in front of the visitors.

Looking back on it, from on high..

One of the “guardian” sculptures, on high, that look down to the “figurenfeld” or field of sculptures 
is seen to the right of the visitors... A close-up of the Figurenfeld


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WAR MEMORIALS Typology of War Memorials of the 20th century

Statues and Sculptures

Monuments Most common form of memorial instillation of the 20th century, many are large structures or statues built of stone or bronze. The structures are used to commemorate lost soldiers or injured of war and the names of the soldiers are usually displayed on the plaques or are carved into the structure. Monuments are built to represent the sacrifice, success, and bravery of the soldiers and to some extent their country. Monuments are generally a statement of nationalism as well as remembrance. Some examples of forms of monuments that are used throughout the 20th century are:

Cenotaph

Obelisk

Figure 47: Statues and Sculptures. (http://www. nzdf.mil.nz/nr/rdonlyres/47e10b50-d04c-4a0684ad-3b832c51f744/0/wn08004841.jpg)

Memorial Walls

Figure 45: Cenotaph. (http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/files/images/ stories/ww1-mems/cant/can-omih.jpg)

Figure 46: Obelisk. (http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/british_ cemeteries_memorials/cenotaph_london.JPG)

Figure 48: Memorial Walls. (http://www.trumanblog.com/ wp-content/uploads/2010/11/ vietnam-memorial1.jpg)


44

WAR MEMORIALS Memorial Gardens

Memorial Walkways

Memorial gardens are another common type of commemoration used within the 20th century. Memorial gardens may be large scale such as a conservation area, or as small as a garden bed planting or trees. Many memorial gardens are grave sites and cemeteries that are maintained by a commission sponsored by the country of the soldiers that are buried within the site. In Western Europe the style of these memorial gardens is usually maintained in a formal english or french style and have strict guidelines that denote how the gardens must be maintained as well as the elements that must be present within the cemetery. Memorial gardens are designed more so as a personal space for private reflection.

Walks that connect other commemorative elements or places, and provide views of important historical places or is built through a significant location. Memorial walkways are usually a component in a larger installment that is intended to commemorate one or multiple events. Memorial walks are usually a space for refection.

Figure 49: War Cemetery. (http://www.trumanblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/vietnam-memorial1.jpg)

Figure 50: Vaterans Walkway USA. (http://www.avondale.org/images/pages/N1157/Veterans%20Memorial%201.jpg)


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WAR MEMORIALS Living Memorials Public and civic space or buildings that has been dedicated to commemorate people from that town, city, or nation wholost their lives in a specific event. These spaces serve as both an area that is useful as a public service, but at the same time act as a place of remembrance. “ projects such as community centers, libraries, forests, and even highways that were marked in some fashion, usually with plaques, as memorials.” dedicated features/ infrastructure: roadways, benches, etc.

Figure 51: Civic Building. (http://blog.syracuse.com/ news/2009/03/large_war_memorial_syracuse.JPG)

Figure 52: Korean Veteran Memorial Highway. (http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3100/2388674572_dd2bc6f53e_z.jpg)

Comparison of differnt typologies of memorials

What is commemoration?

Similarities:

Differences:

• • • •

• • •

• • •

used to provide facility for commemoration and remembrance. generally meant for a specific country’s contribution and sacrifice (one sided) a permanent built structure

can be large scale (national memorial) or small scale (local) may be intended to represent and remember specific people or to commemorate an event. some memorial sites act as gathering places, or may be functional as something other than a site just for commemoration.

“The word ‘commemoration’ suggests the presence of some idea, possibly from the past, retained in conscious thought. Rather than the ideas being lost in history, history itself becomes a vehicle for its remembrance when prompted by a stimulus in the present.” Places of commemoration serve to preserve memories, whether of individuals, groups of people or events. This serves the future generations, but is based on historical events of a shared, common people. It calls to mind, and preserves, memories by observance and/or public celebration The way we see ourselves as members of a group or society depends on our own interpretation, or familial participation of history. Our ideas about the future and political, moral and other ideas also influence commemoration. Everyone either consciously or subconsciously places themself in an identity influenced by one’s origin and the place in humankind and society, past, present and future.

(Wolschke-Bulmahn, 2001, pg2)


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DESIGN CONCEPT

Concept Statement

“Why do we commemorate defeat in the same manner as other countries celebrate victory?” Why is ANZAC day and Gallipoli on 25 April celebrated each year and what is it about this disastrous campaign that sets it apart from other wars? It is remembered because it is seen as a time when New Zealand first really established its own identity as a nation. From the first news event of the landings on Anzac Cove on 30 April 1915, public perceptions of the landings evoked national pride. The victory of this war was not in terms of territorial gains but instead of the spirit as Turkish, New Zealand, Australian and Allied soldiers who showed courage and humanity in the face of adversity and war. Armistice Day (25 May 1915) symbolizes peace, understanding, resolution of differences and the ability to show compassion to the enemy. This brought out the very best in the men who fought and died there. The Turkish soldiers and Allied soldiers showed selfsacrificing willingness to lay down one’s own life for a wounded fellow soldier. Regardless of race and culture, there was a common understanding of loss in precious human life, mercy and the hopelessness of war. A trail in between the Allied and Turkish frontlines from Anzac Cove to Kirectepe is chosen to commemorate the 2015 centenial of Gallipoli which denotes the area of “no man’s land”. This path aims at evoking an experience or journey which visually connects people to the landscape,emotions and memorials. Its focus is on increasing awareness on nationalism, peace and finding a common ground between nations. This pathway will instill a sense of reomorse as the landscape it spans is a place of great loss, but also celebrates the ability to establish understanding, and in turn growth, of Nations. Despite the war the soldiers who fought here were able to, on this land on armistice day, see each other as human beings.

Figure 53: Trench Map. ((Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg 86 /49)

(Stowers, 2005, pg8)

Trench Map Close Up


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DESIGN CONCEPT Land Use

LEGEND Proposed Trail Forest Agricultural

Figure 54: Momorial Sites. ((Middle East Tchnical University, 1997 pg 1)

Historical Site

N

Map of Galiipoli Peninsular showing locations of Allied and Turkish memorial sites. Note that there is one very concentrated group of memorials at the southern end of the proposed trail.

The majority of our proposed trail goes through area classed as historical site. It also spans agricultural land and through a forested area, giving a variety of landscape experiences.


CONCLUSION

52

Closing Statement Through examining the historical context, topographical, hydrological, and environmental conditions we have been able to develop a better understanding of the importance of the landscape in Gallipoli both natural and historical. This allowed us to then consider what would best represent the Gallipoli campaign and create an appropriate form of commemoration for a generation that is not directly linked to the soldiers who served in the war.

Important questions to be considered: Can landscape design facilitate a common experience for individuals? How does time change the effectiveness of the site and the way it is perceived? Might new generations that have no personal experience of the events commemorated need a more distinctive, more clearly explained and perhaps more provocative design? Natural site degeneration – does this change the image? Either; direct action of commemoration is preservation – to remove the land from the living landscape so it doesn’t age or change; or to retain the noteworthy elements from the original landscape. Potential and limits of landscape design for commemoration? Can landscape itself stimulate awareness and memory of past events? Can the designed landscape influence our ways of commemorating and can it influence identity? Do those who visit a commemorative site need to learn about its message and history through other media? Is the visitor’s reaction and perception defined by his or her predisposition alone, or can landscape design facilitate a common experience? (Wolschke-Bulmahn, 2001, pg2)

We arrived at the position that commemoration in the 21st century should not be a built structure and more an experience that conveys the sacrifice of the soldiers and also the growth of peaceful relations between New Zealand and Turkey. A pathway connects the user, regardless of their origin, to the landscape and shows the historical landscape but also allows for the user to see the growth and evolving state of the site.


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Rutherford, T., & Tomasetti, K. (2011). Istanbul & Western Turkey. Washington, USA: Nationlal Geography . Shadbolt, M. (n.d.). Gallipoli: The NZ Story . Retrieved from www. nzonscreen.com/title/gallipoli-the-new-zealand-story-1984 Shanken, A. (2002). Planning Memory ‘Living Memorials in the United States During WW2’. Art Bulletin , 84 (1). Significance of Anzac Day. (n.d.). Retrieved 2012 йил 28-February from Anzac: http://www.anzac.govt.nz/significance/index.html Steel, N. (1999). Gallipoli: Battleground Europe. Barnsley, Sth Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military. Stowers, R. (2005). Bloody Gallipoli. Auckland, New Zealand: David Bateman. Waite, F. (1919). The New Zealanders at Gallipoli; Burying the Dead on Armistice Day. Retrieved 03 02, 2012, from New Zealand Electronic Text Centre: www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-wainewz-c10-2.html Winter, D. (1994). 25 April 1915-The Inevitable Tradgedy. (U. o. Press, Producer) Retrieved 02 29, 2012, from www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/ bgrnd.html Wolschke-Bulmahn, J. (2001). Places of Commemoration: Search for Identity & Landscape Design. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library & Collection.


Group 6 Gallipoli Report