Coal Ash Matters

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17 MAY

THIS ISSUE - MAY 2017 1 Editorial 2 Five minutes with Rhonda Rowe 3 Coal Combustion Products FactBook 4


Fly Ash and Sustainable Agriculture in a Parallel Objective – Jane Aiken 2020 Vision - Australia’s Emissions Reduction Target ACI Committee 232 Update – Fly Ash In Concrete

Geopolymer Handbook - a Guide to Specification and Use of Geopolymer 6 Concrete CRC-LCL 2016 Participant’s Annual Forum Conference Updates 7 • Concrete 2017 • World of Concrete January 2017 8

Membership Survey Reminder Write for Coal Ash Matters

CCPs - a valuable resource

Editorial The Ash Development Association of Australia (ADAA) is pleased to showcase the latest coal combustion product (CCP) news from across Australia and the World for readers in this edition of Coal Ash Matters. We feature Rhonda Rowe in this edition to talk about her career and involvement with fly ash (FA) at the Stanwell Corporation. With over 18 years experience in the industry, Rhonda provides the Association with some valuable insights into plans for Stanwell’s Tarong Power Station operations. Rhonda is also a key Influencer within the Association as a Board Member.. The Cooperative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living (CRC-LCL) Geopolymer Handbook is discussed. The Handbook aims to demystify how organisations, engineers and consumers can utilise low carbon geopolymer concrete. Due to be published later this year, the Handbook will increase knowledge about the benefits of geopolymer concrete usage and hopefully, increase its use throughout Australia and across the Globe. The American Concrete Institute, ‘Committee 232’ was created to combat the lack of public knowledge surrounding FA use in concrete and construction applications. Craig Heidrich (ADAA CEO) is a current committee member of the Australian Reference Group within Committee 232. The ADAA supports the Committee’s projects that are designed to increase FA research, overall knowledge and applications on an international scale. Progress within Committee 232 is covered on page five. Jane Aiken introduces Coal Ash Matters readers to the End of Waste framework (EOW) that aims to increase FA opportunities and applications. The main objective is to reduce the regulatory responsibilities of co-product management. This will allow FA to be perceived as a valued resource and its use can become comparable to that of a virgin material. A more in-depth discussion can be found on page eight. Craig Heidrich, Executive Director of the ADAA, updated World Of Coal Ash (WOCA) attendees on the future for global coal combustion products generation. While showcasing CCP’s the almost 1,100 conference attendees, Heidrich well represented the ADAA and connected with many leading industry specialists in the process.

Image: WOCA 2017 Plenary Session with 1,100 attendees

Phone: 02 4228 1389 Fax: 02 4258 0169 Email:

Website: Twitter: @adaa_info

Further in, we talk all things CRC-LCL in the review of the 2016 Participant’s Annual Forum. Craig Heidrich addressed the removal of barriers in CCP use during his presentation on low carbon geopolymer concrete uptake throughout Australia. Coal Ash Matters wraps up with an update about the Emissions Reductions Fund (ERF). Designed to source low-cost emission reductions, the ERF is taking steps towards achieving Australia’s 2020 emissions targets. ERF’s Technical Working Group is developing a method to recognise CCPs in the manufacture of cementitious materials, with assistance from the ADAA. Now in its 11th year, Coal Ash Matters acts as a time capsule for all major CCP/fly ash news, projects, events, meetings and governing/standards changes. Without the support of our members, the ADAA wouldn’t be able to contribute to the industry. The ADAA would like to thank all members, contributors, readers and supporters of Coal Ash Matters. We hope you enjoy this edition and value any and all feedback. Best Regards,

Team ADAA COAL ASH EDITORIAL TEAM Views expressed in Coal Ash Matters newsletter do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Ash Development Association of Australia. All contributions are welcomed, though the publisher reserves the right to decline or edit for style grammar, length and legal reasons. ©2005-17.

Chief Executive Officer: Craig Heidrich

Editor: Breannan McMahon

Editorial Coordinator: Aiden Chilcott

Design: 101 Design

Contributors: Craig Heidrich, Aiden Chilcott, Carol Wilson,

Rhonda Rowe, Daksh Baweja, Jane Aiken

Coal Ash Matters is a bi-annual publication

Circulation: 2000 ADAA | MAY 2017




COMPANY MEMBERS A primary role of the ADAA is to bring together producers and marketers of coal combustion products (CCPs). Our activities cover research and development into CCP usage, advocacy and technical assistance to CCP producers and users, as well as a forum for the exchange and publication of CCP information.

Queensland Business Systems Manager from Tarong Power Station, Rhonda Rowe, sat down to talk with Coal Ash Matters Editor, Bre McMahon. Her knowledge about CPPs as well as her successful career in the industry makes Rhonda is a key influencer within the Association.

For more information Association, visit us at



CURRENT MEMBERS • BG&E Materials Technology • Boral Quarries & Recycling • Brickworks Ltd • CS Energy • Delta Electricity • Golden Bay Cement (New Zealand) • Heeleys Consulting • Hyrock (NSW) • Intergen (Millmerran) • Latrobe Magnesium • NRG Gladstone Power Station • Origin Energy Eraring Power Station • Stanwell Corporation • Synergy • Vecor Australia

RECIPROCAL MEMBERSHIPS • CSIRO • Association of Canadian Industries Recycling Coal Ash (CIRCA) • European Coal Combustion Products Association (ECOBA) • UK Quality Ash Association • American Coal Ash Association • World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network (WWCCPN)


ADAA | MAY 2017

RHONDA ROWE What can you tell us about your career at Stanwell Corporation? I was originally at another Power Station for almost 10 years, however in 1999 I changed paths after an opportunity came to expand my career with Stanwell. This was a move that opened up a number of avenues for me to build on my skills and knowledge. 18 years later and I’m now currently employed as Business Systems Manager at Tarong Power Station for Stanwell. My role is varied with involvement in a number of projects and contracts as well as systems and processes across the site. Before coming to Tarong I was a Site Manager at one of Stanwell’s Hydros – Barron Gorge Power Station in Cairns.

Which industries have you developed significant knowledge in during your career at Stanwell? Through working at Stanwell I have learnt that with the electricity industry over 27 years old there have been a large number of changes from restructuring of the industry through to the Energy Market implementation. My involvement in the ash strategy at site has provided an insight into the ash industry as well. In relation to the development of my technical knowledge I have been lucky to have had a number of employees both past and present who have contributed greatly to my knowledge. Being involved in the day-to-day operation of the strategies has also helped.

What are the most significant achievements you’ve made throughout your career? Being able to take advantage of opportunities to improve my knowledge and skills in a range of areas e.g. Site Management, Drafting, CCPs. I commenced in the Electricity industry as a temporary Receptionist for 9 weeks and have been able to develop a career that so far has expanded to 27 years. My profession is a big part of my life and moving into the future I believe there is great opportunity for the electricity industry and the CCP industry to work together for future developments.

In a high-risk industry, how does Stanwell stay one step ahead to reduce accidents and risk in the workplace? Stanwell and its sites are constantly looking for continuous improvement opportunities. At Tarong Power Station we are reviewing our strategies to ensure that we continue to meet the market requirements and deliver safe, reliable energy for our Stakeholders and the people of Queensland. The ADAA would like to thank Rhonda for providing us with an insight to her career and the operations at Tarong Power Station.


Products Factbook In May 2015 the ADAA FactBook went live on Apple, Google and Amazon platforms. The text offers readers a comprehensive understanding of the basics of fly ash and other important information about coal combustion products. The FactBook employs a simple ‘story telling’ methodology to disseminate complex ideas. The eBook is available on mobile and tablet devices, meaning you will have all you need to know about CCPs right there in your pocket. The FactBook covers the essential beginners pack to understanding CCPs including:

Coal Combustion Product Summary “Australia produces approximately 13 million tonnes of coal combustion products annually. The majority of this material is not beneficially used despite a range of utilisation opportunities.”

Coal Formation “The quality, quantity and location of coal is not uniformly distributed and the nature of the mineral matter also varies significantly.”

Coal Combustion Product Collection “Fly ash constitutes up to 90% of the coal combustion products from a coal-fired power station.”

Coal Combustion Product Use “There are mature industries which utilise coal combustion products - some require simple transformation, others more elaborate processing.”

Coal Combustion Product Volumes “Of the 780 million tonnes of coal combustion products generated worldwide, some 49% was beneficially utilised in 2014.”



Q. What is a FactBook? A. It is a proven, simple ‘story telling’ methodology to communicate complex ideas to a broad range of audiences.

Q. How can the FactBook improve my understanding of coal combustion products? A. The FactBook improves your understanding as the highly technical nature of the CCP industry is simplified and in some cases shown in a visual representation. The FactBook allows newcomers to the industry to grasp key words and concepts involved in all fly ash processes and applications.

Q. Who is the FactBook targeted at? A. Anyone who feels as though their knowledge around the basics of fly ash could be improved in an easy to understand, visual method. To buy or read more click here: ccp-factbook

ADAA | MAY 2017


FLY ASH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN A PARALLEL OBJECTIVE - JANE AIKEN Dr Jane T Aiken is a member of the ADAA’s National Technical Committee and is currently completing a dissertation on a new paradigm towards the use of Fly Ash (FA) for Agriculture. The following article draws on themes identified within this undertaking. Jane advocates for the use of FA for agriculture. Agricultural use of FA requires the proponent to operate in a management space framed through international and national waste policy. In Australia, only Queensland and New South Wales are states with a policy instrument to cover the reuse of FA applied to land. Queensland has a beneficial use approval (BUA) until 31st December 2018, and the New South Wales format is as “Resource Recovery Order” (RRO). Another policy option is End of Waste. End of Waste (EOW) is a framework defined within the international waste policy. For Queensland, the transition to an EOW framework began from November 2016; this allows for by-products such as FA be valued as resources in Queensland through replacing the BUA framework. If the resource cannot be used according to the EOW code or approval, it is deemed waste. Ultimately the EOW framework implements an objective to reduce the regulatory processes and therefore minimise the amount of waste per se. The concept in End of Waste (EOW) will apply to many materials suited for land application and soil amendment. By enacting EOW, the concept of reuse through the land application is ‘the utilisation of properties in the waste being equivalent to that of virgin material’. By implication, the EOW framework promotes sustainability values. These include preservation of the resource properties that are characteristic of the by-product, and consequently the soil to which this material is to be applied. The EOW classification also provides for new FA opportunities. An industrysupported technical quality standard or guideline will be necessary because specialist knowledge is required to design a rate of soil incorporation that will complement agronomic performance. The important consideration is that agronomic performance is predicted and achievable for the target site. With EOW, this objective is further enhanced, by promoting equivalence with virgin material, rather than utilisation of a low-value resource.


ADAA | MAY 2017

Following the logic of resource recovery through land application by soil amendment, the EOW framework may open up more opportunities for FA across Australia. New soil products to suit agriculture need to maximise the chemical, physical and biological properties of the target soil. Blended mixes are already a precedent set by the Australian Standards, AS4454 Composts - Soil Conditioners and Mulches and AS4419 - Soils for Landscaping and Garden Use. Also important is the maintenance of a chain of custody. Generator, supplier, transport, site owner and the proponent using the material all need to uphold their waste management responsibilities, which are set out by an environment protection regulator. In all cases with the BUA, RRO or EOW frameworks, the option to use FA ultimately ends with responsibility held by the owner of the land. Therefore the site owner is subject to a range of environmental legislation. The model proof of an EOW classification for FA ensures more of the FA material is likely to be reused. In this case, such a model needs to align the resource reuse-framework as compatible with the principles developed for sustainable agriculture.


The ADAA has been assisting the Department of Environment (the Department) through a Technical Work Group (TWG) to develop a new method to recognise low-carbon substitutes in the manufacture of cementitious materials. The TWG is currently creating a method for the Emissions Reductions Fund (ERF) to recognise CCP’s. Technical experts within the TWG, including government agencies such as The Clean Energy Regulator, are assisting with this. The ERF is the centrepiece of the Australian Government’s Policy suite to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is designed to source low-cost emissions reductions by providing Incentives for eligible emissions reduction projects across the economy. The objective of the Emissions Reduction Fund is to help achieve Australia’s 2020 emissions reduction target of five percent below 2000 levels by 2020. The Government has provided $2.55 billion to establish the Emissions Reduction Fund, with further funding to be considered in future budgets. Early 2017 the Department invited the TWG to address problems associated with carbon leakage and cement importation. In particular, issues surrounding the use of locally produced and imported clinker and the likely change in local clinker production and importation levels caused by a project. This was considered critical in assessing whether the method meets the offsets integrity standards of ERF. Currently, the Association is unsure about the Department’s direction or solution, which addresses these key concerns, which could allow for the TWG to continue its work. Association has requested its members be kept abreast of any further work in this area, which includes Concrete. To read more visit here emissions-reduction-fund

ACI COMMITTEE 232 UPDATE – FLY ASH IN CONCRETE The American Concrete Institute, ‘Committee 232’ was created to combat the lack of public knowledge surrounding fly ash use in concrete and construction applications. The American Concrete Institute, Concrete Institute of Australia and the ADAA are currently working on multiple projects within Committee 232 to increase FA research, knowledge and applications on an international scale. Daksh Baweja, Craig Heidrich, David Farrah, Warren South, Tom Benn, Vute Sirivivatnanon and James Aldred make up the Australian Reference Group and have made progress and updates in the following areas. During February 2017 the final review of the Committee’s main document was nearing completion. In addition to this, the Committee will be embarking on development of a new main document. The intent is to utilise state-of-the-art technology in FA including ASR Mitigation and the use of recovered materials (i.e., ponded ash). The new document will preserve and condense historical data from past documents as well as provide new topics and primary data to the main document. Topics in the document include physical and chemical effects of FA, guidance on FA handling and recommended procedures for FA quality controls.

Development of a Technical Note regarding FA use is also underway. The intent is to move towards development of a ‘guide specification’ based on FA performance. The Technical Note will be based on the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) Publications SIP1 and SIP4. The following specifications are also under development: • Specification for Ground Waste Glass for use as an SCM. • Specification for Colloidal Silica to be used as an SCM. • A new performance-based approach specification for natural pozzolans. • Adoption of the Iodine Number test for measuring FA adsorption. • Adoption of the Foam Index Test as a standard test method. The ADAA will keep readers informed of any major changes that Committee 232 releases in coming months.

ADAA | MAY 2017



A Guide to Specification and Use of Geopolymer Concrete DID YOU KNOW? The manufacture of General Purpose Cement (GPC) is the second largest emitter of carbon emissions, globally. In Australia, GPC is responsible for 7.2 million tonnes of carbon emissions, according to industry data. As these alarming figures increase, groups such as the ADAA and the Cooperative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living (CRC-LCL) are investigating ways in which concrete can be manufactured with low or even no carbon emissions. A promising method to achieve these targets is through the development of Geopolymer Concrete. Geopolymer Concrete employs materials such as fly ash (FA) and iron and steel slags to replace large amounts of GPC in concrete, without reducing its performance as a building material. Using a range of activators and pozzolans, results continuously show that this altered formula of concrete is not only an effective way to reduce carbon emissions (approximately 80% carbon reduction) but it can also reduce costs. Currently, there is believed to be a lack of knowledge within the construction industry concerning how Geopolymer Concrete can be functional in largescale projects. The primary cause of this is the lack of publically available information about Geopolymer Concrete. To counter this, the Association (ADAA), in partnership with CRC-LCL and other like-minded organisations,

have been working to publish a Geopolymer Concrete Handbook. The Handbook will be published through Standards Australia and designed to assist engineers and users about how to use Geopolymer Concrete with greater confidence and less risk. The Handbook will also build on other published information such as the Recommended Practice prepared by the Concrete Institute of Australia. The Handbook “Guide to Specification and Use of Geopolymer Concrete” will include: • Background • Properties and applications • Relevant standards • Recommended performance test methods • Case histories and long-term durability • Performance-based specification The production of the Handbook aims to remove major barriers to the use of low carbon Geopolymer Concretes and profoundly increase their use in the construction industry. Based on research previously conducted, having a standard specification is the highest priority to enable the industry to adopt Geopolymer Concrete in the near future. The Geopolymer Handbook is expected to be completed later this year.

CRC-LCL 2016 PARTICIPANT’S ANNUAL FORUM The half way milestone of the entire CRC-LCL initiative was reached last year during the Participant’s Annual Forum. Craig Heidrich (CEO) represented the Ash Development Association of Australia and gave a presentation regarding the progress of Low Carbon Geopolymer Concrete research. Held from the 15th-16th November 2016 at the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney, Geopolymer Concrete was discussed in depth. Craig outlined the ADAA’s research and ways to remove barriers to the uptake of low carbon geopolymer concrete in Australia. Geopolymer concrete is the result of the reaction of materials containing aluminosilicate such as slag with alkalis to produce an inorganic polymer binder. It has an 80% lower carbon footprint than conventional general purpose cement (GPC). “We are heading into a very important phase of the CRC-LCL with a series of demonstration projects with stakeholders such as City of Sydney, Ports NSW and VicRoads totaling $2.9 million. These demonstration projects will use low carbon geopolymer concrete for paving stones and precast structures very soon’ said Craig. He also highlighted that a number of barriers still remain such as a lack of specifications and inclusion in key Australian Standards such as AS3600. However, despite these barriers, low carbon geopolymer concrete is still gaining some traction in public and private sectors. One example of the use of the low carbon geopolymer concrete at Brisbane West Wellcamp Airport. It is also the largest application of geopolymer concrete in the world (70,000m2). Read more: http://www.wellcamp.


ADAA | MAY 2017

Craig informed the Forum participants that the key to increasing geopolymer concrete uptake is to bring together the entire supply chain to collaborate on projects. This approach ensures the performance and results are fed back into the industry as hard evidence. In addition to the low carbon geopolymer concrete, many other industry members partnering with Universities had a number of CRC-LCL sponsored projects holding a common goal of reducing the carbon footprint of Australia’s built environment. Other topics discussed at the Forum included: • A new* digital tool that helps homebuyers measure and alter the environmental footprint of potential homes (such as material selection and window placement. • The effects of solar power, • The storage on grid tariffs, • The benefits of mass produced modular housing Overall the Forum provided another valuable opportunity to expand our understanding of how low carbon geopolymer concrete can reduce our industry carbon footprint.

Image: Craig Heidrich presenting at the CRC-LCL 2016 Participants Annual Forum



World of Concrete is the industry’s only annual international event dedicated to the commercial concrete and masonry construction industries. The Conference showcases leading industry suppliers featuring innovative products, construction machinery, construction equipment, safety training courses, new technologies and unlimited networking opportunities to give you new ways to sustain and grow your business. WOC once again featured product demonstrations and action areas, forums and competitions throughout the Las Vegas Convention Center, including: • The Producer Center: A marketplace of materials, equipment, demos, and seminars for concrete producers. • Material Handling: Offering trucks, excavators and more for material delivery, distribution, concrete placement, and earth moving. • Concrete Repair & Demolition: Housing a display of surface preparation equipment, scarifying, grinding, sawing equipment, and other demolition products. • World of Masonry: Showcasing products, tools, information, and technology for masonry professionals. • Technology for Construction: Latest products and tools for the commercial construction industry from top information technology and systems providers. • Concrete Surfaces & Decorative: showcasing the popularity of decorative concrete for both commercial and residential applications. • Precast: Launched in 2016, Precast highlights the latest products and technologies in the precast and pre-stressed sector. World of Concrete 2018 will be held at the Westgate Las Vegas Resort & Casino from the 23rd – 26th January 2018. See more here:

ADAA | MAY 2017




Monday the 8th of May marked the beginning of the World of Coal Ash Conference 2017 (WOCA17). The theme of the Conference was “Science, applications and sustainability of worldwide CCPs as well as gasification products.� This topic explored the progressive advancements and research findings of the past two years from across the world. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) in conjunction with The University of Kentucky hosted the Conference for the construction materials industry. Craig Heidrich, Executive Director of the Ash Development Association of Australia represented the Association during the Conference. On behalf of the World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network Mr Heidrich delivered a joint paper during the plenary to update attendees on the future for coal combustion products generation. Interested parties took advantage of valuable opportunities to meet with suppliers, peers, customers and friends to solve problems both local and global. Heidrich made several interesting points throughout his presentations, noting that while usage continues to increase in many parts of the world, with more 1.1 billion tonnes of coal combustion products generated in 2015, the overall pace of growth is slowing. Craig also noted that Japan is using more coal in very efficient, very well controlled plants following the concerns about nuclear power following the Fukushima tsunami. China and India continue to use more coal and are looking for opportunities to beneficially use their coal ash both domestically and outside their borders. Import/export activity is expected to continue to increase around the globe because of increasing demand and local environmental constraints related to disposal. To read more visit the ADAA Website here: woca-2017-summary


ADAA | MAY 2017



Held in Adelaide, South Australia, Concrete 2017 will be the 28th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete institute of Australia and will be focused around the theme “Advances in Concrete Materials and Structures”. Technical presentations and discussions will revolve around the following topics: • Materials • Structures • Design • Research • Construction • Maintenance & Repairs The conference is dedicated to bringing together global leaders in the concrete industry, and will consider all aspects of concrete materials and structures – design, research, construction, maintenance and repair. The Conference is also host to the 3rd International Congress on Durability of Concrete (ICDC), an international forum for exchanging research results and displaying how concrete will continue to create durable buildings and structures for sustainable development in both local and global contexts. Visit

ADAA | MAY 2017


MEMBERSHIP SURVEY REMINDER CCPs produced from coal-fired power stations represent useful sources of raw materials for a range of applications and products. In addition to the new ash produced each year, the ash already stored (estimated to be in-excess of 400 million tonnes) in ponds and other storage sites represents shallow-lying mineral deposits that are more readily accessible than many equivalent geological materials. The utilisation of CCPs in a variety of both high and low value add products helps to conserve natural resources such as sands and gravels. This reduces the environmental impact that would otherwise be caused by mining these resources. In addition, the need to construct additional storage facilities at the power stations can be deferred or even eliminated. The ADAA conducts an annual survey for information regarding CCP production and sales by members and non-members for each calendar year to determine the utilisation of CCPs annually. Information provided by members and non-members is collated and then aggregated into a national set of results and include CCP production levels, and nominated uses for all CCPs. The survey results include all generators, marketers, (processing and marketing companies) and users for the total production and resulting sales by each end use. To complete the 2017 Membership Survey please fill out via link below and email completed spreadsheet to: ADAA> Technical> Membership Survey>2017> 2016_ADAA_Membership survey


Coal Ash Matters is the ADAA’s main educational publication that is produced twice a year for the benefit of ADAA members and readers. Before each publication is drafted, an email is sent out to all members, urging them to contribute stories that they think are of interest. The types of content we are looking for include: • • • • •

New Developments Technological Innovations New Projects New Employees Industry Research

If you have an idea or some content that you think should be shared with the CCP comunity, get in contact with Editor, Bre McMahon at 02 4228 1389 or email


COAL ASH matters


ADAA | MAY 2017