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remembering

Gallipoli


Contents

Part One

Intro The Gallipoli Campaign Background to war Prominent Memorials Events of 1915

Part Two

Discription of the site Flora, Fauna and Topography Topography, Land-Use, Hydrology

Part Three

Tourism

Part Four

War Memorials Case Studies

Part Five

Findings Case Studies

Part Six

Part Seven

Philospophy , Proposal References


Introduction

How should we commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Gallipoli Landings? By building an awareness of the events of the Gallipoli campaign and the connection of these events to the particularity of the site; its topography, hydrology, flora and fauna. The history and typology of the war memorial, and the mechanism/techniques of how they connect to society will unravel an understanding of the ceremonies, rituals and events and the part landscape plays in these. This investigation identifies areas of interest to further envelop these connections of people, to the land and their significance of common values. Australasian and Turkish people share a desire to build close links founded on the respect born at Gallipoli. This investigation is the foundation to lead us into the development of our commemoration of the Gallipoli centennial.


The Gallipoli Campaign

For the British, French, Canadians, Indians and Germans Gallipoli is just another battle in a long list fought during World War 1. To the Turks and the Anzacs, the battle for Gallipoli is a significant event in the development of their individual nations. (Başarin, Başarin & Fewter, 2003, Pg 7) When Allied Troops landed at Gallipoli on April 25th 1915 Turkish soldiers dug in and defended their homeland. For nine months these two armies fought, against each other, against disease, the weather and the terrain. Governed by some reckless military decisions scores of young men went to their death unnecessarily. By the end of the campaign many new names had entered Turkish, New Zealand and Australian folklore. Defeat at Gallipoli has come to represent the birth of the nations of Australia and New Zealand whilst out of victory was born the modern Turkey. To modern Turkey, Gallipoli is remembered as an important chapter in the life of their most famous son Mustafa Kemel - Ataturk – Father of the Turks (Başarin, Başarin & Fewter, 2003, Pg 8)


Background to War The peninsular of Gallipoli was captured from the Byzantines by the Ottomans (The followers of Osman) an empire of many including Turkish tribes, Greeks, Kurds, Arabs, Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats, Albanians, Hungarians, Armenians and Macedonians in 1357. This was part of a wave of Ottoman expansion from the east and by 1683 the empire extended from Vienna to Iran and Crimea to Yemen reaching its peak in the 17th century. (Başarin, Başarin & Fewter, 2003) The Ottoman Empire began a gradual decline due to economic downturn and the rise of the industrial revolution in Europe. The European powers had their sites set on the declining empire and whenever one power tried to assume ownership the others would support the Ottomans. During the Crimean War of 1853 for example, British and French warships sailed up the Dardenelles to the aid of the Ottomans

The Ottoman Empire

to repel an advance on Istanbul from Russia. (Başarin, Başarin & Fewter, 2003, Pg 36) The empire continued to crumble as ethnic groups began to assert their freedom (the Balken wars) and colonial territories were lost. Out of the diminishing empire came a new political force ‘The Young Turks’, led by Enver Pasha who took control of the empire in 1913. Whilst alliances were being formed in Europe; The Triple Entente Britain France and Russia, and The Central Powers; Germany and AustriaHungary, Enver tried to form non-aggression pacts, being rejected by both Britain (on 3 occasions) and Russia. He eventually formed a secret pact with Germany the day after the central powers declared war against Russia on the 1st of August 1914, in the hope of keeping his country out of the war. (Başarin, Başarin & Fewter, 2003, Pg 41)


Once the British had declared war in Europe, their Dominions were inevitably and immediately embroiled. Proud of their achievements, with standards of living to match Europe, the large majority of Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders still felt ties of attachment to Britain. Loyalty to the British Empire was promoted; the defence of the Empire was considered the last line of defence against all forms of lawless conquest. (Broadbent 2005, Pg 11-12)

then aided Germany in raids on the Russian Black Sea ports. Consequently Russia declared war on Turkey. The straits of the Dardenelles were an important link between Russia and her allies as a supply line. The British objective was to take the Dardenelles and following that Constantinople (Istanbul), the seat of the Ottoman Empire, and began a naval campaign at the beginning of November 1914. Further attempts were made on a well-defended Dardenelles early in 1915. On the 18th of March Turkey defeated the final attempt by the British and French fleet to force the straits.

Many New Zealand men were eager to sign up, some had already received training through compulsory military service. Battalions were formed in Auckland, Canterbury, Otago and Wellington. Adventure, travel and new experiences beckoned, reinforced by belief At a conference between General Sir Ian indoctrinated by patriotic media, in the Hamilton and de Robeck aboard HMS Queen Elizabeth, it is decided to make an amphibious legitimacy of their cause. (Broadbent 2005) landing on the Gallipoli peninsula in order At the time of the outbreak of war Turkey’s to overcome Turkish batteries guarding the military was under German control whilst its straits. navy was under British control. Two Turkish battleships were under construction in Britain The plan was to land troops at a number of and were confiscated for the war effort. In points along the Gallipoli Peninsular. The main retaliation the Turks allowed passage of the focus would be at Cape Helles at the southern German warships SMS Goeben and SMS tip where British troops would land at five Breslau through the Dardenelles. Germany beaches. gifted the warships to Turkey and the Turks


At the same time diversionary landings would occur; the French forces at Kum Kale on the Asian shore and the Anzacs in the north with the objective of taking the high points Hill 971 and Chunuk Bair.

The campaign had cost the lives of 44 000 allied troops, including 21 000 British and 10 000 French. New Zealands death toll was 2721 out of 8500 men who fought at Anzac. Another 4700 were wounded, laid low by disease or taken prisoner. Overall the Allies suffered more than 140 000 casualties. For the Turks the campaign was far more costly, with an estimated 250 000 to 300 000 casualties, including 87 000 dead. (McGibbon 2004 Pg 15)

The operation was unsuccessful, while the troops managed to secure a foothold on Turkish soil at both Cape Helles and Gaba Tepe the fighting quickly developed into a stalemate (McGibbon 2004 Pg 14) and many lives were The returning Anzacs and mourning families lost on both sides. at home were anguished at leaving their dead A further large scale allied attack was behind in makeshift graves on non-Christian attempted in early August. Known as the soil. A contingency of Australians arrived in ‘August Offensive’ a number of famous battles Gallipoli in 1919 to assess the site. Some of occurred in which the Anzacs played a vital the dead had been buried but many lay still role, briefly achieving the objective of Chunuck in the scrub. It was recommended that a simple monument be erected where at each Bair before being beaten back by the Turks. post where bodies could be gathered and Following a visit to Gallipoli by Field Marshal buried. The Imperial War Graves Commission Horatio Kitchener, the Secretary of State for was charged with the maintenance of these War, it is recommended that Anzac and Suvla cemeteries. be evacuated. The evacuation of troops is carried out over the nights of December 18th The battlefields of Gallipoli are littered with and 19th and on the morning of December memorials and cemeteries, each allied 20th Turkish troops storm the empty Anzac serviceman is commemorated in a named trenches. grave or special memorial or, if his body was never located, identified or was buried at sea.


Prominant M e m o r i a l s Turkish 57th Infantry Regiment Memorial Park

The Turkish 57th Infantry Regiment was the first defending unit to go into action following the Landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915. On the first day, the 19 Division commander, Staff Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal famously ordered the regiment, “I am not ordering you to attack. I am ordering you to die.� None of the 57th Infantry returned from Gallipoli. The park is situated between Quinns Post and The Nek and includes a number of important Turkish memorials including the statue of the oldest Turkish veteran Huseyin Kacmaz, who died at 108 in 1994. (Hutchinson 2007 Pg 61)

The Nek is the track leading along the narrow spur from Russells Top to Baby 700 and the cemetery stands on what was no mans land. (Hutchinson 2007 Pg 53) Many lost their lives at The Nek, the Turkish sent waves across it on 19th May with casualties numbering as many as 10 000, about a third of them were killed prompting the truce of 24th May to bury the dead. (McGibbon 2004) The famous attack by the Australian 8th and 10th Light Horse Brigades occurred here during the August Offensive incurring heavy losses. Many of those buried here are unknown.

The Nek


Lone Pine

Situated on a 60 metre high mound at the southern end of the final front line, in Turkish territory the Hill 60 cemetery contains the graves of 712 unidentified allied troops. The battle for Hill 60 was the last major battle for the Anzacs on the peninsular

Lone Pine cemetery began after the battle of Lone Pine with the problem of disposing of the bodies of thousands of Australian and Turks; many of them were placed in the old Turkish trenches and buried in mass graves. The cemetery also contains the Lone Pine Memorial to the missing, located where the worst of the fighting took place during the August Offensive. (Hutchinson 2007)

Hill 60

Chunuk Bair

Chunuk Bair cemetery stands on the site where the Turks had buried some of the allied soldiers killed during the August Offensive. There are 632 servicemen buried in this cemetery only 10 of which are identified. Chunuk Bair was one of the allied forces main objectives throughout the Gallipoli Campaign. The cemetery also contains three memorials.


events of April 25th The Anzac landing

May 8th 2nd battle of Krithia ends

April 28th 1st battle of Krithia at Helles British

April 28th 1st battle of Krithia at Helles

April 27th Turkish counter attack at Anzac cove

May 18 - 19th Turks carry out night time attack on Anzacs

May 12- 13th Allied reinforcements arrive at Anzac Cove

May 6th 2nd battle of Krithia

June 4th 3rd Battle of Krithia

May 24th An armistice is declared from 7.30 am - 4.30 pm while troops bury the dead

May 20 - 21st Australian 2nd & 3rd Light Horse Brigade arrive at Anzac Cove as reinforcements

May 16th Ottoman troops reinforced at Anzac sector

June 28th - July 5th Battle of Gully Ravine at Helles

May 29th The battle for Quinns Post


1915 December 20th

August 6th ‘August Offensive’

August 13th Helles: Battle of Krithia Ends

• Battle of Sari Bair Range

• Evacuation of Anzac

and Suvla completed before dawn

August 29th Battle of Hill 60 ends

• Battle of Krithia Vineyard diversion commences

• Turks storm empty Anzac trenches

• Battle of Lone Pine diversion commences

August 8 - 9th Battle of Chunuk Bair

August 21st Final British offensive of the campaign launched to consolidate Anzac and Suvla landings

• Final British offensive

of the campaign launched to consolidate Anzac and Suvla landings

August 7th Battle of the Nek

• Suvla Battle of Scimitar Hill

• Battle of Hill 60 begins August 12th Battle of Lone Pine ends

December 18th Start of final evacuation of Anzac and Suvla


F l o r a , F a u n a a n d To p o g r a p h y Located on a warm climate belt, the Gallipoli Peninsula displays typical Mediterranean biological biodiversity. The Peninsula contains an area of 33,000ha. It originally consisted of woodland oak forest vegetation before human settlement, but they were gradually replaced with pine (Pinus brutia) now covering 23% of the overall vegetated areas, making it the predominant feature of the region along with other coastal vegetation like Olea europae var. Oleaster, Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera and Arbutus andrachne. There are six categories of vegetation within the region; high maquis, low marquis, rich herb vegetation and grasslands, salty marsh vegetation, sand dune vegetation and shore vegetation. The coastal forests turn into denser natural woodland further inland along the valleys and hills. In 1984 a survey of the region found 520 plants that belonged to 80 families. Some native vegetation to the area that is also important economically is Cardamine impatiens, Cappairs spinosa (capper berry), Silene otites, Salicornia europeae (glasswort an important ingredient for glassmaking) and Hedysarum spinossissimus. (Kelkit, Celik & Esbah, 2010). The park is also shelter to many mammal

species like the white-breasted hedgehog, European mole, cape hare, red squirrel, European badger and wild boar. It is also a major flight way of the Western Palearctic zone that now only contains 4% of it original vegetation. Some birds found in the peninsula include the squacco heron, little egret and the red-backed shrike. Amphibians are also found in the region but they are now scarce due to the excessive illegal collection of them and they are only found in wet areas. The Saros Gulf along the northern part of the peninsula also contains one of the most important fish breeding grounds of the Aegean Sea. (Kelkit et al, 2010). The location of the Peninsula intersects three distinct ecological zones, South-eastern Europe, the Aegean and Anatolia and sits on a warm climate belt with an average temperature of 14.9 degrees. It is also very windy and has an average rainfall of 619mm(Erten, Kurgun & Musaoglu). The climate along with vegetation and rugged land dominated by high hills (the tallest being Chunuk Bair) with the occasional small and deep valley making the region prone


to bush fires. In July 1994 a fire in the Gallipoli Peninsula National Historical Park engulfed 4049 hectares (12% of the GPNHP) of forest mainly in the ANZAC area. It defoliated the afforested battlefields of World War 1 and threatened war graves and monuments. Forests closer to roads and settlements are more prone to fires through accidental fire. (Erten et al).

of agricultural land. Another threat to the region is the decline of maquis (scrub cover) due to afforestation and deforestation. Tapping and diversion of water away from valleys has compromised natural water springs in the area and the drilling of wells in the plains has also lowered the water table. (Gallipoli Peace Park International Competition Office 1997).

A major problem of the region is the presence of settlements, agricultural farms and roads that have caused fragmentation of habitats. It is therefore important that an ecological balance is reached between the maquis, forests and agricultural areas to ensure the establishment of habitat zones and lead to a balance between diversity of vegetation flora The Gallipoli Peninsula National Historical Park is and fauna. (Gallipoli Peace Park International an important natural area of the Mediterranean Competition Office 1997). but the ‘diverse natural values and ecological givens of the Park’ (Gallipoli Peace Park The protected natural area identity of the Park, International Competition Office 1997, p.3, p.1 therefore, should be made a peace issue, and ) are not well recorded, investigated or rarely in turn, issues of the marine and land ecology taken into consideration. Serious environmental considered in elaborating theme of peace errors have occurred in the park for example the (Gallipoli Peace Park International Competition lack of habitat corridors through the expansion Office 1997, p.3, p.1). Narrow strips of land on the alluvial plains made areas within the region suitable for habitation and cultivation. This has been limited due to the scarcity of available fresh water; this also hinders any further development within the Peninsula. (Gallipoli Peace Park International Competition Office 1997).


To p o g r a p h y

Land-use vista points-hills 150 contour

100 contour

50 contour Plain

valley high shore low shore GPNHP boundary

Troia National Archeological Park boundary

This map shows the topography of the region is very mountainous. There are five plains that are surrounded by undulating terrain. The highest point; Chunuk Bair is located near ANZAC cove and provides views across the region to Cannakale, this is why it was such a sought over location during WWI. When this map is compared with aerial photography of the region you can see settlement patterns within the valleys and plains and how this fragmentation of the landscape has caused the loss of habitat.

This map displays ecologically sensi within relation to settlements. It i that the most ecologically sensit are located within valleys and a coastlines that have little or no v and are close to human settlement locates the forests on the highest the area with the maquis just below


itive areas illustrates tive areas along the vegetation ts. It also points of w them.

Hydrology Human habitat zones

Stream

Heavy uses

Wet stream bed

Light uses

Dry stream bed

Natural habitat zones Ecologically delicate areas

Maquis Forests Agricultural areas

This catchment map demonstrates the division of the region caused by the ridgelines in undulating landscape. Quite a few of the catchment areas are quite small and the largest catchment area runs along the ridgeline of Chunuk Bair towards the west coast.

Boundary - water shed area


T o u r i s m

G

P

H

visiting

N

P

Gallipoli Peninsula Historic National Park

The Tradition of visiting Gallipoli Peninsula began in 1925, yet never has it been so popular as in the last few decades. The celebration of the allied landings on Anzac Cove at dawn Anzac Day became a tourist industry to the Turks following a highly publicised event in 1985 when a small group of Australian veterans were invited by the Turkish Government to commemorate the 70th Anniversary of the campaign.

This Gallipoli backpacker phenomenon is attributed to a quest for identity. Many identify with soldiers who were of the same age or from the same town or a town like it. Tourists like to retrace the steps of their ancestors to reclaim a part of their own heritage. (Başarin, Başarin & Fewster 2003)

Visitors to the attraction stood at just 100,628 during 1994 but increased dramatically to 230,628 in the following The Turkish Government announced the decade. From then there has been a steady official renaming of Ariburu Cove to ANZAC increase of tourism numbers, leading to Cove. (Başarin, Başarin, & Fewster 2003) some controversy. Continued further popularity followed a visit to Gallipoli for the 75th anniversary by There is no official marketing for the Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke and Dawn Service event; although it attracts significant numbers purely by word of the New Zealand Governer General. mouth and education. It’s a chance for Canakkale has always been an attraction for people to remember the bravery, selfboth domestic and international tourism, it sacrifice, and devotedness of the men who is best known for its natural and historic fought there. Allowing visitors to experience beauty. GPHNP is said to be the most the environment that was once a blood attractive locations in the Canakkale region, filled battlefield encourages tourism in the particularly a must see for New Zealand region. and Australian Citizens and is considered a must see as part of the big OE experienced by a large number of young antipodeans.


Throughout the landscape are physical memories of the event; sunken ships, guns, trenches, forts and bastions are still visible. Along with Turkish, New Zealand, English and French war cemeteries and memorials.

aspects of Gallipoli is inevitable unless limits are placed on the number of tourists visiting the area for memorial services.

The site still holds the remains of soldiers. There has been conflict between Turkish sovereignty and when solider To accommodate the growing ANZAC-heritage numbers of tourists infrastructure remains were dug up during a road has been increased in the area. expansion. There are many Hotels, Pensions and camping sites available, Protecting these sites is becoming along with eating and drinking more and more difficult as the establishments. tourist population increases. Under the current regime the National The Gallipoli battle sites constitute Park is monitored by the Turkish the only example of where the Government whilst the Cemeteries commemoration of an invasion are under the protection of the has been celebrated by future Commonwealth War Graves generations with a rite of passage, Commission. a unique social and cultural happening. It becomes an invitation The Centennial celebration of the for mutual understanding, respect allied landings at Gallipoli is an opportunity for all stakeholders and tolerance. to engage in the protection and With large numbers of tourists preservation of the entire park area visiting the peninsular daily and for future generations of Turks and still on the increase, officials say Tourists alike. further damage to the heritage


War

Memorials

The modern take on memorials has lead to a more contemporary or abstract form, bring art, history, culture and memories together, sometimes they may also serve as focal points of increasing understanding between previous enemies. Remembering the dead was once a primary concern and a ritual that will never be forgotten, although as times change and we move into the 21st century there are other factors to now be coincided when commemorating an event. Memorials are evolving as well as humans therefore culture, ecology and economy are all powerful tools that can all play a role in shaping a war memorial today in the 21st century. Gallipoli, an event that will never be forgotten but the outcome of this event has changed its meaning for young Turks and kiwis of today. Once a celebration of victory is now an opportunity to heal wounds, a common ground bring all together.

A war memorial can be a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory. These structures are erected to commemorate those who died or were injured in war, yet in more modern times the main intent of war memorials is not to glorify war, but to honour those who have died. Memorials are often found near the centre of a town, or contained in a park or plaza to allow easy public access. For most of history, war memorials were erected to commemorate great victories. During the First World War, many nations saw massive devastation and loss of lives, a number of cities from the countries involved in the conflict erected memorials, with the memorials in smaller villages and towns often listing the names of each local soldier who had been killed. In many cases, World War I memorials were later extended to show the names of locals who died in the WWII as an addition.


Brooklyn

Fresh Kills Landfill

Staten Island

This 2200 acre (8.9km2) brown field site which has been commissioned to prepare a park design anticipated over a thirty year program. The framework is to develop a world class park, which will restore ecological systems and cultivate a sustainable landscape, whilst creating an extraordinary setting for a range of activities. Prior to Fresh Kills becoming a landfill for the 9-11 debris, it was a low lying creek and marsh area, one of the largest tidal wetland ecosystems in the region. The idea behind the strategies is the community will work together restoring the site creating a diverse habitat for wildlife, birds and plants. The master plan begun by establishing colonies, which will develop and grow complex landscapes overtime to form value at all stages. Productive Park where new trees, soil renewal, food, clean water and sustainable energy are behind the main design ideas. Few are opposed to this idea as they see this as ‘dressing the landscape’, hiding it away and using tools and techniques that we don’t understand, the idea that the world can be measured, managed and organised through technology into resources. Would capping and sealing be a good or bad idea? In honour those who were lost on September 11 and the extraordinary efforts of the recovery

workers, an earthwork monument will mark the recovery area. Two earth forms will mirror the exact width and height of the towers, while a second incline is on axis with the place where the towers once stood, affording a clear vista to lower Manhattan and the entire region around. From the top of the monument, visitors will have a 360- degree view of New York, the harbour, and the estuary. The slow, simple durational experience of ascending the incline, open to the sky and vast prairie horizon, will allow people to reflect on the magnitude of loss. Representation of a monument, commemorating a significant event in a way that is beneficial to the community and provides an opportunity to restore the ecological systems that once was evident, whilst commemorating a significant event. The ecological connections at Gallipoli have been depleting over the years and with the increase in tourism due to patriotism this will only get worst. The notion of building on a model similar to the processes happening at Fresh Kills could enhance the Gallipoli peninsular and restore the diverse habitat for wildlife, birds and plants that once existed. This would not be covering up history as Gallipoli is an event that will never be forgotten but the outcome of this event has changed its meaning of today. Once a celebration of victory is now an opportunity to heal wounds, a common ground bringing all together.


Holocaust Memorial

May 8, 2005, 60 years after the end of World War II, Architect Peter Eisenman, revealed a collection of 2,711 concrete steles to commemorate by keeping alive the memory of an inconceivable incident in German history. Each block is 95 centimetres wide, 2.38 meters long and up to 4.7 meters high and placed at an interval of 95 centimetres. At times Peter Eisenman spoke of “divergence in concept”, other times of the “illusion of order” or the “absolute axiality” that had been undermined. (Carolin Emcke and Stefan Berg) Part of the memorial is found out of sight, the underground Information Centre below the field of stele and these exhibition rooms were realised against Eisenman’s will, that make the memorial into a memorial. Even for those who doubt the symbolic value of the concrete blocks above, the confrontation with stories of deportation and annihilation will not fail to have an effect. It’s like a punch line of history that the worst crime in German history will

be remembered underground -- just a stone’s throw away from Hitler’s bunker. Commemoration in a modern day form of a memorial above the ground, the strong columns evoke a disorienting, wave-like feeling that you can only experience when you make your way through this gray forest of concrete slightly reminiscent of a graveyard. “The place of no meaning,” as Eisenman once referred to the site in the hopes of dispelling fears that he was trying to symbolise the death of the Holocaust, however its intended as a confrontation with the past. From my experience (Erin Hodges) people visiting the Holocaust Memorial become immersed in the manifestation of feelings that are evoked by the journey through the site. This memorial provides an experience and understanding of the most horrific event to happen on German soil, consciously making you aware, even for those who have no previous knowledge of this period.


Berlin


Cultural The Gallipoli story didn’t end with the evacuation of troops at the end of 1915 the peninsular remains a site of national significance to antipodeans and Turks alike. The battlefields still cast their shadow; we visit them to lay our ghosts to rest. Today’s pilgrims walk in the footsteps of those who fought there in an attempt to recover history, nationhood or adventure. In the process they discover some new dimension to others and themselves. Ecological The topography of the Gallipoli Peninsula led to human settlement in valleys and planes which has devastated the landscape and ecological connections. Mass loss of habitat has been caused through fragmentation of the landscape.

All of the Gallipoli veterans have now passed away; the land remains. Nearly 1 million men fought there leaving the land sacred, reverting to its natural state the scars of 1915 fading slowly. The people of Turkey, Australia and New Zealand share a desire to build close links founded on the respect born on the battlefields of Gallipoli.

Even more devastation to the landscape was caused through the War. The location of WWI, the Gallipoli Peninsula has lead to increasingly higher visitor numbers to the area every year, furthering damage to the ecology. Loss of vegetation has lead to loss of ecological connections with the wider landscape in Turkey, Europe and the world. Contours have remained the same since WWI and left to nature. Erosion is a common feature of this landscape through the loss of vegetation from fires.

War memorials Memorials are typically a structure/feature that commemorates events/deaths. They previously glorified the wars but now the honour the dead. They have subdued over time. There has been a shift in the designers of the memorials. Fresh Kills utilises ecology in it’s design for the memorial for the 9 11 wasteland. Is this a movement for memorials in the future? The Holocaust Memorial is a good example of how journey can be relived through experience. The Holocaust Memorial also emphasises how the unseen can be just as powerful if not more than a typical memorial of the 20th century.


findings

Our findings lead us to believe that memorial styles typical of the 20th century are slowly declining and branching in a new direction. Is a living memorial the way of the future? A process that will re evaluate, conserve, restore and re- habilitate. To further enhance the environmental, archaeological, historical, cultural and human assets to ensure the protection of the natural area of the Gallipoli Peninsula in it’s entirety as a National Park.

We aim to “develop a vision and a philosophy; concepts, policies and strategies; planning and design ideas rather than singular solutions to a specific location�.


case s t u d i e s


Gallipoli International Peace Park w i n n i n g

e n t r y

The winners of the Gallipoli Peace Park Competition 1998 were the Norwegian firm Studio Engleback. They formed in 1996 being involved in projects interfacing between urbanism, ecology and environmental sustainability. Their philosophy is: “A holistic environmental approach deals with a broad range of issues including: sustainability, community safety, health issues, transportation and connections to neighbouring areas (choreography), biodiversity, water, waste and energy strategies.” Their winning entry was: “A plan based upon a strong, consistent ecological approach at all scales and levels of intervention. Ecology as both planning principle and process. Plan conceived as a layered, structured network interweaving natural

systems, land uses and human systems. (Their) sensitivity to hydrology and vegetation is exceptional in it’s attention to forests and firebreaks.” They took the problems i.e. Water shortages, ecological connections, soil fertility and depopulation and used ecology in its wider sense to provide framework to heal and in enhance the park. Although this plan is a bit opportunistic it would improve the ecology and environment of the park. It is too generic and from our assessment of the plan they seem to try and solve all the problems within one area. It seems they have assessed the problems and then plugged in solutions in a generic grid pattern, when landscape is more organic.


Tiritiri Matangi

“Tiritiri Matangi” meaning “buffered by the wind” or “wind blowing about”. Tiritiri Matangi became a Recreational Reserve in 1970 after all the coastal forest was depleted, reducing the birdlife on the island. The island was formally leased out for farming that stripped the land of vegetation. For a period of ten years after 1984 thousands of volunteers planted 280,000 trees on the island. This was initially funded by the World Wildlife Fund. The vegetation was then enhanced with more plants germinated from seeds eco sourced, then housed in the custom built nursery on the island. Tiritiri Matangi is now actively managed by DOC (Department of Conservation) and comanaged by SOTM (Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi Incorporated). Their aims for this

Recreational Reserve is to restore the island as an open sanctuary for native fauna and flora, with particular emphasis on the introduction and breeding in the wild of threatened species. DOC and SOTM “share common values to promote and enhance the open sanctuary at Tiiritiri Matangi ensuring the continuance of the project”. The future for this Reserve sees the forest growing which increases bird, reptile and invertebrate populations becoming more richly diverse in biodiversity. Tiritiri Matangi is a working model of how a Reserve can attract awareness around the knowledge of increasing biodiversity. The location and isolation of the island allows it to be an attraction that pulls in international and national interest that brings forth more support and money assuring the continuation of the project.


To n g a r i r o n a t i o n a l National Parks in New Zealand are publically owned land that is fundamentally valued with the added benefit of recreational enjoyment for the public. They consist of areas with distinctive scenery, ecological systems or natural features that are scientifically important so preservation of these areas is of high importance to the New Zealand. Tongariro National Park displays all the above characteristics in abundance, making it significantly important both for natural and cultural heritage. In 1887 the then paramount chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa (Te Heuheu IV- Horonuku) gifted the park to the Crown. This then lead to the creation of New Zealand’s first National park (the 4th in the world). The area is diverse in its appearance ranging

p a r k

from barren lava flows through to winter snowfields that provides many different uses recreationally. Eco-tones are also varied with alpine herbs, patches of tussocks and flax, gravel fields, dense forest, beach forest and low growing shrubs. Our National parks have special emphasis on creating legislation to preserve indigenous species and because of their size, location and diversity they will always be a key locations to where our land and freshwater biodiversity is maintained. This is what makes these parks so important to our proposal as they are successfully maintained and preserved to provide a variety of indigenous ecosystems these create picturesque landscapes and recreational opportunities that draw tourists into New Zealand


philosophy To create the commemorative landscape, one focused on bringing out the regeneration and re-vegetation of a landscape. We are not blanketing the events which are captured within the script and engraving within stones of remembrance, but rather to focus or bring out the power of the landscape to enhance the ecology/ecologies of a place of the past, through the stories/conversations to come out post war there is one commonality – our friends, family, people and bodies of each empire, of each identity have been embodied into the womb of the land once more. Our common ground being the place in which we

s t u d y

a r e a

stand. Where the mountains oversee all, the landscape remains dormant, the vegetation does not hide away the clearings of the past battle over Gallipoli, but rather to give back to the environment that has been stripped by man. We are not looking to replicate “nature” or to mimic the creation of natural growth but rather to allow for regeneration, our intention is to create the ability to open up a space for the beauty to regenerate/revive the ecological environment. “As when the ecological environment is restored the birds return, the people come and the economy rises”.


proposal What Gallipoli Peninsula National Historical Park desperately needs is a park conservation and/or management plan. The Studio Engleback design implements strategies to solve problems. We can see the potential of their plan but we think it needs stripping back to the fibres. Our proposal is to expose the threads of opportunities, revealing issues that need addressing. We plan to open up spaces to allow nature to grow it’s own course working at different scales from macro, through to meso and then micro as all these holistically are intrinsic of each other. By changing one we enhance them all. In order for this to be achieved the Gallipoli Peninsula National Historical Park should be a part of The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

programme. An organisation committed to the conservation of sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity. If placed on the World Heritage list its importance would be elevated in significance to the level of Tongariro National Park in New Zealand. Gallipoli Peninsula National Historical Park is of high importance both culturally because of the identities created through the actions and outcomes of WWI; and naturally because of location within the world; and the heritage of humanityv. This site has a powerful effect on those visiting it today as it has sat in the hands of nature since 1915, we want to take over from these calloused hands and rehydrate this neglected landscape to ensure its continued preservation for future generations.


References Abdullah Kelkit{, S. . (2010). Ecotourism Life of Turkish Ministry of Forestry) Potential of Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park. Coastal education research Hutchinson, G (2007) Gallipoli the pilgrimage foundation. guide Melbourne: Schwartz Publishing Pty Ltd Başarin, H.H., Başarin, V. & Fewter, K. (2003) Kelkit, A., Celik, S., & Esbah, H. (2010). Gallipoli the Turkish story New South Wales: Ecotourism Potential of Gallipoli Peninsula Allen & Unwin Historical National Park. Journal of Coastal Research 26 (3) 562-568. Beaumont, J. (2008). ANU News. Retrieved Lifescape – fresh kills parkland. (2005). Topos from http://news.anu.edu.au/?p=300 Vol . 51. Pg14-21. McGibbon, I (2004) Gallipoli a guide to New Broadbent, H (2005) Gallipoli the fatal shore Zealand battlefields and memorials Auckland: Victoria: Penguin Group Reed Publishing New York City (n.d). Retrieved from Carolin Emcke and Stefan Berg. (2005). http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/gif/about/ Extracting Meaning from Concrete Blocks. prkillscontextmap.jpg Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/ international/spiegel/0,1518,354837,00.html Scates, B (2006) Return to Gallipoli New York: Cambridge University Press DOC. (2012). Tongariro Alpine Crossing. Retrieved from http://www.doc.govt.nz/ Sudio engleback. (n.d.). Gallipoli Peace Park parks-and-recreation/tracks-and-walks/ Competition. Retrieved from http://www. central-north-island/ruapehu/tongariro- studioengleback.com/index.php?/projects/ alpine-crossing/ gallipoli/ Ertena, E., Kurgunb, V. & Musaolu, N. (no date). Forest Fire Risk Zone Mapping from Satelite Imagery and GIS a Case Study. Retrieved March 1, 2012 from: www.isprs.org/ proceedings/xxxv/congress/yf/papers/927. pdf

Tiritirimatangi open sanctuary. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.tiritirimatangi.org. nz/ Tongariro crossing. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.tongarirocrossing.org.nz/

Gallipoli Peace Park International Competition Visiting Gallipoli . (2012). Retrieved from http://battlefields1418.50megs.com/gallipoli_ Office (1997). The Book. (Sudio engleback) tourism.htm General Directorate of National Parks and Wild



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