Coal Ash Matters Dec 2020

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THIS ISSUE - December 2020 2



Indigenous Community Store from High Volume Fly Ash


$50 million magnesium project approved in Victoria


The World of Coal Ash 2021


Beneficial Uses of Fly Ash IEA Report


Carbon Capture Concrete


SmartCrete CRC Project Progression


New Research Hub Tackling Waste Crisis


Fly Ash and Recycled Materials Construct Central Coast Road


SmartCrete CRC Announces Appointment of New CEO


Boral Co-funds two-year Project Developing Low-Carbon Concrete


Heat Treatment Reduces Alkali Attack in Geopolymer Concrete


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Membership COMPANY MEMBERS A primary role of the ADAA is to bring together producers and marketers of coal combustion products (CCPs). Our activities cover research and development into CCP usage, advocacy and technical assistance to CCP producers and users, as well as a forum for the exchange and publication of CCP information. For more information visit us at CURRENT MEMBERS • Adbri Ltd • BG&E Materials Technology • Bilmar Solutions • Boral Quarries & Recycling • CS Energy • Delta Electricity • Dr. Jane T Aiken Consulting & Environmental Services • Energy Australia (NSW) • Golden Bay Cement (New Zealand) • Heeleys Consulting • Hyrock (NSW) • Independent Fly Ash Brokers • Intergen (Millmerran) • Latrobe Magnesium • NRG Gladstone Power Station • Origin Energy Eraring Power Station • Sphere One • Stanwell Corporation • Tremline Pty Ltd • Ultimate Housing • Vecor Australia RECIPROCAL MEMBERSHIPS • CSIRO • Association of Canadian Industries Recycling Coal Ash (CIRCA) • European Coal Combustion Products Association (ECOBA) • UK Quality Ash Association • American Coal Ash Association • World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network (WWCCPN)



Editorial Welcome to another cracking issue of Coal Ash Matters! Clearly, we all know what a year it has been, so apologies for being the 10th person this week to remind you what a whirlwind 2020 was! The good news is, we’ll soon be launching into the new year and we can’t wait to see what’s in store for our members and all things coal ash. Before we get into the good stuff, a quick thank you for your ongoing cooperation, commitment and continued support towards the Ash Development Association of Australia during this particularly challenging time. Despite travel restrictions and alternative workplace arrangements and impacts to the economy, in particular the construction section, coal combustion products (CCPs) have continued to be widely used in a range of national and international projects contributing to the circular economy whilst reducing the carbon impact of construction materials. First up, we take a look at one of our members, Ultimate Housing Solutions, and how their high-volume fly ash panels have contributed to the availability of fresh food for a remote South Australian indigenous community. Over to Victoria, we follow the journey of another member Latrobe Magnesium as they undertake the world’s first project to recover magnesium oxide out of brown coal fly ash to meet the growing demand of light weight metal use in the automotive industry. Advancements in research continues to generate growth in the coal ash industry. A study from the University of Johannesburg tackles the adverse effects of alkali attack on geopolymer concrete. We’ve pulled out the key points of discovery and reveal some significant results from the project. I don’t know about you, but although we have become nicely acquainted with online meetings, we’re really looking forward to face-to-face events next year, including the World of Coal Ash 2021! All the details later in the issue, including plenty more events and projects to look forward to! Finally, we would like to wish all our members and readers a happy Christmas and a great year ahead!

INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY STORE FROM HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH Vast views of rich red soil stretched for kilometres and scorched by the South Australian sun. Eucalyptus leaves, crisp from the heat. Natures invigorating scent transferred by the minuscule breeze created by flies as they lapped around the unfamiliar faces who arrived on Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands.

“[Amata was] Hot! It was a challenge getting all our gear there. It was rewarding working in such a harsh environment and a good result being to be able to get the walls built quickly so the roof can go on and provide shelter from the sun,” he said.

Welcomed by the Aboriginal community Amata, approximately 1400km North West of Adelaide, was the collaboration between builders from A&J Cook Construction and the team at Ultimate Housing Solutions (UHS).

The multi-day construction project provided a much-needed food store to the remote 455-person town. The community now has access to fresh and healthy foods including fruit and vegetables, frozen meat and additional household goods such as TV sets. The Amata Anangu Store is designed to withstand rural Australia’s harsh environmental conditions. Using UHS high-volume fly ash wall panels, the building is robust and fire-resistant, does not emit toxic gases, provides good insulation and is highly resistant to termites. Drawing completion in April 2020, the general store used more than 750 fly ash panels and is 1,000 square metres (11,000 sq ft). 600 square metres of storage and 400 square metres of shopping space. UHS Managing Director Daniel Ward said the fly ash U PANEL’s were transported from NSW to SA on a B-Double semi-trailer and their design provided fast and easy construction.

The U PANEL walls contain a modular locking wall system that eliminates the need for cement, sand, lime mortar, screws, nails, or bolts to join the modules. The innovative low-carbon product reduces build time by 75% compared to bricklaying; providing the Amata community with a cost-effective, easily installed and lowmaintenance store. The store also includes a slab floor and a steel roof frame with insulated roof panels. Ultimate Housing Solutions work with a mix of large- and smallscale projects in metro and remote locations. “We plan to have large production facilities built in every state in Australia through licensing. We currently have a plant in Fiji and are looking to expand further in the south pacific and all other countries. We are currently in talks with New Zealand, Vietnam, India and a few others,” Ward said.



$50 MILLION MAGNESIUM PROJECT APPROVED IN VICTORIA The world’s first project to create magnesium out of brown coal fly ash has received the tick of approval in Hazelwood, Victoria.

Coal ash research and emerging new technologies are at the forefront of the journal, a joint venture between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA). Established in 2009 with Allen Press publishing, the CCGP journal is growly rapidly and setting new goals as it emerges into the new decade. By partnering with the publishing platform Scholastica, the journal will access the latest publishing technology to produce a more efficient paper production, rapid turnaround, increased amount of published papers and generate an Impact Factor. Latrobe City Council granted Latrobe Magnesium with the $50 million investment to the region. Through harvesting the existing ash repository located in the Latrobe Valley, Latrobe Magnesium are creating valuable commodities, of magnesium from stored brown coal fly ash – a by-product from coal combustion. The process involves extracting minerals first and blending a range of products including fly ash into a feedstock for its process. Heated to 1,200 degrees Celsius, the magnesium is vacuumed into a magnesium crown. The residual by-product once the magnesium has been extracted is what LMG describes as a Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) which could be used in construction applications. The approved plan to operate a 3,000 tonne-per-annum magnesium processing plant meets noise, traffic, air and emissions standards. Latrobe Magnesium Chief Executive Officer David Paterson said reducing the environmental impact of the magnesium process separates the company from other industry practices. “Latrobe Magnesium’s emissions profile is some 50% less than the industry average in its production of Magnesium and SCM,” he said. According to Latrobe Valley Express, the trial plant will operate for 18 months and provide 53 permanent jobs before upscaling its operation to process 40,000 tonnes of magnesium. Paterson said national and international markets will benefit from the magnesium manufacturing. “Australia does not have a Magnesium producer and neither does Japan & EU. USA only have one and it is a critical raw material in all these companies. “This reliance is becoming more important with the increased use of aluminium sheet for light weighting in cars - reducing CO2 emissions.” Image: Magnesium crown after smelter process photograph from Latrobe Magnesium.



Is everyone tired of 2020? Well, it is time to start thinking of WOCA 2021! That’s right the World of Coal Ash returns to our calendars May 17-20, 2021, as the world’s premier conference focused on coal combustion products returns. Join friends, colleagues, and industry leaders in Northern Kentucky for the 9th biennial meeting. Learn more about WOCA 2021 on the official website at

Register for WOCA 2021 Registrations are now open for WOCA 2021. Get ahead of your scheduling and reserve your space at this can’t miss event today. We will have two host hotels at WOCA 2021 and they are both conveniently located steps away from the Northern Kentucky Convention Centre. THE GOOD NEWS You can book your room at the great WOCA rate on one website. Learn more about our housing options on the official WOCA 2021 website.

Interested in Exhibiting or Sponsoring at WOCA 2021? There is no better place to market your company to coal ash thought leaders than WOCA. And the best way to catch those eyeballs is to become an official sponsor or to exhibit in our Exhibit Hall. Contact at the American Coal Ash Association to learn more and some of our exciting opportunities at WOCA 2021.




AWARD-WINNING CHAIR RECYCLES CCPS Savannah College of Art and Design Postgraduate student Erica Stine has found a sleek and sustainable use for the coal combustion product fly ash. Experimenting with its wellknown purpose as a supplementary cementitious material to reduce Portland cement in concrete production, Stine prototyped a contemporary chair design to compliment a variety of spaces.

The geopolymer composition of concrete mixes containing fly ash enhances the structural abilities of cement. Fly ash concrete is cheaper, uses less water, cures faster, is less permeable, is corrosion resistant and alleviates the environmental consequences and greenhouse gas emissions of cement production.

The modern aesthetic seamlessly integrates smooth edges and defined lines with a smart use of negative space to create a sculptural, yet functional product.

In her online portfolio, Stine states “the honesty of material results in color and texture variations dependent on the diversity of chemical compounds in each ash sample, giving each chair distinct, industrial character.” ​

Each chair is an extension of the coal life cycle, creating a sustainable, adaptive and optimistic solution within the furniture design industry. The volume of ash by-product sourced from Emeco production facilities in Pennsylvania is the energy equivalent of a 100W lightbulb powered for 24 hours a day for 115 days.

The eco-conscious chair constructed entirely of recycled coal waste won a 2020 Red Dot Award in the “Home Furniture” category. Red Dot, the international design prize for product, brand and communication design and concept design received approximately 7,000 entries from 50 countries with only 13% receiving an award.

In an interview with Greenville Journal, Stine says using fly ash in furniture design is a way to “make a toxic material usable and safe and avoid producing other materials in its place,” she said.


FLY ASH IEA REPORT The International Energy Agency Clean Coal Centre has published a new report that expands on the growing market of coal fly ash. Beneficial Uses of Coal Fly Ash by Dr Ian Reid, Anne M Carpenter and Dr Alice Masili addresses the global shift in Coal Fly Ash (CFA) production and its increase in market value and importation demand for use across many sectors. At a cost at one third that of cement the report examines the commercial use of CFA and considers its economic and environmental advantages in various industrial applications. These include: • Construction and engineering materials: concrete, bricks, blocks and geopolymers. CFA substitution for cement reduces CO2 and enhances properties of final products containing CFA including reduced of microcracking due to thermal stress which leads to a longer lasting product that resists freeze-thaw erosion. • Agriculture: ash possessing low levels of contaminants is suitable for agricultural use, to improve key soil indicators such as carbon content, water retention and fertility. • Mineral extraction: The extraction of valuable elements (such as rare earths and germanium) from fly ash is significant to the renewable energy and aerospace industries, while fly ash can also be a source of aluminium. • ​Advanced materials: composites, ceramics, fillers, zeolites and proppants. Fly ash is increasingly applied in the manufacture of advanced composite materials to extend the material properties and replace valuable metals. Such as replacing aluminium to lower the weight in electric vehicles. Using CFA in diverse applications preserves resources, lowers material costs, builds more robust structures and significantly reduces pollutants and CO2 emissions – aligning with UN Sustainable Development Goals. Download Report Download Executive Summary



CARBON CAPTURE CONCRETE Opportunities arise for the concrete industry as it shifts towards sustainability with today’s technological advancements. As the most consumed material in the world researchers are testing the potential of carbon capture, utilisation and storage during cement production to overall reduce the industry’s emissions and turn waste carbon dioxide into a valuable commodity.

Another method to reduce the environmental impact of concrete is carbonation, a naturally occurring process where carbon dioxide from the air is absorbed by the concrete and reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium carbonate.

MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub Executive Director Jeremy Gregory sees large market opportunities emerging with the process as concrete mixtures adapt.

However, finding the balance between optimum carbon uptake and minimising the risk of steel rebar corrosion should be considered.

“Many prescriptive requirements limit the ability to improve concrete’s environmental impact — such as limits on the waterto-cement ratio and the use of waste materials in the mixture,” he said in an MIT News interview. Advocating for the use of innovative mixes to lower emissions Gregory states, “Shifting to performance-based specifications is a key technique for encouraging more innovation and meeting cost and environmental impact targets.” According to CarbonCure “This new industry of carbon utilization is expected to become a $1 trillion industry, and reduce global greenhouse gases by up to 15%, by the year 2030.”



Gregory says working with academia, industry and the government will contribute to the success and consistent implementation of lower-carbon concrete. From the production of cement to buildings displayed with concrete, the opportunities to create a more sustainable future are increasing. Whether it be by using carbon capture technology at power plants, the use of industrial by-products such as fly ash in cement mixes, or accelerating the carbonisation of concrete in finished applications, the atmosphere and global landscape will benefit.

SMARTCRETE CRC PROJECT PROGRESSION Following the award of $21m in grant funding from the Federal Government, SmartCrete CRC Ltd has been Incorporated and is on track to be operational in September this year! The Central Services function of the SmartCrete CRC has been prioritised to provide the most efficient environment for innovative research and to optimise the funding directed to industry led research programs. In a series of “Fast Start” projects SmartCrete CRC aims to deliver research-based industry outcomes within the first 18 months of operations. Research Director Simon Martin Clark has worked with the partner organisations to progress the “Fast Start” and “Round 1” EOI project development processes.

The Round 1 EOI process also generated a significant number of substantial projects with submissions ending in late July. These projects will be evaluated for funding in the coming months. Over the next few weeks there will be a series of additional webinars designed to support teams to identify opportunities for improvement with the industrial partners and subsequently develop a scope of work within their projects with attention to a specific commercial outcome. Plans are well underway for the recruitment of SmartCrete’s full time CEO and the selection of a skills based board in preparation for the first AGM in the last quarter of this year. Other activities in the governance area include the development of a suite of core business policies to guide the business over the next seven years.

Six “Fast Start” projects were submitted for evaluation and they will progress through the selection process for subsequent funding in the second half of the year.



NEW RESEARCH HUB TACKLING WASTE CRISIS RMIT University is leading a new major Australian Research Council (ARC) Industrial Transformation Research Hub. The hub is one of five included in the Government’s recently announced $25 million fund. According to RMIT, “Australia’s landfill space is expected to reach capacity by 2025, with roughly 67 million tonnes of waste generated every year, and 30% of that waste going to landfill.” The ARC Research Hub for Transformation of Reclaimed Waste Resources to Engineered Materials and Solutions for a Circular Economy will address the landfill waste crisis in Australia and focus on transforming reclaimed waste into new materials for use in the construction and manufacturing sectors. The Ash Development Association of Australia is excited to share its experience in developing major end use markets for CCPs, but also be a part of the RMIT University collaboration, alongside other industry partners, scientists, researchers and national and international experts in the field. Minister for Education, Dan Tehan said the research hubs will strengthen the partnerships between universities and industry to enable world-leading research and drive Australia’s sustainability. “We will provide a further $48.8 million for regional universities to partner with industry and other universities to boost their research capacity,” he said.

“These research hubs will tackle important challenges facing Australians, such as reducing waste, and develop new opportunities for business, through better fertilisers or more sustainable steel manufacturing. “Our Government is investing in these research hubs to push the boundaries of our knowledge and to develop solutions that benefit Australians and improve the capacity of our university and industrial sectors.” The hub will contribute to the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals in its globally significant research to shift waste towards a circular economy. In a multi-discipline approach, the hub will draw expertise from civil, chemical, materials and construction engineering, artificial intelligence, behavioural sciences, environmental procurements and policies and standards. TREMS research hub lead, RMIT Professor Sujeeva Setunge told RMIT News, there is a material shortage for Australia’s $14 billion heavy construction industry. The research hub will provide economic and environmental advantage through its collaborative, real-world approach that includes: • • • •

Implementing smart designs to minimise waste Investigating optimum processing of waste and converting waste to energy Developing novel materials using recycling and upcycling technologies Utilising metrics and tools to encourage uptake of new materials and solutions

The new hub will focus on 10 challenging waste streams: textile waste; biomass; tyres; glass; paper and cardboard; construction and demolition waste; fly ash; plastics; biochar and timber.



FLY ASH AND RECYCLED MATERIALS CONSTRUCT CENTRAL COAST ROAD The seaside suburb Wyongah located on the Central Coast of New South Wales has made headlines for its almost entirely recycled road. More than five million glass bottles, 270 kilograms of plastic, thousands of tonnes of used concrete, road gravel and fly ash, make up 90 percent of the road. The 250-metre stretch is just the beginning of sustainable road construction projects along the coast. Utilising the latest innovative technology and collaborating with industry, research and council, the road was successfully completed without compromising the environment, the road quality or project costs. Recycled glass has been finely crushed to replace virgin sand in trench backfills, and the sub-base of the road. Recycled crushed concrete and the existing road pavement makes up the road base itself. Meanwhile, the kerb, guttering, and footpath use ‘green concrete’ made from fly ash and waste-glass sand. The reinforcement is made from recycled plastic – saving the equivalent of 50,000 bags according to Coast Community News. Council’s Director for Roads Transport Drainage and Waste, Boris Bolgoff told Coast Community News, “We also used the latest construction techniques to save over six thousand kilograms of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere – that’s the equivalent of a 25,000-kilometre car trip,” he said. A big win for the Central Coast and construction industry in driving Australia’s future towards a sustainable and circular economy

Image: New road in Wyongah with recycled materials. Photo credit: Coast Community News.



SMARTCRETE CRC ANNOUNCES APPOINTMENT OF NEW CEO The Interim Board of the SmartCrete CRC is pleased to announce the appointment of Warren South as Chief Executive Officer for the CRC.

Warren brings a wealth of technical domain experience in the research and development of concrete in Australia and New Zealand. In addition, he brings a strong existing network of industrial, academic and government relationships. Importantly, he offers a direct line of sight into issues within the concrete ecosystem and opportunities for value add. Chair Elizabeth Taylor stated “We are delighted to welcome Warren. We look forward to working with him and our partners to operationalise innovations that address the problems, and seize the opportunities, identified by asset owners, industry organisations, SMEs, the supply chain, academics and our broader Australian community”. Warren will join SmartCrete CRC in the middle of September and lead the consolidation of the central services function, initially supporting the “Fast Start” and Round 1 research projects. Warren commented “SmartCrete CRC is an exciting new opportunity for the cement and concrete supply chain and leading research institutions to collaborate on research aimed at improving the sustainability and durability of concrete in infrastructure. It provides an important vehicle for industry to address pressing research needs, assisted by the best Australian academic minds, to ensure that concrete can maintain its position in underpinning the Australian construction industry. I thank the Federal government in investing in this new venture as part of its Co-operative Research Centres program. As incoming CEO, I look forward to engaging with a wide variety of industry and academic partners to ensure the vision of fully integrated product development and systems capability is achieved”. Warren joins the SmartCrete CRC following 9 successful years as Director – Research and Technical Services with Cement Concrete and Aggregates Australia (CCAA). SmartCrete CRC has the objective of step changing the concrete ecosystem through improvements in cost, productivity and sustainability.



BORAL CO-FUNDS TWO-YEAR PROJECT DEVELOPING LOW-CARBON CONCRETE Experts and engineers from Boral, Southern Highland Concrete Construction and UTS a re taking part in a new two-year manufacturing research project. The project aims to overcome the current technological barriers of low-carbon concrete manufacturing and accelerate the development of Boral’s lower carbon ENVISIA® concrete. The core research to formulate Australia’s novel ultra-sustainable concrete will take place at the UTS Boral Centre for Sustainable Building in Sydney.

CEO and managing director of IMCRC, David Chuter said the investment will see new materials and products built on sustainability principles.

Once lab-tested, the team will work with Southern Highlands Concrete Construction to trial the ultra-sustainable concrete on construction sites.

“Boral is at the forefront of low-carbon concrete development,” he said.

Low-carbon concrete uses a high proportion of supplementary cementitious binders (SCMs) including ground granulated blast-furnace slag, fly ash and calcined clay to substitute traditional Portland cement – a major contributor to carbon emissions

“This Australian research collaboration will see Boral develop an ultra-sustainable concrete that will be the first product of its kind and will lead the way in reducing the carbon footprint of concrete production, domestically and internationally.”

The research team, led by UTS’ Professor Vute Sirivivatnanon, combines the university’s academic knowledge with the experience of Boral’s innovation team to expand the use of low-carbon concrete while maintaining the performance of regular concrete. “Our aim is to push the technological boundaries of binder and chemical admixture technology and lift the maximum replacement rate of OCP while maintaining the fresh and early hardened properties of concrete for optimum construction efficiency,” he said. The $6 million project includes a $770,000 Innovative Manufacturing CRC grant and will focus on manufacturing processes that increase the strenght of lower carbon concrete and improve surface finishing techniques.



HEAT TREATMENT REDUCES ALKALI ATTACK IN GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Fly ash, inevitably generated by coal-fired power stations which underpins our energy security, has more worth than residing in ash dams worldwide.

It’s ability to transform from a stored by-product into an environmentally friendly and economically savvy material is evident in geopolymer concrete. However, geopolymer structures exposed to highly alkaline conditions have shown low resistance, an undesirable outcome that researchers at the University of Johannesburg are tackling. Leading the study is Dr Abdolhossein Naghizadeh who found high temperature heat-treatement (HTHT) can reduce these adverse effects on fly ash geopolymer concrete by half. “The findings of our new study show that the alkali resistance of geopolymer concrete can be significantly improved by exposing it to an evaluated temperature, optimally 200 degrees Celsius,” he told the University The Process The technical report explains blocks of fly ash geopolymer mortars were variously heat-cured at 100, 200, 400 or 600 degrees Celsius for 6 hours. These were then immersed in water, a medium alkali medium or an extreme alkali medium; and stored at 80 degrees Celsius for 14 days or 28 days, depending on the performance measurement. “The hardened blocks heat-cured at 200 degrees, and then immersed in the extreme alkali medium (the “200/3M” blocks), maintained about 50% residual strength at 22.6 MPa upon alkali attack. The blocks heat-cured at the other temperatures maintained much lower residual strengths at 10.3 - 14.6 MPa,” said Naghizadeh. “The 200/3M blocks immersed in extreme alkali medium displayed only limited fine cracking indicating low expansion, compared to the others which displayed severe cracking. Leaching of silicone and aluminium was lowest for the 200/3M blocks.” The results displayed the attack could not be prevented, rather the heat curing significantly reduced the intensity of the alkali attack. Instead of generating air and ground-water pollution, fly ash can generate strong geopolymer properties for use as a construction material. A powerful use of fly ash geopolymers is in precast concrete elements such as beams or girders for buildings and bridges, railway sleepers, wall panels and concrete pipes. By adapting the practical methods for heat-curing pre-cast Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the geopolymer cementachieved early strength gain. Series of scanning electron microscopic images: (a) and (b) show geopolymer concrete blocks heat cured at 200 degrees Celsius and then immersed in an extreme alkali medium for 14 days at 80 degrees Celsius resist the attack significantly better than blocks heatcured at 600 degrees Celsius and subjected to the same treatment in image (c) and (d). Credit: Dr Abdolhossein Naghizadeh, University of Johannesburg.” ADAA | DECEMBER 2020


THE LOW DOWN ON HOW TO GET THE LOW DOWN The International Conference on Low Carbon Concrete and Cement was held virtually on October 5-6, 2020. Joining the world’s greatest minds in concrete and cement research for this virtual conference, Craig Heidrich, Executive Director of the Ash Development Association of Australia presented at this inaugural International Conference on Low Carbon Cement and Concrete - or LowC3. The conference featured many respected researchers and industry leaders for a two-day conference about next-generation cement and concretes. The paper was a joint effort between Prof. Stephen Foster from UNSW about the Installation of Low Carbon (Geopolymer) Concrete Pavement at Wyndham Street for City of Sydney showcasing the potential for green construction materials through delivery by a major Australian Council in the adoption of Geopolymer concrete as “conventional” practice. The project further demonstrates the capacity to deliver on the council’s stated objectives for the use of “Sustainable Materials in Concrete”. Though held virtually, LowC3 provides the 300+ attendees with an abundance of chances to learn from multiple speakers and engage directly with sponsors and exhibitors by utilsiing the latest in virtual meeting technology. It suffices to say that one of the unexpected [positive] consequences of COVID-19 has been the exponential growth in access to international events, allowing participants to take part in innovative talks, dialogue, and networking opportunities about the building materials research industry from across the globe. You can find all of the participating speakers and abstracts for the LowC3 conference here:



WRITE FOR COAL ASH MATTERS Coal Ash Matters is the ADAA’s main educational publication that is produced twice a year for the benefit of ADAA members and readers. Before each publication is drafted, an email is sent out to all members, urging them to contribute stories that they think are of interest. The types of content we are looking for include: • New Developments • Technological Innovations • New Projects • New Employees • Industry Research If you have an idea or some content that you think should be shared with the CCP community, get in contact with the editor, Steph Hazelton at


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