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DRUŠTVO SPEKTAKLA THE SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE 10.3. - 10.4.2016. GALERIJA BACVA / BACVA GALLERY Ur./Ed. Gintautas Mažeikis Josip Zanki

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SADRŽAJ / CONTENT: Gintautas Mažeikis G. DEBORD I SUVREMENO DRUŠTVO SAMO-SPEKTAKLIZACIJE

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Gintautas Mažeikis G. DEBORD AND CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY OF SELF-SPECTACLIZATION

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Josip Zanki CIKLIČKO VRIJEME, POSTAV IZLOŽBE I NEPOVRATNI SPEKTAKL

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Josip Zanki CYCLICAL TIME, EXHIBITION LAYOUT AND IRREVERSIBLE SPECTACLE

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DRUŠTVO SPEKTAKLA - UMJETNICI THE SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE - ARTISTS

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BIOGRAFIJE UMJETNIKA ARTIST'S BIOGRAPHIES

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IMPRESSUM

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G. DEBORD I SUVREMENO DRUŠTVO SAMO-SPEKTAKLIZACIJE

Mnogo je već pisano o Guyu Debordu, njegovoj poznatoj knjizi „Društvo spektakla”, pokretu Situacionistička internacionala (SI) i njihovom utjecaju na medije i političku filozofiju. Čini se da su teme aktualne 60-ih i 70-ih godina: transformacije imaginarnog, revolucija svakodnevnog života, imaginacija kritičara, društvo spektakla, jednodimenzionalni čovjek, manipulativne kulturne industrije, proizvodnja te čak i hegemonija simulakruma, u današnje vrijeme postale dio povijesti. I doista, svijet se značajno promijenio. Međutim, riječ „značajno” skriva veliki manjak raznolikosti. Prije svega, iskustava razvijenih medijskih tržišta i temeljnih društvenih vrijednosti. Douglas Kellner pisao je o važnosti Debordovih istraživanja za razumijevanje manipulativnog i eksploatacijskog karaktera suvremenih medija: „Tvrdim da su medijski spektakli oni fenomeni medijske kulture koji utjelovljuju temeljne vrijednosti suvremenog društva, koji služe kako bi pojedince uputili u tajne njegova načina života te kako bi dramatizirali njegove kontroverze i borbe, kao i načine rješavanja sukoba”1. Spektakularno izvještavanje vijesti (Debord je bio pod dojmom njegove manipulativnosti) pretvorilo se u javno-informativnu zabavu s insceniranim prizorima. Cinizam emitiranja i informacija nastavio je s jednakom nemoralnom potrošnjom svega izloženoga u virtualnom hiperprostoru. Štoviše, samo-spektaklizacija ljudi i odlučnost da se privuče ili zadrži pažnja tržišta novi su oblici komunikacije koji ukazuju na nesmotrenost i samozavaravanje javnog mnijenja. Dakle vrijeme je za promišljanje o suvremenom društvu spektakla, ulozi umjetnosti i anti-umjetnosti. Novi su izazovi dobro polazište za kritičko promišljanje određenih trenutaka Debordove intelektualne povijesti. Razlučit ćemo pet glavnih koraka njegova intuitivnog samootkrivenja: Letristička internacionala, Socialism ou Barbare, Situacionistička internacionala te kasnije svjesna transgresija, a šesti ćemo trenutak posvetiti postsituacionističkoj kritici atomizirane samospektaklizacije u situaciji jedinog simulakruma društva.

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Douglas Kellner. Media Spectacle. London: Routledge, 2003., str. 2 - “I argue that media spectacles are those phenomena of media culture that embody contemporary society’s basic values, serve to initiate individuals into its way of life, and dramatize its controversies and struggles, as well as its modes of conflict resolution.”

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I. Internationale lettriste i prevladavanje hegemonije riječi i slika Vođa Letrističke internacionale (LI) bio je rumunjsko-francuski umjetnik, pjesnik i filmski kritičar Isidore Isou (pravim imenom Isidor Goldstein). On i drugi sudionici Letrističke internacionale dali su novi zamah rušenju i prevladavanju hegemonijskih riječi i slika te su slijedili Isidorovu namjeru da nova umjetnička iskustva izražavaju u „avangardnom” stilu2, kroz sintezu Dade, nadrealizma i novih izuma. U usporedbi s nadrealizmom, on je razvio mnoge oslobađajuće te istovremeno destruktivne tehnike distribucije i predstavio je nove načine avangardnog pisanja, stvaranja filmova i slika. Osnovna je ideja bila razviti anti-umjetnost, neovisno od glavnih tokova politike i represivne svijesti. Letristi su razvili nove ideje i tehnike. Najcitiraniji su pojmovi u knjigama o Letrizmu: hypergraphics, creatics, uprising, infinitesimal art i excoördism3. Na primjer, excoördism znači umjetnost nakon ili izvan usklađivanja, koja se pretvorila u višejezično, aritmično, neuravnoteženo pisanje i slikanje. Infinitesimal art4 ujedinila je Apsolutni maksimum (iznimno veliko) i Apsolutni minimum (veoma malo). Ideja excoördisma izvedena je iz Leibnitzova pojma infinitezimala te je tumačena u kontekstu europskog i židovskog misticizma, djelomično slično ideji infinitezimala Emanuela Levinasa5. Međutim, povijesno proizlazi iz ideja o Apsolutnom maksimumu i Apsolutnom minimumu renesansnog filozofa Nicolausa von Cuesa i njegove apofatičke filozofije i dijalektike. Zanimljivo je da je negativna filozofska ideja vidjela Boga kao jedinstvo radikalnih suprotnosti (Apsolutnog maksimuma i Apsolutnog minimuma) i kao mogućnost aritmičnog, neskladnog tumačenja svijeta. Paradoksalno, apofatični princip religijske filozofije nakon nekoliko je transformacija postao jedan od predmeta avangradne anti-umjetnosti kao model za uništenje svih skladnih glavnih tokova. Cuesova ideja tumačenja coincidentiuma oppositoruma, odnosno tumačenja proturječja, pretpostavljala je i aritmičke divergencije i excoördism. Druga je Letristička tehnika bila “hypergraphy” (njezin je sinonim metagraphics) koja je preplavila pisanje i druge modalitete te je uključivala suprotnosti vizualnog, zvuka i pisanja, korištene u Debordovom filmu “Howls for Sade”. Hypergraphy je postalo post-pisanje koje je utjecalo na Letrističke i situacionističke filmove. Svaki je novi društveni pokret postao značajan samo kroz slobodnu institucionalizaciju njegove imaginacije. Fenomen emancipacije socijalne imaginacije kroz slobodnu institucionalizaciju može se

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Kaira M. Cabañas. Cinema. Isidore Isou and the Lettrist Avant-Garde. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2014, str.8. 3 Lee Tusman (ur.). Really Free Culture. Anarchist Communities, Radical Movements and Public Practicies. New York, PediaPress, 2015. 4 Doslovan prijevod na hrvatki jezik bio bi infinitezimalna umjetnost (op. prev.) 5 Sami Sjöberg. The Vanguard Messiah– Lettrism between Jewish Mysticism and the AvantGarde. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015, str. 95.

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izraziti uređivanjem nezavisnih manifesta, biltena, časopisa, godišnjih događanja. Isidore Isou pokrenuo je bilten International Lettriste koji je uređivan između 1952. i 1954. Međutim, Debordu se nije sviđalo sve vrijeme biti pod utjecajem Isidorove kreativnosti te je osnovao vlastitu frakciju. Bilten Potlach postao je instrument, ne samo institucionalizacije Debordove frakcije, nego i izraz političkih, pa čak i anarhističkih i socijalno libertarijanskih potraživanja njegovih prijatelja. Bilten je uređivan od 1954. do 1957. te je pomogao u oblikovanju mnogih kritičara i ideja političke ekonomije. Naziv Potlach preuzet je iz kulturne antropologije i značio je društveno darivanje ili socijalnu ekonomiju kroz suradnju i dijeljenje. Slične su se ideje ranije istraživale u radovima antropologa Franca Boasa, Marcela Maussa i filozofa Georga Bataillea. Bilten Potlach, a prije svega njegov začetnik Debord, kritizirali su nove oblike slobodnog vremena ispunjene kapitalizmom. Prema njegovim riječima: „Slobodno je vrijeme pravo revolucionarno pitanje. U svakom slučaju, ekonomske zabrane i njihove nužne posljedice uskoro će biti u potpunosti uništene i istisnute. Organizacija slobodnog vremena – organizacija slobode mnoštva koja nije više toliko voljna neprestano raditi – već je nužnost za kapitalističke države, kao i za njihove marksističke nasljednike. Svugdje je pojedinac ograničen na obaveznu degradaciju stadiona ili televizijskih programa.”6 Citat pokazuje razlike između njegova pristupa konceptu eksploatacije i marksističke ideje koja nikada nije razvila imala razvijen koncept slobodnog vremena i kako različite emisije mogu obuzdati ljudska bića u njihovom privatnom vremenu i prostoru. Potlach pretpostavlja da se emancipacija ljudi treba odvijati putem eksproprijacije njihova svakodnevnog života, putem eksproprijacije eksproprijatora na razini slobodnog vremena, percepcija i iskustava. Oslobađanje društvenog darivanja u našoj svijesti također je dio Potlachove ideje u suvremenim ljevičarskim pokretima. Nova se revolucija treba provoditi na razini estetike kao odvajanje od industrijskog oporavka i korporativnih eksproprijatora. U ovom se kontekstu razvila ideja Potlacha: kao instrumenta za obnovu nezavisnog povjerenja i društvene suradnje. II. Socialisme ou Barbarie i revolucija imaginacije Socialisme ou Barbarie bio je ljevičarski kritički pokret, rezultat kreativnih inspiracija post-trockističkog radikalnog filozofa i

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potlatch #7, - http://www.cddc.vt.edu/sionline/presitu/potlatch7.html - “Leisure is the real revolutionary question. In any case, economic prohibitions and their modern corollaries will soon be completely destroyed and superseded. The organization of leisure — the organization of the freedom of a multitude a little less driven to continuous work — is already a necessity for capitalist states just as it is for their Marxist successors. Everywhere, one is limited to the obligatory degradation of stadiums or television programs.”

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psihoanalitičara Corneliusa Castoriadisa. Socialisme ou Barbarie bila je francuska skupina čiji su sudionici bili dijelom anarhisti, post-trockisti te dijelom slobodarski socijalisti7. Postojala je od 1948. do 1967. godine i oštro je kritizirala ne samo kapitalizam, nego i marksizam, sovjetski totalitarizam i birokratski racionalizam. Pokret je promišljao ideju revolucije i djelomično se odmakao od Rose Luxemburg i Leona Trotskog. Castoriadis je imao kratak ali prilično snažan utjecaj na buduće promjene koncepta klasne revolucije. On i Debord bili su revolucionari, ali u drugačijem smislu od Lenjina. Oni su se okrenuli od Trockijeve ideje „permanentne revolucije” prema razočaranju u sva sveta značenja i spektakle. Castoriadis je vjerovao kako je permanentna revolucija revolucija imaginarnih institucija društva. Pozivao je na isključenje iz revolucije Zimskog dvorca i ideje sovjeta, na revoluciju imaginarnih institucija, ustanak protiv represivnih značenja, new body politics8, na revoluciju svakodnevnog života: „Revolucija ne znači bujice krvi, zauzimanje Zimskog dvorca, i tako dalje. Revolucija znači radikalnu transformaciju društvenih institucija. U tom sam smislu ja svakako revolucionar. Ali da bi se dogodila revolucija u tom smislu, moraju se dogoditi duboke promjene u psihosocijalnoj organizaciji zapadnog čovjeka, u njegovom stavu prema životu, ukratko u njegovoj imaginaciji. Ideja da je jedini cilj života proizvoditi i konzumirati više – ideja koja je istodobno apsurdna i ponižavajuća – mora se napustiti; mora se napustiti kapitalistička ideja o pseudoracionalnom pseudo-majstorstvu, o neograničenoj ekspanziji.”9 Debord je surađivao s Castoriadisom i post-trockističkim časopisom u razdoblju od 1952. do 1957. Drugi članovi grupe bili su Claude Lefort, Jean Francois Lyotard i drugi. Sudionici grupe i pratećeg

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potlatch #7, - http://www.cddc.vt.edu/sionline/presitu/potlatch7.html - “Leisure is the real revolutionary question. In any case, economic prohibitions and their modern corollaries will soon be completely destroyed and superseded. The organization of leisure — the organization of the freedom of a multitude a little less driven to continuous work — is already a necessity for capitalist states just as it is for their Marxist successors. Everywhere, one is limited to the obligatory degradation of stadiums or television programs.” 7 Mészáros István. Socialism or Barbarism. From the “American Century” to the Crossroads. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1999 8 Prijevod na hrvatski – nove zajednice državljana (op. prev.) 9 Interview with Cornelius Castoradis. In: The Revolutionary Force of Ecology. (Part I). KARIOS 1993- https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2009/05/30/the-revolutionaryforce-of-ecology-part-i/ - „Revolution does not mean torrents of blood, the taking of the Winter Palace, and so on. Revolution means a radical transformation of society’s institutions. In this sense, I certainly am a revolutionary. But for there to be revolution in this sense, profound changes must take place in the psychosocial organization of Western man, in his attitude toward life, in short, in his imaginary. The idea that the sole goal of life is to produce and to consume more—an idea that is both absurd and degrading—must be abandoned; the capitalist imaginary of pseudorational pseudomastery, of unlimited expansion, must be abandoned.

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časopisa raspravljali su o radikalnoj kreativnosti i autonomizmu. Debord je njegovao ideju da treba stvarati autonomne situacije i razoriti ne samo ovisnost vremena i prostora, nego i simboličke hegemonije i prateću eksploataciju svijesti ljudi, čak i ako su predmeti kolonizacije ljudi umjetničke slike. Članovi Socialisme ou Barbarie protivili su se i korporativnom kapitalizmu i birokratskom komunizmu. Ideje Socialisme ou Barbarie dijelom su se temeljile na Rosi Luxemburg i njezinoj kritici partijskog elitizma, otuđenom aparatu moći, te na njezinoj ideji spontanosti samoučenja. U članku: “What Does the Spartacus League Want?” iz 1918. pisala je: „U ovom času, socijalizam je jedini spas za čovječanstvo. Riječi Komunističkog manifesta bliješte poput vatrenog menetekela nad ruševnim kulama kapitalističkog društva: socijalizam ili barbarstvo!”10 Kritizirala je hegemonijsku vladu čak i među boljševicima. U tom smislu barbarstvo nekritično ili čak slijepo slijedi karizmatične i autoritarne vođe. Kult ekskluzivnog vodstva i ideologije stvara nova barbarstva. Dodali bismo da je kult izvanrednog stanja, popularan u suvremenoj anti-izbjegličkoj Europi, isto oživljavanje barbarstva. Dakle Luxemburg je govorila protiv barbarstva te je podržavala ideju spontanosti samoučenja. Spontanost i aktivno sudjelovanje samoukih radničkih vijeća trebali su otvoriti nove revolucionarne perspektive. Ideja spontanosti Luxemburg i Castoriadisa izravno je utjecala na Debordovu političku interpretaciju „situacionizma”. Suvremeni kritičari „situacionizam” prije svega objašnjavaju kao umjetnički ekspresionizam, ali su zaboravili politička pitanja ideje i principe anti-umjetnosti. Ideje Luxemburg i Deborda pokazale su međuzavisnost između poticanja spontanog samoučenja i stvaranja novih umjetničkih, anti-umjetničkih, urbanih, društvenih situacija. Javni politički situacionizam počeo je ubrzavati samoučenje i kritičku spontanost. Castoriadis je primijetio da suvremeno društvo barem djelomično postoji između socijalne imaginacije i birokratske klase. Međutim, hegemonijska bi se moć našeg doba mogla okarakterizirati kao intenzivna suradnja između korporativnog kapitalizma, novih oligarha i birokratskog aparata. Oni upravljaju društvom ne samo kroz nadzor, disciplinu i kontrolu, nego i kroz raspodjelu spektakala i pratećih inicijativa samo-spektaklizacije. Socialisme ou Barbarie bio je uglavnom posvećen kritici političke birokratske klase, kritici Staljinizma i porijeklu Nomenklatura totalitarizma. Odbacili su klasični marksizam i raspravljali o potpuno novim idejama društva, imaginacije i revolucije.

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Luxemburg R., Hudis P., Anderson K. B. The Rosa Luxemburg Reader. NYU Press, 2004 p. 350. – “In this hour, socialism is the only salvation for humanity. The words of the Communist Manifesto flare like a fiery menetekel above the crumbling bastions of capitalist society: Socialism or barbarism!”

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Međutim, druge za nas važne ideje razvile su se kasnije i neovisno o Socialisme ou Barbarie. Pri tome mislim na Castoriadisovo djelo „Imaginarna institucija društva”11 i Debordovo djelo „Društvo spektakla”12. Politički koncept primarnih i sekundarnih signifikacija razvijen je u lakanovskoj tradiciji i konkretno u Castoriadisovim djelima. Primarna signifikacija znači hitan značaj, centralizirajuću ulogu proizvodnje neke vrste specijalnih simbola. Oni igraju ulogu očeva, Edipa, sustava i daju prve inicijative i finalne zaključke. Svi su spektakli društva izgrađeni na nekoj vrsti svetih ili primarnih signifikacija. Kapitalistička prodaja simbola, akumulacija kapitala pomoću spektaklizacije, izgradnja društva spektakla i posljednja faza – rast društva samo-spektaklizacije, odlike su suvremenog samopotlačenog zapadnog društva. III. Internationale situationniste i pariški ustanak 1968. Situacionistička internacionala (SI) formalno je postojala od 1957. do 1972. godine. Sastojala se od nekoliko samostalnih umjetničkih pokreta: Letrističke internacionale, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus (nastao iz COBRA-e) i Londonskog psihogeografskog društva. SI se iz čisto umjetničkog pokreta razvila u politički situacionistički pokret i pariški ustanak 1968., a glavni je pokretač političkog zaokreta bio Debord. Ustanak u Parizu 1968. imao je najznačajniji utjecaj na razvoj filozofske misli i ideje emancipacije u zapadnoj Europi i može se usporediti jedino s ustankom u Pragu iste godine koji je imao ogroman utjecaj na disidentski pokret u istočnoj Europi. Međutim, nije uvijek jasno što je od manifesta, grafita i slogana ustanaka nastalo pod utjecajem SI, a što neovisno o njoj. Pamflet Situacionističke internacionale: „Bijeda studentskog života”13 koji je objavljen 1966. postao je najznačajniji dokument za organizaciju studentskog ustanka u svibnju 1968. u Parizu. Drugo je utjecajno djelo bilo Debordovo „Društvo spektakla” iz 1967. SI je razvila brojne nove tehnike oslobođenja od opresije: transgresije (opasne, jer uništavaju osobu); dijalektička kritika (također opasna jer se može koristiti za manipulaciju); détournement (pronevjera) (ograničena u vremenu i zavisna od situacije), ponovno tematiziranje (rekontekstualizacija), ponovno stvaranje signifikacija i imaginarnih institucija, dérive (prepuštanje)... Studentska

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Castoriadis Cornelius. L’Institution imaginaire de la société. Paris: Seuil. 1975. Guy Debord. La société du spectacle. Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1967. Pamflet „Bijeda studentskog života razmotrena u njenim ekonomskim, političkim, socijalnim, psihološkim, seksualnim i posebno intelektualnim aspektima, uz skroman prijedlog za njeno ukidanje” – „De la misère en milieu étudiant considérée sous ses aspects économique, politique, psychologique, sexuel et notamment intellectuel et de quelques moyens pour y remédier” Prvi su ga put objavili 1966. na Sveučilištu u Strassbourgu studenti sveučilišta i članovi Internationale Situationniste. – http://library.nothingness.org/articles/SI/en/display/4 12

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pobuna u Parizu 1968. mnoge je revolucionarne slogane preuzela od Situacionističke internacionale, a neke i od transformiranih ideja kineske kulturne revolucije (1966. – 1976., a posebno 1967. – 1968.) pa čak i od Hóng Wèibīnga (Crvene garde sastavljene od studenata) tog vremena: „Marx, Mao, Marcuse!”, „Bombardirati sjedišta” (slogan preuzet iz Maova govora), ili vrlo situacionistički: „Dosada je kontrarevolucionarna”... IV. Društvo spektakla kao izmijenjeno stanje društvenih odnosa Debord je pisao o Društvu spektakla (DS) kao o izmijenjenom stanju društvenih odnosa, kao o iskrivljenom zrcalu hegemonijske klase. Međutim, današnji su prikazi reklama razorene samo-spektaklizacije i slijede trash i tromost javne imaginacije. Samo-spektaklizacija i atomizirane mase ne samo da oponašaju pravila društvenih odnosa nego ih i usmjeravaju i na putu su da izgrade nove oblike zabaveautoritarianizma u mnogim zemljama, uključujući i SAD. Prema Debordu: akumulacija kapitala putem Društva spektakla novi je izvor Viška vrijednosti. Proizvodnja i masovno umnožavanje privlačnih slika transformiraju društvene odnose i društveno-političke nadgradnje. DS pomaže izgraditi nove oblike kolonizacije građana: oni su pokoreni, izrabljivani i manipulirani od strane industrija imaginacija i slobodnog vremena: „Spektakl je stupanj na kojem roba uspijeva kolonizirati čitav društveni život.”14 Korporativne kreativne industrije, emitiranje, raspodjela užitka, oduzimaju vrijeme potrošačima, iskorištavaju i upravljaju osjećajima, komunikacijom i razumom i svoju sigurnost temelje na poretku stvari i simbola, na pravilima spektakliziranog svijeta. Suprotno tome, situacionizam otima hegemonističke, odnosno znakove glavnih tokova, ogrješuje se o dominantne imaginarne institucije i otvara vrijeme i prostor za nekonformističke intervencije. Otimanje i neumjetničke transformacije postale su uvod u novi oblik revolucije na razini percepcije, vizualnog, signifikacija, institucija i svakodnevnog života. Lokalni politički vođe manipuliraju pojmom revolucije u svrhu manipulacije ljudima i krivotvorenja pravog značenja revolucionarne moći: „Čak i kada izostaje odgovarajuća materijalna osnova, moderno društvo osvaja društvenu površinu svih kontinenata različitim sredstvima spektakla. Ono postavlja pozornicu za lokalnu vladajuću klasu i oblikuje njezin program. Osim što budi žudnju za pseudodobrima, lokalnim

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Debord Guy. Society of the Spectacle. London: Rebel Press, 2014., str. 21. - “The spectacle is the stage at which the commodity has succeeded in totally colonizing social life.”

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revolucionarima spektakl nudi i različite oblike lažne revolucije.”15 Suvremeni postsituacionizam koristi Debordova kritička promišljanja o Društvu spektakla i iskustvima Situacionističke internacionale, ali i o novom umjetničkom konceptualizmu, umjetnosti degradacija, radikalnom akcionizmu te otvara nove javne teme. Javno kreativna i nekonformistička retematizacija prostora i vremena razara sigurnost spektakliziranih građana. Mnoge Debordove ideje i ideje Situacionističke internacionale razvio je filozof Jean Baudrillard. U svojoj je mladosti Baudrillard surađivao na jednom od situacionističkih časopisa: Utopia16. Simulakrum državljanstvo postalo je rezultat koherentnosti višestrukih spektakala i sustava kontrole. Biti simulakrum građanin znači odabrati potrebne medijske kanale, imati strpljenja za korporativno oglašavanje i prihvatiti sustave kontrole i moći. Publicitet u medijima i na društvenim mrežama uči i razvija teme glavnih tokova i spektakla, umjesto da proizvodi mnoštvo alternativa, nelinearnih raznolikosti. Situacijska, nekomformistička umjetnost predstavlja konkurenciju, pa čak i borbu za izgradnju javnih tema, a to često čini na rubu opscenosti i političke podobnosti. V. Transgresije: biti izvan spektakla Razdoblje transgresije označava taktiku bivanja na rubu javnog tabua ili opscenosti. Prijestupnici obično ruše granice zakona ili zdravog razuma i prihvaćaju čak i ono besramno i mistifikacije. U mnogim slučajevima prijestupnici uživaju droge, alkohol, koriste posebne rituale, izvrnute ili perverzne akcije. U ovom smislu prijestupnik nije isto što i prevarant ili okidač jer ne mari za budućnost spektakliziranih zajednica. Transgresivnost pomaže u bijegu od ideoloških interpelacija, prisilnog podčinjavanja, od povođenja za društvom spektakla. Naravno, transgresivne su prakse u mnogim slučajevima vrlo destruktivne, ali pomažu otvaranju „prljavog realizma” društva, dna društvene ljestvice. Slične taktike koristili su i poznati pisci i umjetnici: Guy Debord, Charles Bukowski, Venedikt Jerofejev … Debord je vlastiti transgresivni aktivizam ocijenio riječima: „Među malim brojem stvari koje sam volio i koje sam znao raditi dobro, ono što sam sigurno znao najbolje jeste piti. Premda sam mnogo čitao, pio sam još i više. Napisao sam mnogo manje od većine koja piše, ali

15

Debord Guy. Society of the Spectacle. London: Rebel Press, 2014., str. 28. - “Even where the material base is still absent, modern society has already used the spectacle to invade the social surface of every continent. It sets the stage for the formation of indigenous ruling classes and frames their agendas. Just as it presents pseudogoods to be coveted, it offers false models of revolution to local revolutionaries.” 16 Baudrillard Jean. Utopia Deferred. Writings from Utopie (1967–1978). Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006.

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sam popio mnogo više od većine koja pije. Mogao bih se ubrojati u one o kojima bi Baltasar Gracian, razmišljajući o eliti koja se može pronaći samo među Nijemcima – ali ovdje je bio vrlo nepravedan na štetu Francuza, kao što sam, vjerujem, i pokazao – mogao reći „Postoje oni koji su se napili samo jednom, ali to jednom trajalo im je cijeli život.”17 VI. Post-situacionizam i nekonformistička snaga retematiziraju publicitet Samo-spektaklizacija koristi inertnost medijskoindustrijske spektaklizacije i uništava jedinstvenost komunitarističkog autonomizma. Nova nekomformistička javna umjetnost retematizira i hegemonijske narative i narative spektakla i uspostavlja divergentnu, pomaknutu komunikaciju. U ovom kontekstu retematizacija ima istu ulogu kao i ponovna signifikacija ili čak ponovna spektaklizacija i čak de-spektaklizacija javne komunikacije i bijede hegemonijske imaginacije. Umjetnost anti-spektakla našeg doba prije svega je anti-umjetnička i ponižavajuća. Ponižavanje je, prema Juliji Kristevoj, umjetnička degradacija, kreativna sramota i bijeda duha i moglo bi pomoći odznačavanju srednjih struja spektakla, hegemonija i nevidljivih zidova18. Duhovna bijeda i srodna oskudica posebne su tehnike uništenja ideologija, hegemonijskih narativa i prezentacije hegemonijske ili kolonijalne umjetnosti. Poznati suvremeni post-situacionistički časopis je Not Bored19. Časopis predstavlja anti-spektakl i anti-umjetnički aktivizam i nastoji biti na rubu opscenosti za gledatelje i uključiti ih, uništiti njihovu sigurnost. Ljudi ne vole bijedu posebno ako su aseksualni, sramotni vanzemaljci... Međutim, analiza suvremenih uvjeta društva spektakla u zapadnim zemljama pokazuje transofrmaciju vanjske i manipulativne spektaklizacije u unutarnju želju za spektaklizacijom. Pobjeći od samo-spektaklizacije znači predstaviti nešto neprihvatljivo za ukus hegemonijskih gledatelja. Na primjer, to se dogodilo sa spomenikom „Perfect citizen”20 kipara Gintautasa Lukošaitisa u Litvi. Za lik „savršenog” građanina koristio je lik ruskog akcionista Piotra Pavlenskog. Piotr Pavlesky proslavio se svojom akcijom podrške za „A

17

Debord Guy. Panegyric. Vol. 1 & 2. London: Verso, 2004., str. 29-30. - “Among the small number of things that I have liked and known how to do well, what I have assuredly known how to do best is drink. Although I have read a lot, I have drunk even more. I have written much less than most people who write, but I have drunk much more than most people who drink. I can count myself among those of whom Baltasar Gracian, thinking about an elite discernible only among the Germans - but here he was quite unjust to the detriment of the French, as I think I have shown - could say, 'There are those who got drunk only once, but that once lasted them a lifetime.” 18 Kristeva Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. 19 Not Bored - http://www.notbored.org/index1.html 20 Prijevod na hrvatski - Savršeni građanin, op. prev.

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Punk Prayer” Pussy Riot, svojim samoraspećem pri kojem je vlastite mošnje zakucao čavlima za pod Crvenog trga u Moskvi ili spaljivanjem vrata zgrade današnjeg FSB-a – nekadašnjeg KGB-a – u Moskvi, i sličnim akcijama. Pavlensky je bio proglašen ludim i prvo smješten u psihijatrijsku kliniku, ali je kasnije, pošto je tamo postao vođa (priča vrlo slična romanu Kena Keseya „Let iznad kukavičjeg gnijezda”) prebačen u zatvor. Međutim, čak su ga i kriminalci prihvatili kao novog sveca zbog njegova radikalnog raspeća za mošnje, spaljivanja vrata KGB-a i hrabrosti prilikom suđenja, klinike i zatvora. Litavski kipar Gintautas Lukošaitis „savršenog je građanina” izradio kao Pavlenskog, ali sa zašivenim ustima. Tijekom akcije „zašivena usta” Pavlensky je nosio religijski slogan: „Djelo Pussy Riota bilo je replika poznatog djela Isusa Krista”21. Lyukošaitisova je skulptura smještena na kotačima kako bi s njom iznova mogao stvarati nove situacije. Akcija sa spomenikom na kotačima izvedena je u blizini bivše zgrade KGB-a u Litvi i sa simboličkim kanisterima za spaljivanje vrata. Litavski kvazi-katolici nisu prihvatili samoraspeće Pavlenskog, jer je bilo vrlo sramotno, kao ni to da je Pussy Riot replika Isusa Krista, ni Lukošaitisovu skulpturu – jer ruski akcionist ne može biti „savršeni građanin”.

Gintautas Mažeikis

21

K.Petrov Petr Pavlensky: «Art Is Unthinkable without Experiment» // RosBalt. – 2012. – Sept. 15 - http://www.rosbalt.ru/piter/2012/09/15/1034599.html - “Action of Pussy Riot was a replica of the famous action of Jesus Christ”

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Gintautas Lukošaitis Piotras Pavlenskis: "Aš - tobulas pilietis" 2016.

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G. DEBORD AND CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY OF SELF-SPECTACLIZATION

About Guy Debord, his famous book “the Society of the spectacle”, his created movement The Situationism International (SI) and their influences on the media and political philosophy has written a lot. It seems the themes of the 60s and 70s transformations of imaginary, revolution of everyday life, critic's imagination, the society of the spectacle, one-dimensional man, manipulative cultural industries, production and even hegemony of simulacra have become history in our days. And indeed, the world has changed significantly. However the word “significantly” hides many absences of diversity. Firstly, developed media markets experiences and basic social values. Douglas Kellner wrote about important of Debord’s researches for understanding of manipulativeness and exploitation character of contemporary media: “I argue that media spectacles are those phenomena of media culture that embody contemporary society’s basic values, serve to initiate individuals into its way of life, and dramatize its controversies and struggles, as well as its modes of conflict resolution”1. Spectacular news report (Debord was struck by its manipulativeness) turned into a public information entertainment with staged scenes. Cynicism of broadcastings and information kept on same immoral consumption of everything that is laid out in virtual hyperspace. Moreover, self-spectaclisation of people and the determination to get or maintain the market sights are new communication that points to recklessness and self-fooling the public mind. So it is the time to rethink the contemporary society of the spectacle, the roles of the art and anti-art. The new challenges are good point to critically reconsider few moments of intellectual history of Debord. We would separate fifth major steps of his intuitive discovering of himself: International Lettrism, Socialism ou Barbarie, Situationism International, and later conscious transgression and the sixth moment we will devoted to postsituationist critique of atomized self-spectaclization in the situation of only simulacrum of society.

1

Douglas Kellner. Media Spectacle. London: Routledge, 2003, p. 2.

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I. Internationale lettriste and overcoming of hegemony of words and pictures The leader of The Letterist International (LI) movement was Romanian-France artist, poet and film critic Isidore Isou (born Isidor Goldstein). He and other LI participants opened new breath for breaking and overcoming of hegemonic words and pictures and followed in Isidore’s intention to express new artistic experiences in the “avantgarde”2 stile , via synthesis of Dada and surrealism and new inventions. He developed many new releasing and at the same time destructive original techniques comparing with surrealism and presented new modes of avant-garde writing, filming, picturing. The main idea was to develop anti-art independently from mainstream politics and repressive consciousness. Lettrists developed new ideas and techniques. The most quoted in the books about Lettrism are: hypergraphics, creatics, uprising, infinitesimal art and excoördism3. For example, excoördism means the art after or outside coordination and it became multilingual, arrhythmic, misbalanced writing and picturing. Infinitesimal art united Absolut maximum (extraordinary large) and Absolut minimum (very small). The idea excoördism was derived from Leibniz’ concept of infinitesimals and was interpreted in the context of European and Jewish mysticism, partly similar to the idea of infinitesimal of Emanuel Levinas4. However historically it came from the ideas of Absolut maximum and Absolut minimum of Renaissance philosopher Nicolaus von Cues and his apophatic philosophy and dialectics. It is interesting that the negative philosophical idea considered God as the union of radical oppositions (Absolut maximum and Absolut minimum) and as a possibility for arrhythmic, inharmonious explication of the world. Paradoxically, the apophatic principle of religious philosophy after few transformations became one of the issues of avant-garde anti-art as the model for destruction of all harmonious mainstreams. Cues’ idea of explication of the coincidentium oppositorum, which meant explication of contradictions, presupposed as well as arrhythmic divergences and excoördism. Other Lettrist technique was “hypergraphy” (the synonymous is metagraphics) which overwhelm writing and other modalities and included oppositions between visual, sound and writing that was used in the film of Debord “Howls for Sade”. Hypergraphy became post-writing and influenced Lettrist’ and situationist’ films. Any new society movements become significant only through free institutionalization of their imaginary. The phenomenon of

2

Kaira M. Cabañas. Cinema. Isidore Isou and the Lettrist Avant-Garde. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2014, p.8. 3 Lee Tusman (editor). Really Free Culture. Anarchist Communities, Radical Movements and Public Practicies. New York, PediaPress, 2015. 4 Sami Sjöberg. The Vanguard Messiah– Lettrism between Jewish Mysticism and the AvantGarde. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015, p. 95

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emancipation of social imaginary through free institutionalization could be expressed via editing of independent manifests, bulletins, journals, annual events. Isidore Isou created International Lettriste bulletin which was edited between 1952 and 1954. However Debord didn’t like all time to be under influence of creativity of Isidor and organised his own faction. The bulletin Potlach became instrument not only of institutionalization of the Debord’s faction but as well the expression of political and even anarchist and social libertarian searching of his friends. The bulletin was edited from 1954 to 1957 and helps to formulate many critics and ideas of political economy. The title Potlach was taken from Cultural anthropology and meant social gifting or social economy through cooperation and shearing. Earlier, similar ideas were researched in the works of anthropologists Franc Boas, Marcel Mauss and philosopher Georg Bataille. The bulletin Potlach and first of all his writer Debord criticized new forms of leisure time that is occupied by capitalism. He wrote: “Leisure is the real revolutionary question. In any case, economic prohibitions and their modern corollaries will soon be completely destroyed and superseded. The organization of leisure — the organization of the freedom of a multitude a little less driven to continuous work — is already a necessity for capitalist states just as it is for their Marxist successors. Everywhere, one is limited to the obligatory degradation of stadiums or television programs.”5 The quote shows differences between his approach to the concept of exploitation and Marxist idea which never had the developed concept of the leisure time and how the human beings could be coerced by different shows in their private time and spaces. Bulletin Potlach presupposed that the emancipation of people should go via expropriation of their everyday life, via expropriation of expropriators on the level of leisure time, perceptions and experiences. Liberating of social gifting in our consciousness is the part of Potlach idea in contemporary leftist movements also. New revolution should be done on the stage of aesthetics as disengaging from the industrial recuperating and corporative expropriators. In this context the idea of the Potlach was developed: as an instrument for the rebuilding independent trust and society collaborations. II. Socialisme ou Barbarie and revolution of imaginary Socialisme ou Barbarie was the left critic movement and was developed by creative inspirations of poststrockist radical philosopher and psychoanalytic Cornelius Castoriadis. Socialisme ou Barbarie was

5

potlatch #7, - http://www.cddc.vt.edu/sionline/presitu/potlatch7.html

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a French-based group partly anarchist, post-trockists and partly libertarian socialist6. It existed from 1948 until 1967 and strongly criticised not only Capitalism, but as well as Marxism, soviet totalitarianism and bureaucratic rationalism. The movement reconsidered the idea of revolution and shifted partly away from Rosa Luxemburg and Leon Trotsky. Castoriadis made short but quite strong impact on the future changings of the concept of class revolution. He and Debord were revolutionaries, but in other sense than Lenin. They turn from Trocky's idea of “Permanent revolution” to the disenchantment of all saint significations and spectacles. Castoriadis maintained, permanent revolution is the revolution of imaginary institutions of the society. He invited to turn off from revolution of the Winter Palaces and idea of soviets to the revolution of the imaginary institutions, uprisings against repressive significations, new body politics, to the revolution of everyday life: “Revolution does not mean torrents of blood, the taking of the Winter Palace, and so on. Revolution means a radical transformation of society’s institutions. In this sense, I certainly am a revolutionary. But for there to be revolution in this sense, profound changes must take place in the psychosocial organization of Western man, in his attitude toward life, in short, in his imaginary. The idea that the sole goal of life is to produce and to consume more—an idea that is both absurd and degrading—must be abandoned; the capitalist imaginary of pseudorational pseudomastery, of unlimited expansion, must be abandoned.”7 Debord collaborated with Castoriadis and with post- trockist’s magazine in the period of 1952-1957. The other members of the group were Claude Lefort, Jean Francois Lyotard and others. Participants of the group and related journal discussed radical creativity and autonomism. Debord cultivated an idea to make autonomous situations and to break not only the time and space dependences, but to destroy symbolic hegemonies and related exploitation of consciousness of people even if the issues of colonization of people are art images. Members of Socialisme ou Barbarie were against both Corporative Capitalism and Bureaucratic Communism. The ideas of the Socialisme ou Barbarie partly were based on the Rosa Luxemburg’s critics of party’s elitism, alienated apparatus of power and on her idea of self-learning spontaneity. She written in her article: “What Does the Spartacus League Want?” in 1918:

6

Mészáros István. Socialism or Barbarism. From the "American Century" to the Crossroads. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1999. 7

Interview with Cornelius Castoradis. In: The Revolutionary Force of Ecology. (Part I). KARIOS 1993- https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2009/05/30/the-revolutionaryforce-of-ecology-part-i/

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“In this hour, socialism is the only salvation for humanity. The words of the Communist Manifesto flare like a fiery menetekel above the crumbling bastions of capitalist society: Socialism or barbarism!”8 She criticized hegemonic government even between Bolsheviks. In this sense barbarism is uncritical or even blind following to the charismatic and authoritarian leaders. Cult of the exclusive leadership and ideologies produces new barbarism. We would add that the cult of the state of exception, which is popular in contemporary antirefugees Europe, is the same reviving of barbarism. So Luxemburg spoke against barbarism and supported the idea of self-learning spontaneity. Spontaneity and active participation of self-educated labour councils should open new revolutionary perspectives. Luxemburg and Castoriadis’ idea of spontaneity directly influenced Debord’s political interpretation of the “situationism”. Contemporary critics explained the “situationism” first of all as an artistic expressionism and forgot the political issues of the idea and anti-art principles. The ideas of Luxemburg and Debord demonstrated interdependences between supporting of self-learning spontaneity and creation of new artist, antiartist, urban, social situations. Public political situationism started to be an accelerator for self-learning and critical spontaneity. Castoriadis noticed that contemporary society at least partly exists between social imaginary and the class of bureaucracy. However and our days hegemonic power could be characterized as intensive collaboration between corporative capitalism, new oligarchs and bureaucratic apparatus. They govern society not only through surveillance, discipline and control, but as well as through distribution of the spectacles and supporting initiatives of the self-spectaclization. Socialisme ou Barbarie was devoted mostly to the critics of political class of bureaucracy, critics of Stalinism and origin Nomenklatura totalitarianism. They rejected classical Marxism and discussed completely new ideas of society, imaginary and revolution. However other important for us ideas were developed later and independently from the Socialisme ou Barbarie. I mean the books “The imaginary institution of society”9 of Castoriadis and “The society of the spectacle“10 of Debord. The political concept of primary and secondary significations was elaborated in the Lacanian tradition and concretely in the works of Castoriadis. Primary signification means the urgent importance, centralizing role of production of some sort of special symbols. They play the role of fathers, Oedipus, of systems and produce first initiatives and the last conclusions. All spectacles of society are built on some

8

Luxemburg R., Hudis P., Anderson K. B. The Rosa Luxemburg Reader. NYU Press, 2004 p. 350. 9

Castoriadis Cornelius. L'Institution imaginaire de la société. Paris: Seuil. 1975,

10

Guy Debord. La société du spectacle. Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1967.

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sort of saint or primary significations. Capitalist selling of symbols, accumulation of capital from spectaclization, building of the society of the spectacle and the last phase – growing of society of the selfspectaclization are characters of contemporary self-oppressed Western society. III. Internationale situationniste and Paris uprising of 1968 The Situationist International (SI) formally existed 1957-1972. SI was composed from few independent artist movements: the Lettrist International, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus (an offshoot of COBRA), and the London Psychogeographical Association. SI was developed from pure artistic movement to the political situationist movement and Paris uprising of 1968 and the main initiator of political shift was Debord. The uprising in Paris of 1968 had the most significant impact on the development of philosophical thought and the ideas of emancipation in Western Europe and comparable only with the uprising in Prague the same year that had a huge impact on the dissident movement in Eastern Europe. However it is not always clear what from the uprising manifests, graffiti and slogans were done under influence of SI and independently from the one. The SI pamphlet: “On the Poverty of Student Life”11 which was published in 1966 became the most significant document in preparation of students uprising in the May of 1968 in Paris. The other influential book was “The society of the spectacle” of Debord in 1967. SI developed many new techniques of liberation from oppression: transgressions (dangerous, because destroys person); dialectical critique (as well dangerous because could be used for manipulation); détournement (hijacking) (limited in tame and from situation), rethematising (re-contextualisation), re-making significations and imaginary institutions, dérive (a drift)… Student rebellion of 1968 in Paris took many of revolutionary slogans from SI movement and some from transformed ideas of Chinese Cultural revolution (1966 – 1976, and especially 1967-1968) and even from Hóng Wèibīng (Red Guards consisted from students) of the same time: “Marx, Mao, Marcuse!”, “Bombard the Headquarters” (the slogan was takes from Mao speech), or very situationistic: “Boredom is counterrevolutionary” …

11

The pamphlet “On the Poverty of Student Life: A Consideration of Its Economic, Political, Sexual, Psychological and Notably Intellectual Aspects and of a Few Ways to Cure it“ – “De la misère en milieu étudiant considérée sous ses aspects économique, politique, psychologique, sexuel et notamment intellectuel et de quelques moyens pour y remédier” First published in 1966 at the University of Strasbourg by students of the university and members of the Internationale Situationniste. – http://library.nothingness.org/articles/SI/en/display/4

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IV. The society of the spectacle as an altered state of social relationships Debord has written about Society of the spectacle (SP) as an altered state of social relationships, as the crooked mirror of hegemonic class. However today representations of publicity are raze selfspectaclization and follow the trash and inertia of the public imaginary. Self-spectaclized and atomized masses not only imitate the rules of social relationships but as well direct the social relationships and are on the road to build new forms of entertainment-authoritarianisms in many countries including US. Debord described: accumulation of the capital via SP is new source of Surplus Value. Manufacturing and mass reproduction of the attractive images transforms social relationships and social-political superstructure. SP helps to construct new forms of colonization of citizens: they are subjugated, exploited and manipulated via industries of imaginary and leisure time: “The spectacle is the stage at which the commodity has succeeded in totally colonizing social life.”12 Corporative Creative industries, broadcasting, distribution of the pleasure take the time of consumers, exploit and engineer feelings, communication and the reason, and make their sureness in the orders of things and symbols, in the rules of spectalized world. On the contrary situationism hijacks mainstream or hegemonic signs, transgress dominant imaginary institutions and opens the time and space for nonconformist interventions. Hijacking and non-artistic transformations became introduction to the new form of revolution on the level of perception, visual, significations, institutions and everyday life. Local political leaders manipulate by the concept of revolution in order to manipulate the people and falsify the real significant of revolutionary power: “Even where the material base is still absent, modern society has already used the spectacle to invade the social surface of every continent. It sets the stage for the formation of indigenous ruling classes and frames their agendas. Just as it presents pseudogoods to be coveted, it offers false models of revolution to local revolutionaries.”13 Contemporary postsituationism uses critical considerations of Debord about SP and experiences of SI, but as well as of new art conceptionalism, the art of abjections, radical actionism and makes new public themes. Public creative and non-conformist re-thematization of

12

Debord Guy. Society of the Spectacle. London: Rebel Press, 2014,p. 21.

13

Debord Guy. Society of the Spectacle. London: Rebel Press, 2014, p. 28.

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spaces and times destroys the sureness of spectaclized citizens. Many of Debord’s and SI’s ideas were developed by philosopher Jen Baudrillard. Baudrillard in his young time participated in one of situationist journal: Utopia14. Simulacrum citizenship became result of the coherences of multiple spectacles and control systems. To be simulacrum citizen means to choose necessary media channel, to be patient for corporative advertising and to accept the systems of control and power. Publicity in the media and social networks pick up and develop the mainstream and spectacle themes instead to produce multiplicity of alternatives, nonlinear diversities. Situational, non-conformist art represents a competition and even struggle for the building of public themes, and often does it on the edge of obscenity and political acceptability. V. Transgressions: being beyond the spectacles Period of transgression means the tactics of being on the edge of public taboo or obscenity. Transgressors ordinary broke the limits of law or common sense and accept even shameless and mystifications. In many cases transgressors uses many drugs, alcohol, special rituals, inverse or perverse actions. Transgressor in this sense is not the same at a trickster or trigger because doesn’t cares about the future of spectaclized communities. Transgresiveness helps to escape from ideological interpellations, coercive subjugations, from following to the society of the spectacles. Of course, the transgression practices are very destructive in many cases but help to open “dirty realism” of society, the bottom of the social. The similar tactics were used by famous artist and writer’s: Guy Debord, Charles Bukowski, Venedikt Jerofejev… Debord evaluated his transgressive activism: “Among the small number of things that I have liked and known how to do well, what I have assuredly known how to do best is drink. Although I have read a lot, I have drunk even more. I have written much less than most people who write, but I have drunk much more than most people who drink. I can count myself among those of whom Baltasar Gracian, thinking about an elite discernible only among the Germans - but here he was quite unjust to the detriment of the French, as I think I have shown - could say, 'There are those who got drunk only once, but that once lasted them a lifetime.”15

14

Baudrillard Jean. Utopia Deferred. Writings from Utopie (1967–1978). Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006 15

Debord Guy. Panegyric. Vol. 1 & 2. London: Verso, 2004, p. 29-30.

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VI. Postsituationism and non-conformist power to re-thematize the publicity Self-spectaclization uses inertia of the media-industrial spectaclization and destroys uniqueness of communitarian autonomism. New non-conformist public art re-thematizes both hegemonic and the spectacle narratives or makes divergent, queer communication. In this context re-thematization plays the same role as re-signification, or even re-spectaclization and even de-spectactaclization of public communication and destitution of hegemonic imaginary. Anti-spectacle art in our days is first of all anti-art and abjection. Abjection, according to Julia Kristeva, is an artistic degradation, creative shamefulness and meanness of spirit and could help for designification of the spectacle mainstreams, hegemonies, and invisible walls16. Spiritual meanness and related destitution are special techniques of destruction of ideologies, hegemonic narratives and hegemonic or colonial art presentations. Famous contemporary postsituationis journal is Not Bored17. The journal provides anti-spectacle and anti-art activism and seeks to be on the edge of obscenity for spectators and to involve them, to destroy their safeness. People don’t like the abject especially is they are asexual, shameful aliens … However, the analysis of contemporary conditions of the society of the spectacle in Western countries shows a transformation of external and manipulative spectaclization into the internal desire to be spectaclized. To escape from self-spectaclization means to present an inacceptable for hegemonic spectators taste. For example, it happened with the monument of “Perfect citizen” which was done by sculptor Gintautas Lukošaitis in Lithuania. He took as an image of “perfect” citizen the profile of Russian actionist Piotr Pavlensky. Piotr Pavlesky became famous for his actions to support Pussy Riot’s “A Punk Prayer”, for his self-crucifixion via nailing of his scrotum by nails to the pavement of Red Square in Moscow, or by burning of the doors of contemporary FSB – former KGB - building in Moscow and other similar actions. Pavlensky was accused as a mad men and firstly putted into Psychiatry clinics but later, because he became even leader in the clinic (very similar story to the novel of Ken Kesey “One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest”) he was redirected to the jail. However even criminals accepted he as a new saint, because his radical crucifixion of the scrotum, the burning of KGB doors and bravery in the trial, the clinic and the jail. Lithuanian sculptor Gintautas Lukošaitis did the “perfect citizen” as Pavlensky’s

14

Baudrillard Jean. Utopia Deferred. Writings from Utopie (1967–1978). Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006 15

Kristeva Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. 16

Not Bored - http://www.notbored.org/index1.html

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bust with sutured mouth. Pavlensky in his action of “sutured mouth” maintained religious slogan, that: “Action of Pussy Riot was a replica of the famous action of Jesus Christ”18. Lyukošaitis’ sculpture is on the wheels in order to make new and new situations with him. The action with the monument on the wheels was done near former KGB building in Lithuania and with symbolical canisters to burn the doors. Lithuanian quasi catholic society didn’t accept no Pavlensky’s self-crucifixion, because it was very shameful, no that Pussy Riot was replica to Jesus Christ, no Lukošaitis’ sculpture – because Russian actionist couldn’t be “perfect citizen”.

Gintautas Mažeikis

18

K.Petrov Petr Pavlensky: «Art Is Unthinkable without Experiment» // RosBalt. – 2012. – Sept. 15 - http://www.rosbalt.ru/piter/2012/09/15/1034599.html

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CIKLICKO VRIJEME, POSTAV IZLOŽBE I NEPOVRATNI SPEKTAKL

Izložba Društvo spektakla. Kritika samospektalizacije postavljena je u Galeriji Bačva u Domu Hrvatskog društva likovnih umjetnika. Kružni prostor galerije (nadsvođen kupolom) kipar Ivan Meštrović namijenio je prvenstveno skulpturi, odnosno onome što je pod tim pojmom podrazumijevao u datom vremenu i prostoru. Prilikom otvorenja zgrade Doma u središte je kruga Meštrović postavio čuvenu skulpturu Povijest Hrvata, koja će u godinama nakon Drugog svjetskog rata postati dio nacionalnog narativa. Meštrovićev portret vlastite majke koja sjedeći poput egipatskog pisara i bodhisattve drži glagoljski natpis bio je instaliran u podnožje kupole čiji je sastavni dio svod sastavljen od kružnih stakala, raspoređenih u formi beskonačnog heksagrama. Kozmički simbol određen je koanom Hermesa Trismegistosa: „Ono što je gore jednako je onom što je dolje.” Heksagram povezuje skulpturu Povijest Hrvata s počelom Kozmosa i njegovim ideogramom na svodu kupole. Unutar takvog slojevitog prostora odlučili smo organizirati postav izložbe koja će iščitavati tri modela ljudskog vremena.1 Isto tako odlučili smo kretanje kroz postav izložbe organizirati po tri spomenuta modela. U kružnom prostoru galerije postoji samo jedan ulaz. Posjetilac može obilaziti prostoriju s lijeva na desno, s desna na lijevo, ili pak može ući ravno u središte prostora. Postav izložbe organiziran je tako da se obilazi u smjeru kazaljke na satu s lijeva na desno. Isto kretanje koristi se u molitvi Puta križa za vrijeme Korizme, u svim crkvenim procesijama, za vrijeme hodočašća u Meki i u svim buddhističkim ophodima kao što je ophod Mahabodhi hrama, ritualna kora oko Kailasa ili ophod Dalaj-Laminog hrama u McLeod Ganju. U simboličkoj formi takvo kretanje može biti kružno, bez početka i kraja i tako odgovara cikličkom vremenu. To je vrijeme „vječnog povratka istog”, utjelovljenog u modelu poljoprivredne proizvodnje koja je organizirana u ritmu godišnjih doba.2 Isto tako posjetilac može nakon obilaska čitavog kruga izići iz galerije. Takvo kretanje odgovara nepovratnom, irevizibilnom vremenu, u kojem se objavljuje kraj vremena kao otkrovenje božanskog zakona.3 Izložba se može pogledati pravocrtnim ulaskom u sredinu prostora. Tako se posjetiocu objavljuje

1

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999., str. 114–132. 2 Ibid., str. 115. 3 Ibid., str. 120.

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spektakularno vrijeme u kojem se isti prepušta potrošnji prizora (vremena) i ispunjenju slikama.4 Prvi rad u izložbenom postavu je performativno predavanje Gintautasa Mažeikisa Non Comformist Public Art Contra Society of SelfSpectaclisation, iz 2016. godine, koje je dokumentirano u formi video rada, a sam ga je autor izveo u Klubu HDLU 12. ožujka 2016. godine. Predavanje ne samo da ocrtava uvod u fenomenologiju izložbe već istovremeno predstavlja i Mažeikisov autorski statement kojim dekonstruira značenje Debordove filozofije u vremenu samospektaklizacije. Po autorovom kazivanju njegov se rad temelji na analizi djela Corneliusa Castoriadisa i Guya Deborda u razdoblju Socialisme ou Barbarie, povijesnog tumačenja odnosa između ideja Rose Luxemburg, Lava Trockog i ideja nove vrste revolucije signifikacije, imaginarnog i spektakla (u djelima Castoriadisa i Deborda). Mažeikisovo predavanje pomaže nam razumjeti zašto kritika društva spektakla nije samo teorijska analiza, već i kontinuirana umjetničko-politička praksa. Gintautas Mažeikis, umjetnik tako reinterpretira samog sebe – filozofa. Video rad izložen u Galeriji više je od medijske dokumentacije samog performativnog predavanja. Mažeikis sjedi u prvom planu dok je u pozadini tmina, crnilo baš kao na renesansnom portretu Girolama Savoranole. Odmjerenim profesorskim glasom Mažeikis kazuje manifestne teze. Određeni segmenti predavanja u videu su nadopunjeni ilustracijama. Ilustracije su preuzete s Power Point prezentacije Mažeikisovog predavanja. Upravo se u tom detalju otkriva najveći Mažeikisov cinizam. Umjetnik naime koristi estetiku korporativne prezentacije koja s jedne strane neodoljivo podsjeća na sovjetski agitprop a s druge predstavlja oružje u borbi protiv spektaklizacije. Umjetnik navodi kako je u današnjem vremenu „spektakularna prezentacija izbjeglica pomogla održavanju stanja izuzetka, legitimaciji totalnog nadzora i razvoju upravljačkih tijela politici”. Po njegovom su mišljenju upravo izbjeglice pretvorene u element poduzetništva kreativnih industrija, a „različite vrste kriza imaju za cilj opravdati novu produkciju simbola kontrole i sigurnosti”. Oruđe koje se u tome koristi jednako je agitpropovsko i korporativno. Mažeikisov rad predstavlja i svojevrsni prozor u transcendentalnost izložbe, u kojoj se spektakularno vrijeme pretvara u virtualno vrijeme i Treći prostor.5 Rad Martine Miholić Ambitious Toys nastavak je autoričine istoimene instalacije postavljene u Galeriji Karas na jesen 2014. godine. U Galeriji Bačva izložen je rad koji se sastoji od kućice, odnosno simulacije prostora za življenje kakve nalazimo u velikim trgovačkim centrima kod prezentacije spavaćih soba. Prostor je ambivalentan, kreiran tako da ne možemo sa sigurnošću tvrditi je li on namijenjen djevojčici ili odrasloj ženi.

4

Ibid., str.131–132. Soja, Edward W. Thirdspace. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. 5

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Autorica u svom kazivanju navodi kako ne možemo utvrditi ostavljaju li prostor i predmeti u njemu dojam prostora i predmeta kreiranih za odrasle osobe koji imitira prostore i predmete kreirane i namijenjene djeci, a koji pak imitiraju one za odrasle. U donjem djelu ružičaste kućice izgrađene od knaufa nalazi se maleni stolić i stolica dok je na gornjem dijelu, povezanom srebrenim ljestvama, krevet. Sa stražnje se strane na svojevrsnoj polici nalaze različiti uporabni predmeti. Autorica navodi kako „podrobnijim promatranjem predmeta postajemo svjesni pomaka u predstavljanju realnosti u kojem taj naizgled dječji infantilan svijet, kućica na koju su nahrlile sve djevojčice možda i nije toliko siguran, infantilan i neokaljan”. Dominantna roza, srebrna i bijela, koju je umjetnica koristila pri odabiru predmeta korištenih u stvaranju rada, transformirali su predmete za svakodnevnu uporabu u fetišizirane objekte svijeta spektakla. Na otvorenju izložbe autorica se popela na krov kućice zajedno s posjetiocima izložbe. Tako je nastao privatan prostor unutar društvenog eventa, otvorenja izložbe. Martina Miholić smatra kako su u tom trenutku svi skupa odlučili proslaviti otvorenje u „kreiranom spektakularnom svemiru”. Svijet igračaka koje su postale dio instalacija Martine Miholić u Galeriji Karas i Galeriji Bačva ocrtava različite identitete: one koji su ujedinjeni svijetom ekrana, interfacea kojemu još uvijek smeta razlika između ljudskog uma, vida i njega samog. On teži biti jednome kako bi svijet Imperija bio potpun i kako bi proizveo potpun život.6 Taj nas svijet ostavlja gladnima, jer samo tako iskazujemo želju za njegovim proizvodom, a to je cjelokupna stvarnost,7 kao oblik spektakla. Rad Vlaste Delimar Hrvatski proizvod prvi put je izveden na različitim lokacijama u Zagrebu, Križevcima i Rovinju 2007. godine. Projekt se sastojao od serije plakata-fotografija izloženih u javnom prostoru. Unutar izložbe Društvo spektakla. Kritika samospektaklizacije umjetnica je u prostoru Galerije Bačva izložila osam plakata. Na oglasnom stupu, na Zrinjevcu, za vrijeme je trajanja izložbe izloženo četiri plakata. Na većini je plakata autorica u društvu umjetnika/ica značajnih za širu zajednicu u kojoj djeluju tako da ih po autoričinim navodima možemo iščitati kao proizvod. Vlasta Delimar smatra kako je u „današnje vrijeme globalizacije dobro osvijestiti vrijednosti 'nacionalnog identiteta' koji se treba uklopiti u globalnu integraciju i na taj način pokazati visinu kulturne demokracije te pripadanje vrijednostima civilnog društva kao europske vrednote”. Ovim je projektom kako umjetnica zaključuje moguće „spojiti vrijednost 'nacionalnog identiteta', osobnog te suvremenost likovnog izraza”. Vlasta Delimar u svom radu polazi od konzumerističke forme

6

Hardt, Michael i Antonio Negri. Imperij. Zagreb: Multimedijalni institut, Arkzin, 2003., .str. 9. 7 Usp. Zanki, Josip. Antropološka konceptualizacija prostora u thangka slikarstvu i suvremenim umjetničkim praksama. Doktorska disertacija. Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 2016., str. 44.

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plakata odnosno city-lighta kojom u društvu spektakla novi brandovi započinju svoje marketinške kampanje. Umjetnici/ice na plakatima preuzimaju ulogu branda, dok ih Vlasta Delimar koja se na fotografijama nalazi pokraj njih glamurozno predstavlja. U tom kontekstu nije nevažno spomenuti da je umjetnica na svim plakatima nagog tijela, kao i neki od umjetnika-sudionika projekta. Na taj se način ironično iščitava česti erotizam, mačizam i manipulacija ženskim tijelima u korporativnim (čitaj kolonijalnim i seksističkim) kampanjama. Moramo spomenuti da je Hrvatsko društvo likovnih umjetnika prilikom organizacije izložbe pregovaralo s više oglašivačkih poduzeća, međutim samo je jedno pristalo izložiti plakate u javnom prostoru uz ogradu o sadržaju. Rad Vlaste Delimar korištenjem strategije šoka iščitava poziciju umjetnika koji se sve više u svijetu spektakla pretvara u društvenog radnika8, kao poluge kreativnih industrija. Umjetnica zaključuje kako je njen Hrvatski proizvod „stvaran proizvod, nikako privid ili iluzija ili prijevara, on je kvalitetan proizvod i kao takav pokušava se izjednačiti s ostalom 'robom' na tržištu”. Ostaje nam za vjerovati da ostala roba neće primijetiti umjetničku diverziju u neumitnom zakonu potrošnje. Austrijska umjetnica Luise Kloos predstavlja se radom Get the Picture at Your Own iz 2016. godine. Rad se sastoji od tri staklene ploče 70 x 70 centimetara uokvirene u metalne okvire i postavljene na zid galerije. Na pločama su natpisi brušeni u staklu koji stvaraju jasnije i mutnije sjene na bijelom zidu. Na prvoj ploči je natpis Get your own PICTURE, na drugoj Improve your GAZE, a na trećoj Perceive the phenomenon in its TOTALITY. Luise Kloos već niz godina realizira instalacije koristeći optička vlakna (plastično staklo). Umjetnica navodi kako „mediji prenose ideju slike putem optičkih vlakana (telekomunikacijske veze), a taj je materijal medij za reflektiranje svjetlosti; transformira svjetlo u prostoru i izražava sveukupnost prostora, svjetla i instalacije”. Taj je transparentni materijal koristila od 1997. godine u instalacijama postavljenim na različitim lokacijama od Tuzle preko New Yorka do Graza, Nina i Zagreba. I u radu postavljenom u Galeriju Bačva poigrava se s materijalnim svojstvima samog stakla i njegovim prijenosom svijetlosti na određenu površinu. Posjetilac je suočen s meditacijskim pitanjima, gotovo mantričkim riječima u svijetu gdje vlada fenomen slika i spektakla. Umjetnica ističe kako je najspektakularniji dio u njenom radu činjenica da je napustila bilo kakav spektakl. Korištenje staklenih ploča za nju ima dvije razine, transparentnost i dvosmislenost. Transparentnost omogućava pogled u prazan prostor pisanom porukom koja je formulirana kao zahtjev. S druge strane stakla je nešto što stvara „određenu granicu između praznog prostora iza stakla i promatrača ispred stakla”. Luise Kloos navodi kako takvo stanje nalikuje „prolasku kroz granice

8

Hardt, Michael i Antonio Negri. Imperij. Zagreb: Multimedijalni institut, Arkzin, 2003., str. 338

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komfora”, koji je poremećen zahtjevima, ispisanim na staklu. Za spoznaju fenomena u njegovom totalitetu treba poštovati cjelovitost trenutka. Upravo je u trenutku moguće doživljaj staklenih pločaobjekta kao oblika meditacijske praznine. Umjetnica taj oblik proširenja ljudske svijesti postavlja nasuprot društvu spektakla. Za nju je društvo spektakla stanje koje dovodi ljudi sve više i više u zone udobnosti; „da ne budemo aktivni kako bi nam bilo ugodno”, i da tako zaboravimo demokratske vrijednosti. Umjetnica na taj način potvrđuje potpunu vladavinu spektakla, jer kako piše Guy Debord spektakl predstavlja „viđenje svijeta koje se objektiviziralo”.9 Upravo u takvom svijetu iluzije Luise Kloos postavlja mantričku zagonetku koja nas odvaja od svijeta ispunjenog slikama. Khaled Hafez predstavlja se video radom Mirror Sonata in Six Animated Movements (For Twelve Hands)? iz 2015. godine, petim i konačnim radom višegodišnjeg projekta. Njime umjetnik, po vlastitim riječima pokušava „konstruirati hram modernog doba, onaj ispunjen znakovima i simbolima konzumerizma”. Prvi rad naziva Tomb Sonata in Three Military Movements (and Overture), nastao 2010. godine istražuje ideje egipatskog odljeva mozgova, tijela kao sredstva za izražavanje, masovni strah i ratni stroj. Drugi rad (hram) je Second Sonata for a Tomb in Three Archaeological Movements, iz 2012. godine istražuje ideje jezika, vremena, prosvjetljenja, proizvodnje i širenja znanja kroz dimenzije prostora i vremena. Treći rad Tomb Sonata in Two Military Movements: the Sequel iz 2012. godine propituje ideje konfrontacije i pisanja povijesti. Četvrti rad Sound Sonata on Two Walls Movements Sound iz 2013. godine dekonstruira ideje borbe bogatstva i moći putem novog vizualnog pisma. Rad Mirror Sonata in Six Animated Movements (For Twelve Hands)?, propituje sve vrste slike, od freske na zidu, preko slike na platnu do video slike i kompjuterske animacije. Rad se zasniva na mix-media slici formata 750 puta 200 cm, na kojoj su svi naslikani elementi inspirirani medijski propagiranim slikama. Svi elementi na platnu počinju se kretati tijekom 90 sekundi praćeni izvornom partiturom koju je skladao briljantan pijanist Mohamed Saleh. Rad je animirao Ahmed El Shaer, video umjetnik, koji je s Hafezom radio i na tri prethodna videa. Kako navodi Hafez ženski likovi izlaze iz modnih časopisa u kojima su modeli anoreksični i nauljeni, dok muški likovi izlaze iz bodybuilding časopisa, gdje je seksističko, mišićavo muško tijelo podjednako nauljeno za kamere. S druge strane Hafezovi likovi prizivaju i arhetipske bogove s egipatskih fresaka, zaogrnute u ruho spektakularnog obličja. Khaled Hafez polazi od Mitchellove teze po kojoj je najvažnije svojstvo života slike upravo u njenoj mogućnosti prelaska iz jednog u drugi medij; od novinskog papira, preko ekrana pa do događaja

9

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999., str 36.

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svakodnevnog života i natrag na stranice tiska.10 S druge strane Hafez se po vlastitom navodu uvijek zaustavlja ispred Debordovog cilja a to je 'probuditi gledatelja iz tiranije medija, ispunjenih i manipuliranih slikama'. Umjetnikov se rad već godinama zasniva na istraživanju utjecaja medijima propagiranog imaginarija na suvremenu osobnost i na Jean Baudrillardovom konceptu simulacije i simulakruma; modulirane percepcije putem medija i njihovih šifri i znakova.11 Tom svijetu Hafez pretpostavlja mogućnost razumijevanja problema, čemu doprinose misli kao što su one Debordove, iz čega može nastati akcija i transformacija društva. Instalacija CASSIS CORNUTA, tandema Žižić/Kožul iz 2016 godine sastoji se od objekta smještenog na pod Galerije Bačva i fotografije smještene na zidu nasuprot. Objekt je vrlo jednostavan, postament izgrađen od više knauf profila naslaganih jedan na drugi, na kojem se nalazi sedam odljeva oceanskih školjaka, koje služe i kao zvučne kutije, proizvodeći omamljujući zvuk valova. Umjetnici su koristili model školjaka koje se originalno mogu pronaći u suvenirnicama diljem Pacifika, Indijskog oceana i Mediterana. Za Žižića/Kožula školjke predstavljaju „simbolički objekt globalne turističke ikonografije”, iako se radi o predmetu istrgnutom iz svog originalnog socio-kulturalnog okružja. Čitav dojam reklamne kampanje za virtualnu stvarnost po kojoj ocean može biti bilo gdje i bilo kada nadopunjuje blurana fotografija koja prikazuje naslagane ležaljke za plažu. Na taj je način ono nestvarno potpuno, umjesto stvarne stolice na kojoj bi se posjetilac u Galeriji odmarao pokraj opuštajućih zvukova ponuđena nam je slika. Upravo nas slika podsjeća na iluziju stvarnosti koju nam nudi ovaj rad, i budi nas kako bi zaključili da se ipak nalazimo u Galeriji, daleko od tropskih mora i utopijskog svijeta. Umjetnici ističu kako je „najspektakularniji aspekt izloženog rada potpuna neprirodnost izloženog krajolika, surogat kvaliteta čitave instalacije”. Upravo je surogat stvarnosti osnovni instrumentarij Društva spektakla. Umjetnici smatraju da naše sjećanje na određeno iskustvo možda amalgam fenomena koji je rezultat kombiniranog individualnog iskustva i zajedničkog kolektivnog iskustva reklamnog medijskog narativa. Zaključuju kako su zato „većina naših sjećanja u opasnosti da ne budu ništa više od generičkih lista ispunjenih dnevnim magnovenjima i neispunjenih autobiografija koje ambiciozno nastoje proživjeti medijima sugerirane narative”. U njihovom je radu generički krajolik ogoljen do simboličke reprezentacije koja kako to navode umjetnici „omogućuje funkcionalnu samorađajuću iluziju”. Upravo na iluziji počiva i sva veličina spektakla.

10

Usp. Mitchell, W. J. Thomas. What do Pictures Want?. The Lives and Loves if Images. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 2005., str. 294 11 Baudrillard, Jean. Simulakrumi i simulacija. Karlovac: Naklada Društva arhitekata, građevinara i geodeta 2001.

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Giovanni Morbin predstavlja se radom (objektima) PERSONALE, strettamente personale nastalom 2016. godine. Rad se sastoji od niza (sedam) poštanskih omotnica, različite boje i veličine. Omotnice su zapečaćene i sadržaj je vrlo osoban i istovremeno vrlo rezerviran kako tvrdi Morbin. Svaka koverta je djelo samo za sebe, koju autor prepoznaje kao umjetnički rad samo dokad ostaje zapečaćena. u njemu sebe da sam prepoznati samo dok ona ostaje zapečaćena. Izrekavši takvu tvrdnju u svom umjetničkom statementu poslanom Hrvatskom društvu likovnih umjetnika Giovanni Morbin je službeno potvrdio umjetničko djelo koje postoji samo u kuverti kao rad neizložen bilo kome drugome osim samom umjetniku koji zna njegov sadržaj. Umjetnik smatra kako više nikad ne bi mogao prepoznati rad kao takav, jer ako bi informacija sadržana u njemu u slučaju otvaranja bila pročitana u javnosti tada bi postala stvarnost, a prestala bi biti umjetnost. Giovanni Morbin ističe kako je u njegovom radu „najspektakularnija činjenica je nedostatak sadržaja koji bi se mogao čitati ili vidjeti”. Umjetnik uživa u mogućoj potrebi da se probavi tišina malog nesvjesnog monokroma. Po njemu je stvar u tome da se treba kladiti (riskirati) više, i to oduzimanjem sugestivnih elemenata. jer „nešto se može pokazati i bez da se izloži” tvrdi Morbin. Umjetnik je također zainteresiran „za erotiku između nečega što je tamo, na dohvat ruke, bez mogućnosti da ga se dohvati u potpunosti”. Ovaj se rad naslanja na većinu Morbinovih promišljanja umjetnosti kao čina ne(rada), ukidanja rada,12 i stvaranje novog oblika socijalne interakcije. I na tom je tragu umjetnik još od svojih studentskih dana, kada je specijalnim rukavicama blokirao vlastite ruke za ikakav rad. Zato i nije čudo da su po Morbinu manifestne knjige kao što je to Društvo spektakla ali i pojam manifesta uopće „utopijske projekcije” i do nas su došle kako bi „idealizirali stvarnost”. Jer „iluzija nije nužno loša stvar, ali to također može biti bijeg iz nepodnošljive stvarnosti”. A umjetnički rad Giovannija Morbina dokida bilo kakav oblik iluzije i bijega. Zlatko Kopljar predstavlja se radom K18, u kojemu se isprepliću tri elementa video slika, umjetnikov performativni čin i zvučna (poetska) intervencija. Video je maestralno snimio Boris Poljak u podnožju Sljemena. Njegovo ime je važno spomenuti iz dva razloga, video slika u ovom radu se zasniva na krupnim kadrovima koji gotovo da dotiču geometrijsku strukturu lišća, tla i vode. Kopljarov koncept prirode u kojoj se pojavljuje u svom čuvenom izvedbenom, flourescentnom odijelu počiva na koncepu koji bi se mogao usporediti s tibećanskim. Elementi pejzaža su u tibećanskom thangka slikarstvu grupirani po elementima. Oblaci simboliziraju element zraka. Led, rijeke, jezera i slapovi simboliziraju element vode, a planine, brda i stijene simboliziraju

12

Usp. Black, Bob. Proleteri svih zemalja opustite se!. Ukidanje rada i drugi eseji o ukidanju rada sa predgovorom autora i specijalnim antiradnim dodatkom. Drugo izdanje. Radna verzija. Beograd: anarhija/blok 45, 2004.

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zemlju. U svakoj se thangka slici pokazuje nastanak elementa vode iz snježnih oblaka, leda na planinama, izvora, potoka i rijeka što utiču u ocean. nastoji se prikazati sva agregatna stanja vode od plinskog, preko tekućeg do krutog. U Kopljarovom radu voda konstantno Stalkerovski protječe izmjenjujući u atmosferu prerafaelitskih izvora i vilinskih vrela. Element vatre je prisutan ili kao prikaz plamena ili kao aureola što obasjava božanstvo. U Kopljarovom je radu aureola zamijenjena odsjajem umjetnikovog odijela, koji na taj način samog sebe približava prema tibećanskoj kozmologiji. Iako umjetnik u svom radu ne vidi ništa spektakularno, upravo estetika samog rada predstavlja najbolji odgovor na manipulirani svijet samospektaklizacije u kojem živimo. Još više, umjetnik koristi metode društva spektakla i osvaja nas slikama stvarnijim od stvarnosti. Zlatko Kopljar smatra kako je radom K13 stvorio entitet kojemu je u kasnijim radovima pridružio mnogo različitih tijela i uloga, da bi ga upravo u K18 odlučio dokinuti. Naime činjenica je da je Zlatko Kopljar u radu K13 pretvorio samog sebe u svjetlosni entitet baš kao što je i zagrebački Svjetlosni toranj (Light Tower). U radu K18 on predaje svjetlosno biće strukturi prirode. Biljke i cvijetovi simboliziraju život koji izlazi iz četiri elementa, i s kojim se božanstvo svijetla (umjetnik) spaja. Umjetnik smatra kako u vrijeme pisanja Društva spektakla nije postojao pojam virtualnog prostora i vremena i da danas živimo u dobu ubrzanja. Umjetnik navodi kako je njegov otac s posla dolazio oko tri popodne i još je dobar dio dana imao za sebe i obitelj i zaključuje kako je „realno vrijeme, ono najvrjednije što imamo”. Guy Debord navodi kako „već sada treba imati svijest” kako bi se vrijeme doista proživjelo.13 Upravo na toj tezi Zlatko Kopljar gradi spajanje svog božanstva s tlom i drvećem. Posljednji rad u krugu Galerije Bačva je Stado Siniše Labrovića iz 2015. godine. Umjetnik je rad kreirao od dokumentacije istoimene akcije realizirane 2005. godine u okviru projekta Operacija grad u staroj Badelovoj tvornici u Šubićevoj ulici u Zagrebu. Labrovićev tadašnji rad bio je u stvari reality show u kojemu su natjecateljice bile ovce. Rad se sastoji od platna kojeg su naslikale ovce unutar Dana kreativnosti, jedne bale sijena i jedne bale slame koje su izložene poput objekta na zidu Galerije, televizora na kojemu se prikazuje video dokumentacija rada iz 2005. godine i 6 fotografija snimljenih za vrijeme trajanja realitya. Koncept potpunog praćenja ljudskog života anticipiran je filmom Thrumanov Show iz 1998 godine, dok je prvi Big Brother emitiran u Nizozemskoj 1999. godine. Hrvatska verzija Big Brothera emitirana je prvi put 2004. godine. Običan ljudski život kao medijski spektakl odvija se u takozvanom real-timeu, pojmu vremena koji je izašao iz kiberprostora14 i virtualne stvarnosti.

13

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999., str 136. 14 Usp. Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New Jersey: Ace Books, E Rutheford, 1984.

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Temeljna ideja real-timea je u činjenici da vrijeme ne postoji ukoliko nije bilježeno video slikom i podijeljeno u javnom prostoru. Neslućeni razvoj te ideje možemo vidjeti u Facebook timelineu i svakodnevnom dijeljenju događaja svih običnih ljudi a ne samo onih koji se nalaze u realityju. Najzanimljivija činjenica vezana uz Labrovićevu akciju iz 2005. godine jest ona da su sedam ovaca doista postale zvijezde o kojima je izvještavalo puno hrvatskih i svjetskih medija. Labrović u svom kazivanju navodi kako su razne organizacije, uključujući i one za zaštitu životinja, uključile su se u rad, i sve te reakcije umjetnik drži sastavnim dijelom rada. Po Labroviću je u njegovom radu spektakularna „individualizacija ovaca, izdizanje iz 'stada' i dobivanja lica i osobnosti”. Labrovićev reality je trajao 12 dana, i bio je praćen preko internetske mreže, naravno sukladno tadašnjim tehničkim mogućnostima. Kao i u slučaju stvarnih natjecatelja realityja i za ovce se moglo glasati, a ispadanje iz stada počelo je nakon petog dana. Bitno je napomenuti da su sve ispale ovce kao i ovca pobjednica završile u udomiteljskoj obitelji a ne u klaonici, na radost publike i organizacija za zaštitu prava životinja. Na izložbi u Galeriji Bačva umjetnik memorabilije i dokumentaciju događaja iz 2005. godine izlaže poput relikvija Društva spektakla. Nije nevažno spomenuti da je Labrović prilikom biranja tehničke opreme za postav svog rada insistirao na što starijem modelu televizora (nikako plazme!) kako bi zagrebačkoj publici iz 2016. godine približio analogno doba u kojemu su tiskana izdanja novina dominirala nad internetskim, real-time je postojao u znanstveno fantastičnim filmovima a društvene su se mreže činile kao orwelijanski san. Rad Stado prvi je rad u hrvatskoj umjetnosti koji dekonstruira estetiku društva spektakla, koristeći se njegovom vlastitom metodologijom. rad se bazira na samospektalizaciji životinja i umjetnika kao kreatora njihovog virtualnog života i slave. Siniša Labrović je upravo na tim premisama izgradio većinu svog opusa u proteklih 12 godina, koristeći masovne medije, estradizaciju i spektaklizaciju kao oruđe svoje metode ali i dio vlastite umjetničke poetike. Zbog toga je dokumentacija projekta stado izložena na kraju izložbenog kruga. Labrović smatra kako Društvo spektakla s vremenom dobiva na vrijednosti i da se njegova manifestnost zasniva na „ponudi određenih gabarita u kojima vrijedi početi misliti”. Po njemu je manifestnost Debordovog djela mogući zalog slobode. Upravo na mogućnosti slobode, ne kao romantiziranog koncepta odmetnika iz građanskih društava, bjegunaca izvan limesa i iz Croatana, ili kolonizatora koji je postao jedno s koloniziranima zasniva se i ovo čitanje nasljeđa Društva spektakla putem Kritike samospektaklizacije. Guy Debord smatra kako su se „s uništenjem povijesti, i sami suvremeni

13

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999., str 136. 14 Usp. Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New Jersey: Ace Books, E Rutheford, 1984.

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događaji u isti mah udaljili na mitsku udaljenost”.15 Danas svjedočimo kako je mitsko gotovo svugdje i u svakom času. Tako se vilinski svijet seli na fotografije namijenjene novom tarifnom modelu telekomunikacijske kompanije, a anđeoska krila i poruke na ambalažu plastičnih boca. Onih istih boca koje u Hrvatskoj prikuplja i prodaje njen najsiromašniji sloj. Dok na blagajnama trgovačkih lanaca čekaju na prebrojavanje boca i isplatu naknade mogu čitati anđeosku poruku. Ona doduše nije bila namijenjena njima već onima koji su tu vodu kupili. Međutim, anđeo im omogućuje zaradu kao što je prvima omogućio poruku i čistu vodu. Krug spektakla se tako zatvara u mitskom vremenu, gdje će svatko primiti oblik spektakla. Biti će to cjeloviti i posljednji preobražaj u svijetu koji je više od stvarnosti i božanskog svijetla.

Josip Zanki

15

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999., str 186.

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VLASTA DELIMAR Hrvatski proizvod/Croatian Product 2007. Fotografija/photograph

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CYCLICAL TIME, EXHIBITION LAYOUT AND IRREVERSIBLE SPECTACLE

The exhibition The Society of the Spectacle. The Critics of SelfSpectaclization is set in the Bačva Gallery of the Croatian Association of Artists. The sculptor Ivan Meštrović planned for the circular gallery space (covered with a dome) to be used primarily for sculpture, or what was meant by the term in the given time and space. At the opening of the building of the Home of Croatian Artists, Meštrović put the famous sculpture The History of the Croats in the centre of the circle, which, in the years following the Second World War, was to become a part of the national narrative. Meštrović’s portrait of his own mother, sitting like an Egyptian scribe and bodhisattva and holding a Glagolitic inscription, was installed at the base of the dome, whose vault is made up of circular windows, arranged in the form of infinite hexagram. The cosmic symbol is defined by Hermes Trismegistus's phrase “As above, so below”. The hexagram connects the sculpture The History of the Croats with the origination of the Cosmos and its ideogram in the centre of the dome. Within such a complex space we decided to set up an exhibition that will interpret three models of human time1. We have also decided to organize the visitors’ movement through the exhibition in line with the three mentioned models. There is only one entrance to the circular exhibition space. The visitors can walk around the room from left to right, from right to left, or can go straight to the centre. The exhibition is organized so that the visitors walk around clockwise, from left to right. The same movement is used in the prayer the Way of the Cross during Lent in all church processions, during the pilgrimage to Mecca and in all Buddhist processions, such as the procession to Mahabodhi Temple, the ritual kora around Mount Kailash or the kora around the Dalai Lama’s Temple in McLeod Ganj. In a symbolic form, such movement can be circular, without beginning or end, and thus correspond to a cyclical time. This is the time of “the eternal return of the same”, embodied in the model of the agrarian mode of production governed by the rhythm of the seasons.2 The same way the visitor can leave the gallery after walking the full circle.

1

Debord, Guy, Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla [The Society of the Spectacle & Comments on the Society of the Spectacle]. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999, pp. 114 – 132. 2 Ibid., p. 115.

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Such movement corresponds to an irreversible, irretrievable time, in which the end of time is announced as the revelation of the divine law.3 The exhibition can be seen by going straight to the gallery centre. Thus a spectacular time is revealed to the visitor, in which s/he is left to the consumption of images (time) and fulfilment through images.4 The first work in the exhibition is Gintautas Mažeikis's performative lecture Non Conformist Public Art Contra Society of SelfSpectaclisation, from 2016, documented in the form of a video work, performed by the author in the Club of the Croatian Association of Artists on March 12, 2016. The lecture does not only outline an introduction to the phenomenology of the exhibition, but also presents Mažeikis’s personal statement in which he deconstructs the meaning of Debord’s philosophy in the time of self-spectaclization. According to the author, his work is based on the analysis of Cornelius Castoriadis's and Guy Debord's works in the period of Socialisme ou Barbarie, the historical interpretation of the relationship between the ideas of Rosa Luxemburg, Leon Trotsky and the ideas of the new form of the revolution of signification, imaginary and spectacle (in the works of Castoriadis and Debord). Mažeikis's lecture helps us understand why the critique of the society of the spectacle is not just a theoretical analysis, but also a continuous artistic and political practice. Gintautas Mažeikis, the artist, thus reinterprets himself – the philosopher. The video work exhibited in the Gallery is more than a media documentation of the performative lecture. Mažeikis is sitting in the foreground, with a dark background behind him, blackness, just like in Girolamo Savoranola's Renaissance portrait. With an even-tempered voice of a professor, Mažeikis delivers manifesto theses. Certain segments of the video lecture are accompanied by illustrations. The illustrations are taken from the PowerPoint presentation of Mažeikis’s lecture. This detail reveals Mažeikis’s biggest cynicism. That is, the artist uses the aesthetics of corporate presentation that on the one hand irresistibly recalls the Soviet agitprop, and on the other represents a weapon in the fight against spectaclization. The artist states that in the present day and age “the spectacular presentation of refugees helped maintain the state of exclusion, legitimacy of total control and development of management bodies of politics”. In his opinion, the refugees were turned into an element of entrepreneurship of creative industries, and “different kinds of crisis aim to justify the new production of signifiers of control and safety”. The tools used for this are equally agitprop and corporate. Mažeikis’s work also represents a kind of window into the transcendence of the exhibition, in which the spectacular time turns into the virtual time and Thirdspace.5

3

Ibid., p. 120. Ibid., pp. 131-132. 5 Soja, Edward W. Thirdspace. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996 4

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Martina Miholić’s work Ambitious Toys is a sequel to her installation of the same name exhibited in the Karas Gallery in the fall of 2014. The work exhibited in the Bačva Gallery is composed of a small house, more precisely the simulation of a living space that can be found in shopping mall bedroom showcases. The space is ambivalent, created so that one cannot say for sure if it is designed for a girl or a grown woman. The author states that one cannot determine whether the space and objects in it give the impression of a space and objects designed for grown ups that mimic the spaces and objects designed and intended for children, and which in turn mimic the ones for adults. In the bottom part of a drywall pink house there is a small table and a chair, and in the upper part, connected with a silver ladder, there is a bed. In the back, on a kind of shelf, there are different everyday items. The author states that “if we look at the objects more closely we become aware of the shift in representing reality in which this seemingly children’s infantile world, a house that all the girls rush into, might not be so safe, infantile and pure”. The dominant pink, silver and white, colours the artist used when selecting the objects for the work, transformed the objects for everyday use into fetishized objects of the world of the spectacle. At the exhibition opening, together with the visitors, the author climbed onto the roof of the house. This action created a private space within a social event, the exhibition opening. Martina Miholić believes that in that moment everyone decided to celebrate the opening in a “created spectacular universe”. The world of toys that became part of Martina Miholić’s installation in the Karas Gallery and Bačva Gallery outlines different identities: the ones united by the world of the screen, interface that is still bothered by the difference between the human mind, sight and itself. It strives towards being one so the world of the Empire could be complete and produce life in its totality.6 This world leaves us hungry, because only in this way we express a desire for its products, which is the reality itself,7 as a form of spectacle. Vlasta Delimar’s work Croatian Product was first performed at various locations in Zagreb, Križevci and Rovinj in 2007. The project consisted of a series of posters-photographs exhibited in public space. Within the exhibition The Society of the Spectacle. The Critics of SelfSpectaclization the artist exhibited eight posters around the Bačva Gallery. Throughout the duration of the exhibition four posters will be placed on an advertising column at Zrinjevac. The majority of them show the artists in the company of other artists important for the wider

6

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. Imperij [Empire]. Zagreb: Multimedijalni institut, Arkzin, 2003, .p. 9. 7 Cf. Zanki, Josip. Antropološka konceptualizacija prostora u thangka slikarstvu i suvremenim umjetničkim praksama. [The Anthropological Conceptualization of Space in Thangka Painting and Contemporary Art Practices]. PhD thesis. Zagreb: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, 2016, p. 44

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community in which they work, so according to the author’s statements we can interpret them as a product. Vlasta Delimar believes that in the “present time of globalization, one should become aware of the values of ‘the national identity’ that need to fit into the global integration and thus demonstrate the high level of cultural democracy and belonging to the values of civil society as a European value”. As the artist concludes, this project can “bring together the value of ‘national identity’, of a personal and contemporaneity of artistic expression”. As a starting point in her work, Vlasta Delimar takes the consumerist form of a poster, or city-light, which in the society of the spectacle new brands use to launch their marketing campaigns. The male and female artists portrayed on the posters take on the role of a brand, while Vlasta Delimar, standing next to them, glamorously presents them. In this context, it is not irrelevant to mention that the artist is naked on all these posters, the same as some of the artists-participants of the project. This offers an ironic reading of the pure eroticism, machismo and manipulation of the female body in the corporate (read colonial and sexist) campaigns. We have to mention that during the organization of the exhibition the Croatian Association of Artists negotiated with several advertising companies, however only one of them agreed to put up the posters in public space, but disassociating itself from the content. By using shock strategy, Vlasta Delimar’s work interprets the position of the artist who, in the world of the spectacle, is increasingly turning into the social worker8, as the leverage of creative industries. The artist concludes that her Croatian Product is a “real product, not a mirage or illusion or deception, it is a high-quality product and as such it attempts to become equal to other ‘goods’ on the market”. We are left to believe that other goods will not notice an artistic diversion in the relentless law of consumption. The Austrian artist Luise Kloos presented her work Get the Picture at Your Own from 2016. The work consists of three glass panels 70 x 70 cm, framed in metal frames and mounted on the gallery wall. The panels contain inscriptions engraved in glass that create clearer and blurrier shadows on a white wall. The first panel is engraved with the inscription Get your own PICTURE, the other with Improve your GAZE, and the third with Perceive the phenomenon in its TOTALITY. For a number of years Luise Kloos has been making installations using optical fibres (plastic glass). The artist states that “the media broadcast the idea of image through optic fibres (telecommunication links), and this material is the medium for reflecting light; it transforms the light in the space and expresses the totality of the space, light and installation”. She has been using this transparent material in her installations placed at various locations, from Tuzla through New York to Graz, Nin and Zagreb since

8

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. Imperij. [Empire] Zagreb: Multimedijalni institut, Arkzin, 2003, p. 338.

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1997. Even in the works displayed in the Bačva Gallery she plays with the material properties of the glass and how it reflects light onto a surface. The visitor is faced with meditative issues, almost mantric words, in the world governed by the phenomenon of image and spectacle. The artist points out that the most spectacular part of her work is that she has abandoned any spectacle. The use of glass panels has two levels for her, transparency and ambiguity. Transparency enables an insight into an empty space with a written note formulated as a request. On the other side of the glass is something that creates “a certain boundary between the empty space behind the glass and the viewer in front of it”. Luise Kloos says that such condition resembles “breaking the comfort zone”, which is disturbed by the requests, written on the glass. To understand the phenomenon in its entirety one needs to respect the integrity of the moment. It is in the moment that one can experience the glass panels-objects as a form of meditational emptiness. The artist opposes this form of the expansion of human consciousness to the society of the spectacle. She sees the society of the spectacle as the condition that increasingly makes people stay in their comfort zone; “we should not be active in order to feel comfortable”, and thus forget about democratic values. The artist thus confirms the complete domination of the spectacle, because as Guy Debord states, the spectacle represents “a world view transformed into an objective force”.9 Precisely in such a world of illusion Luise Kloos poses a mantric puzzle that separates us from the world filled with images. Khaled Hafez presents himself with a video work Mirror Sonata in Six Animated Movements (For Twelve Hands)? from 2015, the fifth and final work of a multi-annual project. With this project, in his own words, the artist “tries to construct the temple of modern times, the one filled with signs and symbols of consumerism”. The first work, titled Tomb Sonata in Three Military Movements (and Overture), created in 2010, explores the ideas of the Egyptian brain drain, body as a means of expression, mass fear and war machine. The second work (temple) is Second Sonata for a Tomb in Three Archaeological Movements, from 2012, explores the ideas of language, time, enlightenment, production and dissemination of knowledge through the dimensions of space and time. The third work, Tomb Sonata in Two Military Movements: the Sequel, from 2012, questions the ideas of confrontation and writing history. The fourth work, Sound Sonata on Two Walls Movements Sound, from 2013, deconstructs the ideas of struggle between wealth and power through a new visual expression. The work Mirror Sonata in Six Animated Movements (For Twelve Hands)? questions all types of images, from a fresco on the wall, through easel painting to video image and computer animation. The work is based on mix-media painting of 750 x 200 cm

9

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla [The Society of the Spectacle & Comments on the Society of the Spectacle]. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999, p. 36

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on which all the painted elements are inspired by media-propagated images. All elements on the canvas begin to move during 90 seconds accompanied by the original music score composed by the brilliant pianist Mohamed Saleh. The work was animated by Ahmed El Shaer, a video artist, who also worked with Hafez on the three previous videos. According to Hafez, female characters come from fashion magazines in which models are anorexic and oiled, while male characters come from bodybuilding magazines, where a sexist, muscular male body is equally oiled for the camera. On the other hand, Hafez's characters also evoke archetypal gods from Egyptian frescoes, draped in clothes of a spectacular form. Khaled Hafez bases his work on Mitchell’s thesis, according to which a crucial feature of the lives of images is their ability to circulate from one medium to another, to move from the page to the screen, from the screen to the performances of everyday life, and back to the page.10 On the other hand, in his own words, Hafez always stops at the Debord’s goal, which is ‘to awaken the spectator from the tyranny of the media, filled with and manipulated by images’. For years, the artist’s work has been based on researching how media-propagated imagery influences contemporary personality and on Jean Baudrillard’s concept of simulacra and simulation; perception modulated by the media and their codes and signs.11 To this world Hafez presupposes the possibility of understanding the issue, supported by the thoughts like the Debord’s one, which can result in action and transformation of the society. The installation CASSIS CORNUTA, by Žižić/Kožul, from 2016, is made of an object placed on the floor of the Bačva Gallery and a photograph on the opposite wall. The object is very simple, a pedestal made of multiple drywall profiles put on top of each other, on which there are seven casts of ocean shells, which also serve as sound boxes that produce the stupefying sound of waves. The artists used the model of shells that can originally be found in souvenir shops along the Pacific, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Coast. For Žižić/Kožul the shells represent “a symbolic object of global tourist iconography”, although this is an object pulled out of its original socio-cultural environment. This whole impression of advertising campaign for virtual reality, according to which the ocean can be found anywhere and anytime, is complemented by a blurred photograph showing stacked beach chairs. In this way the unreal is complete, instead of an actual real chair on which the visitor could rest in the Gallery and listen to the relaxing sounds, we are given a photograph. The photograph itself reminds us of an illusion of reality this work offers, and awakens us

10

Cf. Mitchell, W. J. Thomas. What do Pictures Want?. The Lives and Loves if Images. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 2005, p. 294 11 Baudrillard, Jean. Simulakrumi i simulacija [Simulacra and SImulation]. Karlovac: Naklada Društva arhitekata, građevinara i geodeta 2001.

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so that we can conclude that we are still in the Gallery, far away from the tropical seas and utopian world. The artists say that “the most spectacular aspect of the exhibited work is a complete artificiality of the exhibited environment, a surrogate quality of the whole installation”. Surrogate reality is precisely the basic instrumentarium of the Society of the Spectacle. The artists believe that our memory of a specific experience might be an amalgam of the phenomenon which is a result of a combined individual experience and a common collective experience of an advertising media narrative. Therefore they conclude that “the majority of our memories are in danger of being nothing more but a generic list filled with daily moments and unfulfilled autobiographies that ambitiously seek to relive media suggested narratives”. In their work, a generic environment is stripped down to the symbolic representation that, as artists state, “enables a functional self-creating illusion”. The whole magnitude of the spectacle resides on the illusion itself. Giovanni Morbin presents his work (objects) PERSONALE, strettamente personale created in 2016. The work consists of a series (seven) of envelopes, of different colours and sizes. The envelopes are sealed and the content is very personal and at the same time very reserved, says Morbin. Each envelope is a work in itself, which the artist acknowledges as a work of art only as long as it remains sealed. I can recognize myself in it only as long as it remains sealed. By stating this in his artist statement sent to the Croatian Association of Artists, Giovanni Morbin officially acknowledged a work of art that exists only in the envelope, as a work unexhibited to anyone else but the artist himself, who is familiar with its content. The artist believes that he would never again be able to acknowledge the work as such, because if the information contained in it is revealed and read out in the public it would then become a reality, and cease to be art. Giovanni Morbin points out that “the most spectacular fact about his work is the lack of content that one could see or read”. The artist enjoys in the possible need for one to digest the silence of a small unaware monochrome. He thinks that one should bet (risk) more, by subtracting suggestive elements. Because “something can be shown without exposing”, claims Morbin. The artist is also interested in “the eroticism between something out there, within arms’ reach, without the possibility to be reached completely”. This work builds on the majority of Morbin’s reflections on art as an act of non(labour), abolition of labour,12 and creation of a new form of social interaction. The artist has been on this path since his college days, when he used special gloves to prevent his hands from any kind of labour. It is therefore not surprising that,

12

Cf. Black, Bob. Proleteri svih zemalja opustite se!. Ukidanje rada i drugi eseji o ukidanju rada sa predgovorom autora i specijalnim antiradnim dodatkom. Drugo izdanje. Radna verzija. Beograd: anarhija/blok 45, 2004

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according to Morbin, manifestos such as the Society of the Spectacle, but also the concept of manifesto in general, are “utopian projections” and that they have reached us so we would “idealize reality”. Because “illusion is not necessarily bad, but it can also be an escape from the unbearable reality”. And Giovanni Morbin’s artwork abolishes any kind of illusion and escape. Zlatko Kopljar presents his work K18, with three intertwining elements; video image, artists’ performative act and sound (poetic) intervention. The video was masterfully filmed by Boris Poljak at the foot of Mount Sljeme. His name is important for two reasons; video image in this work is based on close-ups that almost touch the geometrical structure of leaves, earth and water. Kopljar’s concept of nature in which he appears in his famous performance fluorescent suit is based on the concept that could be compared to the Tibetan one. In Tibetan thangka painting landscape elements are grouped by elements. Clouds symbolize the element of air. Ice, rivers, lakes and waterfalls symbolize the element of water, and mountains, hills and rocks symbolize the element of earth. Each thangka painting shows the birth of the element of water from snow clouds, ice on the mountains, springs, streams and rivers flowing into the ocean. They try to show all states of water, from gas, through liquid to solid. In Kopljar’s work water constantly flows in the manner of Stalker, transforming into the atmosphere of preRaphaelite springs and fairy springs. The element of fire is present like a flame or like the image of a flame or like a halo illuminating a deity. In Kopljar’s work halo has been replaced by the reflection of the artist’s suit, who in this way brings himself closer to the Tibetan cosmology. Although the artist does not see anything spectacular in his work, the aesthetics of the work itself gives the best answer to the manipulated world of self-spectaclization in which we live. More so, the artist uses methods of the society of the spectacle and wins us over with images more real than reality itself. Zlatko Kopljar believes that with his work K13 he has created an entity, to which he later joined many different bodies and roles, only to decide to abolish it in K18. In the work K13 Zlatko Kopljar turned himself into a light entity, just like the Zagreb Light Tower. In the work K18 he hands over the light being to the structure of the nature. Plants and flowers symbolize life coming from the four elements, and with which the deity of light (artist) becomes one. The artist believes that at the time of writing The Society of the Spectacle the concept of virtual space and time did not exist and that today we live in the age of acceleration. The artist says that his father would come home from work around three in the afternoon and still have a good part of the day for himself and his family and concludes that “the real time, is the most valuable thing we have”.

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Guy Debord states that “one has yet to come into possession of the consciousness” that will allow to truly experience time13. This is the thesis on which Zlatko Kopljar builds the connection between his deity and earth and trees. The last work in the circle of the Bačva Gallery is Flock by Siniša Labrović from 2015. The artist created the work using the documentation of the action of the same name realized in 2005 within the Operation City project in old Badel Factory in Šubićeva Street in Zagreb. Labrović’s work was actually a reality show with sheep as contestants. The work consists of a canvas painted by sheep as a part of Creative Day, one bale of hay and one bale of straw exhibited like objects on the Gallery wall, a TV showing video documentation of the work from 2005 and 6 photographs taken during the duration of the reality show. The concept of complete monitoring of a human life was anticipated by the movie The Truman Show from 1998, while the first Big Brother was aired in the Netherlands in 1999. The Croatian version of Big Brother was first aired in 2004. An ordinary human life as a media spectacle takes place in the so-called real-time, the notion of time coming from cyberspace14 and virtual reality. The basic idea of real-time is that time does not exist unless it is recorded with a video camera and shared in public space. The undreamed-of development of this idea can be seen on Facebook timeline where all ordinary people, and not only the ones in a reality show, share events from their everyday life. The most interesting fact about Labrović’s action from 2005 is that the seven sheep truly became stars which many Croatian and foreign media reported about. In his statement, Labrović says that many organizations, including animal welfare organizations, reacted to the work, and the artist sees all these reactions as integral parts of the work. According to Labrović, what is spectacular about his work is “the individualization of sheep, rising above the ‘flock’ and gaining face and personality”. Labrović’s reality show lasted 12 days and it was followed on the Internet, of course in line with the technical capabilities of the times. Like in the case of real competitors in a reality show, one could vote for sheep, and the fallout from the herd began after the fifth day. It is important to note that all the sheep that fell out, as well as the winner, ended up in a foster family, and not in a slaughterhouse, to the delight of the audience and animal welfare organizations. At the exhibition in the Bačva Gallery the artist exhibits memorabilia and documentation of the events from 2005 as relics of the Society of the Spectacle. It is noteworthy to mention that when selecting technical equipment for the exhibition of his work, Labrović insisted on the oldest TV he could get (not plasma!) so

13

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla[The Society of the Spectacle & Comments on the Society of the Spectacle]. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999, p. 136 14 Cf. Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New Jersey: Ace Books, E Rutheford, 1984

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that he could bring the Zagreb audience of 2016 closer to the analogue era in which print editions of newspapers dominated over the Internet ones, real-time existed in SF movies and social networks seemed like an Orwellian dream. Flock is the first work of Croatian art that deconstructs the aesthetics of the society of the spectacle, using its own methodology. The work is based on self-spectaclization of the animals and artist as the creator of their virtual life and fame. In the last 12 years Siniša Labrović has built the majority of his work on these premises, using mass media, estradization and spectaclization as the tools of his method, but also as a part of his own artistic poetics. This is the reason the project documentation was exhibited at the end of the exhibition cycle. Labrović believes that the Society of the Spectacle gains value with time and that its manifesto quality is based on “the provision of specific boundaries within which one should start to think”. In his opinion, the manifesto quality of Debord’s work presents a possible pledge of freedom. This interpretation of the heritage of the Society of the Spectacle through the Critique of Self-Spectaclization is based precisely on this possibility of freedom, not as a romanticized concept of outlaws from civil societies, fugitives outside the limes and from Croatan, or a colonizer who became one with the colonized. Guy Debord believes that with “the destruction of history the contemporary events simultaneously withdrew to a mythical distance”15. Nowadays we witness that mythical is present almost everywhere and anytime. So the fairy world moves to photographs made for a new telecommunications tariff model, and angel wings and messages on plastic bottles. The same ones that the poorest social class in Croatia collects and sells. While waiting at the cash desk in a chain store for bottles to be counted and to receive the compensation, they can read thses angelic messages. Truth be told, this message was not meant for them but for the ones who bought this water. However, angels enabled them to earn the money, just as they enabled the former ones to receive the message and fresh water. The circle of the spectacle thus closes in a mythical time, where everyone will receive a form of spectacle. It will be a full and last transformation in the world which is more than reality and divine light.

Josip Zanki

15

Debord, Guy. Društvo spektakla & Komentari društvu spektakla [The Society of the Spectacle & Comments on the Society of the Spectacle]. Zagreb: Arkzin, 1999, p 186.

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DRUŠTVO SPEKTAKLA. KRITIKA SAMOSPEKTAKLIZACIJE THE SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE. THE CRITICS OF SELF-SPECTACLIZATION 10.3. - 10.4.2016. GALERIJA BACVA/BACVA GALLERY

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VLASTA DELIMAR Hrvatski proizvod / Croatian Product 2007. Fotografija/photograph

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KHALED HAFEZ Mirror Sonata in Six Animated Movements 2010. Video

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LUISE KLOOS Get A Picture On Your Own 2015. Instalacija/installation

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ZLATKO KOPLJAR K18 2014. Video

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SINIŠA LABROVIĆ Stado.hr/Flock.hr 2005. Instalacija/installation

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GINTAUTAS MAŽEIKIS Non-Conformist Public Art Contra Society of Self-Spectaclization 2016. Video

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MARTINA MIHOLIĆ Ambiciozne igračke / Ambitious toys 2014 -2016. Instalacija/installation

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GIOVANNI MORBIN Personale 2014. Objekti/objects

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ŽIŽIĆ / KOŽUL Cassis Cornuta 2016. Instalacija/installation

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BIOGRAFIJE UMJETNIKA / ARTIST'S BIOGRAPHIES VLASTA DELIMAR rođena je 1956. godine u Zagrebu. Godine 1977. završava Školu primijenjene umjetnosti te upoznaje Željka Jermana i umjetnike iz Grupe šestorice. Godine 1978. započinje zajednički život s Jermanom s kojim uči sve o fotografiji i sudjeluje u osnivanju art časopisa MAJ-75. Godine 1979. izvodi prvi performans s Jermanom u Zagrebu, 1980. izvodi prvi samostalni performans, a 1981. godine postavlja prvu samostalnu izložbu. Godine 1988. započinje zajednički život s umjetnikom Vladom Martekom s kojim dobiva kćer Dolinu. Za ratnog perioda od 1991. do 1995. godine ne stvara ništa. Godine 1997. dobiva stipendiju ArtsLinka (Buffalo, SAD), a 1999. započinje projekt "Razgovor s ratnikom ili žena je nestala". Delimar je umjetnička ravnateljica umjetničke organizacije „Moja zemlja, Štaglinec". Izlagala je i izvodila performans u MSU Zagreb, Muzeju suvremene umjetnosti Metelkova Ljubljana, Neue Galerie, Graz, MUMOK Beč, Galerie Moretti & Moretti Paris, Art Complex Kyoto, Performance Art Platform Tel Aviv...Živi i radi u Zagrebu. VLASTA DELIMAR is the first Croatian female performer. First coming to prominence in the late seventies, Delimar helped to define Croatian multimedia and performance art over the last three or four decades. In many ways her career should be viewed in parallel with that of her lifelong friend Tomislav Gotovac (1937-2010), the pioneer of making-aspectacle.of.oneself-in-public, who famously ran naked down Zagreb's main street in his 1981 performance Zagreb, I love you!, periodically lying down to kiss the asphalt as he went. She is an Art Manager of the Art organization "My land, Štaglinec". Delimar exhibited and performed in Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb, Museum of Contemporary Art Metelkova Ljubljana, Neue Galerie, Graz, MUMOK Wien, Galerie Moretti & Moretti Paris, Art Complex Kyoto, Performance Art Platform Tel Aviv... www.performer-delimar.hr

KHALED HAFEZ je rođen u Kairu, Egipat, gdje trenutno živi i radi. Studirao je medicinu i usporedno slušao večernja predavanja Cairo School of Fine Arts. Nakon što je dobio diplomu i specijalizirao medicinu, napušta medicinsku praksu zbog umjetničke karijere. Kasnije završava magisterij na odjelu digitalnih umjetničkih formi i novih medija, na Transart Institute u New Yorku i Danube University Krems u Austrija. Hafez radi u mediju slikarstva, filma/videa, fotografije, instalacije i interdisciplinarnih pristupa.Izlagao je na 56. i 55, Venecijanskom Biennaleu, 15. Fotofest Biennale u Houstonu, USA; 11. Havana Biennale, Cuba; Uppsala Museum of Art, Uppsala, Švedska, Art Sonje Center, 100

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Seoul, Korea; British Museum, UK; Hiroshima Museum of Contemporary Art, Japan; State Museum of contemporary art, Thessaloniki, Grčka; Museum of Contemporary Art, Roskilde, Danska; Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paolo, Brazil; Yuchengco Museum, Manila, Filipini; Saatchi Gallery, London, UK; Kunstmuseum Bonn, Njemačka; Tate Modern, London; Centre George Pompidou, Paris, Francuska; 41st Rotterdam International Film Festival; 15th International Short Film Festival Winterthur, Švicarska; CPH:DOX/ Copenhagen Film Festival, Danska… Dobitnik je prestižnih nagrada kao: Fulbright Fellowship, (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, PA), USA; Rockefeller Bellagio Fellowship, Italy; Francophonie Prize, 6th Dakar Biennale, Senegal; Fondation Blachere Prize, 9th Bamako Photo Biennale, Mali. Njegovi radovi zastupljeni su u javnim kolekcijama kao: The British Museum, London, UK; The Saatchi Collection, London, UK; MuHKA Museum of Contemporary Art, Antwerp, Belgija; Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, Sarajevo, Bosna; Horcynus Orca Foundation, Messina, Italija; Mali National Museum, Bamako, Mali; Maraya Art Centre, Barjeel Art Foundation, Sharjah, UAE; State Museum of Art, Thessaloniki, Grčka… KHALED HAFEZ is born in Cairo, Egypt where he currently lives and works. He studied medicine and followed the evening classes of the Cairo School of Fine Arts (Faculty of Fine Arts) in the eighties. After attaining a medical degree in 1987 and M.Sc. as a medical specialist in 1992, he gave up medical practices in the early nineties for a career in the arts. He later obtained an MFA in new media and digital arts from Transart Institute (New York, USA) and Danube University Krems (Austria). Hafez practice spans the mediums of painting, film/video, photography, installation and interdisciplinary approaches. His work was shown at 56th and 55th Venice Biennale, Italy; 15th Fotofest Biennale, Houston, USA; 11th Havana Biennale, Cuba; Uppsala Museum of Art, Uppsala, Sweden; Art Sonje Center, Seoul, Korea; British Museum, UK; Hiroshima Museum of Contemporary Art, Japan; State Museum of contemporary art, Thessaloniki, Greece; Museum of Contemporary Art, Roskilde, Denmark; Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paolo, Brazil; Yuchengco Museum, Manila, Philippines; Saatchi Gallery, London, UK; Kunstmuseum Bonn, Germany; Tate Modern, London; Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France; 41st Rotterdam International Film Festival; 15th International Short Film Festival Winterthur, Switzerland; CPH:DOX/ Copenhagen Film Festival, Denmark… His awards include: Fulbright Fellowship, (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, PA), USA; Rockefeller Bellagio Fellowship, Italy; Francophonie Prize, 6th Dakar Biennale, Senegal; Fondation Blachere Prize, 9th Bamako Photo Biennale, Mali His work is part of following public collections: The British Museum, London, UK; The Saatchi Collection, London, UK MuHKA Museum of Contemporary Art, Antwerp, Belgium; Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, Sarajevo, Bosnia; Horcynus Orca Foundation, Messina, Italy; Mali National 101

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Museum, Bamako, Mali; Maraya Art Centre, Barjeel Art Foundation, Sharjah, UAE; State Museum of Art, Thessaloniki, Greece http://www.khaledhafez.net

LUISE KLOOS je svestrana austrijska umjetnica koja stvara u medijima slikarstva, crteža, grafike, instalacije, interaktivnog performansa. Bavi se dizajnom izložaba te održava radionice i predavanja. Izlagala je na više samostalnih i skupnih izložaba diljem svijeta, a dobitnica je nekoliko prestižnih nagrada kao što je Großer Josef Krainer Award za iznimna kulturna postignuća. U svom se radu često bavi edukacijom i edukacijskim metodama, a od 2009. godine je i predsjedateljica nadzornog odbora Dječjeg Muzeja. Članica je nekoliko renomiranih kulturnih tijela kao što su Europski kulturni Parlament, kulturno savjetodavno tijelo Grada Graza, NUROPE-Nomadic University for Arts, Philosophy and Enterprise. LUISE KLOOS is a versatile Austrian artist who works in the media of painting, drawing, graphics, installations, interactive performance. She deals with exhibitions design and holds workshops and lectures. She has exhibited in several solo and group exhibitions around the world, and has won several prestigious awards such as Kleiner Josef Krainer Award for outstanding cultural achievements. In her work she is often engaged in education and educational methods, and since 2009 is the Chair of the Supervisory Board of the Children’s Museum. She is a member of several renowned cultural bodies such as the European Cultural Parliament, a cultural advisory body to the City of Graz, NUROPE-Nomadic University for Arts, Philosophy and Enterprise. http://www.luisekloos.at

ZLATKO KOPLJAR (rođen 1962. u Zenici, Bosna i Hercegovina), suvremeni umjetnik, živi i radi u Zagrebu. Njegovo djelovanje uključuje različite medije poput fotografije, video projekcija te performansa. Bio je sudionikom mnogih skupnih i samostalnih izložbi (od 1990.) u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Izlagao je na São Paulo Art bijenalu (2005.), Muzeju moderne i suvremene umjetnosti (Rijeka, 2005), u Muzeju suvremene umjetnosti (Zagreb, 2005, 2010), The Kitchen (New York, 2003), Galeriji Manes (Prag, 2002.), Muzej suvremene umjetnosti (Novi Sad, 2010.). Njegovi radovi se čuvaju u mnogim zbirkama poput zbirke Muzeja suvremene umjetnosti u Zagrebu i Rijeci, kao i u mnogim privatnim zbirkama. Osvojio je Franklin Furnace Grant for Performance u New Yorku 2002. godine. 102

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ZLATKO KOPLJAR is a contemporary artist living and working in Zagreb, Croatia. He works in a variety of different media including photography, video and performance. The artist always maintains a performative element, either in the production or presentation of the artwork. Kopljar exhibited on many group and solo exhibitions in Croatia and abroad. He has exhibited at the São Paulo Art Biennial, the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art Rijeka, the Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb, The Kitchen New York, Gallery Manes Prague and the exhibition From the K Series was held at the Museum of Contemporary Art Novi Sad. His works are kept in the collections of the Museums of Contemporary Art in Zagreb and Rijeka, as well as in many private collections. He won the Franklin Furnace Grant for Performance in New York (2002).

KOŽUL / ŽIŽIĆ je umjetnički tandem koji čine Damir Žižić i Kristian Kožul od 2013. godine. Dosad su samostalno izlagali u Galeriji Karas (HDLU), u Kući Lauba i u Muzeju suvremene umjetnosti u Zagrebu. Sudjelovali su u grupnim izložbama 53. porečki Annale u Poreču, Bijenale industrijske umjetnosti u Labinu Nagrada T-HT@MSU.HR u Zagrebu i Apocalypse / Rohkunstbau u Schloss Roskow u Potsdamu. Dobitnici su 3. nagrade T-HT@MSU.HR za 2014. godinu. KOŽUL / ŽIŽIĆ is an artistc tandem (Damir Žižić and Kristian Kožul) active from 2013. They have exhibited on numerous solo and group shows, such as Karas Gallery (HDLU), Lauba and Museum of contemporary art Zagreb, T-HT@MSU.HR Award Zagrebu and Apocalypse / Rohkunstbau in Schloss Roskow, Potsdam. Tandem received the 3rd award T-HT@ MSU.HR in 2014. http://www.zizickozul.com

SINIŠA LABROVIĆ diplomirao je hrvatski jezik i književnost na Filozofskom fakultetu u Zagrebu 1997. godine te povremeno radi kao profesor. Status umjetnika, kojeg nije stekao akademskim obrazovanjem, istaknuo je brojnim samostalnim i skupnim izložbama, te nagradama, među kojima treba istaknuti treću nagradu za scenarij Srce na natječaju Imaginarne akademije Grožnjan i Centra za dramsku umjetnost Zagreb 2000. godine. Iste godine izvedena je prva izložba u Dubrovniku. Radove u stalnom postavu čuvaju Muzej suvremene umjetnosti u Zagrebu i Galerija umjetnina u Splitu. Izlagao je na brojnim samostalnim i skupnim izložbama u zemlji i inozemstvu te je izvodio akcije, performanse, grafite i urbane intervencije u Dubrovniku, Zagrebu, Zadru, Sinju, Rijeci, Splitu, Momjanu, Bolu, Poreču, Golom otoku, Obrovcu, Križevcima, Puli, Starom Gradu, Beogradu, Novom 103

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Sadu, Vršcu, Ljubljani, Celju, Grazu, Carlisleu, Reykjavíku, Regensburgu, Dundeeju, Istanbulu, Veneciji, Budimpešti, Berlinu, Łódźu… Živi i radi kao slobodni umjetnik u Zagrebu. SINIŠA LABROVIĆ is Croatian artist that works in field of performance, body art, video and photograph. He graduated Croatian language and literature at Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, where he occasionaly works as professor. He exhibited at various solo and group exhibition in Croatia and abroad, has performed numerous actions and urban interventions in Dubrovnik, Zagreb, Zadar, Sinj, Rijec, Split, Momjan, Bol, Poreč, Goli otok, Obrovac, Križevci, Pula, Stari Grad, Beograd, Novi Sad, Vršac, Ljubljana, Celje, Graz, Carlisle, Reykjavík, Regensburg, Dundee, Istanbul, Venice, Budapest, Berlin, Łódź… He received 3rd award for scenarium Srce (Hearth) at competition of Imaginary academy Grožnjan and Center for drama art Zagreb. Labrović currently lives and works in Zagreb.

Prof. dr., filozof GINTAUTAS MAŽEIKIS (rođen 1964. u Vorkuti u Rusiji) litavski je filozof, javni aktivist i bloger koji se bavi interdisciplinarnim istraživačkim projektima. Kao akademik, Mazeikis je pročelnik odsjeka za društvenu i političku teoriju na Sveučilištu Vytautas Magnus u Kaunasu. Prije toga je studirao na Filozofskom fakultetu na Državnom sveučilištu u Sankt Petersburgu (magisterij), Filozofskom fakultetu na Sveučilištu u Vilniusu (doktorat). Doktorski rad naslova: „Symbolical Thinking of Renaissance”1 obranio je 1996. na Sveučilištu u Vilniusu, a habilitaciju iz filozofije (drugi doktorat) obranio je na Sveučilištu u Vilniusu 2008. godine. Naslov njegova habilitacijskog rada je „Social constructivism and philosophical anthropology”2. Titulu profesora dobio je na Sveučilištu u Šiauliaiu i Sveučilištu Vytautas Magnus 2014. godine. Radi kao supervizor na poslijediplomskom i doktorskom studiju Društvena i politička kritika. Područje njegova istraživačkog interesa jeste društvena i politička kritika. Ona uključuje kritiku društva „samo-spektaklizacije” (njegov vlastiti koncept), analizu i kritiku propagande, Kreativne industrije i različite oblike razmišljanja. Objavio je mnoge knjige i članke koji se bave ovim temama. Jedna je od njegovih najdražih tema koncept „conscious selfotheringa”3 kao prava na promjenu identiteta. Kao javni aktivist i bloger organizirao je festival „Hippieland” u Šiauliai (2000. – 2006.), inicirao je i sudjelovao u mnogim protestima za obranu javnog prostora od prljave privatizacije; na društvenim mrežama 1

Neslužbeni prijevod na hrvatski jezik - „Simboličko promišljanje renesanse“, op. prev. Neslužbeni prijevod na hrvatski jezik - „Društveni konstruktivizam i filozofska antropologija“, op. prev. 3 Neslužbeni prijevod na hrvatski jezik – svjesno činjenje sebe drugim, op. prev. 2

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kontinuirano organizira javne rasprave na temu društvene i političke kritike, na litavskom, ruskom i engleskom jeziku. Urednik je vlastitog bloga „Alterventions”. Prof., PhD, philosopher GINTAUTAS MAŽEIKIS (born in 1964 in Vorkuta, Russia) is Lithuanian philosopher, interdisciplinary project researcher, public activists and blogger. As an academic Mazeikis is head of department: Social and political theory at Vytautas Magnus university, Kaunas. Before he studied in Philosophical faculty at Sankt-Petersburg State University (MA level), Philosophical Faculty of Vilnius University (PhD level). He defended PhD paper: “Symbolical Thinking of Renaissance” at Vilnius university in 1996 and did habilitation in Philosophy (second PhD) at Vilnius University in 2008. The title of habilitation paper was “Social constructivism and philosophical anthropology”. He got professors title in Šiauliai University and in Vytautas Magnus University in 2014. Contemporary he is supervisor of postgraduate studies and PhD studies in Social and political critique. Area of his research interests is Social and Political Critique. The one includes critics of society of “self-spectaclization” (his own concept), analysis and critics of propaganda, Creative Industries and various forms of thinking. In the sphere of interest he has published many books and articles. One of his favorite topics is the concept of “conscious self-othering” as a right for changing of identity. As a public activist and blogger he organized “Hippieland” festival in Šiauliai city (2000-2006), initiated or participated in many protest to defend public spaces from dirty privatization; he is organizer of continuous public discussions on the topics of social and political critics in Lithuanian, Russian and English languages in social networks. He is editor of his own blog “Alterventions”.

MARTINA MIHOLIĆ diplomirala je na grafičkom odjelu Akademije likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu 2004. godine, a 2011. magistrirala na Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design u Londonu. Od 2006. djeluje unutar umjetničkog kolektiva Projekt 6. Iste godine postaje umjetnička ravnateljica Međunarodnog festivala studentskog kazališta i multimedije Test!-a kojeg vodi od 2010. do 2012. godine unutar udruge ULAZ. U kolaboraciji s Veleposlanstvom RH u Londonu provodi projekt ‘Export – Import’. Sudjelovala je na brojnim samostalnim i grupnim izložbama u zemlji i inozemstvu (Engleska, Nizozemska, Njemačka, Francuska, Španjolska, BiH, Srbija, Rumunjska…). Dobitnica je nagrade za najbolje diplomante Akademije likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu. MARTINA MIHOLIĆ was born in Zagreb, Croatia and by now she received two MA degrees, from fine arts at Central Saint Martins College

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of Art and Design – London in 2011 and the other was from graphic at Academy of Fine Arts – Zagreb in 2004. Since 2006 she was a part of the artistic collective ‘Projekt6’. In the same year she has became creative director of ‘Test! International Student Festival. In 2012 in colaboration with Croatian Embassy in London she was running an international project EXPORT-IMPORT. She was awarded as best grduant at the Academy of fine arts Zagreb. http://www.martinamiholic.com

GIOVANNI MORBIN je renomirani talijanski umjetnik. Diplomirao je na akademiji likovnih umjetnosti u Veneciji, u klasi Emilia Vedove. Njegova se istraživanja temelje na performansima i fokusiraju se na objekte koji mogu biti korišten kao funkcionalni alati. Izlagao je u MMSU, Rijeka; Museo Marino Marini, Firenca; Centrale Fies – Ambienti per la produzione di Performing Arts, Trento; Museo d’Arte Contemporanea Villa Croce, Genova; Museo MaGa, Gallarate, Artericambi, Verona; Gallerija Gregor Podnar, Ljubljana; Istituto Svizzero, Rim; Mart, Rovereto, ViaFarini, Milano… GIOVANNI MORBIN, a reknown Italian artist, has graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice after following the course of Emilio Vedova. Since his debut his research is related to the behavior and performance, and focuses on objects that can be used as functional tools. He exhibited and performed at MMSU, Rijeka; Museo Marino Marini, Florence; Centrale Fies – Ambienti per la produzione di Performing Arts, Trento; Museo d’Arte Contemporanea Villa Croce, Genova; Museo MaGa, Gallarate, Artericambi, Verona; Gallerija Gregor Podnar, Ljubljana; Istituto Svizzero, Roma; Mart, Rovereto, ViaFarini, Milano…

Dr. sc. JOSIP ZANKI rođen je 14. ožujka 1969. godine u Zadru. Odrastao je u selu Privlaka, sjeverozapadno od Zadra. Srednju školu Juraj Baraković završio je 1987. godine u Zadru. Na Akademiji likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu u klasi profesora Miroslava Šuteja, diplomirao je 1994. godine s temom iz teorije Misticizam u umjetničkoj praksi J. Beuysa, i eksperimentalnim grafičkim ciklusom Machine nuove remakeom na istraživanja renesansnog znanstvenika Fausta Vrančića. Na Filozofskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu završio je poslijediplomski studij Etnologije i kulturne antropologije. Doktorski rad pod naslovom Antropološka konceptualizacija prostora u thangka slikarstvu i suvremenim umjetničkim praksama obranio je 2016. godine. Josip Zanki javno

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grafike, video arta, instalacije, performansa i kulturne antropologije. Za svoj rad na području grafike i eksperimentalnog filma više je puta nagrađivan. Kroz bavljenje arheologijom skupio je zbirku od 200 prapovijesnih i srednjovjekovnih predmeta koji se povezuju s mističnim praksama. Izlagao je na brojnim samostalnim i grupnim izložbama u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Predsjednik je Hrvatskog društva likovnih umjetnika od 2007. Član je Europskog kulturnog parlamenta od 2011. Od 2009. do 2016. podučavao je na Sveučilištu u Zadru. Živi i radi u Zagrebu.

JOSIP ZANKI, PhD, was born in Zadar on March 14, 1969. He grew up in the village of Privlaka, north west of Zadar. He finished Juraj Baraković High School in 1987 in Zadar. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb in 1994 (class of Professor Miroslav Šutej) with a thesis entitled Mysticism in the Artistic Practice of J. Beuys and an experimental series of etchings New Machines, a remake of the research conducted by the Croatian renaissance scientist Faust Vrančić. He finished postgraduate studies in Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb in 2016, and defended a PhD thesis entitled Anthropological Conceptualisation of the Space in Thangka Painting and Contemporary Art Practices. Since 1986 he has been working on installations, performances, experimental film and video, explorations of graphic media and cultural anthropology. He received numerous prizes for his work. His involvement in archaeology has resulted in a collection of 200 prehistoric and mediaeval objects relating to mystical practices. He has exhibited in numerous solo and group exhibitions with other artists in Croatia and abroad. Since December 2007 he has been the president of the Croatian Association of Artists, the oldest association in Croatia and region, established in 1868. In 2011 he became a member of the European Cultural Parliament. He taught at the University of Zadar from 2009 to 2016. He lives and works in Zagreb. zankijosip@gmail.com

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Nakladnik / Publisher: Hrvatsko društvo likovnih umjetnika / Croatian Association of Fine Artists Trg žrtava fašizma 16, 10000 Zagreb, hdlu@hdlu.hr, www.hdlu.hr Za nakladnika / For the publisher: dr.sc. Josip Zanki, predsjednik HDLU Ravnateljica / Director: Ivana Andabaka Upravni odbor HDLU / Executive board of the CCA: Josip Zanki (predsjednik / president), Tomislav Buntak (dopredsjednik / vice president), Fedor Vučemilović (dopredsjednik / vice president), Ida Blažičko, Ivan Fijolić, Monika Meglić, Melinda Šefčić Umjetnički direktori i autori projekta / Artistic directors and project authors: Gintautas Mažeikis, Josip Zanki Umjetnici / Artists: Vlasta Delimar (HR), Khaled Hafez (EG), Luise Kloos (AT), Zlatko Kopljar (HR), Kristian Kožul / Damir Žižić (HR), Siniša Labrović (HR), Gintautas Mažeikis (LT), Martina Miholić (HR), Giovanni Morbin (IT) Autor likovnog postava izložbe / Author of the exhibition set up and design: Mia Orsag Tehnički postav / Technical set up: Mihael Pavlović, Grgur Akrap Računovodstvo / Accounting: Verica Pavušek Koordinator projekta i producent / Project coordinator and producer: Ivana Andabaka Tekst Kataloga / Catalogue text: Gintautas Mažeikis, Josip Zanki Urednici / Editors: Gintautas Mažeikis, Josip Zanki Engleski prijevod / English translation: Zana Šaškin Grafičko oblikovanje promotivnih materijala i kataloga / Graphic design of promotional materials and catalogue: Duje Medić Promotivne fotografije / Promotional photographs: Juraj Vuglač

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Fotografije za katalog / Catalogue photographs: Igor Juran Tisak / Printed by: Cerovski Print Boutique Naklada / Edition: 150 ISBN: 978-953-8098-05-5 CIP: 000929379

Razgovor s umjetnicima / Artist talks: 11.03. 2016. Klub HDLU / Club HDLU Moderator: Josip Zanki

Predavanja / Lectures: 11. 03.2016. Giovanni Morbin Performansi i koncept spektakla / Performances and concept of spectacle Akademija likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu / Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb 12. 03. 2016. Gintautas Mažeikis Suvremeno čitanje G. Debordove knjige „Društvo spektakla”/ Contemporary perception of G. Debord’s “The society of spectacle” Klub HDLU / Club HDLU Neo associazione Udine - Paolo Toffolutti, Liliana Cormons Aktivističke i političke teme u umjetničkim projektima organiziranim od strane Neo associazione Udine / Neo associazione Udine – Activistic and political topics in the art projects organized by Neo associazione Udine Klub HDLU / Club HDLU

Promocija Kataloga / Catalogue promotion 09.04.2016. Kub HDLU/ Club HDLU

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Izjava o ograničenju odgovornosti: Ova publikacija je ostvarena uz financijsku potporu Europske komisije. Ova publikacija odražava isključivo stajalište autora publikacije i Komisija se ne može smatrati odgovornom prilikom uporabe informacija koje se u njoj nalaze. Disclaimer: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.  This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

ORGANIZATOR / ORGANIZER:

U OKVIRU PROJEKTA / WITHIN A PROJECT:

PODRŽALI / SUPPORTED BY:

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Drustvo spektakla  

Društvo spektakla - kritika samospektaklizacije Skupna međunarodna izložba 10.03. - 10.04. 2016. Galerija Bačva

Drustvo spektakla  

Društvo spektakla - kritika samospektaklizacije Skupna međunarodna izložba 10.03. - 10.04. 2016. Galerija Bačva

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